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Instructions:

1. Write your name, section and student number in the space provided.
2. Do not separate the pages of the exam.
3. Make your answers as clear and concise as possible, and also make sure your handwriting is legible. Avoid erasures
and think before you write. Ambiguous answers as well as anything we cannot understand, will be marked wrong.
4. If you have any questions, raise your hand. We will come to you.
5. Specify the correct units of any numeric answer. Answers with incorrect units will also be marked wrong.
6. You can use the back of the exam papers as additional

scratch space.

7. This exam has a total of fifteen (15) pages. Make sure you have all the pages before starting the exam.

Electron and Hole Mobilities in Silicon at 300K .

1000

~
1)

"

,Q
Q.

::t

100

:::t

10
1014

101.'i

lolt.

1017

101 R

NA + No (cm-3)
Figure 1: Electron and hole mobilities in Silicon at 300 K
You can use these constants if they are not specified or implied in any of the problems.
Physical constants: q = 1.6 X 1O-19C, kT/q = 0.026V@300K
Silicon properties @300K: X = 4.0eV, Eo = 1.12eV, ni = 1010cm-3, fSi = 1O-12F/cm

,r Name:

L 1M; ~t"Ntr

DC Teacher:

J"ettN'

.,...

~\.4i'no

Part I: (10 points)


Given the bandgap energies of Ge, Si, and GaAs, indicate the order (using I-highest, 3-lowest; use same number if values
are the same) of the semiconductors that satisfies the questions. Each question is independent
the other. (2 points
each)

Question
Band Gap Energy, Ea
(given)

Ge

Si

GaAs

2-

of

Electron-hole pairs
at room temperature

Resistivity
at room temperature

Each is doped with a donor


concentration of 1016 cm=". The
donor ionization energy is
0.06 eV. Which has highest
electron concentration at 300 K?

Each is doped with a donor


concentration of 1016 cm=". The
donor ionization energy is
0.06 eV. Which has highest
hole concentration at 300 K?

Each is doped with a donor


concentration of 1016cm-3. As
temperature is increased, which
will become ''intrinsic'' (nssp)
first? Use I-first, 2-second,
3-third

Name:

PM,

y.

tW6IfN6 (f()*"

Part II: (10 points)

DC Teacher:

Q,""

1tfvJl?()

Five students were asked to determine the resistivity of a single semiconductor bar. Each of the students tried to apply
a voltage across the same sides of the sample (the voltages applied mayor may not be the same) and measured the
resulting current. The students were provided with a supply that can provide any voltage they want, very small or. very
large, and it is not current limited. Knowing the dimensions of the sample, the students assumed the resistivity to be
equal to (Vapplied/lmeasured)
x (Area/Length)
from R = pL/A. However, the students were not able to come up with
the same resistivity values. The students' results are summarized below:

PI

P2 < P3 < P4

P5

1. For some of the voltages applied, the produced current (current density)
phenomenon is responsible for the differences in the "measured" resistivity?

diverges from the usual case.


(2 points)

What

IH'j'!

2. Fill up the table with the relationship between the voltages applied and currents measured. Suppose the phenomenon
starts to take full effect only at V3. Use =, >, <, =/-, ? (if cannot be determined). No points will be given if the
answer in the previous question is incorrect. (4 points)

used was an N-type with ND = 5 x 1Q16cm-3 and it was perfectly compensated.


With the temperature at 300K and using the table provided for carrier mobility, what is the resistivity of the
compensated semiconductor. Round your answers to three significant digits. (4 points)

3. If originally, the semiconductor

_ .. ,~

1"".. +1Pfp

II -:;
.. (

I.hlrr"t)

n~'"
\/,

{ 'o"'Iee.J /\CD, tl" ....N.Ile)

~ ,w

(U<>'

