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Water for the World

Designing

Hand Dug Wells

Technical Kate No. RWS. 2.D.l

Proper
design
of hand dug wells
is
important
to asure a year-round
supply
of water and to assure
efficient
use of
personnel
and materials.
Designing
involves
determining
the size and shape
of the well;
the method of lining
the
shaft;
the type of intake;
and the
necessary
personnel,
materials,
equipment, and tools.
The products
of the
design
process
are drawings
of the
shaft
and lining
and a detailed
materials
list.
These,
along
with
a
location
map similar
to Figure
1
RWS.~.P.~),
("Selecting
a Well Site,"
should
be given
to the construction
foreman
before
construction
begins.
There are several
good methods
of
designing
and constructing
hand dug
wells;
if you are familiar
with
a specific
method,
use it.
This technical
note describes
one method of designing
hand dug wells
and arriving
at the
essential
end-products.
Read the
entire
technical
note before
beginning
the design
process.
/

Useful Definitions
AQUIFER - A water-saturated
zone that will
yield
water
and wells.
GROUND WATER - Water
ground's
surface.

stored

geologic
to springs
below

Figure

tiny
pores or
water
or allow

WATER TABLE - The
of an aquifer.
\

top,

or upper

Map

the

KIBBLE - A large
bucket
for lifting
materials
when sinking
a shaft;
also
called
a hoppit
or sinking
bucket.
POROUS - Having
which
can store
to pass through.

1. Location

Size and Shape

spaces
water
limit,
/

When viewed
be any shape
This
round.
produces
the
for the least
a round lining
other
shape.

from the top,
we I 1 s can
but most of tklem are
is because
a round well
greatest
amount of water
amount of excavation,
and
is stronger
than any

a single well: dig-and-line is used until the water table is reached. their size will determine the diameter of the well. Write the dimensions mine are best for your design drawing similar In sink lining. that you deterwell on ttir> to Figure 2. concrete is the best and most common lining. then tile well caissoning is used to sink The lining is into the aquifer. Although it is impossible to know the depth of a well before it is dug. Design of Well Lining and Caisson the Shaft Although various materials have been used to line well shafts. Intake The caisson rings are sunk into the aquifer as far as possible. As soil is excavated from beneath the rings. lining Figure 2. Use information from test holes or existing wells in the area to estimate the depth of the water table. A larger diameter provides a greater storage capacity and allows more water to enter the well. that is. write the dimensions on a design drawing similar to Figure 2. lining. an attempt should be made to estimate it. shutters are set in place in the shaft. since two men rather than one can dig the shaft. a portion of the shaft is excavated. 150mn1 well Side View When the depth and diameter of the well shaft have been determined. The two basic methods of lining well shafts are dig-and-line and sink lining or caissoning.The size of the well refers to its depth and diameter. diameters are between l. concrete rings called caissons are cast and cured in special molds at the surface. and rings. When the concrete hardens. In dig-and-line. and widely known. until the water becomes too deep to 2 .5m. Top View Casson thick For practical and economic reasons. the shutters are removed and the next portion of the shaft is excavated. dimensions of shaft. This will allow you to roughly calculate the quantities of materials needed for construction. usually 75mm thick and the caissorl The outrings are 125-150mm thick. The rings are stacked on top of each other and attached together with bolts. a savings in materials costs. long-lasting. and concrete is poured behind the shutters. both methods are employed in Often. It is strong.Om and The smaller diameter results in 1. they sink into the earth and line the shaft. The larger diameter means a higher materials cost but a more efficient work output. If pre-made forms or precast concrete rings are used. and it requires less soil to be excavated. side diameter of the rings is r>O-100mm less than the inside diameter of the lining to allow the rings to freely Tab1 e 1 shows common move downward.

