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AESA BASED IPM PACKAGE

AESA based IPM Fennel

Important Natural Enemies of Fennel Insect Pests


Parasitoids

Trichogramma spp.

Carcelia spp.

Chelonus spp.

Bracon spp.

Ceranisus menes

Aphidius sp

Robber fly

Ladybird beetle

Spider

Reduviid bug

Dragonfly

King crow

Predators

The AESA based IPM - Fennel, was compiled by the NIPHM working group under the Chairmanship of Dr. Satyagopal Korlapati, IAS,
DG, NIPHM, and guidance of Shri. Utpal Kumar Singh, IAS. JS (PP). The package was developed taking into account the advice of
experts listed below on various occasions before finalization.
NIPHM Working Group:
Chairman
: Dr. Satyagopal Korlapati, IAS, Director General
Vice-Chairmen
: Dr. S. N. Sushil, Plant Protection Advisor
: Dr. P. Jeyakumar, Director (PHM)
Core Members:
1. Er. G. Shankar, Joint Director (PHE), Pesticide Application Techniques Expertise.
2. Dr. O.P. Sharma, Joint Director (A & AM), Agronomy Expertise.
3. Dr. Satish Kumar Sain, Assistant Director (PHM), Pathology Expertise.
4. Dr. Dhana Raj Boina, Assistant Director (PHM), Entomology Expertise.
Other Member:
1. Dr. B.S. Sunanda, Assistant Scientific Officer (PHM), Nematology Expertise.
Contributions by DPPQ&S Experts:
1. Shri. Ram Asre, Additional Plant Protection Advisor (IPM),
2. Dr. K.S. Kapoor, Deputy Director (Entomology),
3. Dr. Sanjay Arya, Deputy Director (Plant Pathology),
4. Dr. Subhash Kumar, Deputy Director (Weed Science)
5. Dr. C.S. Patni, Plant Protection Officer (Plant Pathology)
Contributions by External Experts:
1. Dr. S. Gangopadhyay, Head, Department of Plant Pathology & Dean, PGS, S.K. Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334006,
Rajasthan.
2. Dr. B. Gangadhar Naik, Associate Professor, COA, Shimoga.
3. Dr. C.M. Kalleshwaraswamy, Assistant Professor, COA, Shimoga.
4. Dr. H.P. Patnik, Professor & Head, Department of Entomology, COA, Odisha UA&T, Bhubaneshwar-751003, Orissa.
5. Dr. K.C. Sahu, Professor & Head, Department of Plant Pathology, COA, Odisha UA&T, Bhubaneshwar-751003, Orissa.
6. Dr. S.K. Beura, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, COA, Odisha UA&T, Bhubaneshwar-751003, Orissa.
7. Dr. S.N. Mohapatra, Professor & Head, Department of Nematology, COA, Odisha UA&T, Bhubaneshwar-751003, Orissa.
8. Dr. Bhagat, Associate Professor cum Senior Scientist, Department of Pathology, Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour-813210.
9. Dr. Ashok S. Halepyati, Professor (Agronomy), UAS, PB 329, Raichur-584101, Karnataka.
10. Dr. B. Bheemanna, Professor (Ag. Entomology). Main Agricultural Research Station, UAS, PB 329, Raichur-584101, Karnataka.
11. Dr. Amaresh, Y.S., Assistant Professor (Plant Pathology), UAS, PB 329, Raichur-584101, Karnataka.
12. Director of Research, CCSHAU, Hisar-125004, Haryana.
13. Director of Research, Sher-E-Kashmir UAS&T, Shalimar Campus, Shrinagar-191121, Jammu & Kashmir.
14. Dr. Linga Raju, S. University Head of Plant Pathology, Institute of Organic Farm, UAS Dharwad
15. Dr. Ramesh Babu, Professor & Head, AICRP on Weed Control, MARS Dharwad
16. Dr. Vijay Kumar, Entomologists, Department of Entomology, PAU Ludhiana
17. Dr. G.S. Rattan, Senior Plant Pathologists, Department of Plant Pathology, PAU Ludhiana
18. Dr. M.S. Bhullar, Agronomists, Department of Agronomy PAU, Ludhiana
19. Dr. Amar Singh, Scientist (Plant Pathology), Department of Plant Pathology, COA, CSK HPKV, Palampur-176062, Himachal
Pradesh
20. Dr. P.K. Mehta, Professor (Entomology), Department of Entomology, COA, CSK HPKV, Palampur-176062, Himachal Pradesh
21. Dr. K. Raja Reddy, Director of Research, ANGRAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad.
22. Dr. U.V. Mahadkar, Director of Research, Dr. BKV, Dapoli, Ratnagiri-415712 (M.S)
23. Dr. H.S. Yadava, Director of Research Services, RVSKVV, Gwalior (M.P)-474002.
24. Dr. A.N. Sabalpara, Director of Research & Dean, Directorate of Research, NAU, Navsari, Gujarat-396450
25. Dr. P.K. Borad, Department of Entomology, B.A. COA, AAU, Anand-388110
26. Dr. R.N. Pandey, Professor & Head, Dept. of Plant Pathology, B.A. COA, AAU, Anand-388110

Citation

Satyagopal, K., S.N. Sushil, P. Jeyakumar, G. Shankar, O.P. Sharma,


S.K. Sain, D.R. Boina, B.S. Sunanda, Ram Asre, K.S. Kapoor, Sanjay
Arya, Subhash Kumar, C.S. Patni, S. Gangopadhyay, B.G. Naik,
C.M. Kalleshwaraswamy, H.P. Patnik, K.C. Sahu, S.K. Beura, S.N.
Mohapatra, Bhagat, A.S. Halepyati, B. Bheemanna, Y. S. Amaresh,
S. Linga Raju, Ramesh Babu, Vijay Kumar, G.S. Rattan, M.S. Bhullar,
Amar Singh, P.K. Mehta, K. Raja Reddy, U.V. Mahadkar, H.S. Yadava,
A.N. Sabalpara, P.K. Borad, R.N. Pandey. 2014. AESA based IPM
package for Fennel. pp 34.

Front cover picture

Model AESA chart for Fennel

Back cover picture

Fennel field

Published by

National Institute of Plant Health Management, Rajendranagar,


Hyderabad 500 030

Copies:

1,000, September 2014


For internal circulation only. Not for sale.

Contact

APPA - IPM, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage,


CGO Complex, NH IV, Faridabad, Haryana - 121 001.
Tel : 0129 2413020, e-mail: ppa@nic.in

Printed at

Balaji Scan Pvt. Ltd.,


A.C. Guards, Hyderabad.
Tel : 040-23303424
e-mail: bsplpress@gmail.com
www.balajiscan.com

Avinash K Srivastava
Additional Secretary
Government of India
Ministry of Agriculture
(Department of Agriculture & Cooperation)
Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi - 110 001

FOREWORD
Intensive agricultural practices relying heavily on chemical pesticides are a major cause of wide spread ecological
imbalances resulting in serious problems of insecticide resistance, pest resurgence and pesticide residues. There is
a growing awareness world over on the need for promoting environmentally sustainable agriculture practices.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a globally accepted strategy for promoting sustainable agriculture. During
last century, IPM relied substantially on economic threshold level and chemical pesticides driven approaches.
However, since the late 1990s there is conscious shift to more ecologically sustainable Agro-Eco System Analysis
(AESA) based IPM strategies. The AESA based IPM focuses on the relationship among various components of an agroecosystem with special focus on pest-defender dynamics, innate abilities of plant to compensate for the damages
caused by the pests and the influence of abiotic factors on pest buildup. In addition, Ecological Engineering for pest
management - a new paradigm to enhance the natural enemies of pests in an agro-ecosystem is being considered
as an important strategy. The ecological approach stresses the need for relying on bio intensive strategies prior to
use of chemical pesticides.
Sincere efforts have been made by resource personnel to incorporate ecologically based principles and field
proven technologies for guidance of the extension officers to educate, motivate and guide the farmers to adopt
AESA based IPM strategies, which are environmentally sustainable. I hope that the AESA based IPM packages
will be relied upon by various stakeholders relating to Central and State government functionaries involved in
extension and Scientists of SAUs and ICAR institutions in their endeavour to promote environmentally sustainable
agriculture practices.

Date : 6.3.2014

(Avinash K. Srivastava)

Joint Secretary
Government of India
Ministry of Agriculture
(Department of Agriculture & Cooperation)
Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi - 110001

FOREWORD
IPM as a holistic approach of crop protection based on the integration of multiple strategies viz., cultural, physical,
mechanical, biological, botanical and chemical. Over the years IPM underwent several changes, shifting its focus
from damage boundary, economic injury to economic threshold. Currently most stake holders rely upon economic
threshold levels (ETL) and tend to apply chemical pesticides at the first instance in the event of a pest attack,
through Government of India has advocated need based and judicious application of chemicals. This approach
is likely to cause adverse effects on agro-ecosystems and increase the cost of agricultural production due to
problems of pest resurgence, insecticide resistance and sustainability.
During the late 90s FAO started advocating Agro-Ecosystem Analysis (AESA) based IPM. Experience in
different countries have sine show that AESA, which takes into account ecological principles and relies on the
balance that is maintained by biotic factors in an ecosystem has also resulted in reduction in cost of production
and increase in yields. AESA based IPM also takes into account the need for active participation of farmers and
promotes experiential learning and discovery based decision making by farmers. AESA based IPM in conjunction
with ecological engineering for pest management promotes bio-intensive strategies as against current chemical
intensive approaches, while retaining the option to apply chemical pesticides judiciously as a measure of last
resort.
The resource persons of NIPHM and DPPQ&S have made sincere efforts in revising IPM packages
for different crops by incorporating agro-ecosystem analysis, ecological engineering, pesticide application
techniques and other IPM options with the active cooperation of crop based plant protection scientists working
in state Agricultural Universities and ICAR institutions. I hope this IPM package will serve as a ready reference for
extension functionaries of Central / State Governments, NGOs and progressive farmers in adopting sustainable
plant protection strategies by minimizing the dependence on chemical pesticides.

