By Prof. H.P.Sudarshan
Sri Siddhartha Institute Of Tech,
Tumkur
B
(1)
12
L
2EI
2B A
MBA FBA
L
wL2 4EI
B
( 2)
12
L
In the above equations there is only one unknown B .
To solve we have boundary condition at B;
Since B is simply supported, the BM at B is zero
ie. MBA=0.
From equation (2) MBA
wL2 4EI
B 0
12
L
wL3
EIB
 ve sign indicates the rotation is anticlockw ise
48
Substituting the value of EIB in equation (1) and (2) we have end moments
wL2 2 wL3
wL2
 ve sign indicates moment is anticlockw ise
12 L 48
8
wL2 4 wL3
0
12 L 48
MAB
MBA
Now consider the free body diagram of the beam and find reactions using
equations of equilibrium.
MB 0
R A L MAB wL
L
2
wL2
L
5
wL wL
8
2
8
5
R A wL
8
V 0
R A RB wL
RB wL R A wL
3
wL
8
5
wL
8
3
L from support B
8
3
3
w 3
MX wL L
L
8
8
2 8
9
wL2
128
3
X2
wLX w
0
8
2
3
X L
4
MX
Example: Analyze two span continuous beam ABC by slope deflection method.
Then draw Bending moment & Shear force diagram. Take EI constant
44.44KNM
L2
62
Wa 2b
100 42 2
88.89KNM
L2
62
wL2
20 52
41.67KNM
12
12
wL2 20 52
41.67KNM
12
12
FAB
FBA
FBC
FCB
Since A is fixed A 0 , B 0, C 0,
Slope deflection equations are:
2EI
2 A B
L
2EI
44.44
B
6
1
44.44 EI B
3
2EI
2B A
MBA FBA
L
2EI 2B
88.89
6
2
88.89 EIB
3
MAB FAB
(1)
( 2)
2EI
2B C
L
2EI
2B C
41.67
5
4
2
41.67 EIB EIC
5
5
2EI
2C B
MCB FCB
L
2EI
2C B
41.67
5
4EI
2
41.67
C EIB
5
5
MBC FBC
(3 )
( 4)
In all the above four equations there are only two unknown B and C . And
accordingly the boundary conditions are
MBAMBC=0
MBA+MBC=0
ii
MCB=0
Rotation anticlockwise.
EI C = 41.67
Rotation anticlockwise.
4
20.83 2 41.67 75.00 KNM
5
5
2
4
MCB = + 41.67+ 20.83 41.67 0
5
5
MBC = 41.67+
MA = 0
RB6 = 1004+7551.38
RB = 70.60 KN
V = 0
RA+RB = 100KN
RA = 10070.60=29.40 KN
Span BC:
MC = 0
5
RB5 = 205 +75
2
RB = 65 KN
V=0
Max BM:
Span AB: Max BM in span AB occurs under point load and can be found
geometrically
Mmax=113.3351.38 
35
=1.75m
20
1.75 2
= 30.625 KNM
2
Example: Analyze continuous beam ABCD by slope deflection method and then
draw bending moment diagram. Take EI constant.
Solution:
A 0, B 0, C 0
Wab 2
100 4 22
 44.44 KN M
L2
62
Wa 2b
100 42 2
FBA
88.88 KNM
L2
62
F AB
FEMS
wL2
20 5 2
F BC
 41.67 KNM
12
12
wL2
20 5 2
F CB
41.67 KNM
12
12
FCD 20 1.5  30 KN M
MBA FBA
2EI
2A B 44.44 1 EIB
L
3
2EI
2B A 88.89 2 EIB
L
3
        1
        2
2EI
2B C 41.67 4 EIB 2 EIC
L
5
5
        3
2EI
2C B 41.67 4 EIC 2 EIB
L
5
5
MCD 30 KNM
        4
MBC FBC
MCB FCB
MBA MBC 0
MCB MCD 0
2
4
2
EIB 41.67 EIB EIC
3
5
5
22
2
47.22
EIB EIC 0
15
5
4
2
EIC EIB 30
5
5
2
4
11.67 EIB EIC