meter inside Caisson. drawing similar to Figure 2. are g:erit:ral 1 y use11 : 8mrn called re-rods.lil:. Lining and Caisson Rings 1. atlti it shoul d be dry and fret: from tiar(l 1 umps. height 1.Lrt:i :iari~l Lo four parts gravel by vol umt? and crioui:!~ watt‘r '1'tic cerilc. should be made to anticipate the based on test holes necessary intake. including excavating and lining mixing concrete for the the shaft. The type of caisson ring used depends on the nature of the aquifer.L!ldiameter for the caissons. One common mix 01' coricrt?tt' is orIt> part cement to two p.tr'u(~t. some expcrit?rict? wittl one shoulc1 have concrete cotl:. 75mm dia- dia- been design 1. thickness Caisson. if the aquifer is composed of fine sand.:. Another way to allow water to enter through the caisson rings is to build the rings from standard concrete and perforate them with seepage holes. sibility to see that construction proceeds in a safe manner. the rings are usually made of porous concrete which allows water to pass through. \ Table 1. In the second case. Materials The materials necdcti to 1 inr> a hanti dug we1 1 are concrt>ti> mix arl(i rc'iriforcing steel.nt to make a workable mix. Normally. Gravel should be cl earl and sized 6-36rnm (lo-20mm for porous concrete). worker:.ior~. art: rir:i>ti<>c1. or (2) through the rings themselves. Ground water may then enter the well either (1) through the opening under the lowest caisson ring. 1. rings are made of porous concrete. It may not be possible to know which type of intake is needed until the Rut an attempt aquifer is reached. or other wells in the area. For all types of intakes.(x proce:.Dimension Feature Shaft diameter Lining. ornit tkie sari(1. which would clog 3 .50m / I continue the excavation. W:tttlr should be clean ancl clear. the bottom of the shaft should be covered with a porous base plug made from porous concrete or layers of sand and gravel.30m Personnel The most important person involved with well construction is the foreman. Two sizes of reinforcirik: :it(:el .45m When the type of intake has indicate it on the determined. inside Lining. Dimensions of Shaft. rn:iy t. thickness the pores or flow through the seepage should be made of ho1 es.90-0. the rings standard concrete witilout perforations. However. diameter for the lining and 15rnrrl The qll. The plug prevents aquifer material from rising into the well. meter outside Lining. and lowering the It is his responcaissons into place. meter outside Caisson. arid sized f'iric> to Sand should concrete is useli f‘or 6mm. tities of these materials n<lctit:tl call be roughly estimated. In the first case. be cl can. lining and caissons. be rel iahl 6‘ t)r>c>. must oversee all phases of construction. He He should have some experience.20m 0. the rings are made of standard concrete which does not allow entry of water.95m At least four One should have well digging and experience with The workers rnust the construction several weeks or 125-150mm 0.tk<> more. shoul tl be Port1 and cemerlt .45m dia- diameter Caisson. If porous the caisson rings.

50m3 sand = 0. you wil 1 the 1 iriing.Om3 (1. and the rings are to be made from porous concrete.jtzi:tioli:.125m3 (or about 19Okr. with a Safety IatCIl 011 tfli. porous concrete Two kibbl ~3:.05m3 = 1590kg O. often packaged in 50kp. wi t. be wider ar0uri(1 the mitl(I 1 ~2 t.25m3 x 15 = 3.20m3 sand = none cement = 0.tlitl t. suppose depth of the shaft and 1 ining is 15m.i~lta (11’ :.Okg) 8mm re-rod = 33m For each meter of caisson i rings: gravel = l. so the number of sacks needed = 4440 = 88. Tools Other materials needed are those USC used to build a storage shed.35m3 for porous concrete) 15mm re-rod = 4m the estimated For exampl e. should be watertif..tifl shaft _ = cai:. sacks. Worksheet A shows a further example of how to estimate quantitic:..125m3 x 15 = 1.t(>t>l .5m3 sand = 0.05m3 1. 4 .5m3 (none for porous concrete) cement = 0. The ki t)t) 1~1:.5m3 x 15 = 7.75m3 cement = 0. h. of material s needed for a hand dug well.O0066m3/kg 15mm re-rod = 4m x 3 = 12m = The total quantity of cement needed for the lining and the caisson rings = Cement is 2850kg + 1590kg = 4440kg. assuming O.tlt ari(l rr. nt~e~iecl to tloi:. to po:.8 or 50 89 sacks.88m3 1.88m3 = 2850kg O. arc.tl:iti arounci either end to prevt:tit.ition the re-rotis. need steel mol (1:.35m! x 3 = 1. are r~ec-cic:~j to f’orm For caissons.y s110111 ii prevent tliem from tippint:.4m3 for porous concrete) sand = 0.t up water and excav:ite(l soil .OOO66m3 = l.: gravel = 1.25m3 (0.4m3 x 3 = 4.tii>rn f~rorn catching ori any pro. For the 1 ining: gravel = 0. the height of the caisson rings is 3m. anti templ ati::.iricll t’ to TtlI. local 1 y avail abl e material s anti traditional construction methods.:. t.on:.For each lining : meter of depth of the gravel = 0.Ooo66m3/kg 8mm re-rod = 33m x 15 = 495m For the Steel siiutter:.25m3 cement = 0. The quantities woul d be estimated in the following way.

