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Tanuw idjaj a, Gunawan
MSc. Environmental Management (NUS), S.T. (ITB) Urban Planner & Researcher,
Green Impact Indonesia
Integrated Urban, Drainage and Env ironmental Planning and Design Email: email@example.com http://greenimpactindo.wordpress.com/about/
Peat swamp forest can be defined as a forest that has peat soil accumulation in the floor and usually is located in the lowlands. The peat soil is actually made of 65% organic matter and has reddish-brown colour.1
Globally Peat swamp can be found in South East Asia, Central and South America, Africa 2 which are tropical forests; and Russia, Ireland, Scotland, Germany and Scandinavia which are temperate forests.3 Further we are going to explore more on the South East Asia peat swamp forest, which are mostly located in Malaysia and Indonesia. Further the characteristics of peat swamp forests will be described in abiotic, which are: climate, soil and water; and biotic component which are: flora, fauna and micro-organism.
The tropical forests have intensive rainfall, warm annual temperature, and
4 high humidity. Intensity of rainfall in South East Asia is 200 mm/month during
wet season and 100 mm/month during dry season. The rainfall pattern in the area further explained in Figure 1-1. 5 This shows that peat swamp forest in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Malaysia have the wettest climate since receiving 12 month of rain. The annual temperature in the lowland area will be between 26-28°C.6 But the altitude of the place also can influence forest temperature.7
Microclimate is other component found in dense peat swamp forest. This was proven in Semengo arboretum, Kuching, Serawak. The research proved that the temperature in forest lower part is also lower because of the forest canopy protection. The result will be presented in Figure 1-2.
The peat is made from the decayed wood, leave, or body of animal.9 The peat will loss 77-94% of the biomass when burned.10 The form of peat also varies from solid, fibrous form to soft crust.11 Peat is also highly acidic (pH from 3.85 to 4.15).12
Peat swamp forests are important to minimize the effects of global
13 warming, as a major carbon sink. Actually this become more urgent since the
accumulation of carbon dioxide is estimated by IPCC to reach 31 percent higher than it was 250 years ago.14 The depth of peat soil is variable from 0.5-20 m, which the deepest part is the centre of the swamp.15 Generally the soil contains low phosphorus and other nutrients or known as oligotrophic.16 The peat deposit also can be categorised in two forms, which are: ombrogenous peat and topogeneous peat. The ombrogenous peat is the
common one and is above the surrounding land. The plants live in it get nutrient from the peat soil and directly from the rain only. Also no nutrient enters the peat from the soil layer below or from the rain water. This type is usually found behind the mangroves with 20 m depth of deposit. The topogenous peat is the less common one and is formed in the topographic depression. The plants in this kind of peat obtain nutrients from mineral subsoil, river water, plants remain and rain. Topogenous peat is usually found behind coastal sand ridge and in mountain depressions. The peat is usually found in a relative thin layer about 4 m.
Water flowing out of the peat swamp forest appears tea-coloured or opaque-black. It is also found very acidic (pH 3.45) because of high humic acids. The humic acids transform inorganic ions into larger molecules which can not be taken up by plants. Lastly it also contains lower inorganic ions and low dissolved oxygen.
The water table in the peat swamp is actually high. In Brunei it is found that the water table is almost 10 cm below the surface in April.19 This actually shows that peat swamps carry important functions such as water storage, flood control and fisheries, acquisition, storage and recycling of chemical elements.
The vegetation in the peat swamp forest modifies consecutively from the periphery to the centre of the swamp due to the declining nutrients in the soil. The succession of vegetation is marked by decreasing canopy height,
decreasing total biomass per unit area, increasing leaf - thickness and decreasing average girth of certain species. 21 There are two finding on forest community in peat swamp, which are peat swamp forest community in Sarawak and Brunei; and forest community in Sumatra. Both of these are resulted from Anderson and Whitmore.