(Utpal Kumar Singh)

National Institute of Plant Health Management


Department of Agriculture & Cooperation
Ministry of Agriculture
Government of India
Dr. K. SATYAGOPAL, IAS
Director General

Rajendranagar
Hyderabad-500030
http://niphm.gov.in

Telephone : +91-40-24015346,
E-mail : dgniphm@nic.in
Tele-Fax : +91-40-24015346

PREFACE
Need for environmentally sustainable agricultural practices is recognised worldwide in view of the wide spread
ecological imbalances caused by highly intensive agricultural systems. In order to address the adverse impacts
of chemical pesticides on agro-ecosystems, Integrated Pest Management has evolved further from ETL based
approach to Agro-ecosystem Analysis based Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
In AESA based IPM the whole agro-ecosystem, plant health at different stages, built-in-compensation
abilities of the plant, pest and defender population dynamics, soil conditions, climatic factors and farmers
past experience are considered. In AESA, informed decisions are taken by farmers after field observation , AESA
chart preparation followed by group discussion and decision making. Insect zoo is created to enable the farmer
understand predation of pests by Natural Enemies. AESA based PHM also results in reduction of chemical pesticide
usage and conserves the agro-ecosystems.
Ecological Engineering for Pest Management, a new paradigm, is gaining acceptance as a strategy for
promoting Biointensive Integrated Pest Management. Ecological Engineering for Pest Management relies on
cultural practices to effect habitat manipulation and enhance biological control. The strategies focus on pest
management both below ground and above ground. There is growing need to integrate AESA based IPM and
principles of ecological engineering for pest management.
There is a rising public concern about the potential adverse effects of chemical pesticides on the human
health, environment and biodiversity. The intensity of these negative externalities, through cannot be eliminated
altogether, can be minimized through development, dissemination and promotion of sustainable biointensive
approaches.
Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage (DPPQS), has developed IPM package of practices
during 2001 and 2002. These packages are currently providing guidance to the Extension Officers in transferring
IPM strategies to farmers. These IPM package of practices, have been revised incorporating the principles of AESA
based IPM in detail and also the concept of Ecological Engineering for Pest Management. It is hoped that the
suggested practices, which aim at enhancing biodiversity, biointensive strategies for pest management and
promotion of plant health, will enable the farmers to take informed decisions based on experiential learning and
it will also result in use of chemical pesticides only as a last resort & in a safe and judicious manner.

(K. SATYAGOPAL)

CONTENTS
Fennel plant description ..........................................................................................................................................................

I. Pests ...............................................................................................................................................................................................

A. Pests of National Significance .........................................................................................................................

1. Insect pests ....................................................................................................................................................

2. Diseases ...........................................................................................................................................................

3. Nematode .......................................................................................................................................................

4. Weeds ...............................................................................................................................................................

II. Agro-ecosystem analysis (AESA) based integrated pest management (IPM) ...........................................

A. AESA ............................................................................................................................................................................

B. Field scouting ..........................................................................................................................................................

C. Surveillance through pheromone trap catches for Helicoverpa ....................................................

D. Yellow/blue pan water /sticky traps .............................................................................................................

E. Light traps .................................................................................................................................................................

F. Nematode extraction ...........................................................................................................................................

III. Ecological engineering for pest management ........................................................................................................

10

A. Resistant/tolerant varieties ..............................................................................................................................

13

IV. Crop stage-wise IPM ............................................................................................................................................................

13

V. Insecticide resistance and its management ...............................................................................................................

16

VI. Nutrient deficiencies/ disorders .....................................................................................................................................

17

VII. Common weeds .....................................................................................................................................................................

18

VIII. Description of insect pests .............................................................................................................................................

19

IX. Description of diseases .......................................................................................................................................................

25

X. Safety measures ......................................................................................................................................................................

29

A. At the time of harvest .........................................................................................................................................

29

B. During post-harvest storage ............................................................................................................................

29

XI. Dos and Donts in IPM .........................................................................................................................................................

30

XII. Basic precautions in pesticide usage .........................................................................................................................

31

XIII. Pesticide application techniques ...............................................................................................................................

32

XIV. Operational, calibration and maintenance guidelines in brief ....................................................................

33

XV. References ...............................................................................................................................................................................

34

AESA based IPM Fennel

AESA BASED IPM PACKAGE FOR FENNEL


Fennel plant description:
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill; Family: Apiaceae) is an herbaceous biennial or perennial plant grown for use as a
herb or flavoring. The fennel plant is an erect herb with 45 hollow stems and distinctly divided feathery foliage.
The leaves are simple and linear and are 215 cm in length. The plant produces flowers on flat umbels which can
be 20 cm (7.9 in) in diameter and possess 20-50 tiny yellow flowers. The plant may reach 2 m (6.6 ft) in height.
Fennel is a short-lived plant and is almost always grown as an annual crop. Fennel may also be referred to as wild
fennel or sweet fennel depending on variety and originates from southern Europe and the Mediterranean.
Fennel is a stout and aromatic spice crop in India which is commercially cultivated as an annual herb.
Fennel is known in various names in different parts of the country. In Hindi, fennel is known as saunf and in Tamil
it is known as perungeerakam. Major production centres of fennel in India are Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab,
Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Haryana.
Cool and dry climate is best for the cultivation of fennel crop. Dry and cool weather during the seed set
increases seed yield as well as the quality of the produce. Fennel can be cultivated in all types of soils that are rich
in organic matter. Shallow sandy soils are not suitable for fennel cultivation. Best soils for fennel cultivation are
black cotton soil and loamy soil containing lime. Proper drainage is also an important requisite for commercial
cultivation of fennel crop.

AESA based IPM Fennel

I. PESTS
A. Pests of National Significance
1. Insect pests
1.1 Aphid: Hyadaphis coriandri Das. (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
1.2 Thrips: Thrips flavus Schrank (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
1.3 Leaf eating caterpillar/gram pod borer: Helicoverpa armigera Hbner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
1.4 Cutworm: Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel, & Agrotis segetum Denis & Schiffermller (Lepidoptera:
Noctuidae)
1.5 Cigarette beetle: Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)
1.6 Drug store beetle: Stegobium paniceum Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

2. Diseases
2.1 Leaf blight: Ramularia foeniculi Sibilia
2.2 Leaf spot: Cercosporidium punctum (Delacr.) Deighton
2.3 Damping off: Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. (seedling)
2.4 Wilt: Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.
2.5 Powdery mildew: Erysiphe polygoni DC/ E. heraclei
2.6 Collar rot: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary
2.7 Root rot: Rhizoctonia solani J.G. Khn

3. Nematode
3.1 Root-knot nematode: Meloidogyne spp.

4. Weeds
Broadleaf
4.1 Lambs quarter: Chenopodium album L. (Chenopodiaceae)
4.2 Scarlet pimpernel: Anagallis arvensis L. (Primulaceae)
4.3 Yellow sweet clover: Melilotus indica (L.) All. (Fabaceae)
4.4 Fine leaf fumitory: Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae)
4.5 Corn spurry: Spergula arvensis L. (Caryophylliaceae)
4.6 Wild onion: Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. (Xanthorrhoeaceae)

Grasses
4.7 Blue grass: Poa annua L. (Poaceae)
4.8 Canary grass: Phalaris minor Retz. (Poaceae)

Sedges
4.9 Purple nut sedge: Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae)
4.10 Yellow sedge: Cyperus campestris Schrad. ex Nees (Cyperaceae)

AESA based IPM Fennel

II. AGRO-ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS (AESA) BASED INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM)


A. AESA:
The IPM has been evolving over the decades to address the deleterious impacts of synthetic chemical pesticides on
environment ultimately affecting the interests of the farmers. The economic threshold level (ETL) was the basis for
several decades but in modern IPM (FAO 2002) emphasis is given to AESA where farmers take decisions based on
larger range of field observations. The health of a plant is determined by its environment which includes physical
factors (i.e. sun, rain, wind and soil nutrients) and biological factors (i.e. pests, diseases and weeds). All these factors
can play a role in the balance which exists between herbivore insects and their natural enemies. Understanding
the intricate interactions in an ecosystem can play a critical role in pest management.
Decision making in pest management requires a thorough analysis of the agro-ecosystem. Farmer has to
learn how to observe the crop, how to analyze the field situation and how to make proper decisions for their crop
management. This process is called the AESA. Participants of AESA will have to make a drawing on a large piece
of paper (60 x 80 cm), to include all their observations. The advantage of using a drawing is that it requires the
participants to observe closely and intensively. It is a focal point for the analysis and for the discussions that follow,
and the drawing can be kept as a record.
AESA is an approach, which can be gainfully employed by extension functionaries and farmers to analyze
the field situations with regards to pests, defenders, soil conditions, plant health and the influence of climatic
factors and their relationship for growing a healthy crop. The basic components of AESA are:

Plant health at different stages


Built-in compensation abilities of plants
Pest and defender population dynamics
Soil conditions
Climatic factors
Farmers past experience

Principles of AESA based Integrated Pest Management (IPM):


Grow a healthy crop:

Select a variety resistant/tolerant to major pests


Select healthy seeds/seedlings/planting material
Treat the seeds/seedlings/planting material with recommended pesticides especially biopesticides
Follow proper spacing
Soil health improvement (mulching and green manuring)
Nutrient management through fertilizers especially organic manures and biofertilizers based on the
soil test results. If the dosage of nitrogenous fertilizers is too high the crop becomes too succulent and
therefore susceptible to insects and diseases. If the dosage is too low, the crop growth is retarded. So, the
farmers should apply an adequate amount of fertilizers for best results. The phosphatic fertilizers should
not be applied each and every season as the residual phosphate of the previous season will be available
for the current season also.
Proper irrigation
Crop rotation

Observe the field regularly (climatic factors, soil and biotic factors):
Farmers should:
Monitor the field situation at least once a week (soil, water, plants, pests, natural enemies, weather factors
etc.)
Make decisions based on the field situation and Pest: Defender ratio (P: D ratio)
Take direct action when needed (e.g. collect egg masses, remove infested plants etc.)
Observe the soil physical conditions, moisture level etc.

