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Exercise Chapter 3

1. For the function

y=f (x)

below, find all relative maximum points and

minimum points by applying the first derivative test. Then, determine


the intervals where f ( x) is increasing and decreasing.
2

i)

f ( x )=x 2 x24

ii)

f ( x )=x 33 x

2. Find (a) the intervals of increase or decrease, (b) the local maximum
and minimum values, (c) the intervals of concavity, and (d) the
inflection points. (e) sketch the graph.
f ( x )=2 x 33 x2 12 x
i)
ii)

f ( x )=x 4 6 x 2

iii)

f ( x )=3 x 55 x 3+ 3

3. Sketch a graph of a rational function and label the coordinates of the


stationary points and inflection points. Show the horizontal and vertical
asymptotes and label them with their equations. Label points, if any,
where the graph crosses horizontal asymptotes.
y=

x
x1

y=

x
x +9

iii)

y=

x2
x+ 8

iv)

y=x 2 +4

v)

y=

i)
ii)

2 x 3 + x 2+ 1
2
x +1

1.

2i

2ii

3ii

3iii

2iii

3i

3iv

3v

Find the critical numbers and the relative extrema for the functions, if
any:

y x 3 3x 3
(a)

{ans: x=-1, 1, rel max (-1,5), rel min (1,1) }

y 2 x 3x

2
3

(b)

{ans: none}
y x 8 x2

(c)

(ans: x=-2,2, rel max at (2,4), rel min at (-2,-4)}


y

(d)

x2 3
x2

{ans: x=1, 2, 3, rel max (1,2), rel min (3,6) }

y x2 1
(e)

{ans: x=0, rel max (0,1)


1
3

(f)

2.

y x x 3 3

{ans: x=0, -3, no rel extrema}

For each of the given function;

i) find the x and y intercepts (if any).


ii) all the asymptotes (if any)
iii) the interval of increase and decrease
iv) local maximum / local minimum
v) interval of concavity
vi) inflection point (if any)
vii) sketch the function completely.
(b)

(a)

f x 2 x 3 6 x 2 3

f ( x) 9 x 3 4 x 4

f(x)=-2x^3+6x^2-3

9
8
7
6
5

f(x)=9x^3-4x^4

4
9

x
5

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1

-2

-3

2
1

-4

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-5

-1

-6

-2

-7

-3

-8

-4

-9

-5
-6
-7
-8
-9

f x
(c)

1 2x

x3 1
x2 9

f x

1 x 2

(d)
y

f(x)=(1+2x )/(1-x)^2

y
8

f(x)=((x^3)-1)/((x^2)-9)

7
6

4
4

3
3

2
2

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

1
-1
-2
-3

-9 2

-8 3

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

8 -2

9 -1

-2
-3

-4

-4
-5

-5
-6

-6

-7

-7

-8

-8

-9

-9

x
1

-1

y x 3 ax 2 bx c
A curve has the equation

3.

. The curve cuts the y-axis

y 13
at

x 1

and has stationary points at

x
and

7
3

(a)

Find the values of a, b and c.

{ans: a=5, b=7, c=-13}

(b)

Find the inflection points

{ans: x=-5/3}

(c)

Sketch the graph of y.

f(x)=x^3 + 5 x^2 +7x -13

25

20

15

10

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-5

-10

-15

-20

-25

Question
1. Find the critical points for the curve
a.

y=x 3 +7 x 25 x+2

b.

f ( x )= x 29

c.

x 2+2 y 22 x+ 8 y9=0

d.

3
y= x 3 6 x 3
5

e.

y=( x 216 ) 3

2. Given

y=3 x 4 4 x 3 . Find if exist, the maximum and minimum points using

the first derivative test.


3. A curve is given by the function

f ( x )=3 x3 .

a. Find the first and second derivative of

f.

b. Find the coordinates ot the critical point(s).


c. Determine the nature of the points whether they are maximum,
minimum or point of inflection.
4

f ( x )=x 8 x , find

4. For the function

a. the stationary points.


b. the intervals where

is increasing or decreasing.

c. the relative maximum and minimum points.


d. the intervals where

is concave upwards and

downwards.
e. The points of inflection.
Hence sketch the graph of
5. Sketch the graph of
a.
b.

c.

d.

