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Group Selection Is Dead! Long Live


Group Selection?
AYELET SHAVIT AND ROBERTA L. MILLSTEIN

e live in interesting times. Two


well-known biologistsE. O. Wilson and Richard Dawkinsand some
of their well-known colleagues, who used
to employ broadly similar selection models, now deeply disagree over the role of
group selection in the evolution of eusociality (or so we will argue). Yet they
describe their models as interchangeable. As philosophers of biology, we
wonder whether there is substantial (i.e.,
empirical) disagreement here at all, and,
if there is, what is this disagreement
about?
We argue that a substantial disagreement over the processes that caused eusociality best explains this debate, yet the
common practice of using overarching
definitions for group selection and kin
selection renders empirical differences
difficult to detect. We suggest Michael J.
Wades use of these terms as a basis for
models that reveal different selection
processes. Wades models predict different outcomes for different processes and
thus can be tested.
Some background: Thirty-three years
after the publication of Sociobiology: The
New Synthesis (Harvard University Press,
1975), E. O. Wilson seems to be making
an almost 180-degree turn (Wilson 2008).
Back then, Wilson accepted a broad definition of kin selection as the favor or
disfavor of individuals based on kin relatedness, but now he claims this concept
applies only to collateral relatives (i.e.,
those other than parents and offspring).
Back then, Wilson thought eusociality
was all about relatedness, whereas now he
argues for a minorif anyexplanatory role for kin selection. Although Wilson has always claimed to support group
selection theory, only recently has this
inclination channeled into a specific
mathematical model of group selection
and against the centrality of kin selection.

One thing has not changed: Wilsons very


rich and well-organized assembly of
recent empirical findings.
His opponents, who favor kin selection
over group selection, target his interpretation rather than his facts. Indeed, both
sides declare that their models are translatable, that is, they could agree with
any set of data the other model agreed
with (Dawkins 1982, Wilson and Wilson
2007). If this disagreement were purely
about terminology, one would expect the
community to gradually lose interest in
it. This has not happened. Another option
is that this debate continues because it is
semantic in a nontrivial way: that is, the
models agree with all the data but differ
greatly in their heuristic value. In that
case, one would expect many methodological comparisons of model performancefor example, comparisons of
models precision, generality, accuracy,
complexity, or elegancefor various
species and social phenomena in the lab
and in nature. Yet these are not a central
part of the debate either. Rather, it seems
there is no given phenomenon both sides
use; instead, disputants clash on how to
define or describe the phenomenon that
our models attempt to fit to. In short,
they disagree over what it is that we see
when some ants walk by.
For Wilson and Wilson (2007), a group
is any aggregation of individuals that is
small compared with the total population
and consists of individuals interacting
in a nonrandom way that affects each
others fitness. This is an extremely abstract understanding of what constitutes
a group, one that fits many kinds of cases
and is almost completely unconstrained
by any particular population structure,
dynamic, duration, or size. Nor does it
require groups to multiply as anything
like cohesive wholes in order to acquire
heritable variance in fitness. Such a broad

574 BioScience July/August 2008 / Vol. 58 No. 7

definition of group is central for Wilson and Wilsons definition of group selection: the evolution of traits based on
the differential survival and reproduction of groups. Such a group selection
model does not differ empirically from
the similarly broad definition of kin selection: selection affected by relatedness
among individuals (Foster at al. 2006).
Again, no particular population structure constrains the application of this
kin selection model. The difference lies in
model structure: whereas the group
selection model partitions the overall
selection in the population into withingroup selection and between-groups
selection, alternative modelskin selection, reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, or
mutualismconsider such partitioning
unnecessary, since they all claim that
what enhances group fitness always
enhances the inclusive fitness of each
member in the group (or rather, what
Dawkins only partly facetiously describes as that property of an individual
organism which will appear to be maximized when what is really maximized is
gene survival [Dawkins 1982, p. 187]).
This theoretical difference in model
structure does not necessarily emphasize different causal factors, because the
contexts that can affect the frequency
of altruistspopulation structure and
ecologycan be captured by both
models (Foster et al. 2006, Wilson 2008).
The contexts therefore do not constrain