t" n--.:u

Q/#VI

JAn " fet

t\.'lI\<p~",
~

'1.0. 11ft, ]l. -"'_

,I

h -:.331
I

~
"0

,. "fl"~')(lo-ii

0..,

rob oe"'111

Q!'1!ot;

~~~~!

Ittrh'~duc~

~fel?l'eo;teJ

IIlCU ~

...

r.>

,,,t'l OWl.1

,.. No

"It,v

~.'ft ~, .. "p1_>1
rn...

OI'I'2-/v(tt

~
-"".
~-

' lv-

#f-C

~".;.-ct ...........
...
-"

'I~

K Sc

f'

1 DC

d1r

'Teachers

"1'"'"

Part III: (10 points)


1. Determine the Arsenic doping concentration needed to move Ep by l.06eV from Ev at T=300K.

fj..-fy

tr - ~t
n.."

"oloeV,

,. ferill (
nj;

f,-

e.. "

-o.elI_

~-I'o('eV"

e (tF~tc)ltr

"

. 8.tft1~'<fO"

7t1O'f

'I..

e,

_, ~ - T~

t.

... If, ~l/f'3'S'''''IO'$'"

()t

;:;;
...,.t

,-I

"-

N_v_=_,_,_'~_s_r_x_/o_'O_~_C+_i
_

~urne-

~ .

~,.~eN

ICftI.

Ifni

l -

~t

n1)

= l(lT(3/2)e-EG/2kT
where Ea may be assumed to be constant. with
Nv in a Hi semiconductor such that the ratio n;/Nv = 1.5 at T = 55oK.
'l.. A; r
--r.14r
II'
~~

2.

~f"-

__J1

--t
5

T,
"

determine the doping concentration

/(Krr$.~.'"

Part IV: (10 points)


A Bipolar Junction Transistor in silicon maintained at T

C9

= 300K

"

is characterized by the energy band diagram below:

"

..
:

"

',:,..

I.:

Lc
. -

Ej

EF

E,

,
,
,
-f------f---t----t--+---

U4

(J

1. What is the net current across the~?

one sentence. (2 points)


flwanill
lUI
lit&'

-.:J

it

lIoltoCl(~
I.} I

Of'!'

CAIr1VIi

<S'n

U2

.r

1.

3U4

l/v

Show how you came up with your' answer or justify your answer with

lid

fit

wrJ.

RpffT1Ximah', rflJ.,_

.
ttf

;,;

well a,r

O'n

AlP

MnCl-

=r: o.r ~

'if

fNP

0.

r"f'l1<

et#YtI?t-. (ptP

urv ~

di7J.,p_~

fl

...{,D

,loLtrl'h

rl ''""

I!!iIst:r

2. Sketch the electrostatic potential inside the semiconductor as a function of x. (2 points)

3. Sketch the electric field inside the semiconductor as a function of x. (2 points)

.<
'
I J.-!C2,: x..

4. Suppose the electron pictured in the diagram moves back and forth between x=O and x=L without changing total
energy. Sketch the kinetic energy and potential energy of the carrier (in separate plots) as a function of x. (2 points

,,wX' '.~~
I

""1l" ,....

.,~",;L;
tpt=:.

>, I<t,

......,..

,
~~

lLN

o"'l--__'~~--;--+--r---1r---:+--

\.

1-/01

0.

'It.

BIN

.".

..,I'~"'"

DC 'Teachert

"r"""

Part V: (10 points)

The earth is hit by a mysterious ray that momentarily wipes out all minority carriers. Majority carriers are unaffected.
Initially in equilibrium and not affected by room light, a uniformly doped Si wafer sitting on your desk is struck by the
ray at time t = 0 such that ~np(O+) = -no. ,The wafer doping is NA = 1Q16cm-3 and T = 300K.
1. Does generation or recombination dominate at t

t#WI"""",tl,.".

= O+? Why? (2 pts)

Dnr tot) '- 0 .

!
2. Do low level injection conditions exist inside the wafer at t = O+? (2 pts)

IJfs .

~flt":

/O"'/cm '3

~')"i

r ~ /0'" /~J

ilt l

:~:, :-::~~~'
I<-'
I

b"p (0+)

i. ltsw

- ~

U,t

Z.

Pjtc/I'1lI

ffrM./"

In(itk

e~l7f

~"../er-

(),t

t=ot

3. Construct the differential equation and boundary condition/s needed to solve for t..np(t). (6 pts)
;},._
d1
D
~
~ 0 ",,,,,,,,"
~ tXfV
~

~t

&!p ... f),.t -

.Jta.

Llt!p

n,
t

d
7~

\.

of"

"

Il

..# ~.

I
6rlt

(0+ ) " - 00

hn (00)

,. 'D

nf (o"t) "0
Or ( ...)

:c

"flO

tJ ,_. ,1.:1.

._"'-"-------------------

DC Teach";',

Part VI: (10 points) 8


Shown is the steady-state Energy Band Diagram (EBD) of a uniformly doped, n-type Silicon at room temperature when
exposed to some light. Low-level injection and !:;.Pn 'nowere observed to occur throughout the sample.L =' 1.5mm,
Fp = E, at x = 0, Fp - E, = Ex at x = L, j),r: = 801cm2 IV - sec, j),p = 331tm2 IV - sec.