5
5
        5
Rotation @ B clockwise
Span AB
RB 6 100 4 67.11 61
RB 67.69 KN
R A 100 RB 32.31 KN
Span BC
5
RC 5 20 5 30 67.11
2
RC 42.58 KN
RB 20 5 RB 57.42 KN
Max 133.33 61
4 68.26 KNM
6
42.58
2.13 m
20
2.13 2
Mmax 42.58 2.13 20
30 15.26 KN M
2
Solution:
In this problem A =0, B 0, C 0, =15mm
FEMs:
FAB
FBA
Wab 2
44.44 KNM
L2
Wa 2 b
88.89 KNM
L2
wL2
41.67 KNM
8
wL2
41.67 KNM
8
FBC
FCB
L2
6 200
15
105 120 10 6
6 KNM
2
6
1000
mab mba
L2
6 200
15
105 120 10 6
8.64KNM
2
5
1000
Slope deflection equation
mbc mcb
2EI
3
(2 A B )
L
L
EI
6EI
F AB 2 A B 2
L
L
1
 44.44 EIB 6
3
1
50.44 EIB
3
2EI
6EI
MBA FBA
(2B A ) 2
L
L
2
88.89 EIB 6
3
2
82.89 EIB
3
2EI
6EI
MBC FBC
(2B C ) 2
L
L
2
 41.67 EI2B C 8.64
5
4
2
33.03 EIB EIC
5
5
2EI
6EI
MCB FCB
(2C B ) 2
L
L
2
41.67 EI2C B 8.64
5
4
2
50.31 EIC EIB
5
5
MCD 30 KNM
MAB F AB
        1
        2
        3
        4
        5
There are only two unknown rotations B and C . Accordingly the boundary
conditions are
MBA MBC 0
MCB MCD 0
Consider the free body diagram of continuous beam for finding reactions
Reactions:
Span AB:
RB 6 = 100 x 4 + 61.99 60.89
RB = 66.85
RA = 100 RB
=33.15 KN
Span BC:
RB 5 = 20 x 5 x
RB = 56.40 KN
RC = 20 x 5  RB
=43.60 KN
5
+ 61.99 30
2
Example: Three span continuous beam ABCD is fixed at A and continuous over
B, C and D. The beam subjected to loads as shown. Analyse the beam by slope
deflection method and draw bending moment and shear force diagram.
Solution:
Since end A is fixed A 0, B 0, c 0, D 0
FEMs:
Wl
60 4
 30 KNM
8
8
Wl
60 4
FBA
30 KNM
8
8
M
FBC 12.5 KNM
4
M
FCB 12.5 KNM
4
wl2
10 42
FCD
 13.3 3 KNM
12
12
wl2
10 42
FDC
13.33 KNM
12
12
F AB
        1
        2
2EI
2B C
L
2EI
2B C
12.5
4
12.5 EIB 0.5EIC
2EI
2 C B
MCB F CB
L
2EI
2 C B
12.5
4
12.5 EIC 0.5 EIB
2EI
2 C D
MCD F CD
L
2EI
2 C D
 13.33
4
13.33 EI C 0.5EI D
          5
2EI
2D C
L
2EI
2D C
13.33
4
13.33 0.5EI C EI D
          6
MBC F BC
        3
        4
MDC F DC
MBA MBC 0
ii MCB MCD 0
iii MDC 0
Now
( hinged)
MBA MBC 0
30 EIB 12.5 EIB 0.5EIC 0
2EIB 0.5EIC 42.5 0
MCB MBC 0
12.5 EIC 0.5EIB 13.33 EIC 0.5EID 0
0.5EIB 2EIC 0.5EID 0.83 0
MDC 0
13.33 0.5EIC EID 0
8
9
EI B 24.04
EI C 11.15
EI D 18.90
By substituting the values of B , c and D in respective equations we get
Beam AB:
60 2 5.96 42.02
20.985 KN
4
R A 60 RB 30.015 KN
RB
Beam BC:
11.63 50 5.96
13.92 KN
4
RB RC 13.92 KN RB is downward
RC
Beam CD:
10 4 2 11.63
17.09 KN
4
RC 10 4 RD 22.91 KN
RD
Example: Analyse the continuous beam shown using slope deflection method.
Then draw bending moment and shear force diagram.