Cement (m3) = 0. Gravel 14. Estimating 2.50m3 3.50m3 = 33m x Line Caisson Type of = /5 1 = 0.O0066m3/kg 3 = = m3 kg /Zrn Concrete 7 = 1. 5 + Line x = ( /.25m3 x Line 11.O0066m3/kg of Cement 11 + Line for porous m3 x = -= m3 7 = 0.25m3 shaft x Line x Line Cement (m3) = 0. Cement (kg) = 6.O0066m3/kg and Caisson 5 3 fiZOm3 kg = kg + /flokg = yfmkg .50m3 (m3) standard Concrete x Cement = 1.25m3 x ___- = m3) = ( O. Cement (kg) = Line 15 O. 8mm re-rod for Hand Dug Wells x Line Line 4 O. Sand = none 15.O0066m3/kg concrete of 8. Cement (kg) = Line 10 O. Estimated For Quantities 3 x 7 = 0. Sand = 0. Sand = 0.40m3 a 7 = l.8@ m3) O.Om3 10.35m3 16. Height Amount = 753 x /r 1 = 0.25m3 4.125m3 Standard Total m 1 = 0.O0066m3/kg 12.125m3 5. 15mm re-rod = 4m x Line 13.35m3 = ( Lining = x 16 = d@sdkg + - = /Iorrn3 = /s90 /or m) O.Om3 1 = 33m x one): rings x Line x Line = /ii /s = /. Gravel = l. the of Materials Lining: 1.40m3 x Line m m 7 = 4m x Porous x Line 3 7 = 0. Gravel depth of = 0.O0066m3/kg (check caisson 9.50m3 Line = 3 7&3 /3@ x m3 Rings: 7.88m3 = df= kg = y9fi = 0.-- Worksheet For the A.

30m diameter x 0. 0. 6-36mm) Water (clean and clear) Re-rod for lining: 8mm diameter Re-rod for caissons: 15mm diameter Materials for storage shed Headframe Rope for caissons. Workers.Om high) with wedges and bolts Steel molds for caisson rings (1. fine to 6mm) Gravel (clean.5m high) with wedges and bolts Steel shutters (1.30m diameter x l.20m outside diameter. skilled in experienced unskilled Estimated Quantity Description Item List 1 1 1 2-4 sinking well with concrete Cement (Portland) Sand (clean. 1OOm x 12mm steel wire with diameter.5m high) Templates for molds Stretcher for caissons Total 6 -- --- k m!i m3 --- -- m m --- -- --- Estimated Cost = -- Cost .Table 2. Sample Materials Personnel Supplies Equipment Foreman Worker. 0. Worker.95m inside diameter. fiber core tensil strength 7kg/cm* Rope for kibbles: 100 x 6mm diameter Rope for trimming rods: 1OOm x 3mm diameter Steel shutters (1.