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Submitted to:
Shivani Chauhan
Roll no. - 127
B.A. LL.B (1st Semester)

Submitted by:



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(9) HURDLES...8


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The project is on Education Scenario in India. Education is very important for any country to
develop. An educated and literate population can improve the economy of any country whereas
an uneducated and illiterate one can bring the negative impact. This project contains education
system in 20th century and its development in India. It also contains the schemes and efforts
made by the government to improve it. Also the hurdles in this sector and failures of the
government schemes are also highlighted.

Education is one of the most important factors that lead to development in any country. Every
country lays special emphasis on improving their education sector and so does India. In India,
the government has been introducing many schemes to empower the sector and to educate even
the most underprivileged one. But still there are many hurdles which hamper the result and are
needed to be eliminated or atleast minimized.

(1) What was education scenario in 20th century? How education developed and what is the
scenario in 21st century?
(2) What is primary and secondary education and what development took place in these?
(3) What are the efforts by government to improve this sector?
(4) What are the hurdles and failures in this effort of development?


The project would contain a comparison between the education scenario in 20 th century

and that in 21st century and development of education.

How it developed by the steps taken by the government and the problems the

government faced during the process and failures in the results.

Researchers analysis of the topic and certain suggestions and ideas to improve the same.

The present research study is mainly doctrinal. Keeping this view in mind the researcher utilized
the conventional method of using of library consisting of primary sources like books, journals, e-

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journals, reports and it also deals with secondary sources like surveys and data collections. As
the study is comparative, academic in nature, historical and doctrinal methods are adopted
because it is not possible to study purely by experimental method.

The government of India makes its full effort to improve education scenario of India but it is not
so successful in doing so because of many reasons like unaware society, lack of foresight,
corruption etc. though there is improvement in this sector but at a very slow rate. This problem
can be sorted out if we, the citizens welcome the schemes launched by the government and use
the schemes in an honest way and realize the importance of education.

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This project explores the provision of schooling in colonial India when British administrators
dictated education policy. Although public and private funds were used to expand and improve
the public education system, there were fewer than 3 primary schools for every 10 villages as
late as 1911. Districts with higher levels of caste and religious diversity had fewer privately
managed primary schools and fewer total primary schools. Heterogeneous preferences across
groups, unequal political power in more diverse districts and low demand for education by
lower castes are all potential explanations for this pattern. Broadly, the results highlight the
challenges involved in the provision of primary education in the presence of numerous and
perhaps unequal groups.
In the 19th century, the East India Company and later the British Crown introduced a new state
system of education in British India. Beginning in 1858 the Crown controlled education policy
until 1919 when education was transferred to the control of Indian ministers at the provincelevel. Over this period, numerous acts were passed, various recommendations were made and
both public and private funds were used to expand and improve the public education system.
However, the new system was unable to achieve mass literacy.
Although British India was among the largest colonies of the British Empire, public investments
on human capital were among the lowest in the world and lagged behind other colonies of the
British Empire and even the Indian Princely States that were not under direct colonial authority.
Moreover, less than 40% of public education expenditures were targeted to primary education.
Due to the low level of public funding, private revenues became critical for the development of
schooling and local district characteristics such as population shares of different social groups,
the level of diversity and income strongly influenced private provision. Districts with higher
levels of caste and religious diversity had fewer total primary schools and fewer privately
managed primary schools controlling for other economic and social factors. Public provisions of
local services by rural district boards were heavily dominated by upper caste board members
and finds that elites had stronger preferences for public investments on local infrastructure
relative to primary schooling. Although these interpretations emphasize supply-side constraints,
low demand for education by lower castes can also account for fewer primary schools in more
diverse areas given the strong reliance on private funding.

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The education policy of Government of India in the post-independent era has been to provide
free and compulsory education to all the children at least upto the elementary stage.
Recognizing the need for a literate population and provision of Elementary Education as a
crucial input for nation building, the Governments stand was reiterated in the National Policy
on Education (NPE 1986) and the Programme of Action 1992, to work towards provision of
education of a satisfactory quality to all children upto 14 years of age before the commencement
of the 21st century.
In accordance with the priority accorded to vocationalisation of education in the National Policy
on Education, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education was
introduced in February 1988. The main objective of the scheme are to enhance individual
employability, reduce the mismatch between demand and supply of skilled manpower and
provide an alternative for those pursuing higher education without particular interest or purpose.
A Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Pre-Vocational Education at Lower Secondary Stage has also
been introduced from the year 19932-94 primarily to impart training in simple marketable skills
to the students of classes IX and X, to develop vocational interests and to facilitate students in
making a choice of vocational courses at the higher secondary level.
In order to provide expert inputs in policy formulation and implementation on a continuing
basis, a Joint Council of Vocational Education (JCVE) has been set up at the national level
under the Chairmanship of Minister of Human Resource Development, with counterpart
organizations at the State level. To ensure that the tasks laid down by JCVE are performed
effectively, a Standing Committee of JCVE has been constituted under the Chairmanship of
Education Secretary.
Pt. Sunderlal Sharma Central Institute of Vocational Education (PSSCIVE) was set up at Bhopal
on July 1, 1993 under the overall umbrella of NCERT. The Institute acts as an apex level
research and development organization in the field of vocational education and provides
technical and academic support to the programme. The CIVE has now been entrusted with the
task of standardizing the curricula/textbooks/instructional material for vocational courses. The
CIVE is also inter alia engaged in conducting programmes for training of teachers and
orientation of key functionaries.