wl2
10 82
 53.33 KNM
12
12
wl2
FBA
53.33 KNM
12
Wl
30 6
FBC
 22.50 KNM
8
8
WL
FCD
22.50 KNM
8
F AB
M AB F AB
2EI
2B A
L
2E 3I
2B 0
53.33
8
3
53.33 EIB
2
        1
MBA F BA
        2
2EI
2B C
L
2E2I
2B C
 22.5
6
4
2
 22.5 EIB EIC
3
3
MBC F BC
2EI
2 C B
L
2E2I
2 C B
22.5
6
4
2
22.5 EIC EIB
3
3
        3
MCB F CB
        4
In the above equation there are two unknown B and C , accordingly the
boundary conditions are:
i MBA MBC 24 0
ii MCB 0
3
4
2
EIB 22.5 EIB EIC 24
2
3
3
17
2
54.83
EIB EIC 0
5
6
3
4
2
EIC EIB 0
3
3
2
1
EIC 11.25 EIB
3
3
          (6)
3
1
11.25 17.432
2
3
EIC
Substituting EIB 17.432 and EIC 8.159 in the slope deflection equation
we get Final Moments:
3
MAB 53.33  17.432 66.40 KNM
4
3
MBA 53.33 17.432 27.18 KNM
2
4
17.432 2 8.159 51.18 KNM
3
3
4
2
MCB 22.5 8.159 ( 17.432) 0.00
3
3
MBC 22.5
Span AB:
27.18 66.40 10 8 4
35.13 KN
8
R A 10 8 RB 44.87 KN
RB
Span BC:
51.18 30 3
23.53 KN
6
RC 30 RB 6.47 KN
RB
Max BM
Span AB: Max BM occurs where SF=0, consider SF equation with A as origin
S x 44.87  10x 0
x 4.487 m
4.487 2
M max 44.87 4.487 10
64 36.67 KNM
2
Span BC: Max BM occurs under point load
51.18
BC Mmax 45
19.41 KN M
2
wl2
20 42
26.67 KNM
12
12
wl2
FCB
26.67 KNM
12
FBC
        1
        2
        3
        4
In the above equation there are two unknowns B and C , accordingly the
boundary conditions are
MBA MBC 0
MCB 12 0
Now, MBA MBC 2EIB 26.67
3
3
EIB EIC
2
4
7
3
EIB EIC 26.67 0
2
4
3
3
and, MCB 12 26.67 EIC EIB 12
2
4
3
3
38.67 EIB EIC 0
4
2
From (5) and (6)
7
3
EIB EIC 26.67 0
2
4
3
3
EIB EIC 19.33 0
8
4
        (5)
        (6)
25
EIB 46 0
8
EIB 46
8
14.72
25
From (6)
2
3
38.67 14.72
3
4
33.14
 ve sign indicates rotation anticlockw ise
EIC
Span AB:
14.72 29.44
11.04 KN
4
R A RB 11.04 KN
RB
Span BC:
29.44 12 20 4 2
50.36 KN
4
RC 20 4 RB 29.64 KN
RB
Example: Analyse the simple frame shown in figure. End A is fixed and ends B &
C are hinged. Draw the bending moment diagram.
Solution:
In this problem A 0, B 0, C 0, D 0,
FEMS:
FAB
FBA
FBC
FCB
FCD
FDB
Wab 2
120 2 42
106.67 KNM
L2
62
Wa 2b
120 22 4
53.33 KNM
L2
62
wl2
20 42
26.67 KNM
12
12
wl2
20 42
26.67 KNM
12
12
WL
20 4
10 KNM
8
8
WL
10 KNM
8
(1 )
2EI
2B B
L
2E2I
2B 53.33 4 EIB
53.33
6
3
2EI
2B C
MBC FCB
L
2E 3I
3
3
26.67
2B C 26.67 EIB EIC
4 2
2
4
2EI
2C B
MCB FCB
L
2E 3I
3
3
26.67
2C B 26.67 EIC EIB
4 2
2
4
MBA FBA
2EI
2B D
L
2EI
2B D 10 EIB 1 EID
10
4
2
2EI
2D B
MDB FDB
L
2EI
2D B 10 EID 1 EIB
10
4
2
(2 )
(3 )
(4 )
MBD FBD
(5 )
(6 )
EIB 8.83
EIC 13.36
EID 14.414
Substituting these values in slope equations
M AB 106.67
4
( 8.83 ) 41.56 KNM
3
3
3
26.67 ( 8.3) ( 13.36 ) 49.94 KNM
2
4
3
3
26.67 ( 13.36 ) ( 8.83 ) 0
2
4
1
10 ( 8.83 ) ( 14.414 ) 8.38 KNM
2
1
10 (14.414 ) ( 8.83 ) 0
2
MBA 53.33
MBC
M CB
MBD
MDB
2
( 8.83 ) 112.56 KNM
3
Span AB:
41.56 112.56 120 2
28.17 KN
6
R A 120 RB 91.83 KN
RB
Span BC:
49.94 20 4 2
52.485 KN
4
RC 20 4 RB 27.515 KN
RB
Column BD:
20 2 8.33
7.92 KN
4
HA HD 20
HB 12.78 KN
HD
Example: Analyse the portal frame shown in figure and also drawn bending