AESA based IPM Fennel

Take representative soil sample and get the soil analysis report showing soil pH, electrical conductivity
(EC), organic matter and nutrient status.
Nutrient management especially through organic manures and biofertilizers based on the soil test results
should be followed. If the dose of nitrogenous fertilizers is too high the crop becomes too succulent and
therefore susceptible to insects and diseases. If the dosages are too low, the crop growth is retarded. So,
the farmers should maintain proper soil fertility level through integrated nutrient management approach
for best results.
Proper irrigation
Crop rotation
Observe the number and species of weeds found in per square meter area each in five randomly selected
spots/ha.

Plant compensation ability:


Compensation is defined as the replacement of plant biomass lost to herbivores and has been associated with
increased photosynthetic rates and mobilization of stored resources from source organs to sinks (e.g., from roots
and remaining leaves to new leaves) during active vegetative growth period. Plant tolerance to herbivory can
arise from the interaction of a variety of plant traits and external environmental factors. Several studies have
documented such compensation through increased growth and photosynthetic rate.

Understand and conserve defenders:

Know defenders/natural enemies to understand their role through regular observations of the agroecosystem
Avoid the use of chemical pesticides especially with broad-spectrum activity

Insect zoo:
In field various types of insects are present. Some are beneficial and some may be harmful. Generally farmers
are not aware about it. Predators (friends of the farmers) which feed on pests are not easy to observe in crop
field. Insect zoo concept can be helpful to enhance farmers skill to identify beneficial and harmful insects. In this
method, unfamiliar/unknown predators are collected in plastic containers with brush from the field and brought
to a place for study. Each predator is placed inside a plastic bottle together with parts of the plant and some known
insect pests. Insects in the bottle are observed for certain time and determined whether the test insect is a pest
(feeds on plant) or a predator (feeds on other insects).

Pest: Defender ratio (P: D ratio):


Identifying the number of pests and beneficial insects helps the farmers to make appropriate pest management

AESA based IPM Fennel


decisions. Sweep net, visual counts etc. can be adopted to arrive at the numbers of pests and defenders. The P:
D ratio can vary depending on the feeding potential of natural enemy as well as the type of pest. The natural
enemies of fennel insect-pests can be divided into 3 categories 1. Parasitoids; 2. Predators; and 3. Pathogens.

Model Agro-Ecosystem Analysis Chart


Date:
Village:
Farmer:

Decision taken based on the analysis of field situations


Soil conditions
Weather conditions
Diseases types and severity
Weeds types and intensity
Rodent damage (if any)
No. of insect pests
No. of natural enemies
P: D ratio

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

The general rule to be adopted for management decisions relying on the P: D ratio is 2: 1. However, some
of the parasitoids and predators will be able to control more than 2 pests. Wherever specific P: D ratios are not
found, it is safer to adopt the 2: 1, as P: D ratio. Whenever the P: D ratio is found to be favourable, there is no
need for adoption of other management strategies. In cases where the P: D ratio is found to be unfavourable,
the farmers can be advised to resort to inundative release of parasitoids/predators depending upon the type
of pest. In addition to inundative release of parasitoids and predators, the usage of microbial biopesticides and
biochemical biopesticides such as insect growth regulators, botanicals etc. can be relied upon before resorting to
synthetic chemical pesticides.

Decision making:
Farmers become experts in crop management:
Farmers have to make timely decisions about the management of their crops. AESA farmers have learned to make
these decisions based on observations and analysis viz., abiotic and biotic factors of the crop ecosystem. The past
experience of the farmers should also be considered for decision making. However, as field conditions continue to

AESA based IPM Fennel


change and new technologies become available, farmers need to continue improving their skills and knowledge.

Farmers are capable of improving farming practices by experimentation


Farmers can share their knowledge with other farmers

AESA methodology:

Go to the field in groups (about 5 farmers per group). Walk across the field and choose 20 plants/ acre
randomly. Observe keenly each of these plants and record your observations:

Plant: Observe the plant height, number of leaves, crop stage, deficiency symptoms etc.
Insect pests: Observe and count insect pests at different places on the plant.
Defenders (natural enemies): Observe and count parasitoids and predators.
Diseases: Observe leaves and stems and identify any visible disease symptoms and severity.
Weeds: Observe weeds in the field and their intensity.
Water: Observe the water situations of the field.
Weather: Observe the weather conditions.
Take representative soil samples from different spots and send to nearby soil testing laboratory.
Discuss the soil analysis report and recommendation provided by soil testing laboratory.
Arrange for required quantity of FYM/ vermi compost/fertilizers/soil amendments etc.

While walking in the field, manually collect insects in plastic bags. Use a sweep net to collect additional
insects. Collect plant parts with disease symptoms.
Find a shady place to sit as a group in a small circle for drawing and discussion.
If needed, kill the insects with some chloroform (if available) on a piece of cotton.
Each group will first identify the pests, defenders and diseases collected.
Each group will then analyze the field situation in detail and present their observations and analysis in a
drawing (the AESA drawing).
Each drawing will show a plant/hill representing the field situation. The weather conditions, water level,
disease symptoms, etc. will be shown in the drawing. Pest insects will be drawn on one side. Defenders
(beneficial insects) will be drawn on another side. Write the number next to each insect. Indicate the
plant part where the pests and defenders were found. Try to show the interaction between pests and
defenders.
Each group will discuss the situation and make a crop management recommendation.
The small groups then join each other and a member of each group will now present their analysis in front
of all participants.
The facilitator will facilitate the discussion by asking guiding questions and makes sure that all participants
(also shy or illiterate persons) are actively involved in this process.
Formulate a common conclusion. The whole group should support the decision on what
Field management is required in the AESA plot.
Make sure that the required activities (based on the decision) will be carried out.
Keep the drawing for comparison purpose in the following weeks.

Data recording:
Farmers should record data in a notebook and drawing on a chart
Keeping records of what has happened help us making an analysis and draw conclusions

Data to be recorded:

Plant growth (weekly): Height of plant; Number of leaves


Crop situation (e.g. for AESA): Plant health; pests, diseases, weeds; natural enemies; soil conditions;
irrigation; weather conditions
Input costs: Seeds; fertilizer; pesticides; labour
Harvest: Yield (Kg/acre); price of produce (Rs./Kg)

AESA based IPM Fennel

Some questions that can be used during the discussion:

Summarize the present situation of the field.


What crop management aspect is most important at this moment?
Is there a big change in crop situation compared to last visit? What kind of change?
Is there any serious pest or disease outbreak?
What is the situation of the beneficial insects?
Is there a balance in the field between pests and defenders?
Were you able to identify all pests and diseases?
Do you think the crop is healthy?
What management practices are needed at this moment?
When will it be done? Who will do it? Make sure that responsibilities for all activities are being discussed.
Are you expecting any problems to emerge during the coming week such as congenial weather conditions
for pest buildup?
What are the problems? How can we avoid it? How can we be prepared?
Summarize the actions to be taken.

Advantages of AESA over ETL:


One of the problems of the ETL is that it is based on parameters that
are changing all the time, and that are often not known. The damage or
losses caused by a certain density of insects cannot be predicted at all.
In ETL the due recognition of the role of natural enemies in decreasing
pest population is ignored. Farmers cannot base their decisions on just
a simple count of pests. They will have to consider many other aspects
of the crop (crop ecology, growth stage, natural enemies, weather
condition, etc.) and their own economic and social situation before
they can make the right crop management decisions. In ETL based
IPM, natural enemies, plant compensation ability and abiotic factors
are not considered. In AESA based IPM emphasis is given to natural
enemies, plant compensation ability, abiotic factors and P: D ratio.

AESA and farmer field school (FFS):


AESA is a season-long training activity that takes place in the farmer
field. It is season-long so that it covers all the different developmental
stages of the crop and their related management practices. The
process is always learner-centered, participatory and relying on an
experiential learning approach and therefore it has become an integral
part of FFS.

Farmers can learn from AESA:

Identification of pests and their nature of damage


Identification of natural enemies
Management of pests
Water and nutrient management
Influence of weather factors on pest buildup
Role of natural enemies in pest management

AESA based IPM Fennel

FFS to teach AESA based IPM skills:

B. Field scouting:
AESA requires skill. So only the trained farmers can undertake this exercise. However, other farmers also can do
field scouting in their own fields at regular intervals to monitor the major pest situation.
Surveillance on pest occurrence in the field should commence soon after crop establishment and at
weekly intervals thereafter. In each field, select five spots randomly. Select five random plants at each spot for
recording counts of insects as per procedure finalized for individual insects.

For insect pests:


Aphids: Count and record the number of both nymphs and adults on five randomly selected leaves per plant.
Thrips: Count and record the number of nymphs and adults of thrips present on five terminal leaves per plant
(tapping method also can be used to count thrips).
Helicoverpa: Total number of plants, damaged plants due to Helicoverpa, number of larvae on individual plants
should be counted and recorded.

For diseases:
Whenever scouting, be aware that symptoms of plant disease problems may be caused by any biotic factors such
as fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens or abiotic factors such as weather, fertilizers, nutrient deficiencies, pesticides
and abiotic soil problems. In many cases, the cause of the symptom is not obvious. Close examination, and
laboratory culture and analysis are required for proper diagnosis of the causal agent of disease. Generally fungal
diseases cause the obvious symptoms with irregular growth, pattern & colour (except viruses), however abiotic
problems cause regular, uniform symptoms. Pathogen presence (signs) on the symptoms can also be observed
like fungal growth, bacterial ooze etc. Specific and characteristic symptoms of the important plant diseases are
given in description of diseases section.
Root sampling: Always check plants that appear unhealthy. If there are no obvious symptoms on plants, examine
plants randomly and look for lesions or rots on roots and stems. Observe the signs of the causal organism (fungal
growth or ooze). Always check plants that appear unhealthy. It is often necessary to wash the roots with water to
examine them properly. If the roots are well developed, cut into them to examine the roots for internal infections
(discolouration & signs). Count the total number of roots damaged/infested/infected due to rot should be counted
and incidence should be recorded.