The forest / phasic community (PC) classification can be described as: • • • • •
PC1 or Gonystylus-Dactylocladus-Neoscrotechinia (Mixed swamp forest). PC2 or Shorea albida-Gonystylus-Stenonurus (Alan batu forest). PC3 or Shorea albida (Alan bunga forest). PC4 or Shorea albida-Litsea-Parastemon (Padang alan forest). PC5 or Tristania-Palaquium-Parastemon. It is a close transitional forest between PC4 and PC6.
PC6 or Combretocarpus-Dactylocladus (Padang paya forest). Further the structure of this forest community can be seen in the Figure 1-
3 and Figure 1-4 23, Table 1-1 24 and Table 1-2. 25 Beside that Anderson (1963 ) also found 1706 species of plants in peat swamp in Sarawak. In Sumatra Sewandono (1938) found that fewer than 100 species of tree exists. These data ensure the complexity of the forest.26
The terrestrial fauna are not found abundantly in the peat swamp forest in Peninsular Malaysia. The existing fauna that present in this area is mostly primate that would be 10 groups per km 2. One of the reasons is because primate needs vine-fruit which is not abundant there. 27 On the other hand Bornean peat swamps is able to support Bats, Primates, Rodents, Wild pigs, Mouse deer, Sambar deer and Tiger. They also
support primates, like Langurs, Gibbons, Macaques and Orang-utan. This actually shows that peat-swamp forests are important as the habitat of endangered species.28
Aquatic animals are also less abundant in it rivers. Only 10% fish species are found compared to other river in Malaysia. Cladocera (water fleas), annelid worms, rotifers, nematodes, protozoans are hardly found in the water. The reason is the low calcium content in the water and the high phenolic compounds in the water.
Further Figure 1-5 will present the fauna of lowland forests.
Some decomposer organisms are found in the soil. But since the oxygen supply to the substrate and the energy sources are limited, the micro organisms can only compose in very slow process. Another factor of this is the resistance of phenolic compound to fungi, bacteria, roots, vertebrates, insects and worms.
Key Economic Products of Peat Swamp Forests
Since 1960 the peat swamp forest has been logged for Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), Alan (Shorea albida), Meranti buaya (Shorea uliginosa), Jongkong,
32 Nyatoh, Kapur, Sepetir, Jelutong, and Geronggang padang for commercial use .
Shorea Albida is commonly used for rail-road sleepers that need to be change in every three years.
Other minor products from the forest are Kelubi fruit (Sallaca conferta), Rattan (5 types), fish and many medicinal plants and herbs. This is usually harvested by the Aborigine or called ‘Orang Asli.’33
Further other research on economic value of this product also has been done by Ramakrishna, Sundari, from Wetlands International - Malaysia Office.
3 For example construction timber can be produced in 2,850 m annually in East
Kalimantan Peat Swamp Forests and is worthy of $ 100,000. Later this is presented in Table 1-3. 34
Past and Present Peat Swamp Forests Condition
In Southeast Asia, peat-swamp forests actually can be discovered in the lowlands of eastern Sumatra, Sarawak, Brunei, Malay Peninsula, south-western New Guinea, and southern Philippines. It was estimated that peat swamp forest in Indonesia are 17 million ha (Coultier,1957), in Sarawak 1.5 million ha (Anderson,1963), and in Malay Peninsula 0.5 million ha (Wyatt-Smith,1963). The past distribution of peat swamp forest further presented in Figure 1-6.36 Later MacKinnon (1997) found that in Sumatra only 4.219 million ha peat swamp forests were undisturbed in 1996 from 7.28 million ha area in the past (60% of former forest area). 37 Similarly Shamsudin (1996a) found that peat swamp forests in Peninsula Malaysia decreased to 0.34 million ha in 1991 from 0.67 million ha in 1981 (reserve 50% from 1981 condition).38 In 2001 WWF released the data on Borneo and Peninsula Malaysian peat
39 swamp forests. Borneo peat swamp forests is estimated to be 6.75 million ha , 35
while Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests is estimated to be 0.36 million ha. Generally it shows that peat swamp forests areas are declined because of the human intervention. Further we are going to review important functions of peat swamp forest:
• • • •
Mitigates flooding, and droughts in the area Provides fresh water supply Prevents saline water intrusion Genetic bank of unique biota and haven for animal species
Provides variety of commercially valuable timber, latex, resins, traditional culture foods, dyes, medicinal plants, fungi and microbes
• • • •
Stores carbon and reducing CO2 contribution to global warming Regulates local climate via forest cover. Stores record of ecosystem's natural history A valuable repository of ecological materials
Human Impacts in Past, Present and Future in Peat Swamp Forests
The human activities related to peat swamp forest in Malaysia and Indonesia are categorized into: logging, agriculture, minor forest harvesting, aquaculture, mining, and housing and industries.
