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Original Title: EEE 41 Midterms 1s1314

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You are on page 1of 14

1. Write your name, section and student number in the space provided.

2. Do not separate the pages of the exam.

3. Make your answers as clear and concise as possible, and also make sure your handwriting is legible. Avoid erasures

and think before you write. Ambiguous answers as well as anything we cannot understand, will be marked wrong.

4. If you have any questions, raise your hand. We will come to you.

5. Specify the correct units of any numeric answer. Answers with incorrect units will also be marked wrong.

6. You can use the back of the exam papers as additional

scratch space.

7. This exam has a total of fifteen (15) pages. Make sure you have all the pages before starting the exam.

1000

~

1)

"

,Q

Q.

::t

100

:::t

10

1014

101.'i

lolt.

1017

101 R

NA + No (cm-3)

Figure 1: Electron and hole mobilities in Silicon at 300 K

You can use these constants if they are not specified or implied in any of the problems.

Physical constants: q = 1.6 X 1O-19C, kT/q = 0.026V@300K

Silicon properties @300K: X = 4.0eV, Eo = 1.12eV, ni = 1010cm-3, fSi = 1O-12F/cm

,r Name:

L 1M; ~t"Ntr

DC Teacher:

J"ettN'

.,...

~\.4i'no

Given the bandgap energies of Ge, Si, and GaAs, indicate the order (using I-highest, 3-lowest; use same number if values

are the same) of the semiconductors that satisfies the questions. Each question is independent

the other. (2 points

each)

Question

Band Gap Energy, Ea

(given)

Ge

Si

GaAs

2-

of

Electron-hole pairs

at room temperature

Resistivity

at room temperature

concentration of 1016 cm=". The

donor ionization energy is

0.06 eV. Which has highest

electron concentration at 300 K?

concentration of 1016 cm=". The

donor ionization energy is

0.06 eV. Which has highest

hole concentration at 300 K?

concentration of 1016cm-3. As

temperature is increased, which

will become ''intrinsic'' (nssp)

first? Use I-first, 2-second,

3-third

Name:

PM,

y.

tW6IfN6 (f()*"

DC Teacher:

Q,""

1tfvJl?()

Five students were asked to determine the resistivity of a single semiconductor bar. Each of the students tried to apply

a voltage across the same sides of the sample (the voltages applied mayor may not be the same) and measured the

resulting current. The students were provided with a supply that can provide any voltage they want, very small or. very

large, and it is not current limited. Knowing the dimensions of the sample, the students assumed the resistivity to be

equal to (Vapplied/lmeasured)

x (Area/Length)

from R = pL/A. However, the students were not able to come up with

the same resistivity values. The students' results are summarized below:

PI

P2 < P3 < P4

P5

1. For some of the voltages applied, the produced current (current density)

phenomenon is responsible for the differences in the "measured" resistivity?

(2 points)

What

IH'j'!

2. Fill up the table with the relationship between the voltages applied and currents measured. Suppose the phenomenon

starts to take full effect only at V3. Use =, >, <, =/-, ? (if cannot be determined). No points will be given if the

answer in the previous question is incorrect. (4 points)

With the temperature at 300K and using the table provided for carrier mobility, what is the resistivity of the

compensated semiconductor. Round your answers to three significant digits. (4 points)

_ .. ,~

1"".. +1Pfp

II -:;

.. (

I.hlrr"t)

n~'"

\/,

~ ,w

(U<>'