AESA based IPM Fennel


Leaf sampling: Examine all leaves on each plant for lesions and determine the amount area of leaf infection. Leaf
diseases cause most damage during the seedling and flowering stages of plant growth. Observe for the symptoms
and signs on the infected plant parts. Count the number of leaves (leaf area diameter)/plant infected due to disease
and incidence should be recorded.
Stem and flower sampling: Carefully examine the stem and flower of plants for signs of fungal material diseases
or lesions. The stem should be split or taken apart and examined for discoloration caused by fungi and bacteria.
Count the number of stems and flowers infected due to disease and incidence should be recorded.

C. Surveillance through pheromone trap catches for Helicoverpa:


Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera @ 4-5/acre have to be installed. Install the traps separated by a distance
of >75 feet in the vicinity of the selected field, if available. Fix the traps to the supporting pole at a height of one
foot above the plant canopy. Change of lures should be made at 2-3 week interval (regular interval). During each
week of surveillance, the number of moths/trap should be counted and recorded. The trapped moths should be
removed and destroyed.

D. Yellow/blue pan water/ sticky traps:


Set up yellow pan water/sticky traps for monitoring aphids and blue pan water/sticky traps for thrips at 15cm
above the canopy @ 4-5 traps/acre. Locally available empty tins can be painted yellow/ blue and coated with
grease/Vaseline/castor oil on outer surface may also be used. Count the number of pests on the traps daily and
take the appropriate decision regarding management practices.

E. Light traps:
Set up light traps @ 1 trap/acre 15 cm above the crop canopy for monitoring and mass trapping insects. Light
traps with exit option for natural enemies of smaller size should be installed and operate around the dusk time (6
pm to 10 pm).

F. Nematode extraction:
Collect 100 to 300 cm3 (200-300 g) representative soil sample. Mix soil sample and pass through a coarse sieve
to remove rocks, roots, etc. Take a 600 cc subsample of soil, pack lightly into a beaker uniformly. Place soil in one
of the buckets or pans half filled with water. Mix soil and water by stirring with paddle; allow to stand until water
almost stops swirling. Pour all but heavy sediment through 20-mesh sieve into second bucket; discard residue
in first bucket; discard material caught on sieve. Stir material in second bucket; allow to stand until water almost
stops swirling. Pour all but heavy sediment through 60 mesh sieve to collect cysts into first bucket; discard residue
in second bucket. Stir material in first bucket; allow to stand until water almost stops swirling. Pour all but heavy
sediment through 325-mesh sieve into second bucket; discard residue in first bucket. Backwash material caught
on 325-mesh sieve (which includes small to mid-sized nematodes and silty material) into 250-ml beaker. More
than 90% of the live nematodes are recovered in the first 5-8 mm of water drawn from the rubber tubing and the
sample is placed in a shallow dish for examination.

AESA based IPM Fennel

III. ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING FOR PEST MANAGEMENT


Ecological engineering for pest management has recently emerged as a paradigm for considering pest management
approaches that rely on the use of cultural techniques to effect habitat manipulation and to enhance biological
control. The cultural practices are informed by ecological knowledge rather than on high technology approaches
such as synthetic pesticides and genetically engineered crops (Gurr et al. 2004 a,b).

Natural enemies may require:


1.
2.
3.

Food in the form of pollen and nectar for adult natural enemies.
Shelter such as overwintering sites, moderate microclimate etc.
Alternate hosts when primary hosts are not present.

Ecological Engineering for Pest Management Above Ground:

Rais the flowering plants/compatible cash crops along the field border by arranging shorter plants
towards main crop and taller plants towards the border to attract natural enemies as well as to avoid
immigrating pest population
Grow flowering plants on the internal bunds inside the field
Not to uproot weed plants those are growing naturally like Tridax procumbens, Ageratum sp, Alternanthera
sp, etc. which act as nectar source for natural enemies,
Not to apply broad spectrum chemical pesticides, when the P: D ratio is favourable. The plant compensation ability should also be considered before applying chemical pesticides.

Ecological Engineering for Pest Management Below Ground:

Crop rotations with leguminous plants which enhance nitrogen content.


Keep soils covered year-round with living vegetation and/or crop residue.
Add organic matter in the form of FYM, vermicompost, crop residue which enhance below ground
biodiversity.
Reduce tillage intensity so that hibernating natural enemies can be saved.
Apply balanced dose of fertilizers and nutrients.
Apply mycorrhiza and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)
Apply Trichoderma spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material, nursery treatment
and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides
produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

Due to enhancement of biodiversity by the flowering plants, parasitoids and predators (natural enemies)
number also will increase due to availability of nectar, pollen, fruits, insects, etc. The major predators are a wide
variety of spiders, ladybird beetles, long horned grasshoppers, Chrysoperla zastrowi sillemi, earwigs, etc.

Ecological Engineering Plants


Attractant plants

French bean

Cowpea

10

Cosmos

AESA based IPM Fennel

Carrot

Sunflower

Buckwheat

Coriander

Marigold

Repellent plants

Spearmint

Ocimum spp.

Border plants

Sorghum

Maize

Bajra

Intercrops

Onion

Cowpea

The flowering plants suggested under Ecological Engineering for pest management strategy are known
as attractant plants to the natural enemies of the selected pests. The information is based on published research
literature. However, the actual selection of flowering plants could be based on availability, agro-climatic conditions
and soil types

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AESA based IPM Fennel

Biodiversity of natural enemies observed in Ecological Engineering field at NIPHM


Biodiversity of natural enemies: Parasitoids

Biodiversity of natural enemies: Predators

Biodiversity of natural enemies: Spiders

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AESA based IPM Fennel

A. Resistant/tolerant varieties:
Pest/disease
Blight and powdery mildew
Sugary disease, leaf blight, leaf spot

Resistance/ tolerant variety*


RF-101, RF-125 (Moderate resistant)
Gujarat Fennel-1 (GF-1), (VC-14-34), PF-35 (Guj.)
(Tolerant/ resistant)
S-7-9 (Guj.) (Moderate resistant)
S-16, E-58, UF-132 (Tolerant)

Leaf blight
Aphid

*For detailed and udated information and further updates nearest KVK, SAU / ICAR Institute may be contacted

IV. CROP STAGE-WISE IPM


Management
Pre- sowing*

Activity
Common cultural practices:
Timely sowing should be done.
Field sanitation, rogueing
Destroy the alternate host plants
Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations
Deep ploughing of fields during summer
Follow crop rotation
Sow the ecological engineering plants
Sow/plant sorghum/maize/bajra in 4 rows all around fennel crop
as a guard/barrier crop.

Nutrients

Weeds
Soil borne pathogens,
nematodes and resting stages
of insect pests

Soil is brought to fine tilth by 2-3 ploughing with harrow or


country plough.
For rabi drilled fennel apply10 of FYM, 36 Kg Nitrogen (N) and 18
Kg Phosphorous (P) per acre. Whole quantity of FYM should be
mixed in the soil at the time of land preparation.
Beds with provision of irrigation channels should be prepared
before sowing of seeds to facilitate proper irrigation and
intercultural operations.
Deep summer ploughing or solarisation during summer

Cultural control:
Soil solarisation: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge
(0.45 mm) thickness for three weeks before sowing which will help
in reducing the soil borne pests.
Apply organic amendment viz., mustard, castor or neem cake @
0.8-1.0 tonnes/acre.

Sowing*
Common cultural practices:
Use tolerant/ resistant varieties.
Select healthy, certified, and weed seed free seeds
Nutrients

Weeds

Half dose of N (18 Kg/acre) and full dose of P (18 Kg/acre) should be
applied as basal dose.
In zinc deficient areas, apply zinc sulphate @ 8 Kg/acre.
Sowing/transplanting should be done in lines to facilitate hoeing
and weeding operations during vegetative stage.
Adopt recommended agronomic practices like timely sowing,
proper spacing irrigation etc. to obtain the healthy plant stand.

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AESA based IPM Fennel


*Apply Trichoderma viride/ harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material,
nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However,
biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).
Vegetative stage
Common cultural practices:
Collect and destroy crop debris
Avoid water logging
Judicious use of fertilizers
Install light traps in and around the fields
Avoid any stress to the crop as much as possible
Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2
larval parasitoids are observed
Common mechanical practices:
Collect and destroy disease infected and insect infested plant
parts
Collect and destroy eggs and early stage larvae
Handpick the older larvae during early stages of the crop
Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are
found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths
activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
Erect bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds
such as King crow, common mynah etc.
Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
Augmentative release of natural enemies
Nutrients
Weeds

Aphid and thrips

Apply remaining 18 Kg of N in two equal splits of 9 Kg each as top


dressed at an interval of 30 days and 60 days after sowing.
The crop should be kept free from weeds for initial 40 days by
adopting 2-3 hand tool weeding. The 1st weeding and hoeing
should be done at 20-25 days after sowing and 2nd and 3rd at 40
and 60 days after sowing.
Cultural control:
Spray pressurized water
Use yellow and blue sticky traps @ 4-5 traps/acre for aphid and
thrips, respectively, before flowering.
Biological control:
Release Coccinella septumpunctata @ 2000 beetles/ acre (2 releases
at 15 days interval)

Cutworm

Cultural control:
Attracting cutworm larvae using rice bran heaps of rice bran
should be placed in several places in the late afternoon. They can
be removed from the rice bran on the next day and destroyed.
Flood field prior to planting whenever possible farmers can consider
temporarily flooding fields, particularly on severely infested fields.