To understand the condition of peat swamp forest we have to observe 5 stages of human activities in peat swamp forest by Victor Phillips (later presented in Figure 1-7), which are:
1. The healthy, undisturbed mixed peat swamp forest 2. Logging process occurs and leaves several trees and pioneer species 3. The practise of burning destroys the trees and the peat, the land is drained and cultivated. The land is fertilized and limed, and finally the crop is harvested. 4. After 2 years the land is abandoned since the crops and the profit decline. 5. Different communities occupy the land. The hydrology is changed and land subsidence occurs in 2.5 cm/year. The acid land prevents restoration of original forest communities.
Logging is one of main economy acti vity in forest area of Indonesia and Malaysia. For e xample since 1960, two-thirds of the total peat swamp forest in
43 Sarawak, were seriously exploited, with selective logging. Totally estimated the
about 62.4 m3/ ha log was harvested in Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak.44 This extensive logging is actually supported by machine equipment, tra xca vator and canal systems. While in Indonesia, it is estimated that possibly 11 million ha peat lands or 50% of peat swamp forest have been exploited (Silvius, 1987).45 In 1992, in Tanjung Puting National Park, South Eastern Kalimantan, Bennett and Gombek
found that small numbers of animal species had survived
in lightly logged peat swamp forest, including orang-utans, proboscis monkeys and gibbons. On the other hand in the Maludam, Sarawak, populations of the proboscis monkeys and silvered langurs have decreased since post-logging silviculture (Bennett, 1989).47 The loss actually occurs after the slash and burn process. Other endangered species in Sarawak's peat swamp forests is the Redbanded Langur and Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus ).48
Conversions of peat swamp forest to agriculture were common in Indonesia and Malaysia. There are two kind of cultural practices in peat swamp. First is silviculture that relies only from rain water for irrigation. Second is the intensive agriculture that uses drainage. Both of culture types actually require application of lime and fertiliser to get good yield. The products from deep peat are oil palm, sago, palm, and coffee. While the products produced from shallow peat are ginger, soya bean, cabbage, capsicum, onion, and tomato.
One big example how the agriculture affected the peat swamp ecosystem is the the Mega Rice Project in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Because of conversion of about one million hectares of rice paddy in Java, President Soeharto ordered to create paddy field in the same numbers of area in peat swamps in Borneo. Without international aid organisations and funding agencies, he endorsed the project from reforestation fund in the forestry ministry.50
Since there is no independent environmental impact assessment (EIA), the project actually had swiped half a million hectares of primary peat swamp forest, killed around 5,000 Orang-utan, and created more than 4,600 kilometres of channels. After 5 years actually the 60,000 settlers in that area can not grow enough rice or substitute crops to exist. This causes more disease and poverty also illegal logging in remaining forest.
This is a good example of unsustainable logging and agriculture in peat swamp forest has contributed to forest fire; climate change (CO2 release); loss of biodiversity; depletion of water table; and land subsidence.
Minor Product Harvesting
As mentioned above in the key economic products of peat swamp forest, the Aborigines people harvested the medicinal plants, fruit, rattan, etc. These activities are actually found a sustainable way of using the natural resources of the forest. One example is the Semelai community in Tasek Bera.52 The community actually harvest rattans, gaharu wood, keruing oil, dammar that can be sold while the ladies collect mengkuang, kercut, rasau, and selinsing leaves that later dried and made into mats and basketry. The important part of this development are the market comparison and pricing for the products.
