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# DYNAMIC

STABILITY
ANALYSIS
(Small Signal
Stability)
By

CONTENTS
DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS (Small Signal Stability) 1
Small-Signal Stability of Multi-machine Systems
Special techniques for analysis of very large systems
Characteristics of Small-Signal Stability Problems

Local problems
Global problems
DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS 2
Introduction
Overview of the Proposed Method
Generating Unit
Synchronous Machine
Calculation of Equilibrium State Conditions
Excitation and Governor Control Systems
Excitation System
Turbine-Governor System
Combined Model of Generating Unit
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CONTENTS cont
Multi-Component Models
Network Representation
State Space Model of the Overall System
Conclusions

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## Small-signal stability, is the ability of the power system to

maintain synchronism when subjected to small
disturbances.
A disturbance is considered to be small if the equations
that describe the resulting response of the system may be
linearized for the purpose of analysis.
The small-signal stability problem is usually one of
insufficient damping of system oscillations.

## Small-Signal Stability of Multi-machine Systems

Analysis of practical power systems involves the simultaneous
solution of equations representing the following:
Synchronous machines, and the associated excitation systems
and prime movers.
Interconnecting transmission network.
Static and dynamic (motor) loads
Other devices such as HVDC converters, static var compensators
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## For system stability studies it is appropriate to neglect

the transmission network and machine stator transients.
The dynamics of machine
rotor
circuits,
excitation
systems, prime mover and other devices are represented by
differential equations.
The result is that the complete system model consists of a
large number of ordinary differential and algebraic equations.

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* Algebraic equations
** Differential equations
Figure.1: Structure of the complete power system model
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## Special techniques for analysis of very large systems

Analysis of inter-area oscillations in a large interconnected
power system requires a detailed modelling of the entire system.
Special techniques have been developed that focus on
evaluating a selected subset of eigenvalues associated with the
complete system response.
AESOPS algorithm. It uses a novel frequency response
approach to calculate the eigenvalues associated with the rotor
angle modes.
The selective modal analysis (SMA) approach computes
eigenvalues associated with selected modes of interest by using
special techniques to identify variables that are relevant to the
selected modes, and then constructing a reduced-order model that
involves only the relevant variables.
The PEALS (Program for Eigenvalue Analysis of Large Systems)
uses two of these techniques.
The AESOPS algorithm and the modified Arnoldi method.
These two methods have been found to be efficient and reliable,
and they complement each other in meeting the requirements of
small-signal stability analysis of large complex power systems.
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Local problems

## Associated with rotor angle oscillations of a single generator

or a single plant against the rest of the power system. Such
oscillations are called local plant mode oscillations.
Most commonly encountered small-signal stability problems
are of this category.
Local problems may also be associated with oscillations
between the rotors of a few generators close to each other.
Such oscillations are called inter-machine or inter-plant
mode oscillations.
The local plant mode and interplant mode oscillations have
frequencies in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 Hz.
Analysis of local small-signal stability problems requires a
detailed representation of a small portion of the complete
interconnected power system.
The rest of the system representation may be appropriately
simplified by use of simple models and system equivalents.
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Global problems
Global small-signal stability problems are caused by
interactions among large groups of generators and have
They involve oscillations of a group of generators in one
area swinging against a group of generators in another
area. Such oscillations are called inter-area mode oscillations.
Large interconnected systems usually have two distinct forms of
interarea oscillations:
(a)A very low frequency mode involving all the generators in the
system. The frequency of this mode of oscillation is on the
order of 0.1 to 0.3 Hz.
(b)Higher frequency modes involving subgroups of generators
swinging against each other. The frequency of these
oscillations is typically in the range of 0.4 to 0.7 Hz.

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## DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS

The analysis of dynamic stability can be performed by deriving a
linearized state space model of the system in the following
form
pX=AX+Bu
Where the matrices A and B depend on the system parameters
and the operating conditions.

## The Eigen values of the system matrix A determine the

stability of the operating point.

The Eigen value analysis can be used not only for the
determination of the stability regions, but also for the design
of the controllers in the system.
The novel features of the proposed method :

## It is not necessary to reduce the power system network to

eliminate non-generator buses. The same network used for load flow
studies can also be used for the dynamic stability calculations.

## The development of system model proceeds systematically by the

development of the individual models of various components and
subsystems and their interconnection through the network model.
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## Overview of the Proposed Method

At any bus k of an N-bus network the following equations apply
Pk

Pk

Pk
j
V j

V j
jI k j

Qk

Q
k
Qk
j
V j

V j
jI k j

## where Ik is the set of buses that are connected to bus k. Also it

would be shown that for each bus, (P, Q) or (, V)

## Fig. 1 Block diagram for power system network

can be eliminated depending on the type of bus. The A matrix
formulation is based on identifying the interconnections among the
various subsystems of the power system as shown in Figure 2.
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## Fig. 2 Block diagram showing the interconnections among the

various subsystems of the power system

## Development of the system model is based on the formulation of

the individual component models and identifying the various
interconnections between the subsystems.
The linearized network algebraic equations are solved in terms of
the system state variables resulting in the final system model.
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GENERATING UNIT
Synchronous Machine
The rotor circuit differential equations, including its motion, are
given by

## p Xm = [Am] Xm + bme vfd + b mg Pm + [Bp] Sg

Ym = [Cm] Xm
where, Xm = [Id
Iq
f
k

]t
Ym = [Id
Iq

]t
Sg = [Pg Qg]t
Also, the generator terminal bus voltage magnitude and phase angle are
expressed in the form
Zg = [Dm] Ym + [Dp] Sg
where Zg = [g Vg]t
Id and Iq are state variables derived from the rotor flux linkages.

