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Biology 102 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Daniel Marc G. dela Torre


2007-76293

Cat Musculature
Muscles of the Abdominal Wall (Hypaxial)
Muscle
Origin
External Oblique
Lumbodorsal fascia &
posterior ribs
Internal Oblique
Transversus
Rectus Abdominis
Muscles of the Chest
Muscle
Pectoantibrachialis
Pectoralis Major

Lumbodorsal fascia & border


of pelvic girdle (cat)
Lumbodorsal fascia & border
of pelvic girdle (cat)
Anterior end of the pubic
symphysis

Origin
Manubrium

Pectoralis Minor

Sternum & median ventral


raphe
Sternum

Xiphihumeralis

Xiphoid process of sternum

Muscles of the Upper Back and Shoulder and Back of the Neck
Muscle
Origin
Latissumus dorsi
Neural spines of the last
thoracic & most of the lumbar
vertebrae & lumbodorsal
fasica
Trapezius muscles
Spinotrapezius
Spines of the thoracic
Acromiotrapezius

Neural spines of cervical and

Insertion
Extensive neurosis w/c passes
to the linea alba & on the
pubis (cat)
Linea alba by the extensive
aponeurosis
Linea alba by the extensive
aponeurosis
Sternum and costal cartilages

Insertion
Flat tendon on the fascia of
the forearm
Humerus

Action
Constrictor of the abdomen
Compressor of the abdomen
Compressor of the abdomen
Retracts ribs & sternum,
compresses abdomen

Draws
Draws

Humerus

Draws

Humerus

Draws

Action
the arm toward
chest
the arm toward
chest
the arm toward
chest
the arm toward
chest

the
the
the
the

Insertion
Tendon on the medial surface
of the humerus

Action
Pulls the forelimb dorsally and
caudally

Fascia of the scapula

Draws the scapula dorsad and


caudad
Draws scapula dorsad & holds

Metacromion process & spine

first thoracic vertebrae


Clavotrapezius
Levator scapulae ventralis
Rhomboideus
Rhomboideus capitis
Splenius
Supraspinatus
Deltoids
Clavodeltoid or
clavobrachialis
Acromiodeltoid
Spinodeltoid
Infraspinatus
Teres major
Teres minor
Subscapularis
Serratus ventralis

Serratus dorsalis
Scalenes

Superior nuchal line & median


dorsal line of neck
Transverse process of the atlas
& occipital bone
Neural spines of vertebrae &
adjacent ligaments
Superior nuchal line

of the scapula & fascia of the


spinotrapezius
Clavicle
Metacromion process &
neighboring fascia
Vertebral border of the
scapula
Scapula

Draws the clavicle dorsad and


craniad
Draws the scapula craniad
Draws scapula dorsad
Draws the scapula craniad and
rotates it
Raises or turns the head
Extends the humerus

Middorsal line & fascia


Whole surface of the
supraspinous fossa

Superior nuchal line


Greater tuberosity of the
humerus

Passing ventrally from the


acromion process
Spine of scapula
Surface of infraspinous fossa
of scapula
Axillary border of the scapula
& fascia of neighboring
muscles
Axillary border of scapula
Subscapular fossa
Slips from the first 9/10 ribs &
levator scapulae from
transverse process of last 5
cervicals
Aponeurosis from median
dorsal line
Ribs

Surface of the houlder

Raise and rotate the humerus

Deltoid ridge of humerus


Greater tuberosity of the
humerus
Medial surface of the humerus

Raise and rotate the humerus


Rotates the humerus

Greater tuberosity
Lesser tuberosity
Scapula near the vertebral
border

Assists the infraspinatus


Pulls humerus medially
Draws scapula craniad,
ventrad, and against the
thoracic wall

Last ribs

Draws ribs forward

Transverse processes of
cervical vertebrae

Draws ribs forward and bend


the neck
External intercostals ribs
forward. Internal intercostals
draws ribs back
Iliocostals

Intercostals
Epaxial muscles of the
thorax:

the two scapulae together

Semispinalis dorsi

Longissimus

Rotates and lowers the


humerus

Muscles of the Upper Arm


Muscle
Triceps brachii:
Long head
Lateral head
Medial head
Fourth head
Epithrochlearis or extensor
antibrachii
Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Muscles of the Forearm
Muscle
Extensor carpi ulnaris

Origin

Insertion

Action

Scapula
Greater tuberosity of humerus
Dorsal surface of humerus
Distal end of humerus

Olecranon
Olecranon
Olecranon
Lateral surface of ulna

Latissimus dorsi

Olecranon

Glenoid fossa
Lateral surface of humerus

Radius
Ulna

Great extensor of forearm


Great extensor of forearm
Great extensor of forearm
Strengthens elbow joint &
rotates ulna
Great extensor of forearm and
rotates the ulna
Flexor of the forearm
Flexor of the forearm

Origin
Lateral epicondyle of humerus
& semilunar notch of ulna
Lateral surface of humerus
above lateral epicondyle
Lateral surface of humerus
above lateral epicondyle
About middle of humerus

Extensor digitorum
lateralis
Extensor digitorum
communis
Brachioradialis or
supinator longus
Extensor carpi radialis
Pronator teres