A lot of improvements are needed since the Semelai community live under the poverty line income.53
The aquaculture needs removal of the peat soil. This activity actually promotes a depletion of fresh water table resulting further in saline water intrusion. Very clear this is not a sustainable use of peat lands.
Mining is another human activity that affects the peat swamp forest. It is reported several kind of mining such as Tin mining in Malaysia55, Sand mining in Andulau Peat Swamp Forest, Brunei56, and Gold mining in The Tanjung Puting
57 National Park, Indonesia. Actually mining also is not a sustainable use of peat
swamp. These activities actually contribute to degradation of landscape; and water and land pollution (for illegal gold mining).
Land Use Conversion to Housing and Industries
Land use conversion is the common use of peat swamp forest after the agriculture phasing down. This is happened in coastal cities because of low price of the peat land. For example numbers of large cities in Borneo are located in the coastal areas, these cities actually expanded themselves to peat swamp. 58 Further in Malaysia the peat swamp areas are changed into industrial and residential development because of social-economic need.59 This activity brings impact, such as: climate change; depletion of water table; and air, water, and land pollution.
Proposed Actions for Reduce Impact of Peat Swamp Forests Use
Actually many actions have been done by the International agencies as well as Malaysia and Indonesia Government to overcome the impact of the peat swamp utilisation. Types of actions that have been done so far are: workshops, research, setting nature reserves and sustainable forest.
For example the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Malaysia organised workshop to proposed Conservation and Sustainable Use of Peat Swamp Forests in Malaysia, assisted by Wetlands International and proposing funding from Global Environment Facility (GEF) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
In Malaysia it is reported in July 10th, 2003 The Malaysia Government set a RM20 million project to endorse conservation and sustainable use of peat swamp forests. The program further gathers the best practices of sustainable use and implemented them in 3.3 million ha of peat swamp forest. This project is funded by the UNDP/ GEF, Danish International Development Agency (Danida) and executed by The Primary Industries Ministry and Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Further these researches are going to be implemented in National Park such as: Loagan Bunut National Park in Sarawak, the Klias Peninsula in Sabah and the Southeast Pahang Peat Swamp Forest.
Some example of Indonesia peat swamp forests reserves are Berbak National Park in Jambi62 , Giam-Siak Kecil Wildlife Reserve63 , Kerinci Seblat National Park64, Padang Sugihan Wildlife Reserve65, and etc.
Other research programs that conducted in peat swamps are: • Forest Resources Management for Carbon Sequestration (FORMACS) in Indonesia 66 • The Climate Change, Forests and Peatlands in Indonesia Project (CCFPI) in Indonesia67
Peat swamp forests are very unique ecosystem. Without low fertility, high water table, high acidity and enormous carbon sink, the utilisation of this forest need more sustainable management in the future since the people that live around it also need to use the resources. Further some important species also has to be conserved to protect the biodiversity. This can be done with setting nature reserves. In the future we hope the sustainable practice will be implemented in the South East Asian forestry.
Figure 1-1. Rainfall types of the Tropical Far East based on dry/wet period ratios.
Figure 1-2. Temperature at 3 levels in lowland forests at Semengo arboretum, Kuching, Sarawak, in 1969. 69 Note how temperature 1.2 m below ground remains steady. While the fluctuations within the canopy are similar at 0.6m and 2.4m with the upper canopy usually higher 3ºC.
Figure 1-3. Sarawak peat swamp forest catena types 1-3.
Figure 1-4. Sarawak peat swamp forest catena types 4-6.
