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STABILITY

ANALYSIS

(Small Signal

Stability)

By

Prof. C. Radhakrishna

CONTENTS

DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS (Small Signal Stability) 1

Small-Signal Stability of Multi-machine Systems

Special techniques for analysis of very large systems

Characteristics of Small-Signal Stability Problems

Local problems

Global problems

DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS 2

Introduction

Overview of the Proposed Method

Generating Unit

Synchronous Machine

Calculation of Equilibrium State Conditions

Excitation and Governor Control Systems

Excitation System

Turbine-Governor System

Combined Model of Generating Unit

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CONTENTS cont

Load Representation

Multi-Component Models

Network Representation

State Space Model of the Overall System

Conclusions

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maintain synchronism when subjected to small

disturbances.

A disturbance is considered to be small if the equations

that describe the resulting response of the system may be

linearized for the purpose of analysis.

The small-signal stability problem is usually one of

insufficient damping of system oscillations.

Analysis of practical power systems involves the simultaneous

solution of equations representing the following:

Synchronous machines, and the associated excitation systems

and prime movers.

Interconnecting transmission network.

Static and dynamic (motor) loads

Other devices such as HVDC converters, static var compensators

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the transmission network and machine stator transients.

The dynamics of machine

rotor

circuits,

excitation

systems, prime mover and other devices are represented by

differential equations.

The result is that the complete system model consists of a

large number of ordinary differential and algebraic equations.

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* Algebraic equations

** Differential equations

Figure.1: Structure of the complete power system model

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Analysis of inter-area oscillations in a large interconnected

power system requires a detailed modelling of the entire system.

Special techniques have been developed that focus on

evaluating a selected subset of eigenvalues associated with the

complete system response.

AESOPS algorithm. It uses a novel frequency response

approach to calculate the eigenvalues associated with the rotor

angle modes.

The selective modal analysis (SMA) approach computes

eigenvalues associated with selected modes of interest by using

special techniques to identify variables that are relevant to the

selected modes, and then constructing a reduced-order model that

involves only the relevant variables.

The PEALS (Program for Eigenvalue Analysis of Large Systems)

uses two of these techniques.

The AESOPS algorithm and the modified Arnoldi method.

These two methods have been found to be efficient and reliable,

and they complement each other in meeting the requirements of

small-signal stability analysis of large complex power systems.

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20

Local problems

or a single plant against the rest of the power system. Such

oscillations are called local plant mode oscillations.

Most commonly encountered small-signal stability problems

are of this category.

Local problems may also be associated with oscillations

between the rotors of a few generators close to each other.

Such oscillations are called inter-machine or inter-plant

mode oscillations.

The local plant mode and interplant mode oscillations have

frequencies in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 Hz.

Analysis of local small-signal stability problems requires a

detailed representation of a small portion of the complete

interconnected power system.

The rest of the system representation may be appropriately

simplified by use of simple models and system equivalents.

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21

Global problems

Global small-signal stability problems are caused by

interactions among large groups of generators and have

widespread effects.

They involve oscillations of a group of generators in one

area swinging against a group of generators in another

area. Such oscillations are called inter-area mode oscillations.

Large interconnected systems usually have two distinct forms of

interarea oscillations:

(a)A very low frequency mode involving all the generators in the

system. The frequency of this mode of oscillation is on the

order of 0.1 to 0.3 Hz.

(b)Higher frequency modes involving subgroups of generators

swinging against each other. The frequency of these

oscillations is typically in the range of 0.4 to 0.7 Hz.

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The analysis of dynamic stability can be performed by deriving a

linearized state space model of the system in the following

form

pX=AX+Bu

Where the matrices A and B depend on the system parameters

and the operating conditions.

stability of the operating point.

The Eigen value analysis can be used not only for the

determination of the stability regions, but also for the design

of the controllers in the system.

The novel features of the proposed method :

eliminate non-generator buses. The same network used for load flow

studies can also be used for the dynamic stability calculations.

development of the individual models of various components and

subsystems and their interconnection through the network model.

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At any bus k of an N-bus network the following equations apply

Pk

Pk

Pk

j

V j

V j

jI k j

Qk

Q

k

Qk

j

V j

V j

jI k j

would be shown that for each bus, (P, Q) or (, V)

can be eliminated depending on the type of bus. The A matrix

formulation is based on identifying the interconnections among the

various subsystems of the power system as shown in Figure 2.

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various subsystems of the power system

the individual component models and identifying the various

interconnections between the subsystems.

The linearized network algebraic equations are solved in terms of

the system state variables resulting in the final system model.