moment and shear force diagram
Solution:
Symmetrical problem
 Sym frame + Sym loading
A 0, B 0, C 0, D 0
FEMS
W 1ab 2 W 2 cd2
L2
L2
80 2 42 80 4 22
 106.67 KNM
62
62
Wa 2b W 2 c 2d
FCB
106.67 KNM
L2
L2
FBC
        1
      2
2EI
2B C
L
2E2I
4
2
106.67
(2B C ) 106.67 EIB EIC       3
6
3
3
2EI
2C B
MCB FCB
L
2E2I
4
2
106.67
(2C B ) 106.67 EIC EIB       4
6
3
3
2EI
2C D
MCD FCD
L
2EI
0
(2C 0) EIC
      5
4
MBC FBC
2EI
2D C
L
2EI
1
0
(0 C ) EIC
4
2
MDC FDC
      6
In the above equation there are two unknown rotations. Accordingly the boundary
conditions are
MBA MBC 0
MCB MCD 0
7
2
Now MBA MBC 106.67 EIB EIC 0
3
3
2
7
MCB MCD 106.67 EIB EIC 0
3
3
Multiply by (7) and (8) by 2
49
14
EIB
EIC 0
3
3
subtracts
4
14
213.34 EIB
EIC 0
3
3
746.69
45
EIB 0
3
3
EIB 960.03
64
45
 960.03
Clockwise
      (7)
      (8)
EIC

3
7
106.67 EIB
2
3
3
7
2
3
64
32 KNM
2
MBA 64 KNM
M AB
4
2
64 64 64 KNM
3
3
4
2
MCB 106.67 ( 64 ) 64 64 KNM
3
3
MCD 64 KNM
MBC 106.67
MDC
1
64 32 KNM
2
RD RC 80 KNM
Now consider free body diagram of column AB
Apply
MB 0
HA 4 64 32
HA 24 KN
MC 0
HA 4 64 32
HD 24 KN
Check:
H 0
HA HD 0
Hence okay
Note: Since symmetrical, only half frame may be analysed. Using first three
equations
and taking B C
Example: Analyse the portal frame and then draw the bending moment diagram
Solution:
This is a symmetrical frame and unsymmetrically loaded, thus it is an
unsymmetrical problem and there is a sway
Assume sway to right.
Here A 0,D 0,B 0,D 0
FEMS:
Wab 2
80 5 32
56.25 KNM
L2
82
Wa 2b
80 52 3
FCB
93.75 KNM
L2
82
FBC
MAB F AB
0
MBA FBA
0
2EI
3
2 A B
L
L
2EI
3 1
3
0 B EIB EI
4
4 2
8
        1
2EI
3
2B A
L
L
2EI
3
3
2B 0 EIB EI
4
4
8
        2
2EI
2B C
L
2EI
2B C 56.25 1 EIB 1 EIC
56.25
8
2
4
2EI
2C B
MCB FCB
L
2EI
2C B 93.75 1 EIC 1 EIB
93.75
8
2
4
2EI
3
MCD FCD
2C D
L
L
MBC FBC
0
MDC FDC
0
2EI
3
3
2C 0 EIC EI
4
4
8
        3
        4
        5
2EI
3
2D C
L
L
2EI
3 1
3
0 C EIC EI
4
4 2
8
        6
In the above equation there are three unknowns B , C and , accordingly the
boundary conditions are,
MBA MBC 0
Jo int conditions
MCB MCD 0
HA HD PH 0
   Shear condition
0
4
4
MAB MBA MCD MDC 0
3
1
1
Now, MBA MBC EIB EI 56.25 EIB EIC 0
8
2
4
3
1
3
56.25 EIB EIC EI 0
2
4
8
1
1
3
And, MCB MCD 93.75 EIC EIB EIC EI 0
2
4
8
1
3
3
93.75 EIB EIC EI 0
4
2
8
i.e,
1
3
3
3
EIB EI EIB EI EIC EI
2
8
8
8
1
3
EIC EI
2
8`
3
3
3
EIB EIC EI 0
9
2
2
2
EI EIB EIC
From (9)
3
1
3
EIB EIC EIB EIC 0
2
4
8
9
1
56.25 EIB EIC 0
8
8
56.25
      10
Eqn(8)
1
3
3
EIB EIC EIB EIC 0
4
2
8
1
9
93.75 EIB EIC 0
8
8
93.75
          11
1
41.25 3 37.5 34.69 KNM
2
8
3
MBA 41.25 37.5 55.31 KNM
8
1
1
MBC 56.25 41.25 78.75 55.31 KNM
2
4
1
1
M CB 93.75 78.75 41.75 64.69 KNM
2
4
3
M CD 78.75 37.5 64.69 KNM
8
1
3
MDC 78.75 37.5 25.31 KNM
2
8
M AB
34.69 55.31
22.5 KN
4
Span BC:
55.31 64.69 80 3
28.83 KN
8
RC 80 RB 51.17
RB
Column CD:
HD
64.69 25.31
22.5
4
Check:
H = 0
HA + HD = 0
22.5 22.5 = 0
Hence okay
Solution:
Frame is Symmetrical and unsymmetrical loaded hence there is a sway.
