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A comprehensive study about Sugarcane in Pakistan

BY
MUHAMMAD IRFAN SHAUKAT
B.Sc.(Hons.) Agriculture

Introduction
Botanical name:

Saccharum officinarum L.

Family:

Poaceae

Latitude:

30o N 30o S

Climate:

Tropical and Sub tropical

Plant type:

Perennial, C4

Crop growth duration:

1218 months

Carbon fixation rates (max.):

2.8 mg CO2 m-2 s-1

Mean total dry matter production:

40 g m-2 day-1

Pakistan is the fifth largest country in the world in terms of area under
sugar cane cultivation, 11th by production and 60th in yield. Sugar cane is a
commercially important crop that accounts for approximately 65% of the global
sugar production. Sugarcane is the primary raw material for the production of
sugar. Besides producing white sugar, a major component of cane is utilized in
the production of Gur, Shakkar, and Khandsari Sugar. Since independence,
the area under cultivation has increased more rapidly than any other major crop.
It is one of the major crops in Pakistan cultivated over an area of around one
million hectares.
The sugar industry in Pakistan is the second largest agro based
industries comprising 81 sugar mills with annual crushing capacity of over 6.1
million

tones.

Sugarcane

farming

and

sugar

manufacturing

contribute

significantly to the national exchequer in the form of various taxes and levies.
Sugar manufacturing and its by-products have contributed significantly towards
the foreign exchange resources through import substitution.
Sugar industry is mostly located in the rural areas of Punjab and Sindh. A
small percentage of total production is produced in the NWFP. Previously,
Punjab was partly dependent on supply of sugar from Sindh, but lately the
establishment of some large-scale units in Punjab has made the Province selfsufficient in the commodity.

Sugar production is seasonal activity. The mills, at an average operate for


150 days, and supplies are made throughout the year. As the industry now has
large daily crushing capacity there are efforts to even further reduce.

Some Key Facts


No. of Mills

81

Crushing Capacity

6.1 Million tones

Contribution to Economy
Share in GDP
Employment

3.0 4.0 Million Tones


1.9%
1.5 million (directly & indirectly)

Total Investment

PKR 100 Billion (Approx.)

Average Yield per Hector

46.8 Tones

Total Cane Production

45.0 55.0 Million Tones

Cane Available

30-43 Million Tones

Average recovery of sugar

9.1% (vs. world average of 10.6%)

Per Capita Consumption

25.8 kg per capita

Contribution to exchequer

Rs. 12.16 Billion

By-Products
There are about 100 by-products. Some of them are alcohol, vinegar,
confectioneries, animal feed, poultry feed, fish feed, paper, chipboard, win-board,
hard board and plywood. Tops are used as fodder for livestock and trash as fuel.

Employment
100000 people (Farmers in Sugarcane Production 1,500,000 people
directly and indirectly involved provide over 10 million)

Area and Yield of Sugarcane in Some Major Cane


Growing Countries

Country

Area

Cane Yield

(000 ha)

(t/ha)

Brazil

5455

75.34

India

4100

59.70

China

1316

70.82

Thailand

1050

60.67

Pakistan

1050

49.57

Cuba

700

34.28

Mexico

639

70.61

Columbia

440

84.31

Australia

415

88.89

USA

389

70.67

Philippines

380

73.68

Indonesia

340

72.35

Vietnam

310

53.54

Argentina

305

63.93

Guatemala

186

96.59

Egypt

135

121.00

World Average

[20115]

65.53

Pakistan sugarcane area and yield

Year

Area

Produced

Yield

(000 ha)

(000 Tones)

Hectare

per Utilization %
by
Mills

2000-01

960.0

43,620

45.4

67.47

2001-02

999.7

48,041

48.1

76.33

2002-03

1,099.7

52,049

47.3

80.28

2003-04

1,074.8

53,800

50.1

81.15

2004-05

966.4

43,533

45.0

73.74

2005-06

907.0

44,292

48.8

67.94

2007-08

1241.300

63,920

51.50

75.55

Sugarcane Production and Recovery in Pakistan

Year

Cane Crushed

Sugar Made

(Tones)

(Tones)

2000-01

29,408,879

2,466,788

8.39%

2001-02

36,708,638

3,197,745

8.71%

2002-03

41,786,689

3,652,745

8.74%

2003-04

43,661,378

3,997,010

9.15%

2004-05

32,101,739

2,922,126

9.10%

2005-06

30,090,632

2,588,176

8.59%

2006-07

26,583,603

8.53%

2007-08

52,757,140

8.98%

Recovery

Sugar

Sugar Production by Type of Raw Material (In Tones)


Year

Sugarcane

Beet

Raw

Total

2000-01

2,466,788

17,276

531,930

3,015,994

2001-02

3,197,745

29,172

22,111

3,249,028

2002-03

3,652,745

22,066

1,945

3,676,759

2003-04

3,997,016

23,796

4,020,806

2004-05

2,922,125

11,373

182,303

3,115,801

2005-06

2,588,176

8,934

401,396

2,998,506

Sugarcane Area and Production by Province Cane yield


potential and sugar recovery of some commercial sugarcane
varieties in the country:
Variety

Province

Maturity
group

Cane yield

Sugar recovery

(t ha-1)

(%)

BL-4

Punjab

Early

100

10.2

CP 77-400

Punjab

Early

100

12.7

CP 72-2086

Punjab

Early

90

12.0

CP 43-33

Punjab

Early

90

10.8

CPF-237

Punjab

Early

110

12.5

SPF-213

Punjab

Mid

100

12.0

BL-4

Sindh

Early

200

11.2

BF-129

Sindh

Mid

200

10.3

BL-19

Sindh

Early

180

11.0

Trition

Sindh

Early

200

10.7

Mardan-92

N.W.F.P.

Mid

100

12.0

Mardan-93

N.W.F.P.

Early

100

12.5

CP 77-400

N.W.F.P.

Mid

80

11.8

CP 65-357

N.W.F.P.

Early

70

12.8

Province Wise Sugar Production (In Tones)


Province

2005-06

2004-05

2003-04

2002-03

2001-02

Punjab

1,832,228

2,182,330

2,599,490

2,351,102

2,152,175

Sindh

1,038,122

801,063

1,221,268

1,158,674

940,959

NWFP

128,157

132,407

176,252

166,983

104,611

TOTAL

2,998,507

3,115,801

3,997,010

3,676,759

3,197,745

Refined Sugar production, Supply and Demand

Origin and History of Sugarcane


Several species and hybrids of the genus Saccharum of the family
Gramineae / Poaceae are called sugarcane (Urdu: Kamad, Naishkar; Punjabi:
Ganna). Out of these, the most widely recognized are: Saccharum officinarum L.,
Saccharum barberi Jesw., Saccharum robostum brand and Jesw., and
Saccharum spontaneum L. All species of sugarcane have variable number of
chromosomes; ranging from 48 to well over 150.

Modern cultivated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) probably


originated in New Guinea. From there it spread to the Solomon Islands, New
Caledonia, and New Hebrides in about 8000 B.C. By about 6000 B.C., it reached
India via Borneo, Burma, Java, Malaya, and Philippines. Between 500 and 100
A.D., it spread from Fiji to Hawaii, The Marquises, Tonga, and Tahiti. In India,
cultivated varieties were developed from wild canes low in sugar. From there it
spread to Arabia, China, and Persia. The Chinese were growing it by about 1766
B.C., and perhaps local travelers carried the cane as portable food. This would
account for its growing wide on many of the South Pacific Islands.

Growth and Development of Sugarcane


Composition of the Plant: The sugarcane plant is comprised of 73 76%
water and 24 27% solids. Of these solids, 11 16% is fiber and 10 16% is
soluble solids. The soluble solids consist of 75 92% sugars, 3 7% salts, and
the rest are free organic acids and other organic non-sugar.

Shoot System
Sugarcane is giant member of the family Gramineae. The part, which is
harvested, is the stem, which consists of several nodes and internodes, which
contain sweet sap. The internodes below the soil surface and at the base of
aerial stems are compact, while those higher up increase in length. The
internodes remain small during cold weather and periods of moisture stress,
causing a decrease in yield. The nodes bear buds. The crop is planted losing
stem cuttings bearing buds. One of these develops into the first main shoot.
During the developmental phase of crop, several prominent shoots appear from
the buds at the base of stem, which help the tillering process, important for
building the stem population. As internodes extension becomes marked, apical
dominance exercise by the leading shoots discourages the growth of side shoots.

The Stem
The stem is circular or oval in cross section and varies considerably in
shape, color, and orientation of internodes. These characteristics and those of
the nodes and buds are used in the classification of varieties. Leaves produced

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at the apex of the stem are displaced laterally as the stem increases in height.
Their lower parts, called the sheaths, encircle the upper internodes. The leaves
of the older nodes usually fall away as the stem mature. Considerable variation
occurs in leaf shape and orientation, which may have a bearing on yield.

The Leaf
Leaf size varies from the top to the bottom of the plant. Following
development, about 10 mature expanded leaves remain per stem, with a
combined average leaf area of about 0.5m2, although varieties may exhibit
considerable range in this attribute. As in most grass species, the leaves are
arranged alternatively. Leaves are produced at an average rate of about one
every 5 10 days, depending on variety and especially on climate. Leaves are
reaching its maximum after 5 -10 months depending on climate and after that
remain constant or may even decline. After this period, net growth mainly insists
of stem material and accumulation of sugar. Leaf rolling occurs in many varieties.
This may be droughtresistant characteristic.

Root System
Initially, the roots develop from the cuttings or setts. After the development
of the shoots, they also develop from the lower internodes. They may reach
considerable depth in permeable soils, but generally to concentrate in the upper
layers of the soils. Three types of roots are found in sugarcane: Fibrous, buttress,
and superficial. Buttress roots originate from the basal node of the shoot and
have a supporting function. Superficial roots are thinner and more branched.
They spread about 2m from the plant and then grow downwards as much as 6m
under favorable conditions.
The extent, configuration, and functioning of the root system are
significantly influenced by the physical conditions of the soil. The creation of the
soil environment favorable to good root development is therefore very important
in cultivation of the sugarcane; its growth can be considerable improved even in
poor soil provided they have been tilled and supplied with adequate water and
nutrients.

