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1. Consider an FM wave

() = cos[2 + 1 sin 21 + 2 22 ]

The maximum deviation of the instantaneous frequency from the carrier

frequency fc is

(a) 1 1 + 2 2

(c) 1 + 2

(b) 1 2 + 2 1

(d) 1 + 2

[GATE 2014: 1 Mark]

Soln. The instantaneous value of the angular frequency

= +

( + )

+ +

= + +

Frequency deviation ( )

= +

Option (a)

signal m(t) has frequency components less than 5 kHz only. The minimum

required rate (in kHz) at which y(t) should be sampled to recover m(t) is ____

[GATE 2014: 1 Mark]

Soln. The minimum sampling rate is twice the maximum frequency called

Nyquist rate

The minimum sampling rate (Nyquist rate) = 10K samples/sec

2 sin(8000) + 4 cos(8000)]. The average power of () is

(a) 10 W

(c) 20 W

(b) 18 W

(d) 28 W

[GATE 2010: 1 Mark]

Soln. The average power of an angle modulated signal is

=

=18 W

Option (b)

where, are positive constants, and . The complex

envelope of s(t) is given by

(a) exp() [( + )]()

(b) exp() exp() ()

(c) ()()

(d) [( + )]

[GATE 1999: 1 Mark]

Soln. () = [( + )]()

= ()

Complex envelope ()

= [ ( +) . ()]

= ()

Option (b)

the maximum frequency deviation being 50 KHz. The bandwidth required.

as given by the Carsons rule is ___________

[GATE 1994: 1 Mark]

Soln.

By carsons rule

= ( + )

= ( + . )

=

(a) DSB suppressed carrier signal

(b) AM signal

(c) SSB upper sideband signal

(d) Narrow band FM signal

[GATE 1994: 1 Mark]

Soln. () = ( ) ( ) + ( + )

Carrier and upper side band are in phase and lower side band is out of

phase with carrier

The given signal is narrow band FM signal

Option (d)

7. The input to a coherent detector is DSB-SC signal plus noise. The noise at

the detector output is

(a) the in-phase component

(c) zero

(b) the quadrature-component

(d) the envelope

[GATE 2003: 1 Mark]

therefore noise at the output has in phase component only.

Option (a)

8.

modulating signals and modulation indices of 0.1 are added together. The

resultant signal can be closely approximated by

(a) Broadband FM

(c) DSB-SC

(b) SSB with carrier

(d) SSB without carrier

[GATE 2004: 1 Mark]

Soln. () = +

( + ) +

( )

()()

= +

.

.

( + )

( )

() + () = + . ( + )

The resulting signal is SSB with carrier

Option (b)

9.

The List-I (lists the attributes) and the List-II (lists of the modulation

systems). Match the attribute to the modulation system that best meets it.

List-I

(A) Power efficient transmission of signals

(B) Most bandwidth efficient transmission of voice signals

(C) Simplest receiver structure

(D) Bandwidth efficient transmission of signals with significant dc

component

List-II

(1) Conventional AM

(2) FM

(3) VSB

(4) SSB-SC

A

B

C

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

1

[GATE 2011: 1 Mark]

simplest receiver. Vestigial sideband is bandwidth efficient transmission

of signals with sufficient dc components. Single sideband, suppressed

carrier (SSB-SC) is the most bandwidth efficient transmission of voice

signals.

Option (b)

10.The signal m(t) as shown I applied both to a phase modulator (with kp as the

phase constant) and a frequency modulator with (kf as the frequency

constant) having the same carrier frequency

The ratio / (in rad/Hz) for the same maximum phase deviation is

m(t)

-2

0

-2

8 t(seconds)

(a) 8

(b) 4

(c) 2

(d)

[GATE 2012: 2 Marks]

Soln. For a phase modulator, the instantaneous value of the phase angle is

equal to phase of an unmodulated carrier () plus a time varying

component proportional to modulation signal m(t)

() = + ()

Maximum phase deviation ( )

= () =

For a frequency modulator, the instantaneous value of the angular

frequency

= + ()

The total phase of the FM wave is

= + ()

( ) =

=

=

=

Option (b)

10[cos 2 105 + 5 sin(2 1500) + 7.5 sin(2 1000)]

with carrier frequency of 105 Hz. The modulation index is

(a) 12.5

(c) 7.5

(b) 10

(d) 5

[GATE 2008: 2 Marks]

Soln. Frequency modulated signal

[ + ( ) + . (

)]

The instantaneous value of the angular frequency

= +

[ ( ) + . ( )]

Frequency deviation

= ( ) + . ( )

( ) = ( + )

Frequency deviation () =

Modulation index =

= 10

Option (b)

( )

modulated with carrier frequency 1 = 106 . The resulting signal is then

passed through a narrow-band frequency Modulator with carrier frequency

2 = 109 .

