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Corollary 1

The length of the altitude drawn to the hypotenuse of a triangle is the geometric
mean between the lengths of the segments of the hypotenuse.
Corollary 2
The altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle intersects it so that the length of
each leg is the geometric mean between the length of its adjacent segment of the
hypotenuse and the length of the entire hypotenuse.
Theorem 8.2 (Pythagorean Theorem)
In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of
the squares of the lengths of the legs.
Theorem 8.3 (Converse of Pythagorean Theorem)
If the sum of the squares of the lengths of two sides of a triangle is equal to the
square of the length of the third side, then the triangle is a right triangle.
Theorem 8.4
If the square of the length of the longest side of a triangle is greater than the sum of
the squares of the lengths of the other two sides, then the triangle is an obtuse
triangle.
Theorem 8.5
If the square of the length of the longest side of a triangle is less than the sum of
the squares of the lengths of the other two sides, then the triangle is an acute
triangle.
Theorem 8.6 (450 450 -900 Theorem)
In a 450 450 -900 triangle, the length of the hypotenuse is

times the length of

a leg.
Theorem 8.7 (300 600 -900 Theorem)
In a 300 600 -900 triangle, the length of the hypotenuse is twice the length of the
shorter leg and the length of the longer leg is
leg.
Theorem 9.1

times the length of the shorter

If a line is tangent to a circle, then the line is perpendicular to the radius at the point
of tangency.
Corollary 1
Two tangent rays from a common external point are congruent.
Corollary 2
The two tangent rays from a common external point determine an angle that is
bisected by the ray from the external point to the center of the circle.
Theorem 9.2
If a line in the plane of a circle is perpendicular to a radius at its endpoint on the
circle, then the line is tangent to the circle.
Theorem 9.3
In the same circle, or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only
if their central angles are congruent.
Theorem 9.4
In the same circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only if
their chords are congruent.
Theorem 9.5
If a diameter is perpendicular to a chord, then it bisects the chord and its arcs.
Theorem 9.6
In the same circle or in congruent circles, two chords are equidistant from the
center(s) if only if they are congruent.
Theorem 9.7
If two chords of a circle are unequal in length, then the longer chord is nearer to the
center of the circle.
Theorem 9.8
If two chords of a circle are not equidistant from the center, then the longer chord is
nearer to the center of the circle.
Theorem 9.9
The measure of an inscribed angle is equal to one-half of the measure of its
intercepted arc.

Corollary 1
If two inscribed angles of a circle intercept the same arc or congruent arcs, then the
angles are congruent.
Corollary 2
If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, then its opposite angles arc supplementary.
Corollary 3
If an inscribed angle intercepts a semicircle, the angle is a right angle.
Corollary 4
If two arcs of a circle are included between parallel segments, then the arcs are
congruent.
Theorem 9.10
If two chords intersect within a circle, then the measure of the angle formed is equal
to one-half the sum of the measures of the intercepted arc.
Theorem 9.11
If a tangent and a chord intersect in a point on the circle, then the measure of the
angle they form is one-half the measure of the intercepted arc.
Theorem 9.12
If a tangent and a secant, two secants, or two tangents intersect in a point in the
exterior of a circle, then the measure of the angle is equal to one-half the difference
of the measures of the intercepted arcs.
Theorem 9.13
If two chords intersect inside a circle, then the product of the lengths of the
segments of one chord is equal to the product of the lengths of the segments of the
other chord.
Theorem 9.14
If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the product of the lengths of
one secant segment and its external segment is equal to the product of the lengths
of the other secant segment and its external segment.
Theorem 9.15

If a secant and a tangent intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the product of the
lengths of the secant segment and its external segment is equal to the square of
the length of the tangent segment.
Theorem 10.1
The bisectors of the angles of a triangle intersect in a point that is equidistant from
the three sides of the triangle.
Theorem 10.2
The perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle intersect in a point that is
equidistant from the vertices of the triangle.
Theorem 10.3
The lines that contain the altitudes of a triangle intersect in appoint that is
equidistant from the vertices of the triangle.
Theorem 10.4
The medians of any triangle are concurrent, intersecting in a point that is the
distance from each vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side.
Theorem 10.5
In a plane, the locus of points equidistant from two given points is the perpendicular
bisector of the segment joining the points.
Theorem 10.6
In a plane, the locus of points equidistant from the sides of an angle is the angle
bisector.
Theorem 11.1
The area of a rectangle equals the product of its base and height ( A=bh) .
Theorem 11.2
The area of a parallelogram equals the product of the length of a base and its
corresponding height.
Theorem 11.3

( A=bh)

The area of a triangle is equal to one-half the product of the length of a base and its
corresponding height.

1
( A= (bh))
2

Corollary 1
The area of a rhombus equals one-half the product of the lengths of its diagonals.

1
( A= d1 d 2 )
2
Corollary 2
The area of an equilateral triangle equals one-fourth the product of
length of the side squared.

and the

s2 3
( A=
)
4

Theorem 11.4
The area of trapezoid equals one-half the product of the height and the sum of the

lengths of the bases.

1+ b 2
b
h
A= ))
2

Theorem 11.5
The area of a regular polygon is equal to one-half the product of the apothem and
the perimeter.