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Growth Pattern
After germination, the tillering phase lasts from 4 to 8 months. That is the
time of increased competition among shoots to utilize available light. Generally,
tillers are very adaptable and many more are formed than will reach maturity.
This is why even attack by borers at the active tillering stage is looked on with
unflappability by planters. The destruction of tillers by herbicides for weed control
is also tolerated because of the plants ability to regenerate. In normal planting
about half of the tillers will not developed into mature canes, but will abort for one
reason or another. However, there are distinct varietal differences in tillering
capacity.
The poor tillering variety may require closer spacing to achieve an optimal
stand. A sparse stand encourages later tillering and production of the stem tillers,
which reduces the proportion of millable canes, in some case by more than 60%.
Lodging also induces later tillering, thus reducing the number of mill able canes.
Tillering and other growth characteristics are also affected by the introduction of
varieties from one climatic region to another. High altitudes, cold regions canes
may tiller poorly in equatorial climates. Shorter photoperiods also tend to reduce
tillering.
Exponential growth characterizes the tillering phases: linear phase,
declining phase, and post tillering period. The post tillering period of growth is
also called the grand period of growth. During this period, height increments are
closely correlated with weight increments. This is because growth primarily
consists of extension of the established stems, which are of uniformed thickness.
In sugarcane, accumulation of dry matter continues for a significant period
after a critical leaf area index (LAI) is reached. The LAI at the stage of maximum
development of the leaves ranges from about 8 12 or sometimes more. Peak
LAI values vary among different cultivars, correlating particularly with leaf size
and orientation. Those with narrow leaf and erect foliage are usually capable of
developing

higher

productive

LAI

value

and

require

close

spacing.

Photosynthesis in leaves of sugarcane can respond linearly to high light values

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approaching half that of natural sunlight, unlike many other crops in which leaves
show threshold photosynthesis values at much lower levels.

Ratooning
After sugarcane is harvested, the underground parts of the plants are
allowed to be remaining in the soil and give rise to ratoon crop. Although the
ratoon crop is seldom as uniform and weed free as the initial crop, it is a common
practice to grow several successive ratoon crops. Timely stubble shaving, i.e.,
inter-row cultivation is usually carried to straighten the rows. Often furrow is
made alongside the original row to expose sub-terrain area and promote
germination of deeply located buds. Cultivation of the inter-rows also loosens the
soil and encourages new growth.
In Pakistan, the ratoon crop forms 50 60% of the total cane crop. It is
wrongly considered as free crop and thus not given due attention. This attitude
must change and proper cultural practices and efficient crop management
adopted to improve ratoon crop growth. This includes timely harvesting, balanced
application of fertilizer, adequate irrigation, and proper plant protection measures.
Experiment has shown that ratoon cane crop, if managed and looked after
properly from the very beginning, can yield almost the same as initial crop.
Moreover ratooning also considerably reduces cultivation expenses and financial
burden on the growers.
Experiments on intercropping of Berseem and wheat in ratoon cane show
average cane yield over three different planting patterns reduces by 3.05 and
9.61% respectively. However, sugarcane intercropped with Berseem and Wheat
gave much higher income per hectare over non-intercropped rationed cane.
Additional harvest obtained from sugarcane berseem and sugarcane wheat
intercropping system mounted to 77.66 t/ha of berseem green fodder and 2.83
t/ha of wheat grain respectively.

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Sugarcane Production Technology


Land Preparation: Sugarcane is a deep-rooted crop and proper land
preparation plays an important role in the development of cane root system, and
achieving optimal growth of the crop. Land should be prepared by deep
ploughing at least after every two years or better before every fresh sowing of the
cane. The soil should be disked. It is very important that at least 8 to 10 cartloads
of well-rotten farmyard manure (FYM) should be applied a month prior to land
preparation. Press mud from the sugar industry is another excellent source of
organic matter and nutrients. Green manuring may also serve the purpose. Soil
in the prepared field should be friable and well worked so that full germination
takes place and later on plants grow without any inhibiting barriers (compact subsoil layer). The different equipments used for land preparation are:

Laser Land Leveling: It is laser assisted mechanical equipment designed to


level the field with maximum accuracy. It is a recommended to be used at least
after 34 years to level the fields.

Sub Soiler and Chiesel Plough: Sub-soiler consists of 2 3 tines and


used to break hardpan, which usually farmed due to continuous mechanical
operation and reduces water infiltration and prohibit root development. It should
be used before each sowing of the fresh sugarcane crop. Chiesel plough is used
in land preparation. It can plough up to 1 ft.

Sugarcane Ridger: It is used to make 4 ft. apart trenches for sugarcane


sowing. Before using it, deep plough is necessary. It makes two trenches in a
single operation. For every trench, there are two plates parted 9 inches to sow
two sugarcane rows in every trench.

Cultivator: It is common cultivator but with high frame to prevent damage of


germinated canes. The distance between tines is 8 inches. It is used for
mechanical weed control, as well as for interculture. For grassy weeds, it is used
twice after first two irrigations, a total of four times to control weeds.

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Sugarcane Harvester: It is costly equipment used to harvest the cane, for


making setts, for trashing, as well as for loading. Due to high cost, unleveled soil,
labor problems etc. it is not used commonly in our country.

Stubble Shaver and Disc Rotavator: Both of these equipments are used
in ratoon crop. Stubble shaver cuts the above ground cane remaining to facilitate
the germination, while disc Rotavator separates the soil from ratoon plants,
rotavate the trash present within trenches as well as cuts old roots. This all
operation of Rotavator improves the germination.
The field should be clay loam, well drained, free from salt, well pulverized,
weed free, and have sufficient organic matter. First of all land leveling should be
done. Then plough and plank it sufficiently to make it pulverized. If there is
hardpan, use sub-soiler to break it and then use chisel twice if required. After
every 2 3 years, use of Mold Bold Plough, Raja Plough, and Disc Plough are
also recommended. However in sandy loam soils deep plough is not usually
required, if there is no hardpan below it. After sugarcane harvesting, use of
Rotavator is recommended to cut and mix the cane remains in the soil. It is
interesting to note that the land preparation can be used to appraise the future
yield of cane crop.

Effect of Land Preparation Method on Yield


Land

Preparation Yield (t/ha)

% Increase in Yield

Method
Simple cultivation

155.80

--

Deep plough + simple 177.60

13.99

cultivation

15

23

25

26

27

30

31

28

24

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Soil Insect Control at Planting Time


 Growers should be ever mindful of practices they can use to decrease the
possibility of soil insect damage. Only two crop conditions require use of a
soil insecticide in sugarcane fields and usually only in sandy soils. These
are:
 When pasture, turf or grass-infested land is brought into cane production
for the first time or after being out of cane production for several years.
There are usually enough grubs or wireworms already established in this
type of land to warrant a preventive application of insecticide at cane
planting time. However, a soil insecticide application may not be needed
with the second plant-cane crop if the field has been kept reasonably free
of grass during the ratoon crops.
 When cane fields are extremely grassy, particularly when cane is planted
in a field that was not kept free of heavy grass infestation when fallow.
Ongoing wireworm and white grub infestations will persist in grassy fields.
Again, this may be needed only on light or mixed soils.
 Growers with fields similar to those described should consider control
measures for soil insects at planting time and base chemical control on
verification of soil insect pest infestations (with fermented corn baits).
Based on new research data, the economic threshold is slightly above one
wireworm per bait sample before planting. Soil insecticides have had a
suppressive effect on beneficial predators in sugarcane studies.

Planting Time
The selection of an appropriate planting method and schedule greatly
influences crop growth, maturity, and yield. Since low temperature and moisture
stress are detrimental to germination and subsequent establishment, the planting
season in subtropical regions is preferably spring. However, in areas where

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winter is severe enough to restrict growth or even kill sugarcane, planting


material may only be available in autumn, thus necessitating pre-winter planting.
In tropical regions, particularly where irrigation is not practiced, a sufficiently
moist season should be selected for planting and establishment. There are two
planting seasons: fall and spring. Fall planting starts from the first week of
September and continues to mid-October in the Punjab and Sindh, while in the
NWFP planting is done in October and November. Spring planting starts from
mid-February and lasts up to the mid of March in the Punjab and Sindh. These
planting times are strictly observed because late planting can reduce the yield by
as much as 30 percent.
September planted crop usually produces 25 to 35% higher yield. In
Pakistan, planting time of sugarcane is usually carried out in autumn and spring
seasons. Autumn planting is of high yield and high sugar recovery compared to
spring planting. In fact, September planting gives very luxuriant growth, which is
mostly vulnerable to lodging. The crop gives good appearance until June-July but
is subject to lodging in July or even earlier if there are windstorms or excessive
rains. Around 26 percent of the growers plant sugarcane in October, 45 percent
in November, 2 percent in December, and 7 percent in February.
The suitable temperature for sowing time is 20 33oC. Due to suitable
temperature and humidity, the germination percentage in September usually
ranges 50 70%, while in spring season the germination is only 30 50%.