t" n--.:u

Q/#VI

t\.'lI\<p~",

~

,I

h -:.331

I

~

"0

,. "fl"~')(lo-ii

0..,

rob oe"'111

Q!'1!ot;

~~~~!

Ittrh'~duc~

~fel?l'eo;teJ

IIlCU ~

...

r.>

,,,t'l OWl.1

,.. No

"It,v

~.'ft ~, .. "p1_>1

rn...

OI'I'2-/v(tt

~

-"".

~-

' lv-

#f-C

~".;.-ct ...........

...

-"

'I~

K Sc

f'

1 DC

d1r

'Teachers

"1'"'"

1. Determine the Arsenic doping concentration needed to move Ep by l.06eV from Ev at T=300K.

fj..-fy

tr - ~t

n.."

"oloeV,

,. ferill (

nj;

f,-

e.. "

-o.elI_

~-I'o('eV"

e (tF~tc)ltr

"

. 8.tft1~'<fO"

7t1O'f

'I..

e,

_, ~ - T~

t.

()t

;:;;

...,.t

,-I

"-

N_v_=_,_,_'~_s_r_x_/o_'O_~_C+_i

_

~urne-

~ .

~,.~eN

ICftI.

Ifni

l -

~t

n1)

= l(lT(3/2)e-EG/2kT

where Ea may be assumed to be constant. with

Nv in a Hi semiconductor such that the ratio n;/Nv = 1.5 at T = 55oK.

'l.. A; r

--r.14r

II'

~~

2.

~f"-

__J1

--t

5

T,

"

/(Krr$.~.'"

A Bipolar Junction Transistor in silicon maintained at T

C9

= 300K

"

"

..

:

"

',:,..

I.:

Lc

. -

Ej

EF

E,

,

,

,

-f------f---t----t--+---

U4

(J

flwanill

lUI

lit&'

-.:J

it

lIoltoCl(~

I.} I

Of'!'

CAIr1VIi

<S'n

U2

.r

1.

3U4

l/v

Show how you came up with your' answer or justify your answer with

lid

fit

wrJ.

RpffT1Ximah', rflJ.,_

.

ttf

;,;

well a,r

O'n

AlP

MnCl-

=r: o.r ~

'if

fNP

0.

r"f'l1<

et#YtI?t-. (ptP

urv ~

di7J.,p_~

fl

...{,D

,loLtrl'h

rl ''""

I!!iIst:r

.<

'

I J.-!C2,: x..

4. Suppose the electron pictured in the diagram moves back and forth between x=O and x=L without changing total

energy. Sketch the kinetic energy and potential energy of the carrier (in separate plots) as a function of x. (2 points

,,wX' '.~~

I

""1l" ,....

.,~",;L;

tpt=:.

>, I<t,

......,..

,

~~

lLN

o"'l--__'~~--;--+--r---1r---:+--

\.

1-/01

0.

'It.

BIN

.".

..,I'~"'"

DC 'Teachert

"r"""

The earth is hit by a mysterious ray that momentarily wipes out all minority carriers. Majority carriers are unaffected.

Initially in equilibrium and not affected by room light, a uniformly doped Si wafer sitting on your desk is struck by the

ray at time t = 0 such that ~np(O+) = -no. ,The wafer doping is NA = 1Q16cm-3 and T = 300K.

1. Does generation or recombination dominate at t

t#WI"""",tl,.".

!

2. Do low level injection conditions exist inside the wafer at t = O+? (2 pts)

IJfs .

~flt":

/O"'/cm '3

~')"i

r ~ /0'" /~J

ilt l

:~:, :-::~~~'

I<-'

I

b"p (0+)

i. ltsw

- ~

U,t

Z.

Pjtc/I'1lI

ffrM./"

In(itk

e~l7f

~"../er-

(),t

t=ot

3. Construct the differential equation and boundary condition/s needed to solve for t..np(t). (6 pts)

;},._

d1

D

~

~ 0 ",,,,,,,,"

~ tXfV

~

~t

.Jta.

Llt!p

n,

t

d

7~

\.

of"

"

Il

..# ~.

I

6rlt

(0+ ) " - 00

hn (00)

,. 'D

nf (o"t) "0

Or ( ...)

:c

"flO

tJ ,_. ,1.:1.

._"'-"-------------------

DC Teach";',

Shown is the steady-state Energy Band Diagram (EBD) of a uniformly doped, n-type Silicon at room temperature when

exposed to some light. Low-level injection and !:;.Pn 'nowere observed to occur throughout the sample.L =' 1.5mm,

Fp = E, at x = 0, Fp - E, = Ex at x = L, j),r: = 801cm2 IV - sec, j),p = 331tm2 IV - sec.

------------------Ec

-------------------FN

~Fp