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25

GENERATING UNIT

Synchronous Machine

The rotor circuit differential equations, including its motion, are

given by

Ym = [Cm] Xm

where, Xm = [Id

Iq

f

k

]t

Ym = [Id

Iq

]t

Sg = [Pg Qg]t

Also, the generator terminal bus voltage magnitude and phase angle are

expressed in the form

Zg = [Dm] Ym + [Dp] Sg

where Zg = [g Vg]t

Id and Iq are state variables derived from the rotor flux linkages.

The values at the operating point (equilibrium state) of the

power system are calculated from the load flow results of the

system.

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The excitation and governor control systems used in modern

generators fall into standard categories compiled in IEEE

Committee reports.

Excitation System

While it was initially thought that high gain voltage regulator loop with

a fast acting static exciter would improve transient stability, the

practical experience was that it led to dynamic instability.

Power system stabilizer (PSS) which introduces supplementary

stabilizing signal to suppress rotor oscillations has become a

desirable part of any excitation system.

The change in the magnitude of the terminal voltage, Vg, is one of the

inputs for the excitation system and this has to be expressed in terms

of the state variables and is given in the equation (5).

The state space model of excitation system is represented in the form

p Xe = [Ae] Xe + [Bem] Ym + [Bep] Sg + be ue

ye = [Ce] Xe

ye = Vfd; ue = Vref

where Xe, ue and ye are respectively the state, input and output

quantities; and the structures of the associated matrices are

27

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obtained for the IEEE Type 1 excitation system.

Turbine-Governor System

The state space model of governor control system can be

represented in the form

p Xg = [Ag] Xg + [Bgm] Ym + bg ug

yg = [Cg] Xg

yg = Pm; ug = Pmo

where Xg, ug and yg are respectively the state, input and output

quantities; and the structures of the associated matrices are

obtained for an IEEE system model.

Combined Model of Generating Unit

The following state space model is obtained, where all the

component elements are matrices.

p Xm Am

p

X

e Bem

p X g Bgm

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Bme

Ae

O

O O

Bmg X m Bp

ue

O X e Bep S g b e O

ug

A g X g O

O bg

28

Y m C m

ye

yg

Ce

Xm

X

e

C g X g

[Bem] = [Bem] [Cm] ; [Bgm] = [Bgm] [Cm] ;

and Tel and Tgl are vectors containing only one non zero element

each equal to one and defined by the following equations

Vfd = Ttel Xe; Pm = Ttgl Xg

Load Representation

The usual constant power, constant current and constant

impedance type loads and any other voltage dependent

nonlinear loads can be represented in the general form

PL k pVLnp ; QL k qVLnq

where consent coefficients kp, kq and the exponents np and nq

depend upon the type of load under consideration. Linearizing,

we get

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where,

S

= [Al] Zl

= [PL QL ]t

= [L VL ]t

O n p k pV Lnp 1

[ Al ]

nq 1

O n q k qV L

The nonlinear loads dependent on the bus frequency, if present

in the system, can also be handled without any difficulty, if

desired.

Multi-Component Models

The various subsystems described earlier can be assembled

together for the analysis of large-scale power systems

including large number of machines and loads.

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30

and

XM = [Xtml Xtm2 Xtmn]t

p X M A M

p X B

E

EM

p X G B GM

Y M

Y

E

YG

CM

B ME

AE

O

CE

B MG X M B P

O O

u e

O X E B EP S G B E O

ug

O B G

A G X G O

X M

X

E

C G X G

Also,

ZG = [DM] YM + [Dp] SG

SL = [AL] ZL

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31

Network Representation

polar form.

2N) dimension and the identity of all the buses is preserved.

[SGt SLt]t = [J] [ZGt ZLt]t

where [J] is the Jacobian matrix of the network and is given by

J GG

[J ]

J LG

J GL

J LL

equations (17) in (18) and simplifying, we get,

S G J GG

O J

LG

J GL Z G

J LL Z L

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S G

J GG

1

[

J

]

Z

M

J

L

LG

DM C M

XM

DM C M

( U J GG DP )

where [ J M ]

J LG DP

J GL

J ' LL

State space model of the overall system

p X = [A] X + [B] U

Y = [C] X

where X = [XMt

XEt

XGt] t

U = [uet

ugt ] t

Y = [YMt

YEt

YGt] t

A' M

[ A ] B' EM

B GM

B ME

AE

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B MG

O

A G

O O

[ B] BE O

O BG

CM

[C ]

CE

CG

33

CONCLUSIONS

This state space model is amenable to the application of linear

control theory and eigenvalue analysis.

This allows one to study the overall dynamic performance of

power systems, including the interaction between machine

controls.

REFERENCES :

[1] Prabha Kundur: Power System Stability and control, The EPRI Power

System Engineering Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.

[2] C. Radhakrishna : Stability Studies of AC/DC Power Systems , Ph. D.

Thesis , submitted to Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India, 1980.

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34

THANK

YOU

10/17/2010 10:25 AM

35

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