Ayelet Shavit (e-mail: ashavit@UCDavis.edu) is a


Marie Curie Fellow in the Department of Philosophy at the University of CaliforniaDavis, and in Tel
Hai College, Israel. Roberta L. Millstein (e-mail:
rlmillstein@UCDavis.edu) is an associate professor
in the Department of Philosophy at the University
of CaliforniaDavis. 2008 American Institute of
Biological Sciences.

www.biosciencemag.org

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either model, as both measure the evolutionary outcome only in gene frequencies, not as the process of evolving
a new level of organization (Griesemer
2000). So, argue Foster and colleagues
(2006), if E. O. Wilsons new group model
does not generate facts unattainable otherwise, why accept his definition of kin
selection rather than Maynard Smiths
original definitionthe evolution of
characteristics that favor the survival of
close relatives of the affected individual?
And when Wilson states that the final
step to eusociality can occur with the
substitution of only one allele or a small
set of alleles (Wilson 2008), why not
call this allele for staying in the nest
which is easily recognizable by an arbitrary marker identifiable in other ants
(such as an odor) and promotes favor of
those antsby Dawkinss original term,
green beard effect? Yet Wilson asks in
return, why not go back to Darwins original explanation of group selection? Thus
the debate again seems to be over terminology, this time with a historical twist.
But why should biologists care, as they
obviously do? If the disagreement were
mainly about choosing among interchangeable perspectives for the same
phenomenon, a choice based on personal taste, historical uses, or heuristic
values of group or kin models, one would
expect the debate to gradually dissolve in
the first two cases and become pragmatic
and methodology based in the third.
Since the debate has neither dissolved
nor turned pragmatic, and since we
assume the debate is a rational one, we

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suggest the remaining explanation as the


best one: Wilson and Dawkins disagree
over semantics because both hope for
their different concepts and models to
refer to different evolutionary processes
in the world, with each maintaining that
his preferred evolutionary process is the
more prevalent. To use Dawkinss terms,
even when modestly arguing over the
flipping picture we see in a Necker cube,
the nonmodest aim remains to decipher
the picture we see from an East African
mountain: are the small spots below insects or buffalos (Dawkins 1982)?
When Wilson looks at a social group
he sees a unit that is a target of a selection,
while Dawkins sees an illusory byproduct of a different selection process
acting at a single level of organization:
gene selection. They disagree the way
they do because they aim to accurately
represent empirical facts, but since both
sides employ overly broad definitions for
group, group selection, and kin selection, it becomes very difficult to identify
a specific factfor example, a particular
population dynamic or structureto
distinguish between these models in a
particular case. We think this situation is
unfortunate. Whether or not certain subpopulations have heritable variance in
fitness is an empirical question, whatever you choose to call these entities
(Griesemer 2000). Luckily, an alternative is already present in the literature.
Wade (1978, 1985) defined group selection and kin selection in accord with different population structures, so his
constrained models could clearly refer

to distinct selection processes that he and


his colleagues then compared in the lab
or in the field. Dawkins and Wilson may
object that Wades definitions are too
narrow. They would be right in the sense
that his definitions do not cover many
kinds of cases, yet that does not imply that
his definitions do not cover many cases.
They do. Indeed, narrow definitions
those that restrict the kinds of casesgive
us tools to determine what is and what is
not happening in a given population,
whereas the broad definitions used by
Dawkins and Wilson will forever talk
past each other without resolution.

Acknowledgment
We thank James R. Griesemer for helpful comments on this essay.

References cited
Dawkins R. 1982. The Extended Phenotype. Oxford
(United Kingdom): Oxford University Press.
Foster KR, Wenseleers T, Ratnieks FLM. 2006. Kin
selection is the key to altruism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 5760.
Griesemer JR. 2000. The units of evolutionary transition. Selection 1: 6780.
Wade MJ. 1978. A critical review of the models of
group selection. Quarterly Review of Biology 53:
101140.
. 1985. Soft selection, hard selection, kin
selection, and group selection. American Naturalist 125: 6173.
Wilson EO. 2008. One giant leap: How insects
achieved altruism and colonial life. BioScience
58: 1725.
Wilson EO, Wilson DS. 2007. Rethinking the theoretical foundation of sociobiology. Quarterly
Review of Biology 82: 327348.
doi:10.1641/B580702
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