Planting Method and Seed Rate


Appropriate seed rate and spacing are often ignored by farmers, with the
result that the optimum plant population, which is the key factor in sugarcane
production, is not achieved in the field.
According to the experiments conducted at SRI, it has been observed that
planting sugarcane in trenches 4 ft. apart in double row, spaced at 9 inches,
gives much better crop stand, and ultimately more yield than traditional methods.
This method of sowing is called 2 in 1 means two sugarcane setts rows in a
single trenched with about 9 inches space between them. The depth of trench
should be 8 10 inches. Cane sets should be sown in straight trenches. The

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trench-to-trench distance should be 4 feet, because this facilitate air and light
penetration. This method of sowing has following benefits:
 More than 50% water saving
 Better germination percentage due to better availability of light, water, and
nutrients
 Increases applied fertilizer and insecticide efficiency
 Better crop stand result in less chances of lodging
 Easy mechanical operations like interculturing and mechanical weed
control
 Ease in earthing up
 Ease in ratooning of sugarcane
After making the trenches, add phosphorus and potash fertilizer in it and
sow the seeds (cane setts) in the trenches. Put one bag of Furadan 3G
(Carbofuran 3%) or Larsban 2 liters for borers, termite, and nematodes attack
prevention. Later cover it slightly with soil, e.g., put the soil with foot. Do not plank
the field. Then irrigate the field lightly. With suitable interval, irrigate the field until
the germination of cane starts. Due to frequent irrigations, sometimes weeds also
grow. Apply the chemical weedicides (i.e., Dual Gold 800cc) within the trenches,
and after germination completion, use cultivator to destroy the weeds. After
germination and tillering, destroy the trenches by using cultivator and rotavator
and at appropriate time (usually after 90 days) earth it up with the same ridger.
Due to earthing up with ridger, the trench structure builds again, as like at the
time of sowing, resulting in following benefits: Reduces lodging, Weed control,
Insects (stem borer, root borer, gurdaspur borer) control, Water saving (irrigation
in trenches only), Enhanced fertilizer efficiency (application in cane rows only,
side banding)
The number of canes/plants present in the field depends upon the seed
rate, its germination percentage, and tillering capability. Under favorable
conditions for timely sowing, the recommended seed rate is:
 79000 98000 Double Budded Setts per hectare
 49000 62000 Triple Budded Setts per hectare

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 198 210 monds per hectare (medium girth canes)


If for some reason as if the sowing is late or land preparation is not done
timely, increase its seed rate accordingly up to 20 30%.
Sugarcane setts should be selected with following strict criteria:
 Always use healthy, disease and insect free seed. The diseased and week
cans should not be used for sowing. For September sowing, use the seed
of September sown crop or of ratoon crop.
 For spring sowing, use of spring sown crop seed is better.
 The cane setts should have at least 2 3 buds. Do not cut long setts, as it
will result in reduced germination.
 Do not use the seed of lodged crop.
 Try to prevent buds damage. For seed purpose, trash should be removed
carefully. Moreover, during transport take care of the seed buds.
 The cane seed should not have trash or leaves attached with it; else, it will
reduce the germination as well termite attack might occur.
 After making cane setts, do not delay the sowing. If there is some valid
reason, cover the seed with trash and sprinkle water on it from time to
time. If seed is too old, soak it in water for 24 hours for better germination.

Production technology of Sugarcane (Two in One)


8 inches 8 inches 8 inches

2 Feet

2 feet

8 inches 8 inches 8 inches

2 Feet

2 Feet

2 feet

2 Feet

8 inches 8 inches 8 inches

2 Feet

40
4 Feet

4 Feet

39

40

20

Hot Water Seed Treatment


Seed may be treated with hot water at 520 C for 30 minutes and with
fungicide. This will help in better germination and the control of many cane
diseases.
Soaking cuttings and treating with running water for 48 hours sometimes
enhances germination of old cuttings. Soaking in hot water (500C) for two hours
greatly enhances germination. This, however, is difficult to control at a practical
level. Treatment with running water has been suggested to remove fermentation
products and inhibitors from the cutting.
Indoleacetic acids (IAA) or Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) treatment
enhances root growth but delays bud development. Acetylene promotes the
growth of the cutting. Substances including ethyl alcohol, ammonium phosphate,
complete nutrient solution, and Ferrous Sulphate have proved beneficial to
germination on all occasions. On the other hand, at the University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad, experiments have shown that soaking cane setts in water, cow urine,
and 20% KMnO4 solution before planting reduced the yield.

Effects of Various Pre-Planting Seed Treatments on the


Cane Yield of 'Co.L-54'
Treatment

Cane Yield (t/ha)

Normal Setts (unsoaked)

82.76

Soaked in Water

62.05

Soaked in Cow Urine

61.19

Soaked in 20% KMnO4

67.16

Amount of Soil Cover over Seed Cane


Research on depth of soil cover over seed cane indicates that soil cover in
excess of 4 inches can cause yield losses even if the excess is removed in the
spring following planting.

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Heat-treated cane should be covered with 2 inches of packed soil. After


the cane is up to a good stand and before freezing weather occurs, add an
additional 2 inches of soil to protect from freeze damage. Do not cover heattreated cane with more than 2 inches of packed soil at planting.

Varieties
For increasing sugarcane and sugar production, use of approved varieties
is also important along with proper management. The variety should have: High
yield, High sugar recovery, less lodging, Resistance against insect pest,
Ratooning. Until now about 18 varieties have been approved for general
cultivation

Early Varieties
CP 77 400, CP 72 2086, CP 43 33, CPF 237, and HSF 240
approved for Punjab province. L 116 have been approved for southern Punjab
only. These varieties give good yield and high sugar recovery.

Medium Varieties
SPFG 26, SPF 213, SFP 245, and COJ 84, BL 4, BF 162, and
SPF 234 have been approved for southern Punjab only.

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Sugarcane Varieties of Pakistan (Punjab)


Variety

COL 29

Year

of Av.

Yield %

Sugar Av.

Sugar Source

of

Release

t/ha

Recovery*

Yield t/ha

Variety

1954

70

10.10

7.07

Combater,
India

COL 44

1954

75

8.93

6.69

Combater,
India

COL 54

1963

75

9.63

7.22

Combater,
India

BL 19

1966

85

9.49

8.00

Barbados

BL 4

1968

85

10.34

8.79

Barbados

L 116

1973

75

10.81

8.11

Louisiana,
USA

L 118

1975

85

8.93

6.83

Louisiana,
USA

TRITON

1983

85

10.10

8.58

BF 162

1990

90

10.35

9.31

Barbados

CP 43-33

1996

80

11.69

9.35

Canal Point,
USA

CP 72-2086

1996

85

12.35

10.49

Canal Point,
USA

CP 77-400

1996

90

11.90

10.72

Canal Point,
USA

CPF 237

2000

95

12.50

11.87

Canal Point,
USA

SPF 213

2000

90

10.50

9.45

So

Polo,

Brazil
COJ 84

2000

90

9.80

8.82

So

Polo,

Brazil
HSF 240

2002

95

11.70

23

11.11

Habib Sugar

Mill Sindh
SPF 234

2002

100

11.60

11.60

So

Polo,

Brazil
SPF 245

2004

100

11

11.00

So

Polo,

Brazil
HSF 242

2006

102

12.5

12.75

Habib Sugar
Mill Sindh

CO 1148

Commercial

85

8.83

7.50

----

CPF 243

2006

102

12.55

12.80

Canal Point,
USA

Sugar Recovery = Commercial Cane Sugar (CSS) % 0.94

24

Sugarcane varieties in pipeline at S.R.I., Faisalabad


Sr.

Name of varieties

no

01

S2002 US-637*

Av.

Potential

S recovery

Remarks

Yield

yield

( Percentage

t/ha

t/ha

105

120

12.00

MEDIUM

(R)
02

S2003-US-623 (R)

105

120

12.40

MEDIUM

03

S2002-US-133 (R)

101

125

13.10

EARLY

04

S2003-US-114* (R)

100

120

12.45

MEDIUM

05

S2002-US-160

105

125

12.25

MEDIUM

(MR)
06

S2003-US-694 (R)

106

130

12.75

EARLY

07

S2003-US-718 (R)

100

120

12.48

MEDIUM

08

S2003-US-394 (R)

102

125

13.00

EARLY

09

S2003-US-633 (R)

105

130

12.55

EARLY

10

S2003-US-778*

105

130

12.25

MEDIUM

(MR)
11

S2002-US-359 (R)

106

120

13.20

EARLY

12

S2002-US-312 (R)

100

125

14.85

EARLY

13

S2003-US-247 (R)

105

130

14.00

EARLY

14

S98-SP-668 (R)

100

120

12.00

MEDIUM

15

S2003-US-127* (R)

106

125

12.60

EARLY

16

S2000-US-50 (R)

107

130

12.48

MEDIUM

Frost tolerant / resistant varieties

25

Fertilizer Application
According to rough estimate, the farmers are using one fourth of chemical
fertilizer against the sugarcane crop requirements due to non-availability as well
as high cost of the same. Apart from this haphazard use of fertilizer brings no
fruit and therefore the farmers do not get the crops to their expectations. The
very important job getting the soil tested before the use of any particular fertilizer
is not practiced in our country.
According to an estimate, 1000 monds per acre cane crop requires about
80 kg Nitrogen, 26 kg Phosphorus, and 168 kg Potash. Proper fertilizer
management is necessary to get maximum yield as well as for maintaining soil
fertility status.

Biological/Natural Fertilizers:
Biological fertilizers maintain the organic matter status in the soil and fulfill
the requirement of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S) and micronutrients
(Fe, Zn, B, Mo, Mn, Cl, and Co) requirement to a certain extent. Our soils are
deficient in organic matter that is 0.3 0.6% only. To restore the organic status,
apply 8 to 10 cartloads of well-rotten farmyard manure or do green manuring.
Press mud is another good way of increasing organic matter as well as improves
macro and micronutrients status.

Chemical Fertilizers:
The macronutrients requirements of the crop are usually fulfilled by using
chemical fertilizers. The recommended dose of chemical fertilizers is NPK @
168:112:112 kg/ha. In nutrient deficient soil the dose can be increased
accordingly, but it is always a good idea to do the soil analysis from some
nearest soil-testing laboratory. The detailed fertilizer requirement is as mentioned
in the table.

26

Soil Type

Fertilizer Dose

Fertilizer Recommended

(kg / acre)

(Bags /acre)

Urea

DAP

Or Urea Or SSP

Potassium
Sulphate

Light

92

46

50

3.25

Mediu

69

46

50

2.25

46

43

25

1.50

m
Heavy

The recommended method of fertilizer application is to apply whole dose


of P and K in trenches at the time of sowing, and nitrogen should be used in
three split doses. For September sown crop, first split dose in October (after 1
month) when the roots have developed, second split dose in mid February, and
third split dose in March, when earthing up is practiced. For spring sown crop,
first split dose in April (after one month), second split dose at the end of May
when tillering is in progress, and third split dose of N in June at the time of
earthing up.
As the growth season of cane in Punjab is less than required, there should
be no deficiency of fertilizer or water. Delay in fertilizer application can reduce the
yield as well as can lodge the crop due to delay in maturity. Press mud is another
good option as a supplement of chemical fertilizer, in case if not available or
costly, can be used to fulfill the cane plant nutrients requirements.
The best way to determine lime, phosphorus, and potassium requirements
is with a reliable soil test. The soil sample must be collected properly for the test
to be valid. Large fields should be broken up into smaller units for sampling
purposes, and the smaller fields intensively sampled, because nutrient and pH
levels often vary greatly within fields. Intensive, thorough sampling is the only
way to detect these variations, adjust fertilizer, and lime rates accordingly.
Medium to heavy soil has pH 5.0 8.5. Liming required if pH < 5, or gypsum if
pH > 9.5.