## Calculation of Equilibrium State Conditions

The values at the operating point (equilibrium state) of the
power system are calculated from the load flow results of the
system.
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## Excitation and Governor Control Systems

The excitation and governor control systems used in modern
generators fall into standard categories compiled in IEEE
Committee reports.
Excitation System
While it was initially thought that high gain voltage regulator loop with
a fast acting static exciter would improve transient stability, the
practical experience was that it led to dynamic instability.
Power system stabilizer (PSS) which introduces supplementary
stabilizing signal to suppress rotor oscillations has become a
desirable part of any excitation system.
The change in the magnitude of the terminal voltage, Vg, is one of the
inputs for the excitation system and this has to be expressed in terms
of the state variables and is given in the equation (5).
The state space model of excitation system is represented in the form
p Xe = [Ae] Xe + [Bem] Ym + [Bep] Sg + be ue
ye = [Ce] Xe
ye = Vfd; ue = Vref
where Xe, ue and ye are respectively the state, input and output
quantities; and the structures of the associated matrices are
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obtained for the IEEE Type 1 excitation system.

Turbine-Governor System
The state space model of governor control system can be
represented in the form
p Xg = [Ag] Xg + [Bgm] Ym + bg ug
yg = [Cg] Xg
yg = Pm; ug = Pmo
where Xg, ug and yg are respectively the state, input and output
quantities; and the structures of the associated matrices are
obtained for an IEEE system model.
Combined Model of Generating Unit
The following state space model is obtained, where all the
component elements are matrices.

p Xm Am

p
X
e Bem

p X g Bgm
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Bme
Ae
O

O O
Bmg X m Bp

ue

O X e Bep S g b e O
ug

A g X g O
O bg
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Y m C m

ye
yg

Ce

Xm

X
e
C g X g

## [Bme] = bme Ttel ; [Bmg] = bmg Ttgl ;

[Bem] = [Bem] [Cm] ; [Bgm] = [Bgm] [Cm] ;
and Tel and Tgl are vectors containing only one non zero element
each equal to one and defined by the following equations
Vfd = Ttel Xe; Pm = Ttgl Xg
The usual constant power, constant current and constant
impedance type loads and any other voltage dependent
nonlinear loads can be represented in the general form

PL k pVLnp ; QL k qVLnq
where consent coefficients kp, kq and the exponents np and nq
depend upon the type of load under consideration. Linearizing,
we get
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where,
S

= [Al] Zl
= [PL QL ]t
= [L VL ]t

O n p k pV Lnp 1
[ Al ]
nq 1
O n q k qV L
The nonlinear loads dependent on the bus frequency, if present
in the system, can also be handled without any difficulty, if
desired.
Multi-Component Models
The various subsystems described earlier can be assembled
together for the analysis of large-scale power systems
including large number of machines and loads.
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## [AM] = Block diag. [[Aml], [Am2], [Amn]]

and
XM = [Xtml Xtm2 Xtmn]t

p X M A M
p X B
E

EM
p X G B GM
Y M
Y
E
YG

CM

B ME
AE
O

CE

B MG X M B P
O O
u e

O X E B EP S G B E O
ug

O B G
A G X G O
X M
X
E
C G X G

## where all the components are matrices.

Also,
ZG = [DM] YM + [Dp] SG
SL = [AL] ZL

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Network Representation

polar form.

## For a N-bus power system network the Jacobian is of (2N x

2N) dimension and the identity of all the buses is preserved.

## The network equations are

[SGt SLt]t = [J] [ZGt ZLt]t
where [J] is the Jacobian matrix of the network and is given by

J GG
[J ]
J LG

J GL
J LL

## where all the components are matrices. Substituting the

equations (17) in (18) and simplifying, we get,

S G J GG
O J

LG

J GL Z G
J LL Z L

## where [JLL] = [JLL] + [AL]

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S G
J GG
1

[
J
]
Z
M
J
L
LG

DM C M
XM

DM C M

( U J GG DP )
where [ J M ]
J LG DP

J GL
J ' LL

## State Space Model of the Overall System

State space model of the overall system
p X = [A] X + [B] U
Y = [C] X
where X = [XMt
XEt
XGt] t
U = [uet
ugt ] t
Y = [YMt
YEt
YGt] t
A' M
[ A ] B' EM
B GM

B ME
AE

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B MG
O
A G

O O
[ B] BE O
O BG

CM
[C ]

CE

CG
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CONCLUSIONS
This state space model is amenable to the application of linear
control theory and eigenvalue analysis.
This allows one to study the overall dynamic performance of
power systems, including the interaction between machine
controls.

REFERENCES :

[1] Prabha Kundur: Power System Stability and control, The EPRI Power
System Engineering Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.
[2] C. Radhakrishna : Stability Studies of AC/DC Power Systems , Ph. D.
Thesis , submitted to Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India, 1980.
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THANK
YOU
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