1
( A= aP)
2

Theorem 11.6
For all circles, the ratio of the circumference to the length of the diameter is the
same.
Corollary 1
The circumferences of any two circles have the same ratio as their radii.
Corollary 2

If C is the circumference of a circle with a diameter of length d and a radius of


length r, then

C=d ,C=2 r

Corollary 3
In a circle, the ratio of the length l of an arc to the circumference C equals the ratio
of the degree measure m of the arc to 360.

l
m
m
( =
,l=
( 2 r ) )
C 360
360

Theorem 11.7
The area A of a circle with radius of length r is given by the formula A= r

Corollary 1
The areas of two circles have the same ratio as the squares of their radii.
Corollary 2
In a circle with radius r, the ratio of the area A of a sector to the area of the circle

( r2 )

equals the ratio of the degree measure m of the arc of the sector to 360.

A
m
m
2
=
, A=
( r )
2
360
360
r
Theorem 11.8
If the scale factor of two similar figures is a:b , then the ratio of corresponding
perimeters is a:b, and the ratio of corresponding areas is a 2: b2.
Theorem 12.1
The lateral area L of a right prism equals the perimeter of a base P times the height
h of the prism. L= Ph
Theorem 12.2
The total area T of a right prism is the sum of the lateral area L and the area of the
two bases, 2B. (T= L+2B)
Theorem 12.3
The volume V of a right prism equals the area of a base B times the height h of the
prism (V=Bh)

Corollary
The volume of a cube with edge e is the cube of e. (V= e 3)
Theorem 12.4
The lateral area L of a regular pyramid equals one-half the product of the slant
height l and the perimeter P of the base. (L= lP)
Theorem 12.5
The total area T of a regular pyramid equals the lateral area L plus the area of the
base B. (T= L+B)
Theorem 12.6
The volume V of a pyramid is one-third the product of its height h and the area B of
its base B. (V= 1/3 Bh)
Theorem 12.7
The lateral area L of a right circular cylinder equals the product of the circumference
C of the base and the height h of the cylinder. (L=C * h = 2 rh

Theorem 12.8
The total area T of aright circular cylinder equals the sum of the lateral area L and
the area of two bases 2B. (T= L +2B = 2

rh+ 2 r 2=2 r ( h+ r )

Theorem 12.9
The volume V of a cylinder equals the product of the area of the base B and the
2

height of the cylinder. (V= B*h= 2 r h )


Theorem 12.10
The lateral area L of a right circular cone having slant height l and circumference C=
2 r

, where r is the radius of the base, is one-half the product of the

circumference and the slant height. (L= (2 r l=rl


Theorem 12.11
The total area T of a right circular cone is the sum of the lateral area L and the area
of the base B. (T=L+B =

rl+ r 2=r (l+r ) )

Theorem 12.12
The volume V of a cone is one-third the product of the area of the base B and the
height h. (V= 1/3 Bh = 1/3

r h )

Theorem 12.13
The area A of a sphere of radius r is four times the area of a great circle. (A= 4
2

r
Theorem 12.14
The volume V of a sphere of radius r is 4/3

r3

4 3
V= r
3

Theorem 12.15
If the scale factor of two similar solids is a: b, then
i. the ratio of corresponding perimeters or circumferences is a: b
ii. the ratios of base areas, lateral areas, and total area a 2: b2
iii. the ratio of volumes is a3 : b 3.
Theorem 13.1
The distance d between any two points (x 1 * y1) and (x2 * y2) is

d= x 2+ x1+|y y |2
2

Theorem 13.2
An equation of the circle with center (h, k) and radius length r is (x-h) 2 + (y-k)2 r2.
Theorem 13.3
The midpoint of the segment with endpoint coordinates (x 1, y1) and (x2, y2) is the
point with coordinates

x1 + x2
2
,

y1 + y2
).
2

Theorem 13.4
The graph of an equation that can be written in the form ax + by = c , with a and b
not both zero, is aline.

Theorem 13.5
An equation of a line containing point (x 1 ,y1) and having slope m is (y-y1) = m (x-x1).
Theorem 13.6
An equation of a line that has y-intercept b and slope m is y=mx+b.
Theorem 13.7
Two nonvertical lines are parallel if and only if their slopes are equal.
Theorem 13.8
Two nonvertical lines are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is -1.
Theorem 14.1
A reflection in a line is an isometry.
Theorem 14.2
If a transformation T maps any point (x,y) to (x+a, y+b), then T is a translation.
Theorem 14.3
A rotation is an isometry.
Theorem 14.4
The dilation Do, maps every line segment to a parallel line segment that is |k| times
as long.
Theorem 14.5
The composition of two isometries is an isometry.
Theorem 14.6
A composition of reflections in two parallel lines is a translation. The translation
glides all points through twice the distance between the lines.
Theorem 14. 7
A composition of reflection in two intersecting lines is a rotation about point of
interaction of the two lines. The measure of the angle of rotation is twice the
measure of the angle from the first line of reflection to the second.
Corollary

A composition of reflections in perpendicular lines is a half-turn about the point


where the lines intersect.