27

Soil samples may be collected anytime before fertilizing or liming, but


soon after harvest is recommended, if possible. Turn-around time in the soiltesting laboratory is faster in the fall and early winter. One will get test results in
time to plan a fertilizer program tailored to each individual field.

Weed Control
According to an estimate, weeds can reduce the cane yield up to 25%.
The weeds are called hidden enemy because their effect is hidden as
compared to insects. Weeds start infestation just after cane sowing and compete
for water, nutrients, and light. That is why, it is recommended to control weeds up
to 80 90 days after sowing by employing proper sowing method, mechanical
and chemical control. However, integrated approach of mechanical and chemical
weed control has been proved more efficient than traditional approaches. The
common weeds present in sugarcane crop are:
 Euphorbia granulata (Hazardani)
 Rumex obtusifolius (Jangli palik)
 Tribulus terrestris (Bakhra)
 Scirpus maritimus (Deela)
 Cynodon dactylon (Khabal grass)
 Dactyloctenium aegyptium (Madhana)
 Cyperus torundus (Morak)
 Trianthema portulacastrum (Itsit)
 Digitaria sanguinalis (Moti khabal)

Proper Sowing Method:


Due to trench sowing, frequent irrigation is employed that can facilitate
weed infestation. In trench sowing method, mechanical weed control cannot be
employed until the germination is complete. Manual weed control by using labor
is also costly. So, chemical weed control is only effective way at that stage. After
germination, mechanical method (cultivator) is used.

28

Mechanical Weed Control:


For healthy crop, intercultural operations are necessary, because it
eradicate the weeds as well make the soil porous and thus facilitate cane growth.
After germination, irrigate the field, and then cultivate it. After one week, again
cultivate it. After second irrigation, repeat cultivation twice with one-week interval.
In furrows use cultivator or plough, while use chemical weed control to eradicate
weeds present within the space between plants. After tillering, there is no much
weeds problem due to plant establishment and shading effect.

Chemical Weed Control:


It is a common method of weed control now-a-day. Although many
weedicides have been found effective during experiments, yet the name of
Gesapex Combi is more reliable. It can control most broad-leaved weeds (except
Lahli) as well as grassy weeds (except Deela and Khabal). It can be used preemergence as well as post-emergence, but has been found more effective if
applied as pre-emergence weedicides.
It can be used as follow:
 After cane sowing, irrigate the field and as wattar is achieved, spray
Gesapex Combi. If there is late sowing and temperature is low, then it can
also be used after second irrigation, when there is no germination.
 Spray Gesapex Combi is wet conditions always.
 The recommended dose of Gesapex Combi is 1.3 kg/acre for loamy soil;
1.5 kg/acre for heavy loam soil; and 1 kg/acre for sandy loam.
 100 150 liter water should be used for tractor boom. Always prepare
one-acre dose and then use it uniformly.
 In cold season, the Gesapex Combi is not much effective, while during hot
season it can be dangerous. If some surfactant like Triatan is used, it
increased its efficiency as well as 20 25% weedicides saving.
 Gesapex Combi has effective period of 8 10 weeks. After spraying it, do
not cultivate the field as it can break the weedicides layer present on soil
surface. If weedicides is applied in trenches, it can be cultivated. If used
pre-emergence properly, every weed including Deela can be controlled,

29

but as a post-emergence it is not effective against Deela as well as cane


plants might become yellow and growth stops for 20 25 days.
 The other chemical used for weed control are Dual Gold 800cc, and
Sunstar. Mixture of Atrazin + Amatrin with 1kg+40g ratio can also be used.

Effect of Different Weed Control Methods on Sugarcane


Yield
Weed Control Method

Without Control
Chemical

Cane Yield

Increase in Yield

(monds/acre)

(percentage)

Chemical Control

Mechanical Control

820.00

28.13

--

--

840.00

31.25

2.44

--

& 920.00

43.75

12.20

9.52

--

--

--

control
Mechanical
control
Chemical
Mechanical
control
Without

any 640.00

control

The importance of integrated weed management can be seen in the


above table. The mechanical control can be employed within the trenches along
with chemical control within the rows of cane plants. About 50% weedicide will be
saved as well as trench furrow will be pulverized due to ploughing. However, only
Flat Fan nozzle is recommended for spraying weedicides.

Irrigation
It is very important to take care of the irrigation requirements of
sugarcane, particularly in summer months. Farmers must plan their acreage to
be planted under cane crop according to the available water at their farm. The
spring sown crop needs about 1600 ml (64 acre inch). Therefore, after

30

adjusting irrigation schedule according to rainfall in summer, about 16 to 18


irrigations are required. For September sown crop, about 2000 ml (80 acre
inch) water is required. Sugarcane yield is very dependent on water availability.
According to experiments at SRI, it has been found that 20% water stress
reduces 12% yield, 40% water stress will reduce 26% cane yield. So irrigation in
proper amount, at right time with suitable application method is essential to get
optimum yield regardless

Other factors
According to the season and prevailing conditions, the schedule can be:
March-April

12-14 days

May-June

9-10 days

July-August

12-15 days

September-October

15-20 days

November-December

25-30 days

Before harvesting of cane, irrigation must be stop about a month ahead,


so that cane crop becomes ready for harvesting. However, the cane crop
reserved as seed should be irrigated to protect it against frost.
Cane crop should not have any water stress until there is complete germination.
The soil should not be allowed to become dry and hard until cane completes its
tillering. The fertilizer use efficiency is also dependant on water availability. Bold
cane and broad-leaved cane varieties require more water than slim cane
varieties. Cane varieties BL 4, and BL 16 gives better production with 4 extra
irrigations, while CP 43 33, L 116, SPF 213, and HSF 240 can yield well
even in sandy dry regions. There is severe problem of water availability for
irrigation, so another method Alternate Furrow/Trench Irrigation have been
developed by SRI, according to which trenches can be irrigated alternatively in
each irrigation, resulting in 44% more water saving. For efficient use of irrigation
water, the following instruction can be considered:
 Water should not be wasted and use it wisely
 Keep the field weed free
31

 Irrigation channels and field nakkah should be weed free. Channels


should be cleaned to facilitate water flow
 First 2 3 irrigations after sowing should be light
 Level the field to increase water use efficiency
 Alternate trench irrigation system can be used to save more water with
minimum loss of cane yield
 Modern irrigation methods, i.e., Sprinkler irrigation and Drip irrigation can
be considered for more water saving.

Earthing Up
Earthing up is a practice followed to prevent lodging. Sugarcane usually
lodges in August September. It may even lodge in July, if the cane crop is
much healthier. Lodged cane caused losses, e.g., reduction in yield, damage
from mice, buds start germination, reduction in sugar recovery, and hurdle in
loading etc. lodged crop also become victim of frost and cannot be used as seed
for next crop.
Crop lodging might be due to many reason, i.e., cane variety, sowing time,
sowing method, fertilizer application time, irrigation, rain, and storm are common.
Some varieties are much soft and tend to lodge more, while other varieties have
more fiber and have resistance against lodging, e.g., CP 722086 and CP 77
400 tend to lodge more than BF162, CP 4333, HSF240, CPF237, SPF213,
and SPF145.
 If September sown crop have massive growth, it tend to lodge more
 If fertilizer application is delayed, the plants become soft and tender. If
crop is massive, it will lodge quickly
 If there is hardpan and land is not prepared deeply and well, the root
establishment is obstructed and it will lodge in storm
 If trenches have less R x R distance, the cane will be long and slim and
will lodge. Cane sown in tranches 4 ft. apart will have less chances of
lodging due to healthy and strong cane plants.
 Earthing up, if practiced properly, will prevent lodging and reduces water
wastage

32

Integrated pest management for Sugarcane


Insect pests play an important role in reducing the sugarcane yield. The
most serious insect pests are sugarcane borers, Pyrilla, and whitefly. In some
areas mealy bug, black bug and armyworm are also causing damage.
In Pakistan exact estimates of yield losses due to insect attack are lacking but it
has been reported that top borer, stem borer, gurdaspur borer and Pyrilla cause
a reduction in yield from 15-20, 10-20, and 30-35 percent, respectively. In some
cases 80-85 percent reduction in crop yield has been reported due to insect
attack. These losses in sugarcane can only be minimized by proper protection of
the cane crop from insect pests with scientifically designed IPM Programme
throughout the year. Pesticides are applied as and when needed in combination
with cultural practices, resistant varieties and introduction and conservation of
natural enemies. Pesticides will continue to play an important role in the IPM
Programme. The primary difference, however, is that these products will be used
selectively and judiciously.
Farmyard manure should always be used when it is fully rotten. This will
reduce termite attack. Trash in the field should not be kept for longer time and it
may be burnt. Dry shoots attacked by the bores must be pulled out and burnt.
Always cut the crop as close to the ground as possible. Use of light traps will help
controlling the spread of borers killing their adults. Earthing up during May-June
will help in controlling Gurdaspur borer, as the adults will not be able to come out
of the ridges of the soil. In case of severe attack of any insect, do not keep the
crop as ratoon.
Besides using pesticides/insecticides, insects could also be controlled by
biological measures. These control measures are safe for environment, and
hazard free. Cotesia flavips is an important larval parasitoid of sugarcane bores.
Its female lays eggs inside the borer larva and after hatching; its larvae feed
inside the borer larva. Adult parasitoid attack more borer larvae in the field.
Trichogramma chilonis destroys the eggs of sugarcane borers. Its female lays
eggs inside the eggs of borers. Parasitoid larvae feed in the host eggs,
destroying them. Epi-pyropes destroy sugarcane Pyrilla. These parasitoids are

33

mass multiplied in the laboratory and then released in the cane fields. Sex traps
are also used against borers.
Furadan 3G (Carbofuran 3%) has been found effective against borers,
termites, and nematodes. Its application is as follow:
 Add 1 bag (8 kg) of Furadan 3G after sowing, before irrigation
 After 1 months of sowing, add Furadan 3 G @ 10 kg/acre along with
fertilizer, then irrigate the field and at wattar plough twice or rotavate it.
 After 90 days (3 months) of sowing, cultivate the field twice and add 2
bags of Furadan 3G (14 16 kg is recommended dose) along with
fertilizer dose and earth it up with ridger. Then irrigate the field.
 Some of the common insects/pests are Top borer, Stem borer, Root borer,
Gurdaspur borer, Pyrilla / Leaf hopper, Black bug, Termite, Mites (Red
mites, White mites), and White fly

Control of Disease
For controlling sugarcane diseases, use healthy seed, which is diseasefree, and preferably plant disease-resistant varieties. Treat the seed with
fungicide/s before planting. The diseased plants from the field should be
removed and either buried or burnt. Seed may be treated with hot water at 520 C
for 30 minutes.
The practice of heat therapy is becoming more common at seedproduction centers to rid seed of ratoon stunting disease, grassy shoot, and leaf
scale. This treatment consists of submerging the cane setts in water heated to
520 C for two hours. In the hot air treatment or the moist hot air treatment, whole
cane stalks are treated at 540 C for eight and four hours, respectively. Mostly hot
air treatment is preferred, however, because the hot air treatment injures the
buds, which ultimately reduces germination. When planting a new crop, it is
essential to use seed from samples of the best patches of cane crop, free of
disease and insect pests. Disease-free, good-quality seed increases yield by 1015%.
Some common disease and their control measures are as follow:

34

Whip Smut (Ustilago scitaminea) Syd.

