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OP-AMP Adder and Intregrator

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(EEC-559)

EXPERIMENT NO. 01

Experiment No.01

OBJECT:

To study Op-amp based adder and Integrator circuit.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Op-amp application trainer kit, CRO, probes, function generator and multi-meter etc.

THEORY:

An op-amp is a high gain, direct coupled linear amplifier choose response characteristics are

externally controlled by negative feedback from the output to input, op-amp has very high

input impedance, typically a few mega ohms and low output impedance, less than 100 ohm.

Op-amps can perform mathematical operations like summation, integration, differentiation,

logarithm, anti-logarithm etc and hence the name operational amplifier op-amps are also used

as video and audio amplifiers, oscillators and so on in the communication electronics, in

instrumentation and control, in medical electronics etc.

Op-amp as Adder

Adder is a very flexible circuit based upon the standard Inverting Operational Amplifier

configuration that can be used for combining multiple inputs. It can be shown theoretically in

the inverting amplifier has a single input voltage, (V in) applied to the inverting input terminal.

If we add more input resistors to the input, each equal in value to the original input resistor,

Rin we end up with another operational amplifier circuit called Adder or summing inverter.

The Circuit diagram of adder is shown in fig. (1).

Fig. (1)

The output voltage, (Vout) now becomes proportional to the sum of the input voltages, V1 and

V2. Then we can modify the original equation for the inverting amplifier to take account of

these new inputs thus:

As its name implies, the Integrator Amplifier is an operational amplifier circuit that performs

the mathematical operation of Integration that is we can cause the output to respond to

changes in the input voltage over time. The integrator amplifier acts like a storage element

that "produces a voltage output which is proportional to the integral of its input voltage with

respect to time". In other words the magnitude of the output signal is determined by the

length of time a voltage is present at its input as the current through the feedback loop

charges or discharges the capacitor as the required negative feedback occurs through the

capacitor. The Circuit diagram of Integrator is shown in fig. (2).

Fig. (2)

The output equation of intregator is given as-

When a voltage, Vin is firstly applied to the input of an integrating amplifier, the uncharged

capacitor C has very little resistance and acts a bit like a short circuit (voltage follower

circuit) giving an overall gain of less than one. No current flows into the amplifiers input and

point X is a virtual earth resulting in zero output. As the feedback capacitor C begins to

charge up, its reactance Xc decreases this results in the ratio of X c/Rin increasing producing an

output voltage that continues to increase until the capacitor is fully charged.

At this point the capacitor acts as an open circuit, blocking anymore flow of DC current. The

ratio of feedback capacitor to input resistor (Xc/Rin) is now infinite resulting in infinite gain.

The result of this high gain (similar to the op-amps open-loop gain), is that the output of the

amplifier goes into saturation. The input & output voltage waveforms shown in fig. (3).

Fig. (3)

PROCEDURE:

For Adder circuit

1. Apply two different signals (Sine/Square/ Triangular waveform) to the inputs 1 & 2.

2. Give the Input amplitude of 2Volt peak to peak & frequency of 1 KHz.

3. Verify the output at pin 6 of the 741 Adder Circuits, by varying the input voltages.

4. Notice that the output is always equal to the sum of the two inputs.

For Integrator circuit

1. Apply square waveform from a signal generator to the input terminals of the

integrator circuit.

2. Give the input amplitude of 5Volt peak to peak & frequency of 5KHz.

3. Verify the output at pin 6 of the 741 integrator circuit by varying the input

frequencies.

4. Notice that the output in Triangular wave (Integral fraction of input signal)

RESULT: Study and analyze the Adder & Integrator circuit experimentally and verify the

results from theoretical one.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Make the connection according to circuit given in manual.

2. Check all the connections that they are according to the circuit.

3. Then switch on the power supply.

4. Perform practical carefully and note down the readings.

5. Switch off the power supply after the completion of experiment.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1.

2.

3.

4.

List some IC numbers that are commonly used?

What you understand by virtual ground condition?

What you mean by slew rate and offset voltage?

INDISTRIAL APPLICATION:

2.They are used by some ADC or in wave shaping.

3.Adders are used by some temperature, pressure or some other parameter measuring

device and getting their average

4.A differentiator circuit produces a constant output voltage for a steadily changing input

voltage.

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