Leaf eating caterpillar/gram


pod borer

Cultural control:
Grow intercrops such as cowpea, onion, coriander, urdbean in 5 or
4:1 ratio

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AESA based IPM Fennel

Leaf (Ramularia) blight


Fusarium wilt

Rotate the fennel crop with a non-host cereal crop i.e. cucurbit, or
cruciferous vegetable.
Use of ovipositional trap crops such as marigold @ 100 plants/acre
1 row of marigold for every 18 rows of fennel (marigold seedling of
45 days should be planted along with fennel transplanting)
Collect larvae from marigold flowers and destroy them.
Biological control:
Release egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum @ 50,000 adults (in
the form of parasitized card) /acre / week.
See in common cultural practices
Cultural control:
Avoid water stagnation
Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices

Powdery mildew
Damping off

Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices


Cultural control:
Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices

Collar rot

Cultural control:
Avoid water stagnation in the field.
Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Cultural control:
Crop rotation with non-susceptible hosts will reduce populations
of Rhizoctonia in the soil.
Avoid crop rotations with sugar beets if there is evidence
of Rhizoctonia in the field. Crop rotations with dry beans may also
increase incidence of disease.
Protective seed treatment and good seedbed preparation can
reduce root rot.
Earthing up of soil around stems promotes lateral root growth and
lessen the effect of root rot on older plants.
Cultural control:
Avoid water stagnation.
Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices

Root rot

Leaf spot

Reproductive stage
Nutrients
Weeds
Insect- pests & disease
management
Storage insect pest
Cigarette beetle

Drugstore Beetle

Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest.


Remove left over weeds before shedding of seeds to prevent
further spread of weeds.
Same as in vegetative stage

Mechanical control:
Sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone,
Store grains in gunny bags with moisture proof lining
Synthetic serricornin is used in commercially available cigarette
beetle traps
Mechanical control:
The drugstore beetle sex pheromone, stegobinone (2,3-dihydro2,3,5-trimethyl-6-(1-methyl-2oxobutyl) -4H-pyran-4-one) is used in
commercially available traps and lures

Sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone, stegobinone,


can be used to monitor for adult beetles

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AESA based IPM Fennel


Cigarette beetle

Mechanical control:
Sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone
Store grains in gunny bags with moisture proof lining
The commercially available cigarette beetle traps with synthetic
serricornin

Drugstore beetle

Mechanical control:
Use commercially available traps and lures with the drugstore beetle
sex pheromone, stegobinone (2,3-dihydro-2,3,5-trimethy l-6-(1-methyl2oxobutyl) -4H-pyran-4-one) is used in
Use sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone, stegobinone for
monitoring adult beetles

Note: Pesticides dosages and spray fluid volume are based on high volume sprayer

V. INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE AND ITS MANAGEMENT


Insecticide resistance: Resistance to insecticides may be defined as a heritable change in the sensitivity of a pest
population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control when used
according to the label recommendation for that pest species (IRAC). Cross-resistance occurs when resistance to
one insecticide confers resistance to another insecticide, even where the insect has not been exposed to the latter
product.
Causes of resistance development: The causes and rate at which insecticide resistance develops depend on
several factors, including the initial frequency of resistance alleles present in the population, how rapidly the
insects reproduce, the insects level of resistance, the migration and host range of the insects, the insecticides
persistence and specificity, and the rate, timing and number of applications of insecticide made. For instance,
insect pests that survive in large populations and breed quickly are at greater advantage of evolving insecticide,
especially when insecticides are misused or over-used.
General strategy for insecticide resistance management: The best strategy to avoid insecticide resistance is
prevention and including insecticide resistance management tactics as part of a larger integrated pest management
(IPM) approach.
1) Monitor pests: Monitor insect population development in fields to determine if and when control measures
are warranted. Monitor and consider natural enemies when making control decisions. After treatment, continue
monitoring to assess pest populations and their control.
2) Focus on AESA: Insecticides should be used only as a last resort when all other non-chemical management
options are exhausted and P: D ratio is above 2: 1. Apply biopesticides/chemical insecticides judiciously after
observing unfavourable P: D ratio and when the pests are in most vulnerable life stage. Use application rates and
intervals as per label claim.
3) Ecological engineering for pest management: Flowering plants that attract natural enemies as well as plants
that repel pests can be grown as border/intercrop.
4) Take an integrated approach to managing pests: Use as many different control measures as possible viz.,
cultural, mechanical, physical, biological etc. Select insecticides with care and consider the impact on future pest
populations and the environment. Avoid broad-spectrum insecticides when a narrow-spectrum or more specific
insecticide will work. More preference should be given to green labeled insecticides.
5) Mix and apply carefully: While applying insecticides care should be taken for proper application of insecticides
in terms of dose, volume, timing, coverage, application techniques as per label claim.
6) Alternate different insecticide classes: Avoid the repeated use of the same insecticide, insecticides in the
same chemical class, or insecticides in different classes with same mode of action and rotate/alternate insecticide
classes and modes of action.

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AESA based IPM Fennel


7) Preserve susceptible genes: Preserve susceptible individuals within the target population by providing
unsprayed areas within treated fields, adjacent refuge fields, or habitat attractions within a treated field that
facilitate immigration. These susceptible individuals may outcompete and interbreed with resistant individuals,
diluting the resistant genes and therefore the impact of resistance.

VI. NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCIES/ DISORDERS


Nutrients and their deficiency symptoms:
Nitrogen: Pale or yellow green leaves (chlorosis) symptoms appear first in the older leaves. Reddish tints gradually
appear at the leaf margins spread toward the midrib or central vein. Leaves are small. Overall growth is markedly
reduced.
Correction measure: Foliar spray of urea 1% or DAP 2% twice at weekly intervals.
Phosphorus: Slow plant growth, leaf colour may intensify, browning or purpling in foliage in some plants, thin
stems, reduced lateral breaks, loss of lower leaves.
Correction measure: Soil application of recommended dose of phosphorous should be applied at the time of
sowing or planting.
Potassium: Since potassium is very mobile within the plant, symptoms only develop on young leaves in the case of
extreme deficiency. Reduced growth, shortened internodes, marginal burn or scorch (brown leaf edges), necrotic
(dead) spots in the leaf, reduction of lateral breaks and tendency to wilt readily.
Sulphur: Stunted plant growth, leaves turn to pale yellow. The leaves show a general overall chlorosis. Under
severe deficiency, the yellowing is much more uniform over the entire plant including young leaves.
Correction measure: Foliar spray of K2SO4 or CaSO4 @ 1% twice at fortnightly interval.
Magnesium: Symptoms appear on the older leaves. Older leaves may fall off, or they develop a triangular
arrowhead at the base of the leaf, near the stalk. Reduction in growth, marginal chlorosis, interveinal chlorotis
(yellow between the veins) in some species. Eventually the whole leaf becomes yellow.
Correction measures: Foliar spray of magnesium sulphate @ 0.5 % ( 5g MgSO4 dissolved in 1 lit of water) in the
interval of 15 days on the foliage till the symptoms disappear.
Manganese: Symptoms occur on new growth. Leaves appear mottled, light green to yellow green in-between
the veins.
Correction measure: Foliar spray of MnSO4 @ 0.5% twice at weekly interval.
Iron: The deficiency of iron shows up first in the young leaves of plants, which develop interveinal chlorosis and it
progresses rapidly over the entire leaf. In severe cases, the leaves turn completely white.
Correction measure: Soil application of FeSO4 at 12 Kg/acre followed by foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.5% during 3rd,
4th and 5th months.

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AESA based IPM Fennel

VII. COMMON WEEDS

1. Lamb's quarters:
Chenopodium album L.
(Chenopodiaceae)

2. Scarlet pimpernel:
Anagallis arvensis L.
(Primulaceae)

3.Sweet clover:
Melilotus indica (L.) All.
(Fabaceae)

4. Fine leaf fumitory:


Fumaria parviflora Lam.
(Fumariaceae)

5. Corn spurry: Spergula


arvensis L. (Caryophyllaceae)

6. Bluegrass:
Poa annua L. (Poaceae)

7. Purple nut sedge: Cyperus


rotundus L. (Cyperaceae)

8. Yellow sedge:
Cyperus campestris Schrad.ex
Nees (Cyperaceae)

9. Wild onion:
Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.
(Xanthorrhoeaceae)

10. Canary grass:


Phalaris minor Retz.
(Poaceae)

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AESA based IPM Fennel

VIII. DESCRIPTION OF INSECT PESTS


1) Aphid:
Biology:
Egg: The females produce wingless offspring which are mated by the males and then lay hard-shelled eggs on
the branches. The eggs initially are greenish, but soon turn black. In this form the aphids survive the winter. In
Spring the eggs hatch to wingless females which produce winged offspring by parthenogenesis.
Nymph: There were three nymphal instars. The first instar nymphs were dull white and became light green in
the second instar. The third instar nymphs and adults turned green.
Adult: Adults are yellow-green in color, dusted with greyish wax. They have short, dusky, slightly swollen,
siphunculi (or cornicles) that are about twice as long as wide
Life cycle:
Damage symptoms:

Direct damage: Aphids damage plants by


puncturing them and sucking their juices. They
damage the young and soft parts of plants, such
as new leaves and shoots. Signs of damage are
leaves not opening properly and being smaller
in size. Severe infestation can cause shoots to
wilt and dry out.

Indirect damage: Aphids have wings and can


move from plant to plant spreading viral diseases,
picked up from infected plants. Aphids secrete a
sugary liquid that stimulates black sooty mold
growth. It can cover the surface of leaves which
affects the way they absorb sunlight.

1,2. http://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/photos/cowpea_aphids.jpg 3. http://www.agroatlas.ru/content/pests/Aphis_craccivora/Aphis_craccivora.jpg

http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/aphid/corriander_aphid01.jpg
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/aphid/corriander_aphid02.jpg

Natural enemies of aphid:


Parasitoids: Lysiphlebus sp, Diaeretiella sp, Aphelinus sp, Aphidius colemani etc.
Predators: Ladybird beetle, lacewing, spiders, hover fly etc.
*For management refer to page number 14

2) Thrips:
Biology:
Egg: Eggs are white to yellow, kidney-bean shaped, microscopic in size. Develop within leaf tissue with one end
near the leaf surface. Egg stage is 5-10 days.