Symptoms:
The affected canes produce long, black whip-like and coiled or curved
shoots, which are covered with a thin silvery membrane, containing masses of
chlamydospores of the fungus. The smutted shoots may arise from the top of the
cane or from lateral buds. Later on that membrane rupture and release a
multitude of spores, which contaminate soil and the standing crop. In certain
cases, the infected plants remain stunted in growth with increased tittering of little
value. The diseased plants are unfit for use.

Perpetuation:
The disease is carried over from year to year by ratooning or planting sets
taken from smutted shoots of cane. Soil borne infection may also take place,
while wind disseminates disease.

Control:
Following measures are suggested for prevention as well as control of the
disease:
 Sets from smutted canes should not be used for planting
 Seed-sets should be disinfected either in 0.1 % mercuric chloride or in
formaline solution for 5 minutes followed by 2 hours covering under a
moist cloth. The other effective chemicals available in market may also be
used
 Hot water treatment of sets at 52oC for 18 minutes can help eliminate the
internal infection
 Smutted plants should be rouged out and burnt before the bursting of the
spores
 Ratooning of the diseases crop should be discoursed
 Suitable rotations with non-host crops should be practiced
 Planting should be done in healthy soil
 Dry sowing of the crop should be carried out, where disease is prevalent
 Autumn planting of sugar cane should be avoided
 Use of resistant varieties should be encouraged
35

Stem Canker (Cytospora sacchari) Butl.


Symptoms:
The disease causes wilting of canes. The affected canes show drying of
leaves from top to bottom. The cane stems are shriveled with considerable
reduction in quantity and quality of juice. Small black dot-like bodies of disease
causing fungus may develop on bud sheaths and hollow portions of canes.
Sometimes only a few internodes are affected, but whole stool or only a few
canes in a stool may also be affected.

Perpetuation:
The fungus remains in diseased canes or plant debris, which remains
lying in the fields after the harvest of crop. Ratoon crop also helps the disease
causing fungus to survive.

Control:
The destruction of cane plant debris alone would control the disease in
alkali soils. However, planting disease bee sets as well as the development and
use of resistant varieties will be more practicable and economical control
measure.

Red Rot (Colletotrichum falcatum) Went.


Symptoms:
The disease first appears as red bright lesions on the mid rib of leaves
and shows itself as drooping and changing of color of upper leaves. Withering of
the leaves proceeds downwards. Usually third or the fourth leaf from the top is
affected and shows drying at the tip. The pith becomes red and later on brown. In
severe cases, complete destruction of the stools is brought about. When the
infected canes are spilt open, they gave out an alcoholic smell due to
fermentation and show reddened areas.

Perpetuation:
The disease is perpetuated from year to year by planting sets from
infected canes and through the fungus that remains viable on diseased canes
lying in the field or ratooning of the crop.

36

Control:
No ratooning and use of resistant varieties are recommended. Disinfecting
of sets with effective and easily available chemicals is also recommended.

Leaf Spot (Helminthosporium spp)


Symptoms:
The disease may be characterized itself on leaves as small lesions, which
gradually enlarge along the mid rib and assure dark red to brown color. In severe
infection, the leaves become dry affecting photosynthesis.

Perpetuation:
The disease perpetuates through the fungus present in the affected
leaves lying in the field and spreads fresh crop of conidia falling on leaves of
adjacent plants.

Control:
Collection and burning of leaves or phyto-sanitary precautions in
suppressing the sources of inoculums reduces the incidence of disease.

Pokkah Boeng (Fusarium moniliforme) Sheldon


Symptoms:
Pokkah boeng meaning distorted top in Javanese. The disease appears
in different stages representing development of chlorotic areas at the basal parts
of the lower leaves, development of irregular reddish specks or stripes and
appearance of top rot followed by total killing. The young leaves may also show
pronounced wrinkling, twisting, and shortening, depending upon the varieties and
climatic conditions. In tolerant varieties, there may be recovery of growth, when
the conditions improve.

Perpetuation:
Its causal agent was not established until 1927. It is now present in many
countries, including Pakistan. However, it cannot be determined that how the
disease can survive?

Control:
Do not use seed sets from diseased plants.
37

Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV, Potyvirus group)


Symptoms:
Mottling of young crown leaves showing a definite pattern of alternating dark and
light green colored patches of varying size and run parallel to the midrib of leaf.

Transmission:
Transmitted through mosaic infected sets and an aphid.

Alternate hosts:
Maize and sorghum

Control:
Planting virus free sets and avoid ratooning of diseased crop.

Minor Diseases
The other minor diseases of sugarcane reported from Pakistan are
chlorotic streak virus, ratoon stunting, yellow spot, red stripe, rust and genetic
variegation of leaf and sheath.

Harvesting
Stop irrigation 25 to 30 days before the harvest of crop and do not leave
the harvested crop for long in the field. In case it has to be kept for a prolonged
period, it should be covered with trash. Different varieties planted may be
harvested according to their maturity. Harvesting of early maturing varieties may
be started during November, mid season varieties during December and the late
maturing varieties during January. The crop harvested during February-March
gives good ratoon crop.
Harvesting is done when the crop has fully matured and ripened. Early
varieties and ratoon crops are the first to be harvested. When the stem is close to
the surface, great vigilance is required in order to cut the maximum portion of the
stem, which is valuable both for its weight and for sugar content. The harvested
cane should be immediately hauled to the mill otherwise, weight and sucrose
losses may occur. For this purpose, transport should be arranged in advance.
To get maximum sugar recovery, cane should be harvested according to
the variety, i.e., CO 1148 gives 6% recovery in November, 10 11% in January
38

to March, while as early sown crop, its recovery will be 8.5% throughout the
season, while 11 12% at the end of season. So harvesting this variety in
advance will be like national loss. So the cane should be harvested according to
the harvesting schedule, which should be followed in order to get optimum yield.

Different Variety Harvesting Schedule


Variety

CPF-237
CP

October

Novemb

Decemb

er

er

January

Februar

March

April

**

****

****

****

****

****

72- **

****

****

****

****

****

77- **

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

****

2086
CP
400
CP 43-33

**

L-116

****

****

****

****

****

HSF-240

****

****

****

****

****

SPF-234
BL-4

****

****

****

BF-162
SPSG-26

****

****
****

****

****

****
****

****
****

****
****

****
****

**
****

***
****

**
****

SPF-213

****

****

****

****

****

**

SPF-245

****

****

****

****

****

**

COJ-84

**

****

****

****

**

Some general recommendations for harvesting of September, spring, and ratoon


crops are:
 Ratoon crop matures early than normal/fresh crop
 September sown crop becomes harvestable earlier than spring crop
 September sown crop has 0.5 0.1 more units sugar than spring crop, but
if it is not harvested in time, it might have less weight and recovery

39

 If one has to harvest ratoon and September sown crop, first cut the early
variety ratoon and then cut early September sown crop and vice versa
 Late variety ratoon or December sown crop do not become ready for
harvesting until January. Harvesting these before January will reduce their
sugar recovery %
 Application time of fertilizer, water, and amount of irrigation can affect the
harvesting time of the cane
Precautions during harvesting are:
 Always cut the cane from near the soil surface
 Remove all trash and roots of the cane
 During trash removing, also cut 2 3 dry internodes, if any
 Diseased and insect attack affected canes should be separated from
healthy canes
 Lodged and dried canes should not be mixed with healthy canes

Ratoon Crop Management


If the ratoon crop is properly managed, it could give higher returns than
the plant crop because of savings in certain field operations and inputs. One of
the major reasons of low yield is the poor management of the ratoon crop.
Sugarcane ratoon occupies more than 50 per cent of the total sugarcane area in
the country.
The end of January to beginning of March is the best time to keep the crop
for ratooning. Ratoon of November, December, and beginning of January does
not make proper tillering due to winter season; the cane buds die. Cane from the
fields to be kept for ratoon should be cut at ground level or even 1 1 inches
below the soil. The benefit of this approach is that the borers larvae present in
root zone also eliminate as well as underground buds germinate healthier. The
better recommendations are:
 Cut the cane from just the soil surface. There should be no cane remain
 Better is to rotavate the field, or run stubble shaver to cut cane remain and
grass present on soil surface. Moreover, a light soil layer becomes
established on ratoon cane. New roots can establish themselves in a

40

better way. The depth of rotavator should not be more than 1 1 inches
below the soil, else it might damage ratoon plants
The sugar recovery in ratoon crop is also better and it matures earlier than
the plant crop. However, remember that it has to be managed with extra efforts
and care. Apply all the phosphorus and potash fertilizer plus one third of N during
March. Plough the land in between the furrows to mix the fertilizer well in the soil
and then irrigate the crop. Fill the gaps; control the weeds, insect pests, and
diseases properly. Rest of the nitrogenous fertilizer should be applied in two
equal splits during April and May.
Ratoon sugarcane is not given due attention as a result its productivity is
less than the plant crop. However, it has been established through research that
if the crop is grown adopting proper ratoon management technology, the yield
could be much higher than obtained from the plant crop.
Growing ratoon crop costs less than plant cane and therefore, achieving high
yielding ratoon cane is a valuable objective. This crop is most economical by 2530 percent saving in operational cost along with seed material. There is no need
for preparatory tillage to grow this crop. Ratoon cane matures earlier than plant
cane and thus early supply of cane is assured. As the crop matures earlier,
harvesting is easier and field is available for the timely sowing of the next crop.
The ratoon crop often gives better quality than plant cane and better sugar
recovery. Low yield of this crop is mainly due the low and differential ratooning
potential of cultivars and suboptimal crop management. Other reasons for low
yield of this crop include formation of toxic substances in the rhizosphere, low
nutrient uptake ability of ratoon, depletion of soil nutrients, shallow ratooning, soil
compaction, and increased incidence of pests and diseases.
For growing ratoon cane crop, late maturing varieties with good yield are
suitable. Early maturing varieties should be avoided because these are poor
ratooners. Proper time for this crop is very important for good yield. Spring
harvested crop give better ratoon than autumn harvested due to moderate
temperature, which is most conducive for stubble sprouting. Plant crop should be
harvested close to the ground level for optimum tillering.

