FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF EXCAVATION, Brown&Booker C&G, 85.pdf

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FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF EXCAVATION, Brown&Booker C&G, 85.pdf

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FINI~

KI~NT

ANALYSIS OF EXCAVATION

School of Civil and Mining Engineering

University of Sydney

Sydney, N.S.W., 2006

Australia

ABSTRACT

The finite element method has often been used to simulate excavation.

When the soll is linearly elastic, the results of excavation should be

independent of the number of stages in the excavation process, and lack of

such independence

indicates an incorrect procedure.

The simple direct

method described in this paper provides the required independence In the

case of linearly elastic materials, and hence can be used for multl-stage

excavation

in non-linear

problems

without

excessive

errors.

However

methods whose errors increase with the number of stages of excavation are

quite unsuitable for non-llnear problems.

Alternative methods of analysis,

errors arising from the inability of the elements to model adequately

the

stress gradients near the toe of the excavation and excavation adjacent to

a diaphragm wall are discussed.

INTROML~FION

The

finite

potentially

However,

element

powerful

method

tool

for

provides

geotechnlcal

simulation

of

the

engineers

excavation

with

process.

errors

are to be avoided.

For example

errors

Christian

discovered

braced excavations.

as

few

stages

concentration

While

as

while

and Wong

in reference

developing

a program

They concluded

possible,

to simulate

that excavations

because

trouble

reported

arises

some serious

construction

of

should be simulated

in

when

points

of stress

are excavated.

it may

be

satisfactory

to simulate

an

excavation

in

linearly

207

Publishers Ltd, England, 1985. Printed in Great Britain

208

elastic

material

unlikely

to

be

by

excavation

satisfactory

in

when

one

stage,

this

the

material

form of

behaviour

simulation

is

non-linear.

Hence the authors of this paper sought a method which did not introduce

errors

referred

elastic

as

to above.

This method

shown

in

intended

reference

as

the

should

[2].

basis

checked

be independent

Such

for

could be

method

simulation

is

of

for

is

the

the

linearly

presented

excavation

here,

in

and

is

non-linear

materials.

EXCAVATION SIMULATION"

The

basic

aspects

of

simulation

the

shaded

portion

of excavation

by

the

finite

element

A is to be excavated,

leaving

the unshaded

portion B.

by

the

tractions

(T) which

were

previously

internal

stresses

applying equal and opposite tractions,

Simulation

of

determination

of

of

the

stage

as shown in Fig.l(c).

determination

stiffness

for example by

involves

the

of

in the soil

of excavation

soil mass

thus

B, and application

of tractions

-~ to the

Finite

(a)

element

implementation

of

this

process

involves

(b)

()

FIGURE i.

Simulation of Excavation

determination

209

of

the

nodal

forces

which

are

equivalent

to

the

tractions

shown

in

Fig. l (c).

considered

methods

lent

nodal

were

dependent

involving

forces

from known

determination

values

These

and as Christian

in reference

to determine

[3]

the excavation

report

and equlva-

except

when

which

a high

The implementation

and Nong

say,

of

the method

problem.

that

boundary

and Wong

gave results

of excavation,

and Mana

Christian

of tractions

of stress.

of stages

laborious,

proposed

of methods.

appears

Clough

direct

on the number

order polynomial

such methods

out by a variety

blana in reference

[4]

forces as

~

in which

unexcavated

vector,

in

is

reference

column

number

elements,

and

results

the

report

elements.

Desal

which

and

this paper,

each

work

stresses

is

unable

excavation

Sargand

propose

to

produce

correct

a method

using

of stresses,

hybrid

but includes

equation

forces

that total

of excavation.

are

with

including

tractions.

body

boundary

o is the stress

However,

Then

as

the

terms

is shown

due

conceptually

and

external

equillbrit~n

While

methods

simpler,

the

tractions

to stresses,

throughout

method

is

of

integrathe

maintained

on extrapolation

recommended

body

section

numerical

is approximately

based

is to start

in the next

in such a way

stage

and

a common

strain matrix,

method

involving

approach,

external

tion of stresses,

mass,

have

An alternative

from the virtual

this

that

problem

integration of surface

forces

which

[5]

stress model,

of elements

B is the displacement

for a simple

of

f sTo dV

m=l v

soil

at

of known

easier

to

210

implement

~Ithout

loss

of

accuracy.

Other

energy,

adequate

will

in general

solutions

give

incorrect

integration

of body

forces

results,

methods,

which

to the total

strain

although

to some problems.

are

no'

The

soil mass

the

excavation,

excavation

strains are

is subject

to body

and

after

and

~i

i-th

stage

of

tractions

excavation

the

Fig.2.

t outside

stresses

and

respectively.

to determine

to simulate

~i

the

~o~

satisfactorily

iili

.~o: O

Initk~l

store

g=.~l

~ : . o -o

Vo---

-.~o = D .~1

J

V~

End of f i r s t

stage

ti1t

_~ = .~2

O'2- O1 = D (e2-el)

End of s e c o n d stage

FIGURE 2.

