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Voltage and Frequency control of wind diesel


hybrid system with variable speed wind turbine
S.S.Murthy, Life Senior Member, IEEE, S. Mishra, Senior Member, IEEE, G. Mallesham, Member,
IEEE, P. C. Sekhar

Abstract This paper deals with dynamic performance of wind


diesel system with variable wind speed turbine. The quality of
power supplied to the autonomous system is improved by
controlling the frequency to the rated value. To improve the
system characteristics, a variable speed operative wind generator:
Doubly-Fed Induction Generator along with diesel generator in
the isolated hybrid system is used. The simulation results of the
proposed hybrid system are presented to demonstrate its
effectiveness in meeting change in load demands along with
change in wind speed. The system is also studied for a short
circuit fault to ensure the stability. The performance of the
proposed system is analyzed using MATLAB/SIMULINK and it
is found that the fluctuations in power and frequency are
minimum.
Index Terms wind hybrid power system, doubly-fed
induction generator, voltage and frequency control.

I. INTRODUCTION

IND based energy systems are among the fastest


growing industries across the globe [1]. Especially
increasing power production from renewable sources such as
wind, solar would help in reducing the green house gas
emissions, hence addressing the environmental concerns of the
world. It is also helpful in preserving non-renewable sources
for future generations. Rapid developmental steps have been
taken by the world economies to increase the penetration of
wind based systems into the energy market. Wind energy
system can be integrated with diesel engine system to provide
required amount of load power. The operation of wind system
may be of fixed or variable speed. Variable speed operation
has many advantages in terms of reduction of mechanical
stress and smoothening the fluctuations of the power injected
into the supply. Moreover variable speed operation increases
the production of the energy [2-3]. A power electronic
interface is needed to match the AC bus fixed frequency and
voltage with the variable voltage and frequency of the wind
energy system. Wind turbines using a doubly-fed induction
generator (DFIG) [4-5] consist of a wound rotor induction
generator and an AC/DC/AC IGBT-based PWM converter.
The stator winding can be connected directly to the grid while
the rotor is fed at variable frequency through the AC/DC/AC
converter. The DFIG technology allows extracting maximum
energy from wind for low wind speeds by optimizing the
S.S.Murthy, S. Mishra, G. Mallesham and P. C. Sekhar are with the
Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
sukumar@ee.iitd.ac.in,
India,
e-mail:
(ssmurthy@ee.iitd.ac.in,
malleshamg@yahoo.com, psekhar.chandra@gmail.com )
978-1-4244-7781-4/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

turbine speed, while minimizing mechanical stresses on the


turbine during gusts of wind.
This paper is organized as follows. Section II describes the
modelling of the system considered. Section III deals with
control structure of DFIG. Section IV includes the analysis of
dynamic performance of wind-diesel system (with Variable
wind speed turbine). Performance of wind-diesel system with a
transmission line between them and a short circuit fault to
ensure the system stability are also discussed in this section.
Section V is conclusion of the work carried out. Moreover the
scope of further work is also enlisted in brief.
II. MODELLING OF DFIG
The block diagram of wind-diesel hybrid system considered
is shown in Fig. 1. Simulation of the realistic response of the
DFIG system requires the modeling of the controllers in
addition to the main electrical and mechanical components.
The components considered include turbine, drive train,
generator, and the back-to-back converter system. These
components are well established in the literature [6], however,
they have been discussed here in brief. The stator and rotor of
DFIG are supplied by the grid and the power converters,
respectively.