41

Yield of ratoon cane mainly depends on the number tillers from the
stubbles of the previous crop. Timely stubble shaving or inter row cultivation is
usually carried out to straighten the rows. This is done to expose the
subterranean area and to facilitate the germination of deeply located healthy
buds. This will loose the soil and help to develop a deep root system, which is
important for nutrient uptake and water absorption from deeper soil profile.
By harvesting of plant crop, there may be some gaps due to the death of
stubbles. A good ratoon crop should have not more than 15 per cent gaps of the
total population. Gap filling should be done with healthy and disease free plants.
Sugarcane ratoon crop has high demand for fertilizer because of shallow
root system, decaying of old roots, sprouting of stubble buds and immobilization
of nitrogen. It is, therefore, recommended 25-30 percent more fertilizer for ratoon
crop than the plant crop. Experiments show that a nitrogen rate of about 210 kg
ha-1 along some nitrogen fixers such as Azotobacter and Azospirillum has a
significant effect on ratoon cane yield. Phosphorous and potassium both at the
rate of 85 kg ha-1 are recommended for ratoon crop. In case of micronutrient
deficient soils, foliar application of micronutrients play a vital role to optimize the
yield.
Ratoon crop has shallow root system and hence require more number of
irrigations. Moisture conservation practices such as mulching should be used to
decrease number of irrigation. Mulching of previous crop residue helped not only
to conserve soil moisture but also to increase the organic matter in to the soil.
This also suppresses the weed growth and improves fertilizer use efficiency of
the crop. In spite of crop residue, addition of cow dung, slurry or press mud may
be used for this purpose. A number of irrigations of 15-20 with an interval of 2025 days interval are sufficient for ratoon crop.
Excessive tillering of ratoon crop is a desired character for optimum yield.
For this purpose earthing up and moulding up is done to facilitate the germinated
buds to develop into a useful tiller. This also helps prevent the crop against
lodging and weeding out the pest plants.

42

Lodging of the crop has an adverse effect on the yield by increasing the disease
and other pest infestation. Proper practices to avoid lodging are necessary for
good yield. To prevent the crop against lodging, propping is done by tying the
canes together with dry leaves and bottom green leaves.
Protection of crop against diseases and insect pests is necessary for good yield.
Insect pests specific to ratoon crop are termites, mealy bugs, top borer, stem
borer, root borer, white fly, armyworm, sugarcane leafhopper and field cricket.
Diseases associated ratoons are smut, grassy shoot disease and ratoon-stunting
disease. These can be controlled by the removal of poor stubbles, growing
disease resistant varieties, and proper management practices.
Intercropping in ratoon cane crop is an important practice, which can
increases the income for the farmer from the same field. Intercropping of
berseem and wheat shows a significant increase in the income per hectare.
Besides the berseem and wheat, intercropping of pumpkin and watermelon is
also useful. Sugarcane crop planted in strips is most suitable for the
intercropping of other crops.
Some general recommendations for harvesting of September, spring, and ratoon
crops are:
 Ratoon crop matures early than normal/fresh crop
 September sown crop becomes harvestable earlier than spring crop

Age of Sugarcane Crop


The maturing/harvesting age of sugarcane crop in most of the sugarcane
growing countries are more than a year (15-24 months) but in Pakistan, it is an
annual crop (10-12 months). In some other countries, the age is : Hawaii (18-24
months), Java (Indonesia) (12-15 months), Mauritius (14-20 months), Australia
(20-25 months),South Africa (22-24 months), Philippines (11-14 months), Cuba
(12-15 months), India (10-12 months), and Pakistan (10-12 months).

43

Sugarcane technology
Introduction:
Sugarcane is thick tall tropical south East Asian grass having fibrous
nodded stubby stem with sweat sap. It is an important sugar crop playing an
important role in country` s economy. Sugarcane is not only the source of the
sugar but also important for a number of other industries, as its bagasse is used
in chip board and paper making as well as electricity generation .while press mud
as an organic fertilizer.
Similarly vinegar, alcohol and wide range of pharmaceutical products are
prepared for molasses Thus the role of the sugarcane is non negotiable in our
industrial and economic set up.
Analysis of sugar cane encompasses its qualitative and quantitative
parameters. The qualitative parameters (Brix %, Pol %, Purity % CCS %, Sugar
Rec. %. and Fiber %) depends upon chemical composition of cane juice while
quantitative parameters depend upon vegetative composition of cane.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CANE JUICE


Constituent

Percent

Water

73-76

Solids

24-27

Fiber (dry)

11-16

Soluble solids

10-16

Juice constituents.

Percentage Of Soluble
Solid.

Sugars

75-92

Sucrose

70-88

Glucose

2-4

Fructose

2-4

44

3.0-7.5

Salts
Of inorganic acids

1.5-4.5

Of organic acids

1.0-3.0
0.5-2.5

Free organic acids


Carboxylic acid

0.1-0.5

Amino acids

0.5-2.0

Other organic non-sugars


Protein

0.5-0.6

Starch

0.001-0.05

Gums

0.30-0.6

Waxes, fats, phosphatides

0.05-0.15

Unidentified non-sugars

3.0-5.0

Vegetative Composition Of Cane Plant


Percent of total crop

45

ANALYSIS OF SUGAR CANE


Analysis of cane includes brix%, Pol Reading, Pol% , Polarity%, CCS%,
Sugar Rec.% Fiber % and extraction % determination of juice. On the
basis of these qualitative figures the maturity of a cane variety is decided.
When a cane variety attains brix (20%), pol (18%) and purity (80%) in any
month from October to march, it will be considered mature.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Juice Extraction:The representative cane sample consists of 8-10 number of canes


which are passed through cane crusher to get juice . The extracted juice is
collected into a plastic bucket.

Juice Extractor
Brix:The extracted juice is transferred to a 500ml glass cylinder for brix
determination. Brix is recorded through brix hydrometer calibrated at 200C.
If temperature of juice is above 200C, then a correction factor is added into
46

the recorded brix reading, if the


correction factor is

temperature is below 20C, then

subtracted. Hydrometer is dip by swirling down

movement into cylinder after twenty minutes, So that juice temperature


may balance with room temperature and air bubble may release.

Measuring the Brix


Pol reading:1-4 g of dry lead sub acetate is mixed into 100ml of extracted juice.
The juice is then filtered into a volumetric flask through a filter paper
and injected into 200mm polarimeter tube to recrd the pol reading.
Pol reading is the measurement of the angle of rotation of
dextrorotatory

substances. Polarity works on the principle that

under certain

standard conditions i.e. standard tube length,

standard solution concentration and standard room temperature


when a polarized light is passed through that sugar solution , then
substances present rotate

light at a definite

measurement of that angle of rotation is pol reading.

47

angle. The

Polari meter
Pol%:It is the sucrose concentration and is determined by using brix &
pol reading from table.
Purity:
It is percentage of pol to brix.
CCS (Commercial Cane Sugar):It refers to commercial cane sugar. It is a fiber based Australian
formula. CCS is calculated by using brix % and pol% readings.
Sugar Recovery:It refers to calculated by multiplying CCS with a constant factor
0.94. Actually to convert brown sugar into white sugar; 6% white
sugar is also lost so a constant factor is used.
However, in Pakistan, sugar mills used Rec. (S.J.M.) formula to
determine sugar recovery.
Rec. (S.J.M.)=B.H.E. X B.H.R. X Pol% juice X Juice extraction .

48

Where
B.H .E = Boiling House Efficiency
B.H.R. = Boiling House Recovery

i.e. B.H.R. = S (J-M)


J (S-M)

Here
S

= Sucrose purity

= Sucrose purity

= Molasses purity

Fiber :To determine fiber, a sample of nine canes is obtained from field.
Out of these nine canes, top internodes of three canes, middle portion
internodes of next three canes while lower internodes of remaining three
canes are cut, separated, mixed and fed to the jaffco cutter grinder. This
instrument not only cuts and grinds but also minces the internodes. Now
500g sample of this grinded bagass was weighed and pressed under 2000
pound per square inches on a hydraulic press for a period of two minutes.
Thus a fresh fiber cake is prepared which is weighed and dried in an oven
for hours at 1050C. After hours, the dry fiber cake is weighed to calculate
fiber by the following method.
Sample wt.

500g

Juice brix

Fresh cake wt

Dry cake wt.

Difference (b-c) =

Brix in cake

= _a

100
Dry cake wt. - brix in cake (c-e)
Fibre % cane

___f
500

49

x 100

EXAMPLE:Sample wt.
Juice brix

=
=

500g

20%

Fresh cake wt.=

110g

Dry cake wt. =

70g

Difference

40g

Brix in cake

= __20 x 40 = 8
100

Dry cake wt. - brix in cake = 70 - 80 = 62


Fiber % cake

__62_ x 100 = 12.4%


500

Hydraulic press

50

Definitions Selected To Analysis


Brix:The brix of the solution is the concentration ( in gram solute per
100g solution ) of a solution of pure sucrose in water , having the same
density as the solution at the same temperature . if refractive index be
adopted as an alternative basis of composition the value derived should
be termed Refrectometer Brix .
CCS (commercial cane sugar):The percentage by weight of a quantity of cane which would be
recovered as pure sucrose (100 n.t. )
That percentage by weight of a quantity of cane which would be recovered
as pure sucrose (100 n.t.) if miling and refining opertions were conducted
at a prescribed standard of efficiency. The prescribed standard of
efficiency is such that for every pound of soluble impurities in the cane
one-half pound of sucrose is lost in the process, there being no othe
losses of sucrose.
Hence C.C.S. =sucrose percent cane impurities percent cane
2
in the normal application of this formula the following assumptions are made:1. Brix

total soluble solids (dry substances).