The bandwidth of the output would be

(a) 4 104

(c) 2 109

(b) 2 106

(d) 2 1010

[GATE 2006: 2 Marks]

Soln. Lower side band frequency =

=

Considering this as the baseband signal, the bandwidth of narrow band

FM

=

Option (b)

An FM signal with frequency deviation of 90 KHz and modulating signal

bandwidth of 5 KHz is applied to this device. The bandwidth of the output

signal is

(a) 370 KHz

(c) 380 KHz

(b) 190 KHz

(d) 95 KHz

[GATE 2005: 2 Marks]

Soln. Frequency deviation =

Modulating signal bandwidth = 5 KMz

When FM signal is applied to doubler frequency deviation doubles.

. = ( + )

= ( + )

=

Option (a)

() = cos(2 2 106 + 2 30 sin 150 + 2 40 cos 150)

The maximum frequency and phase deviations of s(t) are

(a) 10.5KHz, 140 rad

(c) 10.5 KHz, 100 rad

(b) 6 KHz, 80 rad

(d) 7.5 KHz, 100 rad

[GATE 2002: 2 Marks]

Soln. The total phase angle of the carrier

= +

= + +

Instantaneous value of angular frequency

= +

( + )

= +

= +

Frequency deviation = [ ]

= + /

= /

= . /

=

= .

= +

= =

Option (d)

5 KHz. The bandwidth by Carsons approximation is 1MHz. If y(t) =

(modulated waveform)3, then by using Carsons approximation, the

bandwidth of y(t) around 300 MHz and the spacing of spectral components

are, respectively.

(a) 3 MHz, 5 KHz

(c) 3 MHz, 15 KHz

(b) 1 MHz, 15 KHz

(d) 1 MHz, 5 KHz

[GATE 2000: 2 Marks]

Soln. In an FM signal, adjacent spectral components will get separated by

modulating frequency =

= ( + ) =

+ =

=

The nth order non-linearity makes the carrier frequency and frequency

deviation increased by n-fold, with baseband frequency fm unchanged.

( ) =

=

= ( + )

= .

Option (a)

The modulation index in the output signal will be

(a) 0

(c) 9

(b) 3

(d) 27

[GATE 1996: 2 Marks]

Soln. The frequency modulation index is multiplied by n in ntimes

frequency multiplier.

, =

= 27

Option (d)

the sensitivity constant of 10 KHz/volt. Then the modulation index of the

FM wave is

(a) 4

(c) 4/

(b) 2

(d) 2/

[GATE 1989: 2 Marks]

Soln. Modulation index

=

= /

Am is the amplitude of modulating signal

fm is the modulating frequency

Option (a)

modulation index is mf. The expression for the resulting FM signal is

(a) cos[ + sin ]

(b) cos[ + cos ]

(c) cos[ + 2 sin ]

(d) cos [ +

cos ]

[GATE 1989: 2 Marks]

() = [ + ()]

Kf is the frequency sensitivity of the modulator

() = =

() = [ +

Option (a)

19. A message m(t) bandlimited to the frequency fm has a power of Pm. The

power of the output signal in the figure is

multiply

Ideal low

Pass filter

Cut of f=fm

Pass band

gain=1

Output signal

(a)

(b)

cos

(c)

(d)

2

4

2

4

Soln. Output of the multiplier = () ( + )

=

()

[( + ) + ]

Output of LPF () =

()

= ()

= ()

=

()

=

()

Option (d)

20.c(t) and m(t) are used to generate an FM signal. If the peak frequency

deviation of the generated FM signal is three times the transmission

bandwidth of the AM signal , then the coefficient of the term

coefficients) is

5

(a) 54 (3)

(c) 8 (4)

2

(b) 8 (3)

(d) 54 (6)

Soln.

() = ( ) ( + )

=

AM signal

= =

Modulation index

=

=

=

[( )] = [( + ) ]

=

The required coefficient is ()

Option (d)

Fourier transforms of () () respectively. The ideal HPF has the

cutoff frequency 10 KHz.

x(t)

Balanced

Modulator

Balanced

Modulator

HPF

10KHz

10 KHz

13 KHz

X(f)

f (KHz)

-3

-1

(a) 1 KHz and 24 KHz

(c) 1 KHz and 14 KHz

(b) 2 KHz and 24 KHz

(d) 2 KHz and 14 KHz

[GATE 2004: 2 Marks]

Soln. Input signal x(f) has the peaks at 1KHz and -1Mhz.

The output of balanced modulator will have peaks at

, () =

=

() = () =

9 MHz will be filtered out by the HPF

After passing through 13 KHz balanced modulator, the signal will have

frequencies.

() =

Option (b)

Consider the following Amplitude Modulated (AM) signal,

Where <

22. The average side-band power for the AM signal given above is

(a) 25

(c) 6.25

(b) 12.5

(d) 3.125

[GATE 2006: 2 Marks]

Soln. The average sideband power for the AM signal is

=

=

=

= .

So,

(. )

=

= .

Option (c)

23. The AM signal gets added to a noise with Power Spectral Density Sn(f)

given in the figure below. The ratio of average sideband power to mean

noise power would be:

(a)

(b)

25

(c)

80

25

(d)

40

25

20

25

0

Soln. The AM signal gets added to a noise with spectral density ()

The noise power

= ()

= ()

Noise power = [

=

Power in sidebands =

()

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