Fig .1 Block diagram model of wind-diesel system with transmission line

A. Turbine and Drive Train


In this paper, the two mass drive train model [7] is considered
and the dynamics can be expressed by the following
differential equations [8]
(1)
(2)
(3)
Where Tc=

and Tsh=Ksh

B. Generator
The most common way of representing DFIG for the purpose
of simulation and control is in terms of direct and quadrature
axes (dq axes) quantities, which form a reference frame that
rotates synchronously with the stator flux vector [6]. The
various variables are defined as: eqs=Kmrrwsdr, eds=-

2
Kmrrwsqr,
wc=welbws

Ls=Lss-L2m/Lrr,

Tr=Lrr/Rr,

Kmrr=Lm/Lrr

and

(4)

(5)
(6)

Where,

R2=K2mrrRr, R1=Rs+R2

(7)

C. Converter Model
The converter model in DFIG system comprises of two pulse
width modulation invertors connected back-to-back via a dc
link. The Rotor Side Converter, RSC is a controlled voltage
source as it injects an ac voltage at slip frequency to the rotor.
The Stator Side Converter, SSC acts as a controlled voltage
source, by generating an ac voltage at power frequency and
maintains the dc link voltage constant. The power balance
equation for the converter model can be written as:
(8)
Pr=Pg+Pdc
where Pr, Pg,Pdc are active power at RSC, GSC, and dc link,
respectively, which can be expressed as
Pr=vdridr+vqriqr
(9)
Pg=vdgidg+vqgiqg
(10)
(11)
Pdc=vdcidc=Cvdc
III. CONTROL TECHNIQUE FOR DFIG
The wind turbine and DFIG (WTDFIG) along with Diesel
system are shown in Fig 2. The AC/DC/AC converter is
divided into two components: RSC and the SSC. RSC and
SSC are Voltage- Sourced Converters that use forcedcommutated power electronic devices (IGBTs) to synthesize
an AC voltage from a DC voltage source. A capacitor
connected on the DC side acts as the DC voltage source.

voltage command signals Vr and Vs for RSC and SSC


respectively in order to control the power of the wind turbine,
the DC bus voltage and the reactive power. The model is based
on using the SSC for the wind turbine terminal voltage
regulation. This is carried out in parallel with its main function
and that is to regulate the DC bus voltage of the back-to back
converter. Moreover, the maximum power tracking job is
carried out by the RSC [9].
A. Rotor side converter for Control
The q-axis component control loop is dedicated to track the
maximum output power using the instantaneous values of the
incident wind speed and the generator rotational speed with a
maximum power tracking characteristic for the turbine as
shown in Fig 3.
On the other hand, the d-axis component control loop is
dedicated to generate the d-axis voltage reference signal (Vd*).
The rotor-side converter control loops are illustrated in Fig. 3.
The d-axis and q-axis reference voltages (Vd*) and (Vq*) are
added with the voltage drops in the rotor circuit parameters to
get the actual reference signal at the converter side.
B. Stator side converter Control loops
The difference between the actual value of voltage of the DC
link (VDCactual) and the required reference value (VDC,ref)
activates a PI (proportional integral) controller to produce the
required d-axis current component control signal (Id*). This is
then compared with the actual SSC d-axis current and the
generated error activates another PI controller to generate the
d-axis reference voltage signal (Vd*) for the SSC. A similar
scenario is applied for generating the q-axis voltage reference
signal (Vq*) which is dedicated to regulate the stator terminal
voltage (Vstatoractual) by making the q-axis reference current as
zero (Iq,ref *). The corresponding block diagrams for the SSC
control loops are presented in Fig. 4.
1
V_ref

Rate Limiter

4
Refernce Power from
Optimum Power Tracker

PI

1
Vd*

PI

2
Vq*

Rate Limiter

2
V_B1

5
P_B1

Idr*

PI

3
Idr

Iqr*

PI
Limiter 1

Rate Limiter 1

6
Iqr

Fig .3. Control loops for rotor side converter

Fig. 2.Connection block diagram of the wind-diesel hybrid system

The three-phase rotor winding is connected to RSC by slip


rings and brushes. The power captured by the wind turbine is
converted into electrical power by the induction generator and
transmitted to the load by stator and the rotor windings. The
control system generates the pitch angle command and the

C. Pitch angle control loop


As the turbine rotational speed () exceeds the reference value
at which the output power of the turbine is 1 p.u., the pitch
angle actuator is activated to adjust the turbine mechanical
power to 1 p.u. The corresponding block diagram for the pitch
angle control loop is presented in Fig. 5. The maximum pitch
angle is set to be 45 while the pitch angle rate of change is
limited to 1%.