2. Sucrose

Pol.

3. Impurities

brix - Pol.

4. Brix percent cane = Pol percent first expressed juice x 100 (F + 3)


100
5. Pol percent cane =Pol percent first expressed juice x 100 (F + 5)
100
Hence
C.C.S. = Pol. In cane -

1 (Brix in cane - Pol in cane)


2

3P
2

(1 -

f+5 )- B(1- F+3 )


100

51

100

Where,
P

= Pol percent first expressed juice.

= Brix percent first expressed juice.

= Fiber percent cane

Fiber:
Technically, fiber is the dry, water insoluble matter in the cane. For
commercial purpose a standard method of determination of fiber percent
cane is specified.
Pol:The pol of a solution is the concentration (in g solute per 100g
solution) of a solution of pure sucrose in water having the same optical
rotation at the same temperature. For solutions containing only pure
sucrose in water, pol is a measure of the concentration of sucrose
present; for solution containing sucrose and other optically active
substances, Pol is the algebraic sum of the rotations of the constituents
present.
Purity:Purity is the percentage of sucrose in the total solids in a sample
are,
Apparent purity

= _pol x 100
Brix

Sugar:The crystals of sucrose together with any adhering molasses as


recovered from the molassccuites. The various grades are commonly
identified in terms of the grade of massccuite processed, or in terms of the
avenue of the sugar Hence, A sugar, C sugar, and Shipment sugar.

52

Analysis of Sugarcane Varieties.


Sugar

R1

Brix

Temp

Pol

Pol

Variety

( r)

Brix %

HSF-240

16.8

24

58

HSF-242

17

24

17.5

Purity

Fiber

CCS

recovery

Juice

17.04

14.14

82.98

12.5

10.3

9.68

57

17.24

13.88

80.51

12.5

9.89

9.3

24

61

17.78

14.82

83.35

12.5

10.83

10.18

17.3

24

59

17.54

14.35

81.81

12.5

10.35

9.73

20.7

24

77.87

20.98

18.67

88.99

12.5

14.24

13.39

18.7

24

64

18.98

15.47

81.51

12.5

11.13

10.46

19

24

66.5

19.28

16.08

83.3

12.5

11.73

11.03

17.7

24

61

17.98

14.81

82.37

12.5

10.73

10.09

19

24

66.6

19.28

16.08

83.4

12.5

11.75

11.05

21.7

24

80.45

21.98

19.21

87.4

12.5

14.49

13.62

18

24

62

18.28

15.03

82.22

12.5

10.88

10.23

US-694

18.7

24

67.5

18.98

16.32

85.99

12.5

12.18

11.45

HSF-240

17.5

24

61.5

17.78

14.94

84.03

12.5

10.98

10.32

HSF-242

17.6

24

61

17.88

14.81

82.83

12.5

10.77

10.12

18.8

24

68.8

19.08

16.63

87.16

12.5

12.52

11.77

17.5

24

61.5

17.78

19.94

84.03

12.5

10.98

10.32

21

24

79

21.28

18.92

88.91

12.5

15.02

14.12

S-2002US-133
S-2002US-162
S-2002US-312
S-2003US-127
S-2003US-165
S-2003US-312
S-2003US-394
S-2003US-633
S-2003US-64
S-2003-

R2

S-2002US-133
S-2002US-162
S-2002US-312

53

S-2003US-127

19

24

66

19.28

15.94

82.68

12.5

11.58

10.89

19.1

24

68.5

19.38

16.53

84.29

12.5

12.27

11.53

18.4

24

63.5

18.68

15.37

82.28

12.5

11.13

10.46

18.5

24

66

18.78

15.97

85.04

12.5

11.83

11.12

20.6

24

75

20.88

17.99

86.16

12.5

13.44

12.63

19.2

24

69.5

19.48

16.77

86.09

12.5

12.52

11.77

18.5

24

67

18.78

16.21

86.32

12.5

12.13

11.4

S-2003US-165
S-2003US-312
S-2003US-394
S-2003US-633
S-2003US-64
S-2003US-694

Purity

Fibre

Sugar

Variety

Brix %

Pol %

CCS %

recovery

HSF-240

17.41

14.54

83.51

12.5

10.64

10

HSF-242

17.56

14.35

81.67

12.5

10.33

9.71

S-2002- US-133

18.43

15.73

85.26

12.5

11.68

10.98

S-2002- US-162

17.66

14.65

82.92

12.5

10.67

10.03

S-2002- US-312

21.13

18.8

88.95

12.5

14.63

13.76

S-2003- US-127

19.13

15.71

82.1

12.5

11.36

10.68

S-2003- US-165

19.33

16.3

84.3

12.5

12

11.28

S-2003- US-312

18.33

15.09

82.33

12.5

10.93

10.28

S-2003- US-394

19.03

16.03

84.22

12.5

11.79

10.09

S-2003- US-633

21.43

18.6

86.71

12.5

13.97

13.13

S-2003- US-64

18.88

15.9

84.16

12.5

11.7

11

S-2003- US-694

18.88

16.27

86.16

12.5

12.16

11.43

54

RESULT AND DISCUSSION


The qualitative analysis of twelve sugarcane varieties with respect to Brix %,
Pol %, and Fibre%, CCS% and Sugar Recovery% was performed which is
as follows :Brix%:Brix %
25
20
15
10
5
0

H
S
F
-2
S
40
-2 H
00 SF
2- -2
S
U 4
-2
00 S- 2
13
2S
3
U
-2
S
00
-1
2
- U 62
S
-2
00 S31
3S
2
U
-2
00 S1
327
S
U
-2
00 S16
3S
5
U
-2
S
00
-3
312
S
U
-2
00 S39
34
U
S
S
-2
-6
00
33
S
3-2
00 US
-6
34
U
S
-6
94

Brix %

Brix%:The

highest

brix

%juice

was

recorded

in

variety

S-2003-US-

633(21.43%)which was followed by s-2002-us-312(21.13%),S-2003-US165(19.33%),S-2003-US-127(19.13%),S-2003-US-394(19.03%),S-2003-US64(18.88%),S-203-US-694(18.86%),S-2002-US-133(18.43%),S-2003-US212(18.33%),S-2002-US-162(17.66%),


240(17.41%), in descending order

HSF-242(17.56%),and

HSF-

(18.80%).
Pol %

20
15
10
5
0

Pol %
SHSF- HSFSSSSSSSSS240 242 2002- 2002- 2002- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US-64 US694
133 162 312 127 165 312 394 633

Pol%:The maximum pol% juice 18.80% was shown by s2002-us-32 while


s2003-us-633 and s2003-us-165 ranked third and fourth by producing

55

18.60% and 16.30% po%juice. HSF-242 showed minimum pol% juice


(14.35%)
Purity %
90
85
80
75

Purity %
HSF- HSF- SSSSSSSSSS240 242 2002- 2002- 2002- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US-

Purity%:As far as juice purity is concerned maximum juice purity (88.95%)was


showed by s-2002-us-312 while maximum (18.67%) by HSF-242. the
remaining ten varieties showed results intermediate to these.

CCS %
20
15
10
5
0

CCS %
SSSSSSSHSF- HSF- SSS240 242 2002- 2002- 2002- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US133 162 312 127 165 312 394 633 64 694

C.C.S. %:Higher value of CCS%(14.63) was noticed in s2002-us-312 while lowest


(10.33%) in HSF-242. the remaining varieties from s2003-us-633 to HSF240 followed a descending order trend.
Sugar recovery
15
10
5
0

Sugar recovery
SSSSSSSSHSF- HSF- SS240 242 2002- 2002- 2002- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003- 2003US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US- US133 162 312 127 165 312 394 633 64 694

56

Sugar Recovery:
sugar recover followed the same trend as that of CCS% because sugar
recovery is calculated by multiplying CCS% with a constant factor 0.94.

Causes of Low Yield and Low Sugar Recovery in


Pakistan
Some of the known factors of low yield and less sugar recovery
percentage are as follow:
 Due to improper management, ratoon productivity loses are 35%.
 Heavy infestation of weeds in sugarcane fields reduced cane yields by
more than 50%. It has been reported that 15-30 % reduction in yield of
sugarcane due to weeds in Pakistan is very common.
 Severe cold wave and mist reduces the sugarcane weight. Mist has
reduced the leaves of cane during last year (2007), which are used as
fodder by the farmers.
 Natural calamities like frost, white fly, and strong wind etc. have reduced
the sugar recovery by 1 1.5 % during 2007.
 Conventional methods of sugarcane planting, e.g., 60 cm spaced single
row restricts sugarcane yield significantly.
 Low cane growth and yield performance may also be due to deficiency of
micro nutrients in soil or in plant, i.e., Cu, Zn, B, and Mn especially in
ratoon crop.
 Use of non-approved and banned varieties of sugarcane by farmers,
which are susceptible to certain diseases (i.e., CO 1148, Tritron) and
insect pests, most likely in certain regions / environmental conditions.
 Improper use of fertilizer, e.g., its dose, time, and method of application.
 Shortage of irrigational water regarding its time and amount required by
sugarcane crop (64 80 acre inch delta of water).
 Seed rate is usually less at farmer field than recommended rate. This
result in less plant population that subsequently leads to low yield due to
less RUE. This also reduces its sugar recovery.