Figure 1-5. Stratification of the non-flying mammals in the lowland rain forest of Sabah 72
Figure 1-6. The location and extent of the lowland peat swamps of Indonesia and Malaysia. (After Andriesse, 1974; Driessen and Soepraptohardjo,1974 and Rieley, 1992.). 73
Figure 1-7. Impact-degradation sequence of a tropical lowland mixed peatswamp forest. (After Giesen, 1990 and Rieley and Ahmad-Shah, 1996).74
Table 1-3. Resource Use in East Kalimantan Peat Swamp Forests75
Economic ($) **
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total
Fuel woods Mi xed timber Wooden roofing Bamboo Rattan Resin Medicinal plant Deer Pig Singing birds Fish
4,400 m3 375 m3 52,000 bundles 15,000 pieces 164,273 pieces 223 kg 10,345 items 168 71 345 2,850,000 kg
119,000 67 46,000 517 7,300 17 1,750 9,700 625 137 671,260 956,373
*) Based on survey conducted in East Kalimantan from 100 respondents. **) Converted using current exchange rate of US$ 1 = Rp 8,500 After Murdiyarso et al. (2003)
The Writer’s Description
I. Personal Information Full name e-mail website Mobile Phone Place of Birth Date of Birth Sex Nationality Mother Language Language Skill II. Education Backgrounds Formal Educ ation Name of Institution National Universit y of Singapore Bandung Institute of Technolog y (Institut Teknologi Bandung) III. Informal Education Study T ime (Year s) 2008 2008 Name of Institution Singapore Ins titute of Planner Lee Kuan Yew School Of Public Polic y Course Nam e & Specialization Spati al Planning for a Sustainable Singapore (1-day seminar) "Lessons Not to Learn from American Cities" by Prof Alan Alts huler (Half-day seminar) Short C ourse On "A – Z Of Oil & Gas To Petroc hemicals (3-days seminar) Destinati on Res orts, T he Next Wave (1-day seminar) Semi nar of Planni ng of Is kandar Development R egion (1-day seminar) IELTS Preparation Course English Writing Course Journalistic Traini ng AutoC ad R 14 Traini ng English Course level C 6 to C11 English Course l evel J 2 to J5 City/Countr y Study T ime (Months/Years) 1 year Graduated from (Month and Year) October 2006 Specializ ation MSc Environment Management GPA 3.86 from scale of 5 2.73 from scale of 4 : Gunawan Tanu widjaja : gunteitb@ yahoo.c om : http://greenimpacti ndo.wordpress.com/ : +62 812 212 208 42 (Indonesia) : Bandung : 08 of August 1978 : Male : Indonesian : Indonesian : Indonesian, English
Bandung / Indonesia
5 year s
July of 2001
Bachelor of Archit ecture
National Uni versity of Singapore, Fac ulty of Engineering, PAC (Professional Acti vities Centre) Singapore Ins titute of Planner
Singapore Ins titute of Planner, Malaysia Institute of Pl anner and Uni versiti Kebangsaan Malaysi a The British Institute Language Center ITB Gradasi Bulletin Student U nion of Architec ture Gunadharma ( IMA-Gunadharma) Architecture Department ITB Saint Angela’s English Course Saint Angela’s English Course
2001 2000 1999 1997 1993-1995 1990-1992
IV. Working Exper ience Name of Institute/Companies Green Impact Indonesia Integrated Urban, Drainage and Environmental Planning Consultant Agenc y for Research and Development, Institute of Water Resources, Ministr y of Public Wor ks, Republic of Indonesi a, Jurong Cons ultants Pte Ltd., Planning Di vision National Par ks Boar d, Republic of Singapore Agenc y for Research and Development, Institute of Water Resources, Ministr y of Public Wor ks, Republic of Indonesi a, Satyamitra J asapuri Engineering PT. Trinitas Buana Utama PT. Imesco Dito COMBINE City/ Countries Bandung Position Manager Job Description Team Leader and Urban Pl anner Contract Periods March 2003 to now
Urban Pl anni ng and Management Expert
October 2008 to now
Singapore Singapore Bandung/ Indonesia
Planner Intern Junior Res earcher
Physical Planner Researcher GIS Expert Assistant (Arc View 3.2), in Polder T eam