Rate Limiter 2

2
Vdc

3
Iq _ref

Idref

PI

PI

Vd *

4
Id

PI
Rate Limiter 3

wind
diesel

250

2
Active Powers in Kw

1
Vdc _ref

200

150

100

50

1
Vq*

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

25

30

35

40

Time (Sec)

(a)

Fig. 4. Control loops for grid side converter

280

Load Active Power in Kw

5
Iq

260

240

220

200

180

160

10

15

20

Time (Sec)

(b)
Fig. 5. Pitch angle control loop

60.2

60
59.9

Change in wind
speed

59.8

Change
in load

59.7
59.6
59.5
59.4

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (Sec)

(c)
1.25

1.2

Speed of DFIG in pu

A. Performance of wind-diesel system with resistive load.


(change in wind speed from 10 to 12m/s at t=12s and change
in load at 200 kW to 250 kW at t=32s)
In this model, Variable speed wind generator along with
diesel generator is used to supply stand alone loads. DFIG
improves the system stability and efficiency of isolated
system. In this simulated model 275kW of DFIG and 275kW
of diesel generator are considered. Pitch angle control
mechanism is used to regulate the output power beyond the
particular speed. Diesel unit balances the system power for
changing wind speeds. DFIG control mechanism is used to
control the voltage of the system. Simulation is performed for
40 sec. In realistic scenario the wind speed does not change
suddenly, but here for the simplicity it assumed that wind
speed is constant till 12 second and sudden increase of wind
speed from 10 to 12 m/s at 12 sec. When the wind speed
increases the power output from diesel generator decreases in
order to maintain the active power balance as shown in the Fig
6(a), Fig 6(b), Fig 6(c) and Fig 6(d) show the active power
generated by generators, System load, system frequency and
speed of DFIG in p.u. respectively. As the load increases at 32
sec keeping the wind speed constant, the extra load of 50kW is
met by diesel generator. DC voltage across capacitor
maintained constant at 800V by using stator side converter
loops of doubly fed induction generator. System voltage is
maintained constant at 1p.u. by operating the DFIG in constant
voltage regulation mode. Frequency is maintained constant by
using diesel governor which senses the change in speed and
acts according to it. Speed of DFIG increases from 1p.u. to 1.2
p.u. as wind speed changes from 10 m/s to 12 m/s.

System Frequncy in Hz

60.1

IV. SIMULATION ANALYSIS


The wind-diesel hybrid system with proposed control loops
for stator side converter and rotor side converter block diagram
are shown in Fig.1. The performance of the system has been
analyzed with transmission line for different load and different
weather conditions including the fault study.

1.15

1.1

1.05

0.95

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Time (Sec)

(d)
Fig. 6(a) Fig. 6(c) : Simulation results of the proposed system for variable
wind system equipped with diesel system: (a) Active powers generated wind
and diesel in kW. (b) Load active power in kW. (c)System frequency in Hz,
(d) Speed of DFIG in p.u.

