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# LAB PRACTICAL MANUAL

## Analog Integrated Circuits

(EEC-559)

EXPERIMENT NO. 01

## To study Op-amp based adder and Integrator circuit

Experiment No.01

OBJECT:
To study Op-amp based adder and Integrator circuit.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Op-amp application trainer kit, CRO, probes, function generator and multi-meter etc.
THEORY:
An op-amp is a high gain, direct coupled linear amplifier choose response characteristics are
externally controlled by negative feedback from the output to input, op-amp has very high
input impedance, typically a few mega ohms and low output impedance, less than 100 ohm.
Op-amps can perform mathematical operations like summation, integration, differentiation,
logarithm, anti-logarithm etc and hence the name operational amplifier op-amps are also used
as video and audio amplifiers, oscillators and so on in the communication electronics, in
instrumentation and control, in medical electronics etc.
Op-amp as Adder
Adder is a very flexible circuit based upon the standard Inverting Operational Amplifier
configuration that can be used for combining multiple inputs. It can be shown theoretically in
the inverting amplifier has a single input voltage, (V in) applied to the inverting input terminal.
If we add more input resistors to the input, each equal in value to the original input resistor,
Rin we end up with another operational amplifier circuit called Adder or summing inverter.
The Circuit diagram of adder is shown in fig. (1).

Fig. (1)
The output voltage, (Vout) now becomes proportional to the sum of the input voltages, V1 and
V2. Then we can modify the original equation for the inverting amplifier to take account of
these new inputs thus:

## The Integrator Amplifier

As its name implies, the Integrator Amplifier is an operational amplifier circuit that performs
the mathematical operation of Integration that is we can cause the output to respond to
changes in the input voltage over time. The integrator amplifier acts like a storage element
that "produces a voltage output which is proportional to the integral of its input voltage with
respect to time". In other words the magnitude of the output signal is determined by the
length of time a voltage is present at its input as the current through the feedback loop
charges or discharges the capacitor as the required negative feedback occurs through the
capacitor. The Circuit diagram of Integrator is shown in fig. (2).

Fig. (2)
The output equation of intregator is given as-

When a voltage, Vin is firstly applied to the input of an integrating amplifier, the uncharged
capacitor C has very little resistance and acts a bit like a short circuit (voltage follower
circuit) giving an overall gain of less than one. No current flows into the amplifiers input and
point X is a virtual earth resulting in zero output. As the feedback capacitor C begins to
charge up, its reactance Xc decreases this results in the ratio of X c/Rin increasing producing an
output voltage that continues to increase until the capacitor is fully charged.
At this point the capacitor acts as an open circuit, blocking anymore flow of DC current. The
ratio of feedback capacitor to input resistor (Xc/Rin) is now infinite resulting in infinite gain.
The result of this high gain (similar to the op-amps open-loop gain), is that the output of the
amplifier goes into saturation. The input & output voltage waveforms shown in fig. (3).

Fig. (3)
PROCEDURE:
For Adder circuit
1. Apply two different signals (Sine/Square/ Triangular waveform) to the inputs 1 & 2.
2. Give the Input amplitude of 2Volt peak to peak & frequency of 1 KHz.
3. Verify the output at pin 6 of the 741 Adder Circuits, by varying the input voltages.
4. Notice that the output is always equal to the sum of the two inputs.
For Integrator circuit
1. Apply square waveform from a signal generator to the input terminals of the
integrator circuit.
2. Give the input amplitude of 5Volt peak to peak & frequency of 5KHz.
3. Verify the output at pin 6 of the 741 integrator circuit by varying the input
frequencies.
4. Notice that the output in Triangular wave (Integral fraction of input signal)
RESULT: Study and analyze the Adder & Integrator circuit experimentally and verify the
results from theoretical one.
PRECAUTIONS:
1. Make the connection according to circuit given in manual.
2. Check all the connections that they are according to the circuit.
3. Then switch on the power supply.
4. Perform practical carefully and note down the readings.
5. Switch off the power supply after the completion of experiment.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Why it is named as Operational Amplifier?

List some IC numbers that are commonly used?
What you understand by virtual ground condition?
What you mean by slew rate and offset voltage?

INDISTRIAL APPLICATION:

## 1.Integrators can be one type of Low Pass Filter.

2.They are used by some ADC or in wave shaping.

3.Adders are used by some temperature, pressure or some other parameter measuring
device and getting their average
4.A differentiator circuit produces a constant output voltage for a steadily changing input
voltage.