November 2006 to October 2008 July 2006 to Aug 2006 Jan 2005 - Aug 2005
Bandung/ Indonesia Bandung/ Indonesia Jakarta/ Indonesia Bandung/ Indonesia
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House, Factory and Café Design Apartment Design Junior Architect Urban Development Research, es peciall y on Urban Garbage Management Junior Architect Garbage Management , Mechanis m Making and Contr olling of Cooperati ve Credit Unit
Aug 2003 - Dec 2004 Aug 2002 - Aug 2003 Jan 2002 – Aug 2002 Aug 2001 - Jan 2002
CV. Cipta Bina Sar ana ASPEK
Bandung/ Indonesia Bandung/ Indonesia
Wor k Trainee Program Facilitator Community Recover y Program (CRP-HUI) in RW 11, Cibang kong District
May - J uly 2001 Jan 2000 - Aug 2001
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Apr – D ec 2009
Team Leader and Senior Architect
Apr – Aug 2009
Name of Project Community Bas ed Development Revitalisation in PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara, Sumba, N usa T enggara Barat, Indonesia (Pr opos al) Traditional Market Mapping, GIS Database and Anal ysis in the framework of Implementing Presidential Decree No 112/2007 on Development of Traditional Mar ket and Relocation of M odern Mar ket in Indonesi a (Proposal to Ministr y of Trade of Republic of Indonesia) Integrated Water Resources Management Plan for Bar ang kal River, s ub c atchment of Brantas River Basin, i n relati on with Soci al Aspect and Institution Capacity Building (Proposal to JICA) “9 Pearl” Elementary School in Bandung Propos al 99’ers Radi o Sc hool (Proposal) Under Jurong Consultants Pt e Ltd. Preliminar y Study and Brief Development C oncept of QEZ3, Petroc hemical Complex, Qatar Dera Bassi D etailed Master Plan, Greater Mohali Ar ea, Punjab, India Libya Africa Ec onomic City Wonogiri Indus trial Par k, Indonesia (Guanxi State Far m - Biofuel Plant) Master Plan An Tay Industrial Servic e Centre Master Plan Zhangzhou Waterfront City, Chi na Master Plan AMRL Internati onal Tech City, T amil Nadu, India W ith MSc Environmental Management Program “Neotiewpia” Ec o Village Mas ter Plan in Kranji Singapore Under SJP Engineering BTC Café Kopomas Fac tor y Private Houses Bandung Under PT. Trinitas Buan a Utama Rental H ouses in Bandung Bukit Resi k Exclusi ve Apar ment Site Pl an “S. Par man” Elite H ousing
Position Team Leader and Environmentalist
Year Aug 2009
Team Leader and Urban Planner
Team Leader and Environmentalist
Team Leader and Architect Team Leader and Architect
2007 to 2008
Planner Planner Planner Planner Assistant Planner Assistant Planner
2007 to 2008 2007 to 2008 2007 to 2008 2007 2006-2007 2007
Planner & Environmentalist
Junior Architect Junior Architect Junior Architect, Design Devel opment
2004 2004 2003 – 2004
Studi o Coordinator Studi o Coordinator Studi o Coordinator
2002 – 2003 2002 – 2003 2002
Name of Project Under PT. Im esco Dito Private Houses i n Jakarta Freelance Project Cibangkong Low Cost H ousing, Bandung Indonesia Design Development of KARANG SETRA Hotel, Spa and Cottages, Bandung Indonesia under Cipta Bina Sarana Master Plan of Cipulir Housi ng Site Plan, J akarta under Prof Ir. Danisworo VI. Awards, Prestige, A ctivities, and Publication Awards/ Prestig e
Final Year Student Junior Architect, Design Devel opment
Best Dissertation Prizes from Shell, MEM National Uni versity of Singapore, 2006-2007 Shell Grant Bursar y Holder in MEM National Uni versity of Si ngapore, 2005-2006 Second C hampion of Design Competition of Infor mal Traders Stand held by The Municipal\ Government of Kota Bandung, Praksis dan IMA-Gunadharma IT B Year 2001