ANSWERS

y=4 x 2+
y=

x 2 +1
2
x 9

y=

2x
9x2

2 x2
y= 2
x +4

1
x

f (x) .

is concave

( 13 , 3127 ) , (5,77 )

( 3,0 ) , (3,0 )

( 1,5 ) , ( 1,1 ) , ( 13 2 ,2 ) , ( 1+ 3 2 ,2 )

( 0,0 ) ; maximum , ( 4,9.071 ) minimum

(4,0 ) ; minimum , ( 4,0 ) ; minimum , ( 0, 6.352 ) ; maximum

2
3

'

f ( x )=

1
3 ( x3 )

'

2
3

, f ' ( x )=

2
5

9 ( x3 )3

b (3,0)
c No extremum point. Inflection point: (1,0)
a
( 0,0 ) , ( 2,16 ) , (2,16 )
b
c

Increasing: (2,0 ) (2,+)

Concave up:
e

a
b

; Decreasing: (,2 ) (0,2)

Relative maximum:(0,0) , Relative minimum:(2,-16) and

x=0 . (1,-1) is a minimum point.

No relative extremum at

( 23 , 896
81 )

( , 23 ) ( 23 ,+ )

, Concave down:

(2,16 )

( 23 , 23 )

1) Find the intervals where the function is increasing and decreasing.


1
f x x 3 3x 2 9 x 20
3
i)
[Ans: increasing on

,3 3,
]

f x 1

ii)

1
x2

, 1 1,
[Ans: increasing

, decreasing

1, 0 0,1
]
f x x 4 x 3 10

3,

iii)

[Ans: increasing

, decreasing

, 0 0,3
]
2) Find the critical points for the following functions.

h t

i)

t 1

t
t 1

[Ans:

and

]
x 5, x 0, x

f x 6 x 5 33x 4 30 x 3 100
ii)

[Ans:

t 1

t 0

3
5

and

g t 3 t 2 2t 1
iii)

[Ans:
t 0, t

1
5

3) Determine where the function is concave upward and concave downward.


2
5
f x x 1 3
1,
3
i)
[Ans: concave up
, concave

,1
down
g x x

ii)

]
1
x2

, 0 0,
]
4) Sketch the graph of

[Ans:

concave

up

g x 4 3x 2 x3
i)
Ans:
y

f(x) =4-3 x-2 (x ^3)

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

1
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9

g x

ii)

1
x x
2

Ans:
y

f(x) =((1/2) *x) -(x^(1/2))

9
8
7

6
5

4
3
2

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1

-2
-3

-4

-5
-6

-7

-8
-9

h x

iii)

3 4
x 2 x3 6x 2 8
2

Ans:
y

f(x )=(3/2 )( x^4)- 2( x^3) -6( x^2) +8

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

1
-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-7

-8

-9

f x

iv)
Ans:

3x
x x6
2

f( x) =( 3x )/( (x^2)-x -6 )

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

1
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9

g t 2

t 2

v)
Ans:
y

f (x)=2+(5/( x-2) ^2)

9
8
7
6
5

3
2
1

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1
-2
-3
-4

-5
-6
-7

-8
-9

g x

x3 x
x x 1

vi)

Ans:
y

f( x)=((x^3 )-x )/(x* (x+1))

9
8

7
6
5

3
2
1

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1

-2
-3
-4

-5
-6
-7

-8
-9

f x x 3 3 x 2 24 x 32
5) Determine the relative extrema of the function
.
f 2 60
[Ans: relative maximum:
, relative minimum:

f 4 48
]

6) Sketch the graph of a function having the following properties:


f 1 4
f 0 2
f 1 0

f 1 0

f x 0 on , 1 1,
f x 0 on 1,1

f x 0 on , 0
f x 0 on 0,
Ans:
(-

(0,2

x
(1,0

Question
1.
Identify critical points and find the maximum and minimum value on the
given interval I.
2

a)

f(x) =

b)

r() = 2

cos ; I =

+ 2x; I =

[ ]
3 1
,
2 2


,
4 3

g(t) =

c)

2.

[t ]
2
3

; I = [-1, 8]

Sketch the graph

f x x 2 x 1 x 1
2

a)

f x 2 x 3 3 x 2 12 x 50
b)
3.