----------------

--

'E;

-------------------Ev

-r------------------++x

o

L

,

1. Give the expression for !:;.Pn(x) in terms of variables known. (Hint: what is the expression for Ei(X) - Fp(x)?)

points)

(2

c

t'i (-,:)6f\,,()t)

f, ("It)"

::

"f'- (~

,.. /0'

.an 6> -

'f>''')

1-.P'"if

A~"e

(1-.0

~v

""'ie

(ti<"-FpM)/tr

(fll")-rpe:d)h

-PtlO

f ::;:..tJr)o; ~r~

A fn ->"> fno _,. Y c=.

~r'\

-r-~------------------__,

;"'Y;-.

N~,

'f.

DC 'Teachert

3. When the same Si is exposed to a non-penetrating light at its left side, creating D.pn = 1010cm-3 excess holes

at x = 0, the resulting EBD at the vicinity near x = 0 will be the same as the given EBD. In the case of a

non-penetrating light illuminating a uniformly doped Si at x = 0, how much excess minority carriers are present

far from where the light hits the semiconductor (x -+ -l-co)? (1 point)

hrn

X'-'I

D.Pn(+OO)

= 0

(0) ~IQ!D!Clrt3

00

-:

4. Continuing from the previous question, reaching steady-state, construct the continuity equation that best describes

the situation and its general solution. (2 points)

1r+

A...

f'" (fJ)"

lie

- ~/'_

..,. r ae

'J{/IT

Q-o

It,.

10 10/ ()IfIl

~-e

tt ...

/~

....~

/010

.a

e' ('

t~/1tr

-10

"" ~

e,

_,.

I""

-~ ""e'"-"'/1-

~

'I

i; ~

3. 0'7'9~o?'2-

4> " ~. 23

:J(

ID -~

Lp=

h.n ,..

rrw

J3

DC Teacher:

(J)

Suppose we are given a Si diode (at T=300K) that we wish to replicate. The only information we know about the

diode is that the N-side is much more heavily doped than the P-side and that it is a step junction (both P and N sides

are uniformly doped). In addition, we are able to observe the depletion width,W, at different values of the applied

bias voltage, VA. If the applied voltage is VAl = 0.3V, the depletion width is WI = 5.6fJ-m. If the applied voltage is

VA2 = -O.4V, the depletion width is W2 = l1.1fJ-m.

1. Derive an expression relating VAl, VA2, WI, and W2. Take note that terms other than the four mentioned may

W"

f!..~(V~i-VII)(~1t

Jo)

t:t~

Vl.i -

VitI

2. Determine the N-side doping concentration, ND. Round to the nearest power of 10. (2 pts)

t -t J _

,w'-;:r~ No - ,lSi. f,.-(v,,; _ \fit')

..L

ND ~

If. 70'18-

u>

t.a\\"'f'7b'l ~

02. 12 n. 'fO"

YJ 1074

W,.

I~

>c/O-I'!

llA,i-V,,)(i. tt)

Z~/I

NA.

"-'1')..-

(IIw-V.)

~.~.,</~,

rN-A--=--'-o--)--ro-~---~--3----~1

Vb! - VII'

N~" ~~;

w.,.."-

10

-/'t>'!1

-,-

r~ame,

DC Teacher:

<To,""

~IM,",6"""

--,

A PN photodiode and a solar cell are both just PN junction diodes that have been specially fabricated and packaged to

permit light to reach the vicinity of the junction. Consider a P+N step junction diode where incident light is uniformly

absorbed throughout the device producing a photogeneration rate of GL electron-hole pairs cm-3. s-l. Assume that

low level injection prevails. Ignore all recombination-generation, including photogeneration, .occuring in the depletion

layer. (Note: for all the problems below with dependencies on preceding steps, your answer will not be considered if any

nswers to the preceding steps are incorrect)

hat is the excess minority carrier concentration on the N-side at a large distance x ---+ 00 away from the junction?