Humerus near other extensors


Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion
Proximal end of fifth
metacarpal
Split tendon underlying the
tendons of the next
Split tendon underlying the
tendons of the next
Lower end of radius &
adjacent ligaments
Second & third metacarpals
Radius

Flexor carpi radialis

Medial epicondyle of humerus

Second and third metacarpals

Palmaris longus

Medial epicondyle of humerus

Flexor profundus digitorum


Flexor carpi ulnaris

Ulna & humerus


Medial epicondyle of humerus
& olecranon process of ulna

Flat tendon w/c branches to


4/5 tendons under palm
Basal phalanges
Heads join to a tendon w/c
inserts on pisiform bone of
wrist

Muscles of the Thigh


Muscle
Tensor fascia latae
Biceps femoris

Origin
Ilium & neighboring fascia
Ischial tuberosity

Insertion
Fascia lata
Patella & tibia by a tendon &
fascia of the shank

Action
Extends fifth digit and ulnar
side of wrist
Extends 3 or 4 digits
Extends 3 or 4 digits
Rotates hand to supine
position
Extends hand
Rotates radius to prone
position
Flexes the second and third
metacarpals
Flexor of digits
Flexor of the fingers
Flexes ulnar side of wrist

Action
Tightens the fascia lata
Abductor of thigh and flexor of
shank

Caudofemoralis
Gluteus maximus
Gluteus medius

Transverse process of the


second and third caudal
vertebrae
From fascia & from the
transverse processes of last
sacral and 1st caudal
Adjacent fascia, crest of the
ilium, and lateral surface of
ilium, and transverse process
of last sacral and 1st caudal

By tendon to patella

Abductor of thigh and


extensor of shank

Fascia lata and slightly to the


greater trochanter

Abductor of the thigh

Strong tendon on the greater


trochanter of femur

Abductor of thigh

Adductor and rotator of the


thigh and extensor of the
shank
Extensor of shank

Sartorius

Crest & ventral border of ilium

Proximal end of tibia & patella


& fascia & ligaments between

Vastus lateralis

Greater trochanter & surface


of femur
Ilium, near acetabulum
Femur
Surface of femur
Ischial and pubic symphyses
Pubis
Pubis
Ischium

Patella and adjacent ligaments

Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus intermedius
Gracilis
Adductor longus
Adductor femoris
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Tenuissimus

Muscles of the Shank


Muscle
Tibialis anterior

Ischial tuberosity
Transverse process of the
second caudal vertebrae (w/
caudofemoralis)

Origin
Proximal parts of tibia and
fibula

Extensor digitorum longus

Lateral epicondyle of femur

Peroneus
Gastrocnemius

Fibula
Surface fascia, femur, tendon

Patella and adjacent ligaments


Patella and adjacent ligaments
Patella and adjacent ligaments
Aponeurosis passing the tibia
Femur
Femur
Medial epicondyle of femur
and proximal end of tibia
Tibia
Patella & tibia by a tendon &
fascia of the shank

Insertion
Strong tendon passing
obliquely to medial side of foot
inserted on the first
metatarsal
Stout tendon diverging into
four tendons inserting into
digits
Metatarsals and digits
Strong tendon passing to the

Extensor of shank
Extensor of shank
Extensor of shank
Adductor of leg
Adductor of the thigh
Adductor of thigh
Extensor of thigh
Flexor of the shank
Abductor of thigh and flexor of
shank

Action
Flexor of foot

Extensors of digits
Extensors and flexors of foot
Extensor of foot

Tibial, fibula, and adjacent


fascia

calcaneus (heel bone)


Calcaneus
Thick tendon passing through
a tube of tendons inserting
to a digit
Dividing tendons inserting to
digits

Cleidomastoid

Origin
Median raphe & manubrium of
sternum
Median ventral line and first
costal cartilage
Clavicle or mastoid process

Insertion
Skull from lamboidal ridge
onto mastoid process
Hyoid bone, uniting in the
medial line
Clavicle or mastoid process

Clavotrapezius and
clavobrachialis
Masseter

Clavicle and fibers of


clavotrapezius
Zygomatic arch

Ulna

Temporal

Digastric
Mylohyoid

Side of skull from posterior


nuchal line to zygomatic
process of frontal bone part of
zygomatic arch
Jugular and mastoid process
Mandible, under digastrics

Geniohyoid
Sternothyroid
Thyrohyoid

Mandible near symphysis


Sternum like sternohyoid
Sides of thyroid cartilage

Soleus
Plantaris
Flexor digitorum longus
Muscles o the Neck and Throat
Muscle
Sternomastoid
Sternohyoid

and fascia of plantaris


Fibula
Patella and femur

Posterior half of lateral surface


of mandible
Coronoid process of mandible

Mandible
Median raphe
Body of hyoid
Thyroid cartilage of larynx
Posterior horn of hyoid

Extensor of foot
Flexor of digits
Flexor of digits

Action
Singly turn head, together
depress head on neck
Draw hyoid posteriorly
Pulls clavicle craniad or turns
head, acts singly, or lowers
head on neck
Flexor of forearm
Elevator of the lower jaw
Elevator of jaw, like masseter

Depressor of lower jaw


Raises floor of mouth and
brings hyoid forward
Draws hyoid forward
Pulls the larynx posteriorly
Raises the larynx