211

The

impose

stage

procedure

an arbitrary

of

performed

the

adopted

(virtual)

excavation.

during

i-th

stage

incremental

for determination

Then

nodal

by

that displacement,

of

excavation

displacement

equating

nodal

of these

the

at

the

internal

the nodal

forces

forces

end

and

of

to

the

i-th

external

work

required

based

is

to simulate

can

be

determined,

on

be

6u

total

not

equilibrium.

strains and

nodal displacements

be

6e

and ~a.

Equating

f(6~T~i)dV

= f (~uT!)dV +

Vi

where

(1)

f(~T!)dS

Vi

S i is the surface

Si

excavation.

Now writing

equation

A~i

ffi ~i

A~i

ffi ~i

Ao

i~

DAei~

Zi-1

where D

matrix

is

the

incremental

stress-strain

f(~cT(Aoi + Zi_l))dV

Vi ~

= f (~uT~) dv + f(6~T~)dS

Vi ~ ~

f(6~TDA~i)dV

Vi

f(~aTBTDBAai)dV

Vi

Si

-f(6Toi_l)dV

Vi

+ f(6uT~)dV + f(eTt)dS

Vi ~ ~

Si

Vi

Vi

Si

(2)

212

Since the above relationship holds for arbitrary displacements

(~(BTDB)dV)Aa

Vi

= -f(BToI_I)dV+f(NTy)dV + f(NTt)dS

Vi

- _

VI

Si

K'A~i

= [i,i-1

+ ~i + ~i

(3)

tion of ~i-l' ~

and

the body over which the integration takes place, and the second subscript

(if any) indicates the stress state which is integrated.

need

to be applied

f, g and

to retain

h~

total equilibrium

in carrying

out the

i-th

stage of excavation.

Restricting

attention

now

to

the

linearly

elastic

case,

it

is

of

f(6~ TD ~i)dV

Vi

(4)

~

+ f(6uTt)dS~

~

Vi

Vi

Si

~i-I - D ~i-I

and

making

this

~o

substitution

(5)

in

equation

(4)

and

converting

to

finite

element form

K'~i

Equation

precisely

(6)

ffi ~i,O +

corresponds

equivalent

to

to

repeated

~i

~i

single

application

(6)

stage

of

excavation,

equation

(3)

and

for

is

the

linearly elastic case, provided that the sample points used to evaluate the

stiffness matrix are also used to evaluate the nodal forces corresponding

to each

'initial stress'.

213

obtained due to inadequate

finite

elements,

number

of excavation

achieves

the

multi-stage

no

representation

additional

stages,

theoretically

errors

will

be

if this method

correct

caused

by

is used.

equality

increasing

Hence

between

by the

the

this method

single-stage

and

Gauss

per

excavation.

DISCUSSION OF RXSULI'S

Finite

element

element

and

analyses

the

meshes

were

shown

carried

in

out

Fig.3,

using

which

P,|

consist

1"0

Im

1'0

1.0

smoot h ~

1"0

fixed

(a)

1.0

0.9 0.1

~--------0.1

"~'0.2

smooth~

0.1k~7 1'0 1.0 1-0 1.0 1-0

(b)

1.0

"'fixed

o.1 0.2

not to scale

~0<)6

"'I;',;~1111

.' ., .I.I.I I I,I,I,I,

~0"06

IIII

smooth~__

(c)

0"72

Y/) IIII

III111111 0

1.0 " 0 . 7 2

1.0 1.0 1-0 1.0 " ' f i x e d

b o6cb(b(b66

FIGURE 3.

points

of

8-noded

214

isoparametric

rectangles,

the

excavation

consisting

of

the

The excavated

carried

one

displacements

whether

was

and where

out

horizontal

obtained

at

in

row

the

one-stage,

of

or

elements.

completion

of

in

In

several

each

excavation

Poisson's

discussed

ratio

in this

(v) was

0.47,

paper

Young's

Ko

= 0.5

shown

in

and

stages

case

the

were

analyses

isotropic

(E) was

the unit

weight

each

nodal

identical,

stages.

modulus

and

For all

I0,000 kPa,

of

the

soil

was 20 kN/m 3 .

Analyses

using

the

mesh

by linear extrapolation

next

to be excavated.

3(a),

were

also

carried

out

of stresses

This was

Fig.

points

in the elements

line to the

resulting values of stress on the excavation boundary for each element, and

/l/'/~'2'

,// ~

/:~ /

JJ I

"k~

"-~

3

Proposed Method

Stress Extrapolation:

2 Stage. 0.Sm Elements o o o

2 Stage, ~Om Elements . . . . .

4 Stage, C)-Srn Elements . . . . . . .

FIGURE 4.