57

 Lack of addition of organic matter reduces soil fertility, if sugarcane is


grown at farm continuously. Farmers usually do not practice green
manuring, crop rotation and integrated crop management.
 Less incentive Government policies, especially regarding support prices.
Due to changing environment (global warming), the cost of production is
increasing and crop has become susceptible to adverse conditions like
frost. Govt. of Pakistan is doing less to compensate for it (PSMA, 2008).
 Marketing system inefficiency due to intermediary, and private buyers,
which pay less than fixed price. Usually timely payments are not made
which is another indirect reason that discourages farmers to grow
sugarcane in next season.
Some important losses (average) are;
 Transportation losses are 40%
 Poor handling losses are 1 2% including mill losses
 Insect pest losses are 40%
 Variety potential losses 35 40% due to management
In short, the constraints, limitations, and causes can be summarized as:
 Shortage of irrigation water
 Low plant population
 Poor seed bed preparation
 Improper planting methods
 Imbalanced use of fertilizer
 Less attention on ratoon crop
 Poor plant protection
 Defective marketing system

 Shortage of trained man power

58

Recommendations
Schematic recommendations are as follow:

Quality Seed
 Disease free seed
 Number and size of sets

 High sugar recovery varieties


Sowing Method
 Row x Row distance
 Depth of planting

Proper Irrigation Method


 Land leveling
 Deep planting
 Sprinkler/Drip irrigation (High efficiency system)
 Irrigation scheduling

Fertilizers
 Balanced fertilization
 Time of application

Proper Care of Ratoon Crop


 Gap filling
 Fertilizer application
 Proper time of harvesting
 Hoeing and earthing up

Marketing System
 Quality payment
 Support price
 Timely payment to farmers

Harvesting
 Scheduling according to varieties maturity
 Stoppage of irrigation (25-30 days before harvesting)
 Staling - Quick disposal to mills
59

 Clean canes
Properly managed ratoon crop is not only profitable but also it is energy
saver. It has been found that one ton of ratoon crop requires 89.0 million calories
compared to 204 million calories required by plant crop. They reported that a 12
month irrigated plant crop requires 482 person-days compared with 295 in
ratoon. In addition, it reduces environmental pollution and saves soil along with
its fauna.
Repeated soil ploughing not only creates a hard pan, but also it changes
soil structure deteriorating soil productivity. Thus ratooning is a sort of help to
maintain soil in good condition. Taking two or three ratoon crops with proper
management is normal practice.
Recently there has been emphasis on integrated nutrient management
including micronutrients. Experiments conducted have shown that besides Press
mud (sulphitation), Biofertilizers, Vermicompost, and Bio-compost can play an
important role in the integrated nutrient management rather than the use of
inorganic fertilizers alone. A combination of organic and inorganic sources of
nutrients can help in building up of soil fertility and improving cane yield and
quality. Proper nutrient management results in increased yield.
The two components of sucrose yield are biomass and the sucrose
fraction. Increasing one or both of these will increase yield. Biomass could be
increased by maximizing radiation interception and/or the efficiency of its use in
photosynthesis, or both. Sucrose yields could theoretically be increased by
raising the efficiency of biomass production per unit of intercepted radiation
and/or by increasing the fraction of total biomass partitioned to stalk sucrose.
It has been found that proper spaced planting in sugarcane can increase
yield up to 15% on average. According to SRI, 120cm apart double row planting
gives higher potential yield than conventional methods.
Optimization of different physiological phenomena can increase yield as well as
sugar recovery. For example, source sink optimization enhancing RUE by
different methods, partial defoliation, and by process based modeling can
enhance potential yield.

60

Cane Variety Development Program


Fuzz of desired crosses was imported from U.S.A., Australia, and Brazil.
This program continued until 2006, when the scheme was completed and could
not be renewed. The fuzz was imported worth Rs. 600000 per year. The material
imported is under selection and experimentation. No crossing is possible due to
unfavorable climate. Fuzz sowing is practiced in May, and transplanted in
September October in the field. The selection of seedling is done during next
October and selected clones are shifted to the Nursery I during October of
same year. The next year, selection is repeated and promoted clones are shifted
to Nursery II.
During 3rd year, selection is practiced again and it becomes Nursery III.
The selection from Nursery III is promoted to semi-final trial, then to early
medium and late final varietal trial. Thereafter promising varieties are tested in
the zonal varietal yield trial at farmer field (NUVYT) and coordinated varietal
trials. The clones showing good performance and unique characters are
submitted for inspection and approval before Punjab Seed Council. Therefore, a
variety development takes about 10 12 years.
Currently a promising clone/variety is in pipelining namely S 2002 US 637,
waiting for approval with a new name CPF 246. It has shown extraordinary
performance in every aspect, e.g., good cane yield, high sugar recovery,
resistance against lodging, high germination and tillering, good ratoon crop, and
resistance against frost. The next awaiting clones are S 2003 US 633
whose suggested name is CPF 247, S 2003 US 133, and S 2000
US 50. There are currently about 25 promising clones waiting for their turns.
The currently approved varieties are CPF 237, HSF -240, SPF 234, SPF
245, HSF 242. These varieties have high sugar recovery (more than 11).

Difficulties in Breeding of Sugarcane in Pakistan


For breeding of sugarcane, it has been a general practice to cross the
noble cane, Saccharum officinarum L., with other species to combine the high
yield of sugar of officinarum clones with hardiness and disease resistance

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species. This process in sugarcane circles has acquired the term Nobilization.
Usually two or three backcrosses or nobilization may be made to the officinarum
parent in order to recover satisfactory sucrose content and other desirable
qualities of the noble plant.

Botany of Sugarcane
Sugarcane flowers sparsely except in the tropical areas. Flowering in
sugarcane is affected by the ecological situation. Warm nights, humid conditions,
and high rainfall favors flowering, while cool weather and high altitude inhibit
flowering.
The sugarcane inflorescence consists of an open, branched panicle,
known as an arrow and may contain as 100000 flowers. The flowers are borned
in paired spikelets, one sessile, and one pedicellate. The flowers open early in
the morning usually between 5 6 A.M. About 7 to 14 days are required for an
arrow to complete flowering. The flowering starts at the top of the arrow and
proceeds downwards. Cross-pollination normally occurs.

Problems
Methods of breeding are based on the following considerations: The
sugarcane plant is a complex polyploidy and is highly heterozygous
The sugarcane plant is a complex polyploidy and is highly heterozygous
 The sugarcane plant does not flower freely except in favorable climatic
locations, or if it flowers it may not seed
 Male sterility and incompatibility may be present
 Sugarcane clones may be propagated vegetatively by means of stem
cuttings or sets.

The viability of fuzz in U.S.A. is 70%, while in Pakistan it is 7 10% only.


Fuzz requirements are:
 80 100% humidity

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 70 73o F temperature during day and 9 12o F temperature during


night
 11 12 shinning hours
Cane breeding research is handicapped due to climatic conditions.
Inappropriate breeding facilities (cane fuzz seed production) and shortage of
funds to operate research programmes effectively are some distinguishing
problems. In Pakistan, sugarcane flowers only in lower Sindh coastal areas,
Jabban valley in Malakand Agency, the NWFP, and in Murree Hills. However,
viable seed production is still a problem due to climatic conditions. The current
breeding programme cannot fulfill the varietal requirements of growers as such
programmes depend on the report of exotic cane setts, and fuzz seed of
sugarcane varieties that needs heavy investment in foreign exchange.

Cost of Production/Estimates of Sugarcane 2007-08


Sr.#

Operation/Input

No.

of

operations/Inpu

Rate per unit

Cost per acre

(Rs.)

(Rs.)

t acre-1
1

Preparatory Tillage

1.1

Deep ploughing

530/-

1.2

Ploughing (Cultivator)

230/-

1.3

Leveling

250/-

Seed Bed Preparation

2.1

Ploughing

230/-

2.2

Planking

115/-

Seed And Sowing Operation


2.3

Seed (Kg)

2400

2/- per Kg

2.4

Seed treatment

2.5

Ridging

230/-

2.6

Sowing Charges (M.D)

160/-

2.7

Bund Making (M.D)

0.5

160/-

Sowing

Fertilizers ( Bags)

3.1

Urea

530/-

3.2

DAP

1.5

920/-

3.3

Potash

0.5

960/-

3.4

Transportation

10/-

63

3.5

Application (M.D.)

0.5

160/-

3.6

F.Y.M (Trolly)

400/-

3.7

Transportation

240/-

&

spreading (F.Y.M)
4

Interculture

4.1

Blind hoeing (M.D.)

160/-

4.2

Earthing up (M.D.)

160/-

Plant Protection

5.1

Fungicide

5.2

Insecticide

500/-

5.3

Application

Terminology
Absolute juice:
All the solids in the solution in the cane, together with all the water in the
cane; i.e. Absolute juice = cane fiber

Bagasse:
The residues after extraction of juice from cane in one or more mills.
Hence the term, First Mill bagasse, are used.

Brix:
The brix of a solution is the concentration (in g solute per 100 g solution)
of a solution of a pure sucrose in water, having the same density as the solution
at the same temperature. If refrective index were adopted as an alternative basis
of comparison, the value derived should be termed as refractometer brix.

Cane:
The raw material delivered to the mill, including clean cane , trash and
many other extraneous material.

C.C.S (commercial cane sugar):


An estimation of pure sugar recoverable from cane expressed as
percentage. the percentage by weight of a quantity of cane which would be
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recovered as a pure sucrose (100 n.t.) if milling and refining operations were
conducted t prescribed standard of efficiency. The prescribed standard of
efficiency is such that for every pound of soluble impurities in the cane one-half
pound of sucrose is lost in process, there being no losses of sucrose.
Hence C.C.S. = POLE IN CANE (BIX IN CANE POL IN CANE)
= 3p/2 (1 F +5/109) B/2 (1 F+3/100)
Where P = pole percent first expressed juice
B = brix percent first expressed juice
F = fiber percent cane

Dextran:
A polysaccharide formed by the action of certain species of bacteria on
sucrose during cane and juice storage.

Extraction (Pol):
The percentage of pol extracted from the incoming material by a train of a
mill either individually or cumulatively. Analogous definition applied to sucrose
extraction, brix extraction and juice extraction.

Fiber:
Technically, fiber is the dry, water insoluble matter in the cane.

Filter cake:
The washed residue discharged from mud filter.

First expressed juice:


The juice expressed by first two rollers of a mill tandem.

Molasses:
The mother liquid separated from a massecuite. It is distinguished by the
same term as the massecuite from which it was extracted.

NonSucrose:
The difference between dry substance and sucrose

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NonSugars:
The difference between brix and pol.

Pol:
The pol of a solution is the concentration (in g solute per 100g solution) of
a solution of pure sucrose in water having the same optical rotation at the same
temperature. For solution containing only pure sucrose in water, pol is a measure
of sucrose present; for solution containing and other optically active substances,
pol is the algebraic sum of the rotations of the constituents present.
Rec. tons of pol recovered in sugar expressed as percentage of tons of
pol in cane. Rec. = sugar in cane * 100

Cane maturity criteria:


If brix is above 20 and rec. above 10, then it will be early variety. If rec. above 8,
it will be medium variety and if rec. below 8 then it will be a late maturing variety.

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