B. Performance of wind-diesel system for reactive load with


transmission_ line (Change in wind speed from 12 to 14m/s at
t=5 sec, 14 to 10 m/s at 35 Sec, change in load at wind gen bus
from 140 to 180 kW at t=60sec and change in Reactive load at
wind bus from 40 to 60kVAr at t=60sec)
Simulation is performed for 85 sec to obtain the
performance of wind-diesel system for different wind speeds.
Wind speed is maintained constant at 12m/s till 5 sec, sudden
increase from 12 to 14m/s at 5 sec and sudden decrease from
14m/s to 10m/s at 35sec is taken place as shown in Fig.7(a).
Load at diesel generator bus is maintained constant at 140kW
throughout the simulation interval where as load at wind
generator bus maintained constant at 140kW till 60sec and
sudden increase of 40kW in its load took place at 60sec as
shown in the Fig .7(b). During 0<t<5 sec wind is able to
generate 197kW as shown in the Fig.7(c), the extra power of
57kW flows through transmission line to supply the load at
diesel generator bus. So, the diesel system generates 83kW as
shown in Fig.7 (c) to maintain active power balance. When the
wind speed increases to 14m/s, pitch control comes into action

4
to limit the turbine speed as shown in Fig.7(d). During
5<t<25,when the wind speed increases to 14 m/s, which is the
maximum speed the turbine can withstand, the speed of DFIG
is shown in Fig. 7(e). Diesel generator output decreases
further, so that the maximum power for load at diesel
generator is met by wind generator via transmission line.
Power flow in line for different wind speeds and loads is
shown in the Fig.7(f). System frequency is maintained constant
as shown in Fig.7 (g), by maintaining active power balance
between total generation and load. Fig. 7(h) - Fig.7(k) shows
the dc voltage across capacitor, reactive power generated by
wind generator, reactive power at diesel generator bus and
reactive load at wind gen bus respectively.

Power Flow in Line in Kw

100

20

30

50

60

70

80

System Frequency in Hz

60.4

60.2

60

59.8

59.4
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

50

60

70

80

50

60

70

50

60

70

Time (Sec)

13

(g)
DC Voltage across capacitor in Volts

12
11

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

(a)
185
180
175
170
165

825
820
815
810
805
800
795
790
785
780
775

10

20

30

40

Time (Sec)

160

(h)

155

Reactive load at diesel gen bus in Kvar

150
145
140
135

40

60.6

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (Sec)

(b)
300
wind
diesel

250

200

150

44
42
40
38
36
34
32
30

10

20

30

40

80

Time (Sec)

(i)

100

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Reactive Power flow fromDiesel in Kvar

50

80

Time (Sec)

(c)
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8

70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20

10

20

30

0.6

0.2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (Sec)

(d)
1.25

1.2

1.15

1.1

1.05

0.95

80

(j)

0.4

40

Time (Sec)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (Sec)

(e)
Fig.7 : Simulation results of the proposed system for Variable wind system
equipped with diesel system (For R load) : ( a) wind speed in m/s. (b) Load
active power in Kw at wind. (c) Active powers generated wind and diesel in
Kw. (d) Pitch angle in degrees, (e) Speed of DFIG in pu.

Load Reactive power at wind gen bus in Kvar

Wind speed in m/s

10

(f)

59.6

Time (Sec)

Load at Wind gen bus in Kw

Time (Sec)

14

Active Powers in Kw

-100

15

10

Pitch Angle in degrees

-50

-150

16

Speed of DFIG in pu

50

65

60

55

50

45

40

35

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Time (Sec)

(k)
Fig. 7 (f)- Fig. 7 (k): (f) Power flow in line in Kw. (g).System Frequency in Hz
(h) DC voltage at capacitor in volts (i)Load reactive power at diesel gen bus (j)
Reactive power supplied by diesel gen in kVAr (k)Reactive load at wind gen
bus in kVAr

700
600

600
500
400
300
200
100

10

15

20

25

30

Fault Current in Amps

2000

1500

1000

500

10

15

20

25

30

Time (Sec)

(f)
1.12
1.115
1.11
1.105
1.1
1.095
1.09

Fault
Occured

300

1.085

10

15

Fault
Cleared

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

600
500
400
300
200

30

1.02

1.01

0.99

0.98

0.97
0

100

10

15

20

25

30

20

25

30

Time (Sec)

(h)

0
-100

25

(g)

100

-100

20

Time (Sec)