Displacements

215

calculation

carried

of

the

out with

into elements

equivalent

the

nodal

two upper

each of height

forces.

rows

of

0.5 m,

Two

elements

similar

in

Fig.

analyses

3(a)

were

subdivided

horizontal

displacements

recommended

method,

shown in Fig. 4.

recommended

using

number

of

the

analyses

Excavation

the stress

in 2 stages

and

method,

but

based

progressively

and 4 stages.

on

stress

extrapolation

are

extrapolation

excavation

The

method,

Similar

stages

greater

were

when

errors

the excavation

increases

reported

are

in error

by

seen

occur,

is carried

with

Christian

to

an

out

increasing

and

Wong

when

evaluating nodal forces only from elements near the excavation (not using a

high

order

polynomial

note

that at most

for

depths

extrapolation).

there

is a smaller

However

error

it is of

interest

for 2 stage

to

excavation

Nodal forces were found to arise only on the excavated boundary of the

current

to

nodal

is

the

forces

arising

from

the

body

forces

ignored,

vertical

forces arise at every node in the soil mass, and produce grossly erroneous

results.

on

the

current

excavated

boundary,

a reasonably

obtained.

Table i shows

the vertical

excavated

in

stage

the

first

integration

of

stresses

forces

of

nodal

and

body

forces

for each of

forces on

excavation

the

are

satisfactory

using

the boundary

the

mesh

The contributions

shown

relevant

separately,

nodes,

solution

whose

is

to be

shown

arising

in

from

as well as

numbers

and

216

TABLE i

Vertical Nodal Forces (kN)

Node

fBTo dV

fNT~ dV

Total

7

13

21

27

35

36

37

1.67

20.00

3.33

20.00

-1.67

6.67

-1.67

1.67

-6 67

3.33

-6.67

5.00

-6.67

1.67

3.33

13.33

6.67

13.33

3.33

0

0

Total

48.33

-8.33

40.00

--Node

Numbers ( ~

.0.5

o 1 2 3 4 5 Cram)/ ~

1.5

(>5

FIGURE 5.

It

can be

significant

seen

error

that

in the

ignoring

vertical

upper

two

significant

rows

of

effect

elements

on

the

the body

nodal

forces.

Refinement

into

final

force contributions,

Similar

errors

leads

to

occur

in

elements

of

displacements.

height

0.5

Despite

these

m,

had

errors

no

in

217

vertical

nodal

excavation

forces,

resulting

integration

from

body

final

use

displacements

of

the

of

and non-boundary

displacements

as shown in Fig. 5.

The recommended

solution

for

the

since

solution

for

one-stage

selected

method

mesh,

excavation

provides

it

using

a solution

is

which

boundary

method,

forces,

of

the

and

stress

produce

similar

precisely

this

mesh.

the

same

However

is reasonably

as

the

this

stress

similar

except

mesh in f

c/ /a

the

recommended

forces

integration

ignoring

the

I

I

FIGURE 6.

Horizontal

points.

A very coarse

to model

Better

of a

deflections

mesh

representation

finer

mesh

displacements.

element analyses

near

in Fig.3(a)

the

corner,

should

in this region,

produce

using the meshes

cannot be expected

more

accurate

by the use

values

by means of additional

shown in Fig.3(b)

and (c).

of

finite

The resulting

218

horizontal

nodal

displacements

along

the vertical

to an increase

in deflection

of the

excavated

face

for

top corner

of the excavation

the

leads

of 15%,

increase

in

deflection of 3%.

It is also of

interest

this purpose

in

Fig.7

finite

which

to examine

element

include

the effects

analyses

a concrete

were

carried

diaphragm

of

changes

in element

to a diaphragm wall.

out on the meshes

wall.

The wall

For

shown

deflections

~,

/

srnooth

i 1'0

L~fixed

1.O

1.0

....~ 0-1

~0.2

0.7

f

smooth.

0

FIGURE 7.

The

present,

effect

of

1 0.5

refining

as the increase

is only 10%.

1.0

"

0 1-0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1-0 ' f i x e d

the

mesh

in deflection

is

smaller

than

when

no

wall

was

219

Finer mesh

4 Gauss points

//

I

9 Gcuss points

3

2

Well deflection (ram)

FIGURE 8.

CONCLUSIONS

method of finite element simulation of excavation.

This produces

results

carried out for the case of a linearly elastic medium.

The implementation

of this method appears to be more economical to program than the high order

polynomial

fitting proposed

in reference

than

little refinement of the mesh

very

220

ACKIIOIIL~IqTS

The work described in this paper was carried out with the aid of a

grant from the Australian Research Grants Committee.

REIzgRENCKS

i.

Errors in simulating excavation in elastic media by finite elements.

Soils Fdns. (Japan). 13 (1973) i-i0.

2.

Ishihara, K.,

Relations between process of cutting and uniqueness of solutions.

Soils Fdns. (Japan). IO (1970) 50-65.

3.

Lessons learned in finite element analysis of temporary excavations.

Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Num. Meth. Geomech., A.S.C.E. I (1976) 496-510.

4.

Mana, A.I.,

Finite element analysis of deep excavation behaviour.

Ph.D. Thesisp Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. (1976).

5.

Hybrid FE procedure for soil-structure interaction.

J. Geotech. Ensg. , A.S.C.E. iio (1984) 473-486.

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