Assume sway towards right
FEMS
F AB F BA F BC F CB F CD F DC 0
Slope deflection equations are
2EI
3
MAB F AB
2 A B
L
L
2EI
3
B
3
3
2
2
EIB EI
3
3
2EI
3
MBA FBA
2B A
L
L
2EI
3
2B
3
3
4
2
EIB EI
3
3
        1
MBC FBC
2EI
2B C
L
2EI
2B C
4
EIB 0.5 EIC
MCB FCB
        3
2EI
2C B
L
2EI
2C B
4
EIC 0.5 EIB
MCD FCD
        4
2EI
3
2C D
L
L
2EI
3
2C
3
3
4
2
EIC EI
3
3
2EI
3
MDC FDC
2D C
L
L
2 EI
3
c
3
3
2
2
EIC EI
3
3
        6
20 0
3
3
MAB MBA MCD MDC 60 0
4
2
EIB EI EIB 0.5EIC
3
3
7
2
EIB 0.5EIC EI 0 7
3
3
4
2
EIC EI
3
3
7
2
0.5EIB EIC EI 0 8
3
3
2
2
4
2
4
EIB EI EIB EI EIC
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
EI EIC EI 60
3
3
3
8
2EIB 2EIC EI 60 0 9
3
EI B 8.18,
EI C 8.18,
EI 34.77
Substituting the value of B , C and in slope deflection equations
2
8.18 2 34.77 17.73 KNM
3
3
4
2
MBA 8.18 34.77 12.27 KNM
3
3
MBC 0 8.18 0.5 8.18 12.27 KNM
MAB
KNM
4
8.18 2 34.77 12.27 KNM
3
3
2
2
MDC 8.18 34.77 17.73 KNM
3
3
MCD
Member AB:
17.73 12.27
HA
10 KN
3
Member BC:
12.27 12.27
6.135 KN
4
RB RC 6.135 KN
 ve sign indicates direction of RB downwards
RC
Member CD:
HD
17.73 12.27
10 KN
3
Check:
H = 0
HA + HD + P = 0
+10 + 10 20 = 0
Hence okay
Example: Analyse the portal frame subjected to loads as shown. Also draw
bending moment diagram.
wl2
10 42
 13.33 KNM
12
12
wl2
10 42
FBA
13.33 KNM
12
12
wl
90 10
FBC
 112.5 KNM
8
8
wl 90 10
FCB
112.5 KNM
8
8
Slope deflection equations:
2EI
3
M AB F AB
2 A B
L
L
2EI
3
 13.33
0 B
4
4
 13.33 0.5 EIB 0.375 EI
2EI
3
MBA F BA
2 B A
L
L
F AB
2EI
3
2B 0
4
4
13.33 EIB 0.375 EI
        1
13.33
        2
2EI
2B C
L
2E3I
2B C
 112.5
10
 112.5 1.2EI B 0.6EIC
2EI
2 C B
MCB F CB
L
2E3I
2 C B
112.5
10
112.5 1.2EI C 0.6 EIB
MBC F BC
        3
        4
2EI
3
2 C D
L
L
2EI
3
0
2 C 0
4
4
EI C 0.375 EI
        5
2EI
3
2 D C
L
L
2EI
3
0
0 2 C
4
4
0.5EI C 0.375 EI
        6
MCD F CD
MDC F DC
There are 3 unknowns EIB, EIC and EI , accordingly the boundary conditions
are
MBA MBC 0
MCB MCD 0
HA HD 40 0
4
2
MAB MBA 80
4
and HD 4 MCD MBC
HA
HD
MCD MDC
4
40 0
4
4
MAB MBA MCD MDC 80 0
        (7)
        (8)
EI B 72.65
EI C 59.64
EI 66.34
Final moments:
        (9)
Member AB:
61.10 1.88 10 4 2
4
5.195 KN
 ve sign indicates direction of HA is from right to left
HA
Member BC:
84.52 61.10 90 5
47.34 KN
10
RB 90 RC 38.34 KN
RC
Member CD
HD
84.54 54.7
34.81 KN
4
Check
H = 0
HA + HD +10 4 = 0
5.20  34.81+ 40 = 0
Hence okay
Example: Analyse the portal frame and then draw the bending moment diagram
Solution:
Since the columns have different moment of inertia, it is an unsymmetrical
frame. Assume sway towards right
FEMS:
WL
80 6
60 KNM
8
8
WL
FCB
60 KNM
8
Here A 0, D 0
FBC