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The courses are selected by the State Government on the basis of assessment of manpower
requirement through district vocational surveys. About 150 vocational courses have been
introduced at the +2 level at the six major areas, viz., Agriculture, Business and Commerce,
Engineering and Technology, Health and Para-Medical Services, Home Science Services and
others. It has been recommended that 70% of the total instructional time be devoted to
vocational theory and practice, and the remaining to the study of general foundation courses and
language course. On-the-job training forms an integral part of the curricula.
The Scheme at the +2 level ensivages setting up of administrative structure at the Centre, State,
District and School levels. The Bureau of Vocational Education is operating at the Central level
to oversee the implementation of the programme. In the major states/UTs separate structures at
the State level have been created. The scheme lays considerable emphasis on practical training
of students both during the course of study as well as after completion of the course.
A computerised Management Information System (MIS) has been developed for vocational
education to obtain necessary information on differenet aspects of programme implementation.
The national Informatics Centre (NIC) in collaboration with Department of Education and
NCERT has prepared two guidelines-one for fillingbup the format and the other for feeding the
data through Computer Software prepared for the purpose.

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Indias education system turns out millions of graduates each year, many skilled in IT and
engineering. This manpower advantage underpins Indias recent economic advances, but masks
deep-seated problems within Indias education system. While Indias demographics are
generally perceived to give it an edge over other countries economies, if this advantage is
restricted to a small, highly educated elite, the domestic political ramifications could be severe.
Despite efforts to incorporate all sections of the population into the Indian education system,
through mechanisms such as positive discrimination and non-formal education, large numbers
of young people are still without schooling. Although enrolment in primary education has
increased, it is estimated that at least 35 million, and possibly as many as 60 million, children
aged 614 years are not in school. Severe gender, regional, and caste disparities also exist. The
main problems are the high drop-out rate, especially after Class 10, low levels of learning and
achievement, inadequate school infrastructure, poorly functioning schools, high teacher
absenteeism, the large number of teacher vacancies, poor quality of education and inadequate
funds. Other groups of children at risk, such as orphans, child-labourers, street children and
victims of riots and natural disasters, do not necessarily have access to schools.
Furthermore, there is no common school system; instead children are channeled into private,
government-aided and government schools on the basis of ability to pay and social class. At
the top end are English-language schools affiliated to the upscale CBSE (Central Board of
Secondary Education), CISCE (Council for the Indian Schools Certificates Examination) and
IB (International Baccalaureate) examination boards, offering globally recognized syllabuses
and curricula. Those who cannot afford private schooling attend English-language
government-aided schools, affiliated to state-level examination boards. And on the bottom
rung is poorly managed government or municipal schools, which cater for the children of the
poor majority. Therefore, while education for all is safeguarded by the Constitution, and a
majority of people can now access educational resources, the quality of the education that
young people in Indian receive varies widely according to their means and background, which
is a worrying and problematic trend.
The thrust on elementary education over the last two decades and the growing aspirations of
poor communities resulting from their participation in a political democracy have already led to
a situation where most children at age six are enrolling in schools/learning centers and
residential bridge courses. However, the poor quality of these schools and their rudimentary