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AESA based IPM Fennel


Larva: Instars I and II are active, feeding stages. Larvae are white to pale yellow, elongate and slender body.
Resemble adult, but without wings. Antennae are short and eyes are dark in color. Crawl quickly when disturbed.
Larval stage is 8-10 days.
Pre-pupa and pupa: Instars III and IV are inactive, non-feeding stages called pre-pupa and pupa. Pale yellow
to brown; body more stout than younger instars. Antennae are bent to head; wing buds are visible. Found in
the soil, at the base of the plant. Pre-pupal and pupal period is 2-4 days.
Adult: About 1.5 mm long; elongate, yellow and brown body with two pairs of fringed (hairy) wings. Mouthparts
are beak-like and antennae are 7-segmented. Parthenogenic (asexually reproducing) females; males are
extremely rare. Feed on young leaves and insert eggs individually into leaves. Adult life span is about 13-15
days month.
Life cycle:
Damage symptoms:

Direct damage: Thrips damage the undersides


of leaves by sucking their juices. They damage
young and soft parts of plants such as new
leaves and shoots.

As a result, leaves curl downwards and change to


a blackish- silver color. Severe infestation causes
young leaves to wilt and dry out.

Indirect damage: Thrips can carry and spread


viral diseases.

1,2,3,4. http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/factsheet/ENT-117-08PR.pdf

Natural enemies of thrips:


Parasitoid: Ceranisus menes
Predators: Predatory thrips, minute pirate bug, ladybird beetle, lacewing, mirid bug etc.
*For management refer to page number 14

3) Leaf eating caterpillar/gram pod borer:


Biology:
Egg: The spherical, yellowish eggs are laid singly on tender parts and buds of plants. The egg period lasts for
2-4 days.
Larva: Caterpillars vary in colour, initially brown and later turn greenish with darker broken lines along the side
of the body. The larval period lasts for 18-25 days. Body covered with radiating hairs. When full grown, they
measure 3.7 to 5 cm in length.
Pupa: Pupation takes place inside the soil. Pupal stage lasts 7-15 days.
Adult: Moth is stout, medium sized with brownish/grayish forewings with a dark cross band near outer margin
and dark spots near costal margins, with a wing expanse of 3.7cm.

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AESA based IPM Fennel


Life cycle:
Damage symptoms:

Young larva feeds on the leaves.

Feed on leaves, shoots and buds.

Natural enemies of leaf eating caterpillar/gram


pod borer:
Parasitoids: Trichogramma spp., Tetrastichus
spp., Telenomus spp, Bracon spp., Campoletis sp,
Chelonus spp., Ichneumon spp., Carcelia spp. etc.
Predators: Lacewing, ladybird beetle, spider, red
ant, dragonfly, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying
mantis, King crow etc.
1. http://www7.inra.fr/hyppz/RAVAGEUR/6helarm.htm; 2. http://www.infonet-biovision.org/default/ct/120/crops; 3. http://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=9408;
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helicoverpa_armigera

*For management refer to page number 15

4) Cutworm:
Biology:
Egg: Each female moth come out at dusk and lay creamy white, dome-shaped eggs (200-350) in clusters of
about 30 each, either on the under surface of the leaves of host plants or in the soil.
Larva: Newly emerged young larva is yellow in colour, 1.5 mm long with a shiny, black head and a black shield
on the prothorax. The full-grown larva is about 42-45 mm long and is dark or dark brown with a plump and
greasy body. Larvae live in the soil and are yellow or blackish- green in color. They have striped markings running
down the sides of their bodies. The larval stage varies from 30-34 days
Pupa: Pupae are brown to dark brown, about 1.5 to 2.0 cm in length and are usually found in or on piles of leaf
mould. Pupation takes place underground in an earthen chamber. Pupal period is completed in 10 to 30 days
Adult: Adult measures about 25 mm from the head to the tip of the abdomen and looks dark with some grayish
patches on the back and dark streaks on the forewings. Adults live for 7-10 days. Total life cycle takes up to 36
days (from egg to adult). The moths usually emerge at night. This pest generally completes three generations
in a year.
Life cycle:
Damage symptoms:
Both adult and caterpillars become active at
night.
During the day time caterpillars hide in crack and
crevices in the soil.
They attack young plants by severing their stems,
pulling all parts of the plant into the ground and
devouring them.
Plants with severed stems have difficulty growing
again.
This pest can cause serious damage; particularly
when crops are at 25 - 35 days after planting.

1. http://www7.inra.fr/hyppz/IMAGES/7030561.jpg
2. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/black_cutworm03.jpg
3. http://www.infonet-biovision.org/res/res/files/308.300x200.jpeg
4. http://www.agroatlas.ru/content/pests/Agrotis_ipsilon/Agrotis_ipsilon.jpg

21

AESA based IPM Fennel

Natural enemies of cutworm:


Parasitoids: Trichogramma spp., Tetrastichus spp., Telenomus spp., Bracon spp., Campoletis sp, Chelonus spp.,
Ichneumon spp., Carcelia spp. etc.
Predators: Lacewing, ladybird beetle, spider, red ant, dragonfly, robber fly, reduviid bug, praying mantis, King
crow etc.
*For management refer to page number 14

5) Cigarette beetle:
Biology:
Egg: An egg is pearly white, and is not easily seen with the naked eye. When fully grown, beetle larvae is C-shaped
(grub-like) and about 3/16-inch long. Female lays about 30 eggs in a period of 3 weeks. Eggs hatch in 6 to 10
days.
Larva: Larvae are creamy white and covered with long, yellowish-brown hairs. They have a brown head and legs.
The larval stage lasts from 5 to 10 weeks.
Pre-pupa and pupa: The pre-pupal and pupal periods last 2 to 3 weeks and are passed in a cell.
Adult: Adults are yellowish- to reddish-brown, oval-shaped, and about 1/10-inch long. The head is bent
downward sharply, nearly at right angles to the body, giving a humpbacked appearance when viewed from
the side. The wing covers (elytra) are smooth, and the antennal segments are uniform and saw-like (serrate).
Adults are strong flyers and active in subdued light at temperatures above 65 F. Adult beetles may live from 23
to 28 days. In temperate climates, beetles begin swarming in May and again in August. Overwintering may be
passed in the larval stage, with some adults not too resistant to cold hibernating in crevices. There may be 5 to
6 overlapping generations per year in warm localities with only one generation in the more temperate regions.
In warehouses, the life cycle may be completed in 52 days.
Life cycle:

1. http://bru.gmprc.ksu.edu/ImageDB/m_CigEg.jpg
2. http://www.pestid.msu.edu/Portals/0/dnnPhotoGallery/882/571.gif
3. http://www.nbaii.res.in/insectpests/images/Lasioderma-serricorne2.jpg
4. http://www.zin.ru/animalia/coleoptera/images/foto/lasioderma_serricorne_f.jpg

*For management refer to page number 15

6. Drugstore beetle:
Biology:
Egg: Females lay up to 75 eggs in the food or substrate.
Larva: The larval period ranges from 4 to 20 weeks. Larvae tunnel through the substrate and when fully grown
build a cocoon and pupate.

22

AESA based IPM Fennel


Pupa: Pupal period is 12 to 18 days.
Adult: The beetles are cylindrical, 2.25 to 3.5 mm long, and are uniform brown to reddish brown in colour. Have
longitudinal rows of fine hairs on the elytra (wing covers). The antennae of the cigarette beetle are serrated (like
the teeth on a saw) while the antennae of the drugstore beetle are not and end in a 3-segmented club. The elytra
(wing covers) of the drugstore beetle have rows of pits giving them striated (lined) appearance. Adult females
live approximately 13 to 65 days. The entire life cycle is generally less than two months but can be as long as 7
months.
Life cycle:

Favourable condition

The duration of the life cycle is highly dependent


on the temperature and food source. Development
occurs between 60 to 93 F (15 to 34 C) but is
optimal at about 85 F (30 C) and 60 to 90% relative
humidity.

2. http://entoweb.okstate.edu/ddd/IMAGES/drugstore2.jpg
3. http://bugguide.net/images/raw
4. http://www.ozanimals.com/image/albums/australia/Insect/drugstore-beetle.jpg

*For management refer to page numbers 15, 16

Natural Enemies of Fennel Insect Pests


Parasitoids
Egg parasitoids

1. Trichogramma spp.

2. Tetrastichus spp.

Larval parasitoids

5. Bracon spp.

Egg-larval parasitoid

3. Telenomus spp.

4. Chelonus spp.

Larval-pupal parasitoid

Pupal parasitoid

7. Carcelia spp.

8. Ichneumon spp.

6. Campoletis spp

23

AESA based IPM Fennel


Nymphal and adult parasitoids

9. Lysiphlebus spp.

10. Diaeretiella spp.

12. Aphidius colemani

11. Aphelinus spp.

13. Ceranisus menes

2. http://www.pbase.com/image/135529248; 3. http://baba-insects.blogspot.in/2012/02/telenomus.html; 4. http://www.nbaii.res.in/Featured%20insects/Campoletis.htm;


6. http://72.44.83.99/forum/viewthread.php?thread_id=40633&pid=178398; 7. http://www.nbaii.res.in/Featured%20insects/Campoletis.html; 8. http://www.organicgardeninfo.
com/ichneumon-wasp.html; 9. http://www.nuetzlinge.de/uploads/pics/lysiphlebus_Aphis_gossypii.jpg; 10. http://www.nbaii.res.in/Featured%20insects/diaeretiella4.jpg; 11. http://
australianmuseum.net.au/Uploads/Images/23077/Pro%20019_big.jpg; 12. http://www.goodbugs.org.au/Good%20bugs%20available/Resources/aphidius254a.jpeg; 13. http://agri.
mine.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp/hpe/depte/bioproe/bioe/bioimge/AppEntmol1.gif

Predators

1. Lacewing

2. Ladybird beetle

4. Spider

4. Red ant

5. Dragonfly

6. Robber fly

7. Reduviid bug

8. Praying mantis

9. Hover fly

10. Predatory thrips

11. Minute pirate bug

12. King crow

4. http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/queensland-launched-a-war-against-the-fire-ant-invasion-but-12-years-later-they8217re-still-on-the-march/story-fnihsrf21226686256021; 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragonfly; 6. http://www.warpedphotosblog.com/robber-fly-and-prey; 8. ttp://spirit-animals.com/praying-mantish/; 10. http://chemgro.com/cart/images/Amblyseius-swirskii.jpg; 11. http://plantdiagnostics.umd.edu/_media/client/diagnostics/fullsize/pirate_bug_l.jpg; 12. http://nagpurbirds.org/blackdrongo/
picture/1639;

24

AESA based IPM Fennel

XI. DESCRIPTION OF DISEASES


1) Leaf (Ramularia) blight:
Disease symptoms:

Symptoms first appear on the lower and older leaves in the month of January, as a minute, angular
brown, necrotic spot.