200

700

Diesel Gen Active Power in Kw

700

400

(a)

10

15

20

25

30

250

Time (Sec)

Power Flow in Line in Kw

(b)
61.5

System Frequency in Hz

800

(e)

500

Time (Sec)

61
60.5
60
59.5

200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-150

59

-200
58.5
58

10

15

20

25

30

(c)
1400
1200

10

15

(i)
Fig. 8(e) Fig.8(i) :-Simulation results of the proposed system for wind-diesel
system with transmission line : (e) fault current from wind generator (f)total
fault current (g)Speed of DFIG (h)Speed of synchrouns machine (i)Power flow
in the line

Voltage at wind gen buses maintained constant by operating


DFIG in constant voltage regulation mode where as voltage at
diesel gen bus is maintained constant by using reactive power
generated by generators. From the obtained results, System is
able to ensure its performance even under short circuit faults.

1000
800
600
400
200
0

Time (Sec)
Time (Seec)

Fault Current from Diesel Gen in Amps

900

2500

Speed of DFIG in pu

800

1000

Time (Sec)

Speed of Synchronous Machine in pu

Active Power from Wind Turbine in Kw

C. Performance of wind-diesel system with line for short


circuit faults. (Short circuit fault at wind gen bus for winddiesel system with transmission line, Fault Occurred at 10 sec
and fault cleared at 10.2 sec)
Wind speed is kept constant at 11m/s throughout the
simulation interval. Load at diesel generator and wind gen
buses are kept constant at 140kW and 140kW respectively. As
the wind generates less than 200kW as shown in the Fig .8(a),
extra power is generated by diesel and supplies through
transmission line. Diesel speed regulator is used to control the
frequency. Short circuit fault is simulated for 10 cycles to
show the response of the system under fault conditions. Fig.
8(b), Fig.8(c), Fig.8(d), Fig.8(e) and Fig.8(f) shows the active
power generated by diesel, system frequency, Fault current
from diesel generator, fault current from wind generator and
total fault current respectively. Speeds of machines such as
DFIG and synchronous machine are shown in the Fig.8(g) and
Fig.8(h) respectively. Speed of DFIG remains at 1.1 p.u.
before and after the fault where as speed of synchronous
machine at 1 p.u.. Power flow in the line throughout the
simulation interval is shown in Fig.8(i).

Fault Current from Wind gen in Amps

10

15

20

25

30

Time (Sec)

(d)

Fig. 8(a) Fig.8(d) :-Simulation results of the proposed system for wind-diesel
system with transmission line : (a) Active Powers generated by wind generator
in Kw. (b)active power generated by diesel, (c) system frequency, (d)Fault
current from diesel generator.

V. CONCLUSION
The hybrid system consists of wind turbine generator (DFIG),
diesel generator (synchronous generator) and the consumer
load was simulated. Frequency and voltage are Quality of
power supplied to the autonomous system is improved by

6
controlling the frequency to the rated value. Power fluctuation
has reduced much by using variable speed wind turbine
generator compared to fixed speed wind turbine. The response
of the system equipped with DFIG during wind fluctuation and
load changes is more stable, and the ability for reactive power
output of DFIG is improved the reactive power control in
system operation observably when compared to the
conventional diesel-wind system. Analysis also shows that in
this kind of system, the diesel generator terminal voltage and
the upper limits for reactive power output of DFIG are
important operative parameters affecting the operation
performance. The has retained its stability even after fault.
In future, this technique can be practically implemented and
a thorough study can be made on its performance for different
wind speeds and loads. In the present work, voltage and
frequency control is done for isolated systems .It can be further
extended to grid mode of operation. Photovoltaic cell, Fuel cell
and Micro turbine can also be integrated with wind-diesel
system.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]

[3]

[4]
[5]

World Wind Energy Association, http://www.wwindea.org/.