------------------Ec
-------------------FN
~Fp
----------------

--

'E;

-------------------Ev

-r------------------++x
o
L
,
1. Give the expression for !:;.Pn(x) in terms of variables known. (Hint: what is the expression for Ei(X) - Fp(x)?)

points)

(2
c

t'i (-,:)6f\,,()t)

f, ("It)"

::

"f'- (~

,.. /0'

.an 6> -

'f>''')

1-.P'"if
A~"e

(1-.0

~v

""'ie

(ti<"-FpM)/tr

(fll")-rpe:d)h

-PtlO

f ::;:..tJr)o; ~r~
A fn ->"> fno _,. Y c=.
~r'\

-r-~------------------__,

;"'Y;-.

N~,

'f.

CIA" 1!<6t.,.,.- J'ltj/

DC 'Teachert

3. When the same Si is exposed to a non-penetrating light at its left side, creating D.pn = 1010cm-3 excess holes
at x = 0, the resulting EBD at the vicinity near x = 0 will be the same as the given EBD. In the case of a
non-penetrating light illuminating a uniformly doped Si at x = 0, how much excess minority carriers are present
far from where the light hits the semiconductor (x -+ -l-co)? (1 point)

hrn
X'-'I

D.Pn(+OO)

= 0

(0) ~IQ!D!Clrt3

hp() (~) ...,

00

-:

4. Continuing from the previous question, reaching steady-state, construct the continuity equation that best describes
the situation and its general solution. (2 points)

1r+
A...
f'" (fJ)"

lie

- ~/'_

..,. r ae

'J{/IT

Q-o
It,.

10 10/ ()IfIl

= 120eV, what is the diffusion length of the sample? (1 point)

5. Following from the previous question, if Ex

~-e

tt ...
/~

....~

/010

.a
e' ('

t~/1tr

-10

"" ~

e,

_,.

I""

-~ ""e'"-"'/1-

~
'I

i; ~

3. 0'7'9~o?'2-

4> " ~. 23

:J(

ID -~

Lp=

h.n ,..

rrw

J3

DC Teacher:

Part VII: (10 points)

(J)

Suppose we are given a Si diode (at T=300K) that we wish to replicate. The only information we know about the
diode is that the N-side is much more heavily doped than the P-side and that it is a step junction (both P and N sides
are uniformly doped). In addition, we are able to observe the depletion width,W, at different values of the applied
bias voltage, VA. If the applied voltage is VAl = 0.3V, the depletion width is WI = 5.6fJ-m. If the applied voltage is
VA2 = -O.4V, the depletion width is W2 = l1.1fJ-m.
1. Derive an expression relating VAl, VA2, WI, and W2. Take note that terms other than the four mentioned may

appear in the expression. (4 pts)


W"

f!..~(V~i-VII)(~1t

Jo)

t:t~
Vl.i -

VitI

2. Determine the N-side doping concentration, ND. Round to the nearest power of 10. (2 pts)

t -t J _
,w'-;:r~ No - ,lSi. f,.-(v,,; _ \fit')
..L
ND ~

If. 70'18-

u>

t.a\\"'f'7b'l ~

'" 10-2.1- C#/Iof1

02. 12 n. 'fO"

YJ 1074

3. Determine the P-side doping concentration,


W,.

I~

>c/O-I'!

llA,i-V,,)(i. tt)

Z~/I

NA.

Round to the nearest power of 10. (2 pts)

4. Determine the diode built-in voltage, Vbi. (2 pts)

"-'1')..-

(IIw-V.)

~.~.,</~,

rN-A--=--'-o--)--ro-~---~--3----~1

Vb! - VII'

N~" ~~;

-::. "lJi - \J,,"l.


w.,.."-

10

-/'t>'!1

-,-

r~ame,

DC Teacher:

<To,""

~IM,",6"""

--,

Part VIII: (10 points)

A PN photodiode and a solar cell are both just PN junction diodes that have been specially fabricated and packaged to
permit light to reach the vicinity of the junction. Consider a P+N step junction diode where incident light is uniformly
absorbed throughout the device producing a photogeneration rate of GL electron-hole pairs cm-3. s-l. Assume that
low level injection prevails. Ignore all recombination-generation, including photogeneration, .occuring in the depletion
layer. (Note: for all the problems below with dependencies on preceding steps, your answer will not be considered if any
nswers to the preceding steps are incorrect)