MAB F AB
0
MBA FBA
0
2EI
3
2 A B
L
L
2EI
3 1
3
0 B EIB EI
4
4 2
8
        1
2EI
3
2B A
L
L
2EI
3
3
2B 0 EIB EI
4
4
8
        2
2EI
2B C
L
2E2I
2B C 60 4 EIB 2 EIC
60
6
3
3
2EI
2C B
MCB FCB
L
2E2I
2C B 60 2 EIB 4 EIC
60
6
3
3
2EI
3
MCD FCD
2C D
L
L
MBC FBC
0
MDC FDC
0
2E2I
3
3
2C 0 2EIC EI
4
4
4
        3
        4
        5
2EI
3
2D C
L
L
2E2I
3
3
0 C EIC EI
4
4
4
        6
In the above equation there are three unknowns B , C and , accordingly the
boundary conditions are,
MBA MBC 0
MCB MCD 0
Jo int conditions
HA HD 0
   Shear condition
0
4
4
MAB MBA MCD MDC 0
i.e,
3
4
2
EI 60 EIB EIC 0
8
3
3
7
2
3
60 EIB EIC EI 0
3
3
8
2
4
3
EIB EIC 2EIC EI 0
3
3
4
2
10
3
EIB
EIC EI 60 0
3
3
4
1
3
3
3
EIB EI EIB EI 2EIC EI
2
8
8
4
3
EIC EI
4
3
9
EIB 3EIC EI 0
9
2
4
4 3
EIB 3EIC
9 2
From (9)
7
2
3 4 3
7
2
1
1
EIB EIC EIB EIC 60 0
3
3
4
2
25
1
EIB EIC 60 0
12
6
      10
EIB
EIC EIB 3EIC 60 0
3
3
8 9 2
2
10
1
EIB
EIC EIB EIC 60 0
3
3
2
1
7
EIB EIC 60 0
6
3
EIB 60
7 6
27.3
EIC
Now
EI
4 3
Now
EI B =31.03, EIC 27.3 , EI 16.55
      11
Column AB:
HA
37.25 21.72
14.74 KN
4
Beam BC:
37.25 43.45 80 3
38.97 KN
6
RC 80 RB 41.03
RB
Column CD:
HD
43.45 15.52
14.74 KN
4
Check:
H = 0
HA + HD = 0
14.7414.74=0
Hence okay
Ex: Portal frame shown is fixed at ends A and D, the joint B is rigid and joint C is
hinged. Analyse the frame and draw BMD.
Solution:
FEMs:
WL 80 6
60KNM
8
8
WL 80 6
FCB
60KNM
8
8
Here A 0, D 0, B 0, CB 0, CD 0
FBC
2EI
3
2 A B
L
L
2EI
3
0 B
4
4
1
3
EIB EI
2
8
0
( 1)
MBA FBA
2EI
3
2B A
L
L
2EI
3
2B 0
4
4
3
EIB EI
8
2EI
3
FBC
2B C
L
L
2E.2I
2B CB
60
6
4
2
60 EIB EICB
3
3
2EI
2CB B
FCB
L
2E.2I
2CB B
60
6
4
2
60 EICB EIB
3
3
2EI
3
FCD
2CD D
L
L
(3 )
2EI
3
2CD 0
4
4
3
EICD EI
8
2EI
3
FDC
2D CD
L
L
( 5 )
MBC
MCB
MCD
( 2)
(4 )
MDC
2EI
3
0 CD
4
4
1
3
EICD EI
2
8
0
( 6 )
i..e,
IV. HA+HD = 0
MAB MBA MCD MDC
0
4
4
MAB MBA MCD MDC 0
3
3 3
3
EIB EI EI 0
2
2 8
2
3
15
EIB
EI 0
2
16
16 3
8
Equation (12) gives EI
EIB EIB
15 2
5
( 12 )
( 13 )
Substituti ng in Equation ( 7 )
MBA MBC
7
2
3 8
2
7 3
EIB EICB 60
3
3 5
26
2
EIB EICB 60 0
15
3
( 14 )
42
EIB 180 0
15
__________ __________ _
EIB 180
15
64.29
42
8
8
EIB 64.29 102.864
5
5
3
From (11) EICD EI 38.574
8
3 7
3
From(13) EI
3 7
3
64.29 102.864 60
2 3
8
77.165
EIB 64.29, EICB 77.165,
EICD 38.57,
EI 102.864
1
64.29 3 102.864 6.42 KNM
2
8
3
64.29 102.864 25.72 KNM
8
4
2
60 64.29 77.165 25.72 KNM
3
3
4
2
60 77.165 64.29 0
3
3
3
38.574 102.864 0
8
1
3
38.574 102.864 19.29 KNM
2
8
MAB
MBA
MBC
MCB
MCD
MDC
Column AB:
HA
Beam BC:
25.72 6.42
4.825 KN
4
25.72 80 3
44.29 KN
6
RC 80 44.29 35.71 KN
RB
Column CD:
HD
19.28
4.82 KN
4
Check:
H = 0
HA+HD = 0
Hence okay.
