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a.

Explain briefly, with the aid of a block diagram, the basic concepts of adaptive noise
cancelling. Discuss critically the benefits and limitations of adaptive noise cancelling in a
real-time application of your choice and suggest ways of overcoming the limitations.

Solution:

Adaptive noise cancelling is an adaptive filter that is used to estimate and eliminate a noise
component in a desired signal.

Figure 1.0 Adaptive Noise Canceller

The main objective in noise cancelling is to produce an optimum estimate of the noise in the
contaminated signal and hence an optimum estimate of the desired signal.

Fig. 1 shows the basic concept of the adaptive noise cancelling. A signal s is
transmitted over a channel to a sensor that also receives a noise no uncorrelated with the
signal. The combined signal and noise s + no form the primary input to the canceller. A
second sensor receives a noise nl uncorrelated with the signal but correlated in some unknown
way with the noise no. This sensor provides the reference input to the canceller. The noise n1
is filtered to produce an output y that is as close a replica as possible of n0. This output is
subtracted from the primary input s + n0 to produce the system output z = s + n0 - y.
If one knew the characteristics of the channels over which the noise was transmitted to
the primary and reference sensors, it would theoretically be possible to design a fiied filter

capable of changing n1 into n0. The filter output could then be subtracted from the primary
input, and the system output would be signal alone.
Since, however, the characteristics of the transmission paths are as a rule unknown or
known only approximately and are seldom of a fixed nature, the use of a fixed fiiter is not
feasible. Moreover, even if a fixed filter were feasible, its characteristics would have to be
adjusted with a precision difficult to attain, and the slightest error could result in an increase
in output noise power.
In the system shown in Fig. 1 the reference input is processed by an adaptive filter. An
adaptive filter differs from a fixed filter in that it automatically adjusts its own impulse
response. Adjustment is accomplished through an algorithm that responds to an error signal
dependent, among other things, on the filters output. Thus with the proper algorithm, the
filter can operate under changing conditions and can readjust itself continuously to minimize
the error signal.

The error signal used in an adaptive process depends on the nature of the application. In noise
cancelling systems the practical objective is to produce a system output z = s + n0 y that is a
best fit in the least squares sense to the signal s. This objective is accomplished by feeding the
system output back to the adaptive filter and adjusting the filter through an LMS adaptive
algorithm to minimize total system output power. In an adaptive noise cancelling system, in
other words, the system output serves as the error signal for the adaptive process. It might
seem that some prior knowledge of the signal s or of the noises n0 and n1 would be necessary
before the filter could be designed, or before it could adapt, to produce the noise cancelling
signal y. A simple argument will show, however, that little or no prior knowledge of s, n0, or
n1 , or of their interrelationships, either statistical or deterministic, is required.

Benefit Of Adaptive Noise Cancelling In A Real-Time Application


A major problem in the recording of electrocardiograms (ECGs) is the appearance of
unwanted 6GHz interference in the output. It has been analyzed the various causes of such
power-line interference, including magnetic induction, displacement currents in leads or in the
body of the patient, and equipment interconnections and imperfections. One of the method
capable of reducing 6GHz ECG interference is adaptive noise cancelling, which can be used
separately or in conjunction with more conventional approaches.
Figure 1.1 shows the application of adaptive noise cancelling in electrocardiography.
The primary input is taken from the ECG preamplifier; the 6GHz reference input is taken
from a wall outlet. The adaptive filter contains two variable weights, one applied to the
reference input directly and the other to a version of it shifted in phase by 90. The two
weighted versions of the reference are summed to form the filters output, which is subtracted
from the primary input. Selected combinations of the values of the weights allow the
reference waveform to be changed in magnitude and phase in any way required for
cancellation. The two variable weights, or two degrees of freedom, are required to cancel
the single pure sinusoid. Note the absence of interference and the clarity of detail once the
adaptive process has converged.

Figure 1.1 Cancelling 60-Hz interference in electrocardiography

Limitations Of Adaptive Noise Cancelling In A Real-Time Application


Protection of a 3-dimension zone requires many microphones and speakers, making it
more expensive. Each of the speakers tends to interfere with nearby speakers, reducing the
systems overall performance. Noise reduction is more easily achieved with a single listener
remaining stationary but if there are multiple listeners or if the single listener turns his head or
moves throughout the space then the noise reduction challenge is made much more difficult.
High frequency waves are difficult to reduce in three dimensions due to their relatively short
audio wavelength in air. The wavelength in air of sinusoidal noise at approximately 800Hz is
double the distance of the average persons left ear to the right ear, such a noise coming
directly from the front will be easily reduced by an active system but coming from the side
will tend to cancel at one ear while being reinforced at the other, making the noise louder, not
softer. High frequency sounds above 1000Hz tend to cancel and reinforce unpredictably from
many directions. In sum, the most effective noise reduction in three-dimensional space
involves low frequency sounds.