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physical and human infrastructure often lead to children dropping out of the school system
without learning or continuing in it with limited learning. An emphasis on food, livelihood and
health guarantees is therefore simultaneously required to level out the initial disadvantages of
the poor in the educational sphere stemming from malnourishment, poverty, and health-related
Indias aim of providing basic education for all stems from the empowering and redistributive
impact of education. Until recently, literacy, and the related issue of access to schooling, has
taken precedence over curricular content. J. Dreze and A. Sen argue:
Literacy is an essential tool for self-defence in a society where social interactions include the
written media. An illiterate person is significantly less equipped to defend herself in court, to
obtain a bank loan, to enforce inheritance rights, to take advantage of new technology, to
compete for secure employment, to get onto the right bus, to take part in political activity in
short, to participate successfully in the modern economy and society.
Dreze and Sen argue that the 1991 census indicated that about half of the adult population was
unable to read or write. Unsurprisingly, literacy rates vary widely between states, and between
genders. The northern Hindi-belt states, whose economic performance has been worse than that
of western and southern states, have lower literacy rates. Female literacy varies from around 34
per cent in Bihar to 88 per cent in Kerala; male literacy varies between 60 per cent in Bihar and
94 per cent in Kerala. Rajasthan suffers the widest gender difference: female literacy stands at
44 per cent; male at 77 per cent. One of the main aims of education policy in the 1990s was to
accelerate the progress of literacy and school attendance and to create an equitable system for
girls, as had been planned by the Kothari Commission in 1964.
In recent years, however, attention has shifted away from the provision of basic literacy
skills and towards debates surrounding the content of school curricula. These debates have
been particularly concerned with the traditionally secular emphasis within education, which
has become vulnerable since the successes of avowedly Hindu political parties.
Under the Constitution, responsibility for education is shared between central and state
governments. The central government sets policy, stimulates innovation and plans frameworks.
The state governments are responsible for running the education system on the ground. This
has exacerbated problems since states have differing resources to allocate to education. It is the
inadequacy of resources that has recently become the most pressing and central issue.
Allocation is another issue. When resources are scarce, what are the states priorities?

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Negotiating the need to share the burden of funding higher education between the public and
private sectors has been a continual problem for the Indian government. For example, the 1986
reforms reinforced the independent status of higher education institutions, but led to a gradual
decline in government expenditure in this area. The government faced a serious resource crunch
and decided to reduce the subsidization of higher education by around 50 per cent. Two
committees were set up to mobilize additional resources for universities and technical education
institutions. Universities were encouraged to raise fees and to turn to the private sector for
additional funding. Consequently, the balance between the public and private sectors becomes
almost synonymous with a balance between excellence and access. While it is important for
India to produce top-quality graduates, it is equally important that the opportunity to gain a
degree is not restricted to privileged communities.

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The following Centrally sponsored programmes are being implemented in the Education Sector
under Ministry of Human Resource Development:
(1) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: Launched in 2001 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is one of Indias
major flagship programmes for universalisation of elementary education. Its overall goals
include universal access and retention, bridging of gender and social category gaps in
elementary education, and achieving significant enhancement in learning levels of children.
(2) Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya: KGBVs are residential upper primary schools for
girls from SC, ST, OBC and Muslim communities. KGBVs are set up in areas of scattered
habitations where schools are at great distances and are a challenge to the security of girls. This
often compels girls to discontinue their education. KGBV addresses this through setting up
residential schools, in the block itself.
(3) National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL): NPEGEL
is implemented in educationally backward blocks (EBB) and addresses the needs of girls who
are in as well as out of school. NPEGEL also reaches out to girls who are enrolled in
school, but do not attend school regularly.
(4) Mid-Day Meal Scheme (MDMS): In keeping with the Constitutional provisions to raise the
level of nutrition of children and enable them to develop in a healthy manner, the National
Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) was launched as a
Centrally sponsored scheme in 1995. Commonly referred to as MDMS, this was expected to
enhance enrolment, retention, attendance of children in schools apart from improving their
nutritional levels.
(5) The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan: A Centrally sponsored scheme with a
funding pattern of 75:25 between Centre and States. The major objectives of the RMSA
are to:
(a) raise the minimum level of education to class X and universalise access to secondary

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(b) ensure good-quality secondary education with focus on Science, Mathematics and
English; and
(c) reduce the gender, social and regional gaps in enrolments, dropouts and improving
(6) Scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education at +2 level:
Initiated in 1988, this centrally sponsored scheme of Vocationalisation of Secondary Education
provides for diversification of educational opportunities so as to enhance individual
employability, reduce the mismatch between demand and supply of skilled manpower and
provides an alternative for those pursuing higher education.
(7) Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary stage: The Scheme of Inclusive Education
for Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS) has been launched from the year 2009-10. The aim of
the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of IEDSS is to enable all students with disabilities, after
completing eight years of elementary schooling, to pursue further four years of secondary
schooling (classes IX to XII) in an inclusive and enabling environment.
(8) Quality Improvement in Schools: During the 10th Five Year Plan, Quality Improvement
in Schools was introduced as a composite centrally sponsored scheme.
(9) Strengthening of Teachers Training Institutions: The Right of Children to Free and
Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 poses major challenges for improving the quality of
teachers and for expanding institutional capacity in States to prepare professionally trained
persons for becoming school teachers. Government has initiated steps to revise the existing
Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Restructuring and Reorganisation of Teacher Education.
(10) Adult Education and Skill Development Schemes: Adult Education aims at extending
educational options to those adults, who have lost the opportunity and have crossed the age of
formal education, but now feel a need for learning of any type, including, basis education
(literacy), skill development (Vocational Education) etc.