Example: Analyse the portal frame shown in figure the deflection method and
then draw the bending moment diagram
Fig
Solution:
The frame is unsymmetrical, hence there is a sway. Let the sway be
towards right.
A 0, B 0, C 0, D 0
FEMS:
20 52
41.67 KNM
12
20 52
FCB
41.67 KNM
12
FCE 15 2 30 KNM
FBC
MAB F AB
0
MBA FBA
0
2EI
3
2 A B
L
L
2EI
3
0 B 0.5EIB 0.375EI
4
4
        1
2EI
3
2B A
L
L
2EI
3
2B 0 EIB 0.375EI
4
4
2EI
2B C
L
2E 1.5I
2B C 41.67 1.2EIB 0.6EIC
41.67
5
2EI
2C B
MCB FCB
L
2E 1.5I
2C B 41.67 1.2EIC 0.6EIB
41.67
5
2EI
3
MCD FCD
2C D
L
L
        2
MBC FBC
0
MDC FDC
0
2EI
3
2C 0 EIC 0.375EI
4
4
        3
        4
        5
2EI
3
2D C
L
L
2EI
3
0 C 0.5EIC 0.375EI
4
4
        6
In the above equation there are three unknowns B , C and , accordingly the
boundary conditions are,
MBA MBC 0
MCB MCD MCE 0
HA HD 0
i.e, MAB MBA MCD MDC 0
Now,
MBA MBC 0
Column AB:
HA
18.5 6.5
6.25 KN
4
Span BC:
Column CD:
10.16 14.84
HD
6.25
4
Check:
H = 0
HA + HD = 0
=0
Hence okay
Example: Analyse the portal frame shown and then draw bending moment
diagram.
Solution:
It is an unsymmetrical problem hence there is a sway be towards right
A 0, B 0, C 0, D 0
FEMs:
wl2
20 52
FBC
 41.67 KNM
12
12
wl2 20 52
FCB
41.67 KNM
12
12
Slope deflection equations:
2EI
3
M AB F AB
2 A B
L
L
2EI
3
0
0 B
3
3
2
2
EIB EI
3
3
2EI
3
MBA F BA
2 B A
L
L
2EI
3
0
2 B 0
3
3
4
2
EIB EI
3
3
        1
        2
2EI
3
2 B C
L
L
2E 1.5I
2B C
 41.67
5
6
3
 41.67 EIB EIC
5
5
2EI
3
MCB F CB
2 C B
L
L
2E 1.5I
2 C B 0
41.67
5
41.67 1.2EI C 0.6 EIB
MBC F BC
2EI
3
2 C D
L
L
2EI
3
0
2 C 0
4
4
EI C 0.375 EI
        3
        4
MCD F CD
          5
2EI
3
2 D C
L
L
2EI
3
0
0 C
4
4
0.5EI C 0.375 EI
MDC F DC
          6
In the above equations there are three unknown B , C and and accordingly the
Boundary conditions are:
MBA MBC 0
M CB M CD 0
H A HD 0
i.e
M AB MBA M CD MDC
0
3
4
4(M AB MBA ) 3(M CD MDC ) 0
Now
MBA MBC 0
4
2
6
3
EIB EI EIB EIC 41.67
3
3
5
5
3
2
2.53EIB EIC EI 41.67 0 (7)
5
3
MCB MCD 0
41.67 1.2EIC 0.6EIB EIC 0.375EI 0
41.67 2.2EIC 0.6EIB 0.375EI 0 (8)
MAB MBA MCD MDC
0
3
4
2
4
2
2
4 EIB EI EIB EI
3
3
3
3
EI B 25.46
EI C 23.17
EI 12.8
Final moments:
2
2
25.46 12.8 8.44 KNM
3
3
4
2
MBA 25.46 12.8 25.40 KNM
3
3
6
3
MBC 25.46 23.17 41.67 25.40 KNM
5
5
MCB 41.67 1.2 23.17 0.60 20.46 28.50 KNM
MAB
Member AB:
HA
25.40 8.44
11.28 KN
3
Member BC:
RC
28.5 20.30 20 5
5
2 51.64 KN
2
RB 20 5 51.64 48.36 KN
Member CD:
HD =
28.5 16.65
= 11.28 KN
4
Check:
H = 0
HA + HD = 0
Satisfied, hence okay
Example: A portal frame having different column heights are subjected for forces
as shown in figure. Analyse the frame and draw bending moment diagram.