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Goel P.K, Singh B, Murthy S.S and Kishore N, Parallel Operation of
DFIGs in Three Phase Four Wire Autonomous Wind Energy Conversion
System, Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, 2009. IAS
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R. Datta, V.T. Ranganathan, A simple position-sensorless algorithm for
rotor-side field-oriented control of wound-rotor induction machine, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron. 48 (4) (2001) 786793.
Lianwei J., Boon-Teck O., Geza J., Fengquan Z.: Doubly-fed induction
generator (DFIG) as a hybrid of asynchronous and synchronous
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[6] F. Mei and B. C. Pal, Modeling SND small signal analysis of a grid
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[7] S. K. Salman and A. L. J. Teo, Windmill modeling consideration and
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BIOGRAPHIES
S. S. Murthy (SM87---LSM03) was born in Karnataka,
India, in 1946. He received the B.E. degree from
Bangalore University, Bangalore, India, the M.Tech.
degree from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
Bombay, Bombay, India, and the Ph.D. degree from the
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, New Delhi,
India.
He has been with IIT Delhi since 1970 and was the
Chairman of the Department of Electrical Engineering from 1998 to 2001. He
has held visiting assignments at the University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon
Tyne, U.K.; University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; ERDA Baroda,
India; Kirloskar Electric, Bangalore; GE Global Research Center, Bangalore;
Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore; and Ryerson University,
Toronto, ON, Canada. He is the holder of four patents on the SEIG, Micro
Hydel Applications, and a novel braking scheme. He has also transferred
technology of self-excited and grid-connected induction generators to industry
for lowand medium-power generation under stand-alone or grid-connected
mode. He has completed several industry-sponsored research and consultancy
projects dealing with electrical machines, drives, and energy systems. He was
instrumental in establishing state-of-the-art energy audit and energy
conservation facilities at IIT under World Bank funding. His areas of interest
include electric machines, drives, special machines, power electronic
applications, renewable energy systems, energy efficiency, and conservation.
Dr. Murthy is a Fellow of the Indian Academy of Engineering and of the
IEE/IET, Life Fellow of the Institution of Engineers, India, and Life Member
of the ISTE. He has made significant contributions to professional societies,
including being General Chair of the 1st IEEE International Conference on
Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES96) held in January
1996 in New Delhi. He is the recipient of many awards, including the
ISTE/Maharashtra Government Award for outstanding research and
IETE/Bimal Bose Award for contributions to power electronics.
S Mishra (M97-SM04) received the B.E. degree from University College of
Engineering, Burla, Orissa, India, and the M.E. and Ph.D.
degrees from Regional Engineering College, Rourkela,
Orissa, India, in 1990, 1992, and 2000, respectively. In
1992, he joined the Department of Electrical
Engineering, University College of Engineering Burla as
a Lecturer, and subsequently became a Reader in 2001.
Presently, he is an Associate Professor with the
Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of
Technology Delhi, India. Dr. Mishra has been honored with many prestigious
awards such as the INSA Young Scientist Medal in 2002, the INAE Young
Engineers Award in 2002, and recognition as the DST Young Scientist in
2001 to 2002, etc. He is a Fellow of Indian National Academy of Engineering
and Institute of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering. His interests
are in soft computing applications to power system control and power quality
and renewable energy.
G. Mallesham received the B.E degree in Electrical and Electronics
Engineering from University College of Engineering (A), Osmania University,
Hyderabad, India in 2000. He received his Masters degree in Control
Engineering and Instrumentation from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi,
India in 2002. In 2002, he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering,
University College of Engineering,Osmania University as Assistant professor.
Presently he is a PhD research scholar in the Department of Electrical
Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.
P. C.Sekhar received his B.Tech from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological
University Hyderabad, India, M.Tech degree from National Institute of
Technology Rourkela, India. Currently, he is a Ph.D research scholar at Indian
Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India. His research interests are soft
computing applications to design and control of microgrid based power
systems.