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The Indian government lays emphasis to primary education up to the age of fourteen
years (referred to as Elementary Education in India). The Indian government has also
banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working
conditions. However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to
enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions. 80% of all recognized schools
at the Elementary Stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider
of education in the Country.


There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. The District
Education Revitalization Programme (DERP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to
universalize primary education in India by reforming and vitalizing the existing primary
education system. Significant improvement in staffing and enrollment of girls has also
been made as a part of this scheme. The current scheme for universalization of
Education for All is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which is one of the largest education
initiatives in the world. Enrollment has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain


In India, elementary schools provide education from Class 1 to Class 8. The children in
these classes are generally aged between 6 to 14 years. It is the next stage after
kindergarten (Pre-Nursery, Nursery, Prep or Lower Kindergarten and Upper
Kindergarten). The next stage after primary education is Middle School (Class 6th to
8th). In most schools in North India, children in Classes 1st to 3rd are taught
English, Hindi, Mathematics, Environmental Science, and General Knowledge. In class
4th and 5th the environmental science subject is replaced by General Science and Social
Studies. However some schools may introduce this concept in Class 3 itself. Some







Class 5th




Class 4th. Sanskrit and local state language are the most common third languages taught
in Indian schools. At some places, primary education is labeled as the education of
Class 3rd to Class 5th and up to class 2nd as pre-primary education. This is because
many new concepts are introduced in this class.

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The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body
for school education in India. The NCERT provides support and technical assistance to a
number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education

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In India, before the Indian Constitutional Amendment 2002, Article 45 (Article 36-51
are on Directive Principles of State Policy) of the Constitution was- Article 45Provision for free and compulsory education for children- the State shall endeavour to
provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for
free and compulsory education for children until they complete the age of 14 years. But
that Constitution Amendment was time and again deferred, first to 1970, then to 1980,
1990 and 2000. The 10th Five Year Plan visualizes that India will achieve the Universal
Elementary Education by 2007. However, the Union Human Resource Development
Minister announced in 2001 that India will achieve this target only by 2010. (NinetyThird Amendment) Bill, renumbered as the Constitution (86 th amendment) Act, 2002,
which was passed on 12 December 2002 stated: An act further to amend Constitution of
India. Be it enacted by the Parliament in the Fifty-Third year of the Republic of India as


(1) Short Title and Commencement. (a) This act may be called the Constitution Act,
2002. (b) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by
notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.


(2) Insertion of new Article 21A- After Article 21 of the Constitution, the following
articles shall be inserted, namely Right to Education- Article 21A- The State shall
provide free and compulsory education to all the children of age six to fourteen years, in
such a manner as the State, by law, determine.


(3) Substitution of new article for article 45- For Article 45 of the Constitution, the
following article shall be substituted, namely- Provision for early childhood care and
education to children below the age of six years. Article 45- The state shall endeavour
to provide early childhood care and education to all the children until they complete the
age of six years.


(4) Amendment of Article 51A.

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The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, has provided for environment
awareness, science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements
such as Yoga into the Indian secondary school system. Secondary education covers
children 1418 which covers 88.5 million children according to the Census, 2001.
However, enrolment figures show that only 31 million of these children were attending
schools in 200102, which means that two-third of the population remained out of


A significant feature of India's secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of

the disadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established institutes are
often called to support in vocational training. Another feature of India's secondary
school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students
attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing. A significant new feature has
been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Madhyamik
Shiksha Abhiyan.


A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in
1974 with a focus on primary education. But which was converted into Inclusive
Education at Secondary Stage. Another notable special programme, the Kendriya
Vidyalaya project, was started for the employees of the central government of India,
who are distributed throughout the country. The government started the Kendriya
Vidyalaya project in 1965 to provide uniform education in institutions following the
same syllabus at the same pace regardless of the location to which the employee's family
has been transferred.


A multilingual web portal on Primary Education is available with rich multimedia

content for children and forums to discuss on the Educational issues. India Development
Gateway is a nationwide initiative that seeks to facilitate rural empowerment through
provision of responsive information, products and services in local languages.

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