Later these spots become large and are covered with grayish white erumpent growth.

At later stage, linear and rectangular spots cover the entire stem, peduncles and fruits.

Severely affected leaves shrivel and dry up.

In case of severe attack whole plant turns to brown colour, resulting in drying up of plant

Survival and spread:

Pathogen survives on infected plant debris in the soil

Pathogen infects lower part first and then above plant parts

It spreads through wind and rain splash.

Favorable conditions:

Disease favours high humidity >80%.

*For management refer to page number 15

2) Leaf spot:
Disease symptoms:
The disease primarily affects older foliage. Affected leaf tips and stems turn brown to black in color and
dry up.

Examination of the stems and leaves show tiny, discrete, dark brown to black fungal patches.

Early patches are less than one-sixteenth inch wide, and can be oval, circular or irregular in shape

Survival and spread:


Primary: Through dormant mycelium remains in the infected crop debris, seeds and volunteer plants
Secondary: Through wind dispersed conidia
Favorable conditions:

Disease favours high humidity >80%.

*For management refer to page number 15

3) Damping off:
Disease symptoms:

Damping off occurs in two stages, i.e. the pre-emergence and the post-emergence phase.

In the pre-emergence phase the seedlings are killed just before they reach the soil surface.

The young radical and the plumule are killed and there is complete rotting of the seedlings.

The post-emergence phase is characterized by the infection of the young, juvenile tissues of the collar
at the ground level.

The infected tissues become soft and water soaked.

Infected seedlings are toppled on the ground surface.

Survival and spread:


Primary: Through soil, seed, water
Secondary: By conidia through rain splash or wind

25

AESA based IPM Fennel


Favourable conditions:

High humidity, high soil moisture, cloudiness and low temperatures below 24 C for few days.

Crowded seedlings, dampness due to high rainfall, poor drainage and excess of soil solutes hamper
plant growth and increase the pathogenic damping-off.

*For management refer to page number 15

4) Fusarium wilt:
Disease symptoms:

Disease produces wilting symptoms at seedling and later stage of plant growth

Infected plants turn yellow.

Fungal growth may be seen in the infected plant stem if cut longitudinally

Survival and dispersal:

Pathogen is both soil and seed borne and survives as saprophyte in the soil debris as a mycelium and
all spore types. It spreads short distances by water splash, planting equipment, and long distances by
infected transplants and seeds.

After the plant dies the fungus invades all tissues, sporulates, and continues to infect neighboring
plants.

Favourable condition:

Soil temperature is between 12.5-14 C and high moisture.

*For management refer to page number 15

5) Powdery mildew:
Disease symptoms:

The disease symptoms appear at flowering stage in cloudy weather during February-March.

The powdery fungal growth usually develops first on leaves which later can cover all succulent stems
and branches including flowers.

In severe case seed development may not take place.

Survival and spread:


Primary: Through soil and seed,
Secondary: Dispersal of conidia through wind, rain splashes
Favourable conditions:

Cool high humid weather (20-25 C) or cloudy weather favours conidial germination and disease
development

High RH > 80% favours disease development

*For management refer to page number 15

6) Collar rot:
Disease symptoms:

Disease appears in plots where water stagnation near the plant stem is more.

Collar portion of the affected plants start decaying and the plants turn to yellow colour & die later on.

Later collar region of the plant/seedlings get rotted and plant topple down.

Survival and spread:


Primary: Dormant mycelium and fruiting bodies survive in the infected crop debris, seeds and volunteer
plants

26

AESA based IPM Fennel


Secondary: Irrigation disperse conidia to nearby plants.
Favourable conditions:

High humidity, high soil moisture and temperature.

Crowded seedlings.

*For management refer to page number 15

7) Root rot:
Disease symptoms:

Symptoms consist of seed decay and brown to reddish lesions on seedling stems and roots just below
the soil line.

These reddish brown lesions may become sunken and girdle the stems and kill the plant.

Plants may often appear stunted and unthrifty and will die.

Often the stand will appear uneven because of stunted plants.

Disease is often found in patches in fields.

On older plants, the pathogen causes a reddish brown dry cortical root rot that may extend into the
base of the stem.

Foliar symptoms may include yellowing or wilting of leaves.

Survival and spread:

The disease is mainly soil-borne and pathogen can survive in the soil as sclerotia for several years.

Sclerotia disseminate by irrigation water, implements, and other cultural operations.

Favourable conditions:

Dry weather following heavy rains,

High soil temperature (35-39 C)

*For management refer to page number 15

27

AESA based IPM Fennel

Disease cycles:
1. Leaf blight:

4. Fusarium wilt:

2. Leaf spot:

5. Powdery mildew:

3. Damping off:

6. Root rot:

28

AESA based IPM Fennel

7. Collar rot:

X. SAFETY MEASURES
A. At the time of harvest:
Harvest the crop only when it is fully matured. Maturity is indicated by the drying up of the plant including the
base of the stem. While harvesting. Care should be taken not to cause any damage to the seeds.
Processing- Processing of fennel consist of drying and cleaning. Sun drying is done on clean cemented yards
or other suitable clean surfaces. The crop harvest is occasionally turned over to ensure uniform drying. The crop
harvest should be heaped and covered during night time to ensure protection from rain. No coloring material
should be used to improve the appearance of the product as chemicals and artificial colours are highly objected
to by the importing countries.

B. During post-harvest storage:


The crop harvest should be stored to ensure protection from dampness. Drainage should be provided to stack the
packed bags to prevent moisture ingress from the floor. Care should be taken to stack the bags 50 to 60 cms away
from the wall.
No insecticide should be applied directly under any circumstances, on the dried material. Stored material
should periodically be fumigated by engaging only an authorized person. Insects, rodents and other animals
should be effectively prevented from getting access to the premises where the material is stored. Stored product
should be periodically exposed to the sun. Care should be taken in all stages of cultivation harvesting, post harvest
handling, processing, packing, storage and transportation by following sound methods and practices, to prevent
contamination and deterioration of quality of produce and to ensure consumer satisfaction.

29

AESA based IPM Fennel

XI. DOS AND DONTS IN IPM


S.
No.
1

Dos

Donts

Deep ploughing is to be done on bright sunny days


during the months of May and June. The field should be
kept exposed to sun light at least for 2-3 weeks
Adopt crop rotation.

Do not plant or irrigate the field after ploughing, at least


for 2-3 weeks, to allow desiccation of weeds bulbs and/
or rhizomes of perennial weeds.
Avoid monocropping.

Grow only recommended varieties.

Sow seed early in the season

Do not grow varieties not suitable for the season or


region.
Avoid late sowing as this may lead to reduced yields and
incidence of white grubs and diseases.

Always treat the seeds with approved biopesticides/


chemicals products for the control of seed borne
diseases/ pests.

Do not use seeds without seed treatment with


biopesticides/chemicals.

Grow nursery on raised seed beds.

Do not raise nursery on flat bed.

Apply only recommended herbicides at recommended


dose, proper time, as appropriate spray solution with
standard equipment along with flat fan or flat jet
nozzles.

Pre-emergent as well as soil incorporated herbicides


should not be applied in dry soils. Do not apply herbicides
along with irrigation water or by mixing with soil, sand or
urea.

Maintain optimum and healthy crop stand which would


be capable of competing with weeds at a critical stage of
crop weed competition

Crops should not be exposed to moisture deficit stress at


their critical growth stages.

Use NPK fertilizers as per the soil test recommendation.

Avoid imbalanced use of fertilizers.

10

Use micronutrient mixture after sowing based on test


recommendations.

Do not apply any micronutrient mixture after sowing


without test recommendations.

11

Conduct weekly AESA in the morning preferably before


9 a.m. Take decision on management practice based on
AESA and P: D ratio only.

Do not take any management decision without


considering AESA and P: D ratio

12

Install pheromone traps at appropriate period.

Do not store the pheromone lures at normal room


temperature (keep them in refrigerator).

13

Release parasitoids only after noticing adult moth


catches in the pheromone trap or as pheromone trap or
as per field observation

Do not apply chemical pesticides within seven days of


release of parasitoids.

14

Apply HaNPV at recommended dose when a large


number of egg masses and early instar larvae are noticed.
Apply NPV only in the evening hours after 5 pm.

Do not apply NPV on late instar larva and during day


time.

15

In case of pests which are active during night spray


recommended biopesticides/ chemicals at the time of
their appearance in the evening.
Spray pesticides thoroughly to treat the under surface of
the leaves.

Do not spray pesticides at midday since, most of the


insects are not active during this period.

17

Apply short persistent pesticides to avoid pesticide


residue in the soil and produce.

Do not apply pesticides during preceding 7 days before


harvest.

18

Follow the recommended procedure of trap crop


technology.

Do not apply long persistent pesticides on trap crop,


otherwise it may not attract the pests and natural
enemies.

16

30

Do not spray pesticides only on the upper surface of


leaves.