For each of the given function;


i) find the x and y intercepts (if any).
ii) all the asymptotes (if any)
iii) the interval of increase and decrease
iv) local maximum / local minimum
v) interval of concavity
vi) inflection point (if any)
vii) sketch the function completely.

f ( x)

1 x
1 x

(a)
4

f x 4 x 3x 3
(b)

f x
(c)

answers: 1a)

1 2x

1 x 2

Critical points: -

3
2 , - 1,

1
2

; maximum value

5
4

; minimum value - 1

,
0,
4
3 ; maximum value 2; minimum value 1

1b)

Critical points: -

1c)

Critical points: -1, 0, 8; maximum value 4; minimum value 0

Answer 2a
y
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8
-0.9

Answer 2b
y
100
90
80
70
60
50
40

30
20
10

x
-70

-65

-60

-55

-50

-45

-40

-35

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

5
-10
-20
-30

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

y
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9

Answer 3a

y
12

10

x
-13

-12

-11

-10

-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

10

11

12

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10

-12

Answer 3b

Answer 3c

y
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

x
-9

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

1
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9

13

Question

1) Find the critical numbers and the relative extrema for the functions, if any:
a)

y=4 x 3+ 2 x 2

b)

y=x 33 x +3

c)

y=( x3 )5

d)

y=|x 21|

e)

y=x 8x 2

f)

y=

x 23
x2

2) The graph of f ' on (1, 6) is shown below. Find the intervals on which f is
increasing or decreasing.

3) The graph of f ', the derivative of a function f, is shown below. Find the relative
extrema of f.

4) The graph of f is shown below and f is twice differentiable. Which of the following
statements is true:

A. f(5) < f '(5) < f ''(5)


B. f ''(5) < f '(5) < f (5)
C. f '(5) < f (5) < f ''(5)
D. f '(5) < f ''(5) < f (5)
E. f ''(5) < f (5) < f '(5)
5)
INTERVAL

SIGN OF

f '(x)

SIGN OF

x< 1

1< x< 2

2< x< 3

f ' ' (x)

3< x <4

4<x

A sign chart is presented for the first and second derivative of a function
f . Assuming that f is continuous everywhere . Find
a) the interval on which

f is increasing and decreasing

b) the interval on which f is concave up and down.


c) The x -coordinates of all inflection points
6)

Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of


interval, and state where the values occur.
a)

f ( x )=4 x 212 x +10 ; [ 1,2 ]

b)

f ( x )=(x2)3 ; [ 1,4 ]

c f ( x) =

d)

e)

3x
; [1,1 ]
4 x 2+1

f ( x )=x2 sinx ;


,
4 2

f ( x )=1|9 x2|; [ 1,2 ]

7) For each of the given function;


i) find the x and y intercepts (if any).
ii) all the asymptotes (if any)
iii) the interval of increase and decrease
iv) local maximum / local minimum
v) interval of concavity

on the closed

vi) inflection point (if any)


vii) sketch the function completely.

a f ( x )=x 4 3 x3 +3 x 2+ 1

b f ( x )=

3 x2 8
2
x 4

c f ( x)=

2 xx
2
x + x2
3

( x2)
d f ( x )=
x2
2

e f ( x )= x 3

( 52 x)

f f ( x )=x 4x 2
g f ( x )=x 2

8)

at

1
x

A curve has the equation

y=x 3 +a x 2+bx+ c . The curve cuts the y-axis

y=13 and has stationary points at


(a)

Find the values of a, b and c.

(b)

Find the inflection points

(c)

Sketch the graph of

x=1 and

x=

7
3 .

9)

Let

f ( x )=x 2 + px +q .

Find the values of


f

is an extreme value of

on

and

such that

f ( 1 )=3

[ 0,2 ] . Is this value a maximum or

minimum?
10)

Find the values of of


3

a,b,c

and

so that the function

f ( x )=a x +b x + cx +d

has relative minimum at

( 0,0 )

and relative maximum at

Answer

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

0,

1
3

rel max (-1,5) and min (1,1)


3
rel. max (0,1)
rel max (2,4) and min (-2,-4)
rel. max (1,2) and min (3,6)

2. decreasing

[ 1,2 ] [ 5,6 ] , increasing [ 2,5 ]

3. rel. max x=-2, rel.min x=3


4.C
5. increasing [ 1.3 ] , decreasing

( , 2 ]

Concave up ( , 2 (4,+ ) , concave down (2,4)


6.
a) max =2 at x=1,2, min =1 at x=3/2
b) max =8 at x=4, min=-1 at x =1
c) max = 3/ 5 at x=1, min 3 / 5 at x=-1
d) max =

7.a)

at

x=

4 , min

3+ at x =
3
3

( 1,1 ) .