hat is the excess minority carrier concentration on the N-side at a large distance x ---+ 00 away from the junction?
ow how you came up with your answer or justify your answer' one sentence. (Note: it is NOT zero) (1 point)
~

oJ!

~Pn(OO)
r2:'what
Vcame

is the excess minority carrier concentration on the N-sid~at the edge of the depletion region? Show how you
up with your answer or justify your answer in one sentence. (1 point)

3. Give the simplified form of the continuity eguation for x' ?:: 0 (or x ?:: z.,). List the assumptions you made to get
to this simplified form. (1 point)-.

4. Using the boundary conditions in (1) and (2) and the equation in (3) device an equation for ~Pn(x')
stated conditions of illumination. Show each step in your solution. (2 points)

O '"

1>.'P J-14"
~

A,b

(,JJ

Of "

\
__
~Pn(x')

tJf,J":1
1'1'

T G.
'"

_."

---:::::::0:==-

11

under the

DC Teacher:

Ding
~nditions

the expression in (4) derive an expression for th~ I-V characteristic of the P+N diode under the stated
of illumination. Show each step in your solution. (2 points)

1=

etch the general form of the I-V characteristics for GL

(J ~ ~.~~I"~

= 0 and GL = GLO' (2 points)

0rderto maximize the amount of power that can be generated by a pn-junction solar cell, should the quasiutral regions be lightly. doped, or heavily doped? Provide physicalexplanations for your answers (without using
y equations or formulas). (1 point)

12

1- ~

aPVriu-s

.,..,J_.

1v.I.~

(Mf't--

I DC 'Teacher:
Part IX: (10 points)

em

An abrupt silicon junction diode has a P side with N A = 1017 -3, J-Lp = 4S0cm2IV - sand 'Tp
2
N D = 1015cm-3, J-Ln = SOOcmIV
- S and 'Tn = 1J-Ls. Use A = 1O-3cm2 and T = 300K.

V It

'>

1:.1 0_
1'"

= O.IJ-Ls.

For the N side,

u:kI)

21

2. Determine the dimension of the N region if the IR drop across the diode is 10% of VA and the P region is O.Olcm
long. (5 points)

.u<;,,.

o.OS-83

:>'1 ~ ~.

(+

'1ft,A. t 1PJAr

~ 7. of, i~J'r-r,..,

~ Tf9f

)C/o -.]

.:: d. 007'1" i"

l.

a<I.-'

.A

t
... o.

01",,_ _

Z~

I Lenqtli

of N Reqiori ~

7'1. 7

f{1
13

Part X: (10 points)


A metal to n-type Si contact is available in your laboratory with the 1/02V data shown in Table a. Your professor asked
you to determine what type of metal was used in this MS contact. Table b shows the measured Schottky barrier heights
in eV of the available metals in the laboratory.

1/02,

-VA (V)

(1021/P2)

10.00

5.890

9.01

5.320

8.02

4.763

7.03

4.217

6.04

3.673

5.05

3.125

4.06

2.579

3.07

2.035

2.08

1.494

1.09

0.953

Semiconductor
Ge (N)
Si (N)
Si (P)

1. What is the built-in voltage, Vbi? (2 points)

oJ (libi - lilt )

= -

1No fofr Pi""

"'"

V~(~~.. -1._)_
'ICy"

:;

~
Vbi

O,J3

Al
0.48
0.72
0.58

Metal
eu
0.52
0.58
0.46

Pt
0.61
0.90
0.75

Ni
0.49
0.61
0.51

(b) Measured Schottky barriers heights in eV for various metalsemiconductor junctions

(a) 1/C2f' data of a metal-N-Si junction


(T = 300K)

C'l-

Ag
0.54
0.83
0.54

I
14

I
\

2. What is the donor concentration, ND, used in the semiconductor? (1 point)


j

.,.

CO'

/1)(_L)

l(v ..r~YIII)

.....__,

,Nil \Srft"

\'

v-,i ->I,

J.J

'"

x
3. What is the barrier height, <I>B? What metal was used in the MS contact? (2 points)

qVItf ... ,~

<I>B

~ (ee - ep)F8

~7~&.. -

lap.. ('/;)

4~.Sketch the energy band diagram ofthe MS contact. (1 point)

~~-~
"

~.po

w~t:~
'f
5. Assuming that the depletion. width is W and the semiconductor part is linearly graded with ND(X) = (1017 jW)x.
Sketch the energy band diagram of the MS contact. Append it to the band diagram in the previous question. Label
all important points. No need for exact values. (3 points)