Bandung Independent Li ving Center (BILIC) 2003 - 2004 : Vol untary Attendant for Difabl e (Disable) Person 2003 : Coordi nator Research T eam in Accessibility Issue for Difable (Disabl e) Person in Several Location i n Bandung Forum Gelar Kota Bandung (City Devel opment Discussion Forum) 2002 : F orum Gel ar Kota Secretariat 2001 : J uni or Researcher Ikatan Mahasis wa Arsitektur Gunadhar ma IT B (Gunadhar ma Student Uni on of Architecture Department of ITB) 2001 Member of Legislative Bodies of IMA - Gunadharma Member of Sus tainable Human Settlement Discussi on Group Coordinator of TOR T eam of Sustainable Human Settl ement Seminar 1999 – 2000 Coordinator of Gradasi (Architecture Bulletin of IMA-G) OSIS SMAK I BPK Penabur (Student Union of BPK Penabur Senior High School) OSIS SMP St Aloysius (Student Uni on of St Al oysius Junior High School)
Integration of Sustai nable Pl anni ng Polic y and D esign of Low-Cost Apartment, in the Context of Sustai nable Urban Development, National Seminar of Low-Cost Apartment, M aranatha Uni versity, Bandung, Indonesia, 2009. Bamboos as Sus tainabl e and Affordable Material for Housing as one of alternatife material of LowCost Apartment, Nati onal Seminar of Low-Cost Apartment, Maranatha U niversity, Bandung, Indonesi a, 2009. Guidelines for Developing Polder System in Indonesia, Agenc y for Res earch and Development, Institute of Water Resources, Ministr y of Public Wor ks, Republic of Indonesia, 2008-2009. Developi ng a Landscape Evaluation Tool for Developing Countries, Cas e Studies Bi ntan Island, Indonesi a, MSc Environment M anagement Program, National Uni versity of Singapore (Bes t Dissertation Award) Report of Resear ch in Accessibilit y Issue for Difab le (Disable) Per son in Several Location in Bandung Reports of Bandung Urban Discu ssion Forum on Urb an Solid W aste Managem ent, Januar y 2002. Reports of Bandung Urban Discu ssion Forum in Housing Needs, August 2001. Thesis of Design Studio, Cas e of Low Economy Flat for Cibang kong Village, Bandung, Indonesia (Kelurahan Cibang kong), Theme Pattern Language Arc hitecture Semi nar Report of Housing Devel opment Based on Low Ec onomy People.
Whitmore T.C. Tropical Rain Forest of the Far East, Oxford University 1984 p.180
Yamada I. Tonan Ajia no Nettai Taurin Sekai. Tokyo: Sobunsha. (Translated to English in _ by P. Hawkes, Tropical Rain Forests of Southeast Asia: A Forest Ecologist’s View. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press) 1997 p.78 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peat
Miller G.T. Environmental Science, Working With Earth, 10th edition, Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning USA 2003 p.120 Whitmore T.C. Tropical Rain Forest of the Far East, Oxford University 1988 p.55 Ibid. p.57 Op.cit.4, p.72 Op.cit.5, p.61 Whitten T. The Ecology of Sumatra, Periplus, North Clarendon, Hong Kong 2000 p.167 Op.cit.2, p.78 Op.cit.5, p.180 Op.cit.2, p.78 http://www.monash.edu.au/news/newsline/story.php?story_id=371 http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg2/272.htm Op.cit.5, p.180 Op.cit.2, p.78 Op.cit.9, pp.167-168 Op.cit.9, pp.171-172 Op.cit.2, p.78
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Rieley, J.O. The ecology of tropical peatswamp forest - A South-East Asian Perspective. In Tropical Peat, Proceedings of International Symposium on Tropical Peatland, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, 6-10 May 1991 (B.Y. Aminuddin, ed.) Kuching, Malaysia. Malaysia Agricultural Research Development Institute & Department of Agriculture, Sarawak, Malaysia 1992 pp. 244 54
Anderson J.A.R. The Ecology and Forest Types of the Peat Swamp Forests of Sarawak and Brunei in Relation to Their Silviculture. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Vol. I (191 pp) and Vol. II (appendices). University of Edinburgh 1961
23 24 25
Op.cit.5, p.184 Op.cit.5, p.185