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

8.
a) a=5 , b = 7, c = -13
b) x=-5/3
9.

p = -2, q= 4 , x = 1 is minimum value.

10. a = -2 , b = 3 , c= 0, d = 0

Question

f ( x)
1.
2.

x2
x2 4

f x

1
1

2( x 2) 2( x 2)

3.

f ( x)

4.

f ( x) 4 x 3 9 x 4

5.

f ( x) x 4 6 x 2 5

3 x 1
x 1 2

Task; For each of the given


function;
i) find the x and y intercepts (if
any).
ii) all the asymptotes (if any)
iii) the interval of inc. and dec.
iv) local maximum / local
minimum
v) interval of concavity
vi) inflection point (if any)
vii) sketch the function
completely.

Answer

1.

3.

f ( x)

1
1

2( x 2) 2( x 2)

2.

f ( x) x 4 6 x 2 5
5.

3 x 1
f ( x)
x 1 2

x2
f ( x) 2
x 4

4.

f ( x) 4 x 3 9 x 4

1. Find the critical points for the following functions.


(a)

f ( x )=x 4 8 x2 +3

(b)

f ( x )=x 2 +4

(c)

f ( x )= x 264

Ans: (a) (0, 3), (2, -13) and (-2, -13)


(b) (0, 4)
(c) (-8, 0), (8, 0)

f ( x)
2.

Find the interval where

2 3 13 x 2
x
6x 1
3
2

is increasing or decreasing.

Ans:

( , 12 ) , ( 6, ) increasing , ( 12 , 6) decreasing
y 6(5 x)

3. It is given that
(a) Find

1
3

(i)

dy
dx

d2y
dx 2

(ii)

(b) Find t he coordinates of the critical point, and determine the nature of the
point.

(a) (i)

Ans:

(5x)

2
3

(ii)

3 (5x )

5
3

(b) (5,0) is a point of inflection.

4. Sketch the graph for


(a)

f ( x )=x 3 +3 x2 4

(b)

4
(c) f ( x )=2 x 8 x

5. Sketch the curve

6. Sketch the curve

7. Sketch the curve

8. Given

(d)

y=

y=

ii.
any.

f ( x )=2 x 48 x 2 +6

9 x6
x +7 .

y=1

2
x

4x
2
1+ x+ x

f ( x )=3 x 16 x +18 x

f ' ( x )=12 x 348 x 2+36 x


i.

f ( x )=x 3x 2

and

, with domain

( ,+ )

f ' ' ( x )=36 x 296 x+36 .

Using Second Derivative Test, find the relative maximum and/or relative
minimum, if any.
Determine the intervals where the function are increasing and decreasing, if

9. Given

f ( x )=x 4 4 x 3 +10 , with domain

'
3
2
f ( x )=4 x 12 x

and

( , 0 ) ( 0,+ ) .

''
2
f ( x )=12 x 24 x .

i.

Find the intervals where the function is concaving upwards and downwards.

ii.

Find the inflection point(s).

10. Given the following information on the function

f (x) , hence sketch the graph

of the function.

( , 2 ) ( 2,+ ) .

i)

Domain is

ii)

Interval where functions is increasing are

iii)

Interval where functions is decreasing are

iv)

Interval where functions is concave upwards are

v)

Interval where functions is concave downwards are

vi)

f (5 )=2

f ( 4 )=4

and

x vii)
2 f ( x )=1 , lim f ( x )=8 , lim f ( x ) =0
+

x +

x 2 f ( x )=3 , lim
Answer

4a

lim

f ( 5 ) =6

( 2,5 )
(, 2 ) (5,+)

(5,2 ) ( 4,+ )
( ,5 ) (2,4 )

4b

4c

4d

Horizontal asymptote at y = 9, Vertical asymptote at x

= -7
6

Minumum point =(-1, -4), Maximum point = (1, 4/3)


Max pt: (1,5). Min pt : (0, 0), (3, -27)
Increase:
Decrease:

(, 0 ] [1,3]

[ 0,1 ]

Concave up:

(, 0 ) ( 2, )

Concave down: (0,2)


Inflection point at (0,10) and (2,-6)