ow how you came up with your answer or justify your answer' one sentence. (Note: it is NOT zero) (1 point)

~

oJ!

~Pn(OO)

r2:'what

Vcame

is the excess minority carrier concentration on the N-sid~at the edge of the depletion region? Show how you

up with your answer or justify your answer in one sentence. (1 point)

3. Give the simplified form of the continuity eguation for x' ?:: 0 (or x ?:: z.,). List the assumptions you made to get

to this simplified form. (1 point)-.

4. Using the boundary conditions in (1) and (2) and the equation in (3) device an equation for ~Pn(x')

stated conditions of illumination. Show each step in your solution. (2 points)

O '"

1>.'P J-14"

~

A,b

(,JJ

Of "

\

__

~Pn(x')

tJf,J":1

1'1'

T G.

'"

_."

---:::::::0:==-

11

under the

DC Teacher:

Ding

~nditions

the expression in (4) derive an expression for th~ I-V characteristic of the P+N diode under the stated

of illumination. Show each step in your solution. (2 points)

1=

(J ~ ~.~~I"~

0rderto maximize the amount of power that can be generated by a pn-junction solar cell, should the quasiutral regions be lightly. doped, or heavily doped? Provide physicalexplanations for your answers (without using

y equations or formulas). (1 point)

12

1- ~

aPVriu-s

.,..,J_.

1v.I.~

(Mf't--

I DC 'Teacher:

Part IX: (10 points)

em

An abrupt silicon junction diode has a P side with N A = 1017 -3, J-Lp = 4S0cm2IV - sand 'Tp

2

N D = 1015cm-3, J-Ln = SOOcmIV

- S and 'Tn = 1J-Ls. Use A = 1O-3cm2 and T = 300K.

V It

'>

1:.1 0_

1'"

= O.IJ-Ls.

u:kI)

21

2. Determine the dimension of the N region if the IR drop across the diode is 10% of VA and the P region is O.Olcm

long. (5 points)

.u<;,,.

o.OS-83

:>'1 ~ ~.

(+

'1ft,A. t 1PJAr

~ 7. of, i~J'r-r,..,

~ Tf9f

)C/o -.]

l.

a<I.-'

.A

t

... o.

01",,_ _

Z~

I Lenqtli

of N Reqiori ~

7'1. 7

f{1

13

A metal to n-type Si contact is available in your laboratory with the 1/02V data shown in Table a. Your professor asked

you to determine what type of metal was used in this MS contact. Table b shows the measured Schottky barrier heights

in eV of the available metals in the laboratory.

1/02,

-VA (V)

(1021/P2)

10.00

5.890

9.01

5.320

8.02

4.763

7.03

4.217

6.04

3.673

5.05

3.125

4.06

2.579

3.07

2.035

2.08

1.494

1.09

0.953

Semiconductor

Ge (N)

Si (N)

Si (P)

oJ (libi - lilt )

= -

"'"

V~(~~.. -1._)_

'ICy"

:;

~

Vbi

O,J3

Al

0.48

0.72

0.58

Metal

eu

0.52

0.58

0.46

Pt

0.61

0.90

0.75

Ni

0.49

0.61

0.51

(T = 300K)

C'l-

Ag

0.54

0.83

0.54

I

14

I

\

j

.,.

CO'

/1)(_L)

l(v ..r~YIII)

.....__,

,Nil \Srft"

\'

v-,i ->I,

J.J

'"

x

3. What is the barrier height, <I>B? What metal was used in the MS contact? (2 points)

qVItf ... ,~

<I>B

~ (ee - ep)F8

~7~&.. -

lap.. ('/;)

~~-~

"

~.po

w~t:~

'f

5. Assuming that the depletion. width is W and the semiconductor part is linearly graded with ND(X) = (1017 jW)x.

Sketch the energy band diagram of the MS contact. Append it to the band diagram in the previous question. Label

all important points. No need for exact values. (3 points)

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