Phillips V.D. “Peatswamp Ecology and Sustainable Development in Borneo,” Biodiversity and Conservation 7 1998 pp.661-663 Op.cit.2, p. 81 Op.cit.9, p.178 Op.cit.25, p.659 Op.cit.9, pp.177-178 Op.cit.5, p.37 Op.cit.9, p.177
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FAO The Peat Swamp Forests of Sarawak and their Potential for Development, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Forestry and Forest Industries Development, Malaysia. FO: DP/MAL/72/009 Technical Report No. 3. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1974 Lee H.S. Utilization and Conservation of Peatswamp Forests in Sarawak, In Tropical Peat, Proceedings of International Symposium on Tropical Peatland, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, 6-10 May 1991 (B.Y. Aminuddin, ed.) Kuching, Malaysia: Malaysia Agricultural Research Development Institute & Department of Agriculture, Sarawak, Malaysia 1992 pp. 286-292 Lee H.S., and Chai F. Production Functions of Peat Swamp Forests in Sarawak, In Tropical Lowland Peatlands of Southeast Asia, Proceedings of Workshop on Integrated Planning and Management of Tropical Lowland Peatlands, Cisarua, Indonesia, 3-8 July 1992 (E. Maltby, C.P. Immirzi and R.J. Safford, eds.) Gland, Switzerland: IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 1996 pp.129-136
Phang T.J., and Effendi M.K. (ed) Proceedings of the GEF Inception Workshop on Conservation and Sustainable Landuse of Peat Swamp Forests in Malaysia, 24-25 July 1997 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Ministry of Science, Technology, and Environment, Malaysia 1997 pp.31-32 www.peatsociety.org/user_files/files/ramakrishna.doc Op.cit.2, pp.77-78 Op.cit.25, p.652 Op.cit.9, p.25
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Shamsudin I. The Extent of Disturbed and Undisturbed Peat Swamp Forest in Peninsular Malaysia Unpublished Report to FRIM http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/im/im0104_full.html
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http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/im/im0145_full.html Op.cit.25, p.655 Op.cit.25, pp.661-663 Op.cit.25, p.663
Shamsudin I. “Forest Management Systems in Peat Swamp Forest: A Malaysian Perspective,” in Maltby E., Immirzi C.P., Saffard R.J. (eds) Proceedings of A Workshop on Integrated Planning and Management of Tropical Lowland Peatlands, IUCN 1996b pp.175-180 Jalong N.P. and Ngui S.K. The Forest Resource Base of Sarawak and Its Contribution to Natural th and Development, Presented at 7 Malaysian Forestry Conference 24-26 September, Penang 1979
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Op.cit.25, pp.663-664 Op.cit.33, p.32 http://www.insideindonesia.org/edit65/jack.htm Ibid.
Carey I. Orang Asli: The Aboroginal Tribes of Peninsular Malaysia. Oxford University Press. Kuala Lumpur 1976 pp.250-267
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Op.cit.33, p.49 Op.cit.33, p.33 Op.cit.33, p.33 http://www.ecologyasia.com/html-loc/andulau.htm http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/im/im0153_full.html http://www.jamstec.go.jp/frcgc/jp/publications/news/no21/eng/03.html Op.cit.33, p.33 Op.cit.33
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75
http://www.mtc.com.my/coverage35.htm http://www.nature-conservation.or.id/sumatra/berbak.html http://www.nature-conservation.or.id/sumatra/giam.html http://www.nature-conservation.or.id/sumatra/kerinci3.html http://www.nature-conservation.or.id/sumatra/padang.html http://www.rcfa-cfan.org/english/profile.19.htm Ibid. Op.cit.5, p.55 Op.cit.5, p.61 Op.cit.5, p.184 Op.cit.5, p.184 Op.cit.5, p.37 Op.cit.25, p.652 Op.cit.25, pp.661-663 www.peatsociety.org/user_files/files/ramakrishna.doc
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