AESA based IPM Fennel

XII. BASIC PRECAUTIONS IN PESTICIDE USAGE


A. Purchase
1. Purchase only just required quantity e.g. 100, 250, 500, 1000 g/ml for single application in specified area.
2. Do not purchase leaking containers, loose, unsealed or torn bags; Do not purchase pesticides without
proper/approved labels.
3. While purchasing insist for invoice/bill/cash memo
B. Storage
1. Avoid storage of pesticides in house premises.
2. Keep only in original container with intact seal.
3. Do not transfer pesticides to other containers; Do not store expose to sunlight or rain water; Do not
weedicides along with other pesticides
4. Never keep them together with food or feed/fodder.
5. Keep away from reach of children and livestock.
C. Handling
1. Never carry/ transport pesticides along with food materials.
2. Avoid carrying bulk pesticides (dust/granules) on head shoulders or on the back.
D. Precautions for preparing spray solution
1. Use clean water.
2. Always protect your nose, eyes, mouth, ears and hands.
3. Use hand gloves, face mask and cover your head with cap.
4. Use polythene bags as hand gloves, handkerchiefs or piece of clean cloth as mask and a cap or towel to
cover the head (Do not use polythene bag contaminated with pesticides).
5. Read the label on the container before preparing spray solution.
6. Prepare the spray solution as per requirement
7. Do not mix granules with water; Do not eat, drink, smoke or chew while preparing solution
8. Concentrated pesticides must not fall on hands etc while opening sealed container. Do not smell
pesticides.
9. Avoid spilling of pesticides while filling the sprayer tank.
10. The operator should protect his bare feet and hands with polythene bags
E. Equipments
1. Select right kind of equipment.
2. Do not use leaky and defective equipments
3. Select right kind of nozzles
4. Dont blow/clean clogged nozzle with mouth. Use old tooth brush tied with the sprayer and clean with
water.
5. Do not use same sprayer for weedicide and insecticide.
F. Precautions for applying pesticides
1. Apply only at recommended dose and dilution
2. Do not apply on hot sunny day or strong windy condition; Do not apply just before the rains and after
the rains; Do not apply against the windy direction
3. Emulsifiable concentrate formulations should not be used for spraying with battery operated ULV
sprayer
4. Wash the sprayer and buckets etc with soap water after spraying
5. Containers buckets etc used for mixing pesticides should not be used for domestic purpose
6. Avoid entry of animals and workers in the field immediately after spraying
7. Avoid tank mixing of different pesticides
G. Disposal
1. Left over spray solution should not be drained in ponds or water lines etc. throw it in barren isolated area
if possible
2. The used/empty containers should be crushed with a stone/stick and buried deep into soil away from
water source.
3. Never reuse empty pesticides container for any other purpose.

31

AESA based IPM Fennel

XIII. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNIQUES


Equipment
Category A: Stationary, crawling pest/disease
Vegetative stage
Insecticides and Lever operated knapsack sprayer (droplets of
i) For crawling and
fungicides
big size)
soil borne pests
Hollow cone nozzle @ 35 to 40 psi
Lever operating speed = 15 to 20 strokes/min
or
Motorized knapsack sprayer or mist blower
ii) For small sucking
(droplets of small size)
leaf borne pests
Airblast nozzle
Operating speed: 2/3rd throttle
Reproductive stage

Insecticides and
fungicides

Category B: Field flying pest/airborne pest


Vegetative stage
Insecticides and

fungicides
Reproductive stage

(Field Pests)

Mosquito/ locust
and spatial
application
(migratory Pests)
Category C: Weeds
Post-emergence
application

Insecticides and
fungicides

Weedicide

Pre-emergence
application

Weedicide

Lever operated knapsack sprayer (droplets of


big size)
Hollow cone nozzle @ 35 to 40 psi
Lever operating speed = 15 to 20 strokes/min

Motorized knapsack sprayer or mist blower


(droplets of small size)
Airblast nozzle
Operating speed: 2/3rd throttle
Or
Battery operated low volume sprayer (droplets
of small size)
Spinning disc nozzle
Fogging machine and ENV (exhaust nozzle
vehicle) (droplets of very small size)
Hot tube nozzle

Lever operated knapsack sprayer (droplets of


big size)
Flat fan or floodjet nozzle @ 15 to 20 psi
Lever operating speed = 7 to 10 strokes/min

Trolley mounted low volume sprayer (droplets


of small size)
Battery operated low volume sprayer (droplets
of small size)

32

AESA based IPM Fennel

XIV. OPERATIONAL, CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE GUIDELINES IN BRIEF


1.

For application rate and dosage see the label and leaflet of the
particular pesticide.

2.

It is advisable to check the output of the sprayer (calibration) before


commencement of spraying under guidance of trained person.

3.

Clean and wash the machines and nozzles and store in dry place
after use.

4.

It is advisable to use protective clothing, face mask and gloves while


preparing and applying pesticides.
Do not apply pesticides without protective clothing and wash
clothes immediately after spray application.

5.

Do not apply in hot or windy conditions.

6.

Operator should maintain normal walking speed while undertaking


application.

7.

Do not smoke, chew or eat while undertaking the spraying


operation

8.

Operator should take proper bath with soap after completing


spraying

9.

Do not blow the nozzle with mouth for any blockages. Clean with
water and a soft brush.

33

AESA based IPM Fennel

XV. REFERENCES

http://0.static.wix.com/media/b5f965ac82a76d575abfb426e868cd24.wix_mp_1024
http://www.eduwebs.org/bugs/predatory_mites.htm
http://boyneriver.org/wp-content/uploads/Hairy-Vetch_Web-jpg.jpg
http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~bernelso/soydiseases/rhizoctonia.shtml
http://www.indianspices.com/html/spices_spfarm_fennel.html
http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/NE/IMAGES/encarsia_formosa.jpg
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-xy8SFu2zi8M/T7hHCyzHmmI/AAAAAAAAEzM/aDsGhd9Qm-M/s320/Chrysocharis05_05.jpg
http://bugguide.net/images/cache/
MH1H4HAHUH4Z5L1ZMLVZGLBZ7LWZZL8ZIH4ZIH1H5H8Z5HGZHL9Z2H3H7H8ZQL5ZRLCHGHHR4LNZ9HUZ5LAZ8LFH9H.jpg
http://www.commanster.eu/commanster/Insects/Bees/SuBees/Campoletis.postica2.jpg
https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRxNeHjgnxLzsLMWVHbbvFw9ask6xz8rBdfY-ZMDEV8dS7azwgR
http://www.leevalley.com/en/images/item/gardening/ab717i2.jpg
http://gsquaredbugs.com/?page_id=318
http://www.pbase.com/image/135529248
http://www.nbaii.res.in/Featured%20insects/chelonus.htm
http://baba-insects.blogspot.in/2012/02/telenomus.html
http://www.nbaii.res.in/Featured%20insects/Bracon%20brevicornis.htm
http://www.organicgardeninfo.com/ichneumon-wasp.html
http://72.44.83.99/forum/viewthread.php?thread_id=40633&pid=178398
http://www.nbaii.res.in/Featured%20insects/Campoletis.htm
http://eol.org/pages/28099/details
http://www.macro-world.cz/image.php?id_foto=514&gal=29
http://llladybug.blogspot.in/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolf_spider
http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/queensland-launched-a-war-against-the-fire-ant-invasion-but-12-years-laterthey8217re-still-on-the-march/story-fnihsrf2-1226686256021
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragonfly
http://www.warpedphotosblog.com/robber-fly-and-prey
http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/plants/field-crops-and-pastures/broadacre-field-crops/integrated-pest-management/a-z-ofpredators,-parasites-and-pathogens/assassin-bugs
http://spirit-animals.com/praying-mantis/
http://nagpurbirds.org/blackdrongo/picture/1639
http://somethingscrawlinginmyhair.com/2011/09/17/yellowjacket-with-prey/
http://nickdobbs65.wordpress.com/tag/herbie-the-love-bug/
http://m.russellipm-storedproductsinsects.com/insects/lasioderma-serricorne-biology
http://www.peipestcontrol.com/pestinformation/commonpestsdetail.asp?id=40
http://bugguide.net/images/cache/
DQ70JQI0Q0JK3RMQFR0QCRFKDRQQH07QORW0S020FRMQ000QORU0CR90CR7QJRN0L020JRU0L0M0CQ40S020OR20CQ.jpg
http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://agspsrv34.agric.wa.gov.au/ento/pestweb/images/drugstore2degesch.
jpg&imgrefurl=http://agspsrv34.agric.wa.gov.au/ento/pestweb/Query1_1.idc%3FID%3Dhttp://www.peipestcontrol.com/pestinformation/commonpestsdetail.asp?id=40
http://bugguide.net/images/cache/
DQ70JQI0Q0JK3RMQFR0QCRFKDRQQH07QORW0S020FRMQ000QORU0CR90CR7QJRN0L020JRU0L0M0CQ40S020OR20CQ.jpg
http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~bernelso/soydiseases/rhizoctonia.shtml
http://tnau.ac.in/eagri/eagri50/PATH272/lecture13/003.html
http://www.slideshare.net/fitolima/agrios-gn-plant-pathology-5a-ed-academic-press-2005-922p
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/gardner/biocontrol/Myrica%20faya/diseases%20and%20insects%20of%20myrica%20faya/
Ramularia%20spores.jpg
http://www.insectimages.org/images/384x256/2170040.jpg
http://www.insectimages.org/images/384x256/2170025.jpg
http://www.insectimages.org/images/384x256/2170024.jpg
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/aphid/corriander_aphid01.jpg
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/aphid/corriander_aphid02.jpg
http://www.indianspices.com/html/qltyStandrdGuid.html
http://www.wallcoo.net/flower/cosmos/images/%5Bwallcoo_com%5D_cosmos_FLOWER_PICTURE_50_675_2.jpg
Gurr GM, Wratten SD and Altieri MA (2004a) Ecological Engineering for Pest Management Advances in Habitat Manipulation for
Arthropods. CSIRO PUBLISHING, Collingwood, Australia.
Gurr GM, Wratten SD and Altieri MA (2004b) Ecological Engineering: a new direction for pest management. AFBM Journal 1: 28-35\
http://eurekamag.com/research/033/546/033546157.php
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=8j7kOlaLhSwC&pg=PA299&lpg=PA299&dq=eggs+of+Hyadaphis+coriandri&source=bl&ots=
NQjDDttrqs&sig=TLLB_YTuaVCY26CjbRkDjVXMAYY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Bo3YU5SCPMG9ugT_wYHADA&ved=0CEUQ6AEwCg#v=on
epage&q=eggs%20of%20Hyadaphis%20coriandri&f=true
http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/veg/aphid/coriander_aphid.htm

34

Ecological Engineering Plants for Fennel

Coriander

Sunflower

Carrot

Marigold

Ocimum spp.

Mustard

Cosmos

Onion

French bean

Cowpea

Buckwheat

Maize