 15 KNM
8
8
Wl
30 4
FBA
15 KNM
8
8
Wl
60 4
FBC
 30 KNM
8
8
Wl
60 4
FCB
30 KNM
8
8
FCD = FDC = 0
F AB
        1
MBA FBA
2EI
3
2B A
L
L
2E 2I
3
2B 0
4
4
15 2 EIB 0.75 EI
        2
2EI
2B C
L
2E 2I
2B C
 30
4
 30 2EIB EIC
        3
2EI
2C B
L
2E 2I
2C B
30
4
30 2EIC EIB
        4
15
MBC FBC
MCB FCB
2EI
3
2C D
L
L
2EI
3
0
2 C 0
3
3
4
2
EI C EI
3
3
MCD FCD
2EI
3
2D C
L
L
2EI
3
0
0 C
3
3
2
2
EI C EI
3
3
        5
MDC FDC
        6
There are three unknowns, EI, B ,EI C & EI , accordingly the Boundary
conditions are
MBA MBC 0
MCB MCD 0
HA HD 30 0
MAB MBA 60 MCD MDC
30 0
4
3
3MAB MBA 4MCD MDC 180 0
i.e,
Now
4
2
EIC EI
3
3
10
2
EIC EI 30 0
3
3
EI B 9.577
EI C 7.714
EI 20.795
Substituting these values in the slope deflection equations we get
Member AB:
18.55 21.01 30 2
15.615 KN
4
ve sign indicates the direction of HA is from right to left.
HA
Member BC:
18.55 60 2 24.15
28.60 KN
4
RC 60 RB 28.60 31.40 KN
RB
Member CD:
HD
19 24.15
14.38 KN
3
Check:
H = 0
HA + HD + 30 = 0
15.62 14.38 + 30 = 0
Hence okay
Example: Analyse the frame using slope deflection method and draw the
Bending Moment Diagram.
wI2
12
24 42
32 KNM
12
wI2
FCB
32 KN M
12
Here A D 0
FBC
2EI
3
2 A B
L
L
2EI
3
B
3
3
2
2
EIB EI
3
3
2EI
3
MBA FBA
2B A
L
L
2EI
3
2B
3
3
4
2
EIB EI
3
3
      1
2EI
2B C
L
2E2I
2B C
32
4
32 2EIB EIC
        3
2EI
2C B
L
2E2I
2C B
32
4
32 2EIC EIB
        4
MBC FBC
MCB FCB
MCD FCD
2EI
3
2C D
L
L
2EI
3
2C
3
3
4
2
EIC EI
3
3
2EI
3
2D C
L
L
2EI
3
C
3
3
2
2
EIC EI
3
3
MDC FDC
        6
30 0
3
3
MAB MBA MCD MDC 90 0
4
2
Now, MBA MBC EIB EI 32 2EIB EIC
3
3
10
2
EIB EIC EI 32 0
3
3
i.e,
4
2
EIC EI
3
3
10
2
EIC EI 32 0
3
3
2
2
4
2
4
EIB EI EIB EI EIC
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
EI EIC EI 90
3
3
3
8
2EIB 2EIC EI 90
3
4
EIB EIC EI 45 0
9
3
20
4
EIB 2EIC EI 64 0
3
3
4
EIB EIC EI 45 0
3
17
EIB 3EIC 109 0
3
      10
20
4
EIC EI 64 0
3
3
4
EIB EIC EI 45 0
3
2EIB
3EIB
17
EIC 109 0
3
17
EI B 3EI C 109 0
3
27
EI B 3EI C 57.71 0
17
208
EI B 166.71 0
17 3
166.71 17 3
EIB
40.88
208
        11
From (10)
EI C
1
17
109 EI B 40.88
3
3
From (9)
3
EIB EIC 45
4
3
40.88 40.88 45 95.07
4
Thus
EIB 40.88, EIC 40.88, EI 95.07
Substituting these values in slope deflection equations
EI
2
40.88 2 95.07 36.12 KNM
3
3
4
2
MBA 40.88 95.07 8.88 KNM
3
3
MBC 32 240.88 40.88 8.88 KNM
MAB
To find the reaction consider the free body diagram of the frame
Reactions:
Column AB
HA
8.88 36.12
15 KN
3
Beam AB
RB
8.88 8.88 24 4
4
RC 24 4 48 48 KN
Column CD
HD
8.88 36.12
15 KN
3
4
2 48 KN
Check
H = 0
HA + HD +P = 0
15 15 + 30 = 0
Hence okay