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AchievingInclusioninPublic

Spaces:AShoppingMallCaseStudy

Assist.Prof.Dr.YaseminAfacana
a DepartmentofInteriorArchitecture&EnvironmentalDesign
FacultyofArt,DesignandArchitecture
BilkentUniversity

CONTENT
1. Inclusion in Public Spaces
2. Shopping Malls in the Turkish Context
3. Methodology
4. Results and Discussion
5. Conclusion

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context

Achieving inclusion means:

Methodology
Results and Discussion

embracing difference

Conclusion

and
celebrating human diversity.

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

Everyone needs to be part of social


life through the use of public
buildings (Build for All Manual,
2006).

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

Still difficulty to embed inclusive design into


real-world applications.
Design exclusion does not come about by
chance it comes about through neglect,
ignorance and a lack of adequate data and
information (Cassim et al., 2007).
This study now delves deeper the inclusion of
shopping malls from the user perspective.
The aim of the study is to focus on what
makes a shopping mall more inclusive and
how important is each of the universal design
criteria to define a mall as a user-friendly
public space.

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context

According to Turkey Disability Survey


(2002), most of the disabled people are still
excluded in public space.

Methodology
Results and Discussion

There is a need of studies to promote public


opinion toward inclusive design.

Conclusion

Shopping malls are among the most


important additions to urban life in Turkey.
Crowding, traffic problems, and lack of
pedestrian safety in the city centre served to
create demand for these new areas (Erkip,
2003).

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

This study does not limit the impact


of a shopping mall to the field of
consumption only, but also highlights
its importance in supporting
inclusion as part of social and
environmental considerations.

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology

This exploratory study on investigating


diverse users needs, capabilities and
expectations was carried out in a shopping
mall in Ankara, Turkey.

Results and Discussion


Conclusion

It has an indoor area of 12.70m2 over nine


storeys (five storeys for leisure facilities and
four storeys for car parking) built in 2007.
It also includes hypermarket, 195 shops, nine
cinemas, cafes, food court, entertainment
centre and offices.

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

Photo 1. Mall from outside


http://www.avmgazette.com/form/iletisim.aspx

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

Figure 1. Floor plans


http://www.cepaavm.com.tr

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context

Data Collection:
A survey instrument with a comprehensive
list of 110 items was developed.

Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

The questions in the survey instrument were


grouped under five categories based on
Danford and Taukes (2001) of a universal
city:
1. circulation systems;
2. entering and exiting;
3. wayfinding;
4. obtaining product/services;
5. public amenities.

1. Circulation

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion
Photo 2. Main circulation

Photo 3 and 4. Side circulations

2. Entering and Exiting

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology

Photo 5. Main Entrance

Results and Discussion


Conclusion

Photo 6. Main Entrance

Photo 7. Side Entrance

3. Wayfinding

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion
Photo 8. Signage

Photo 9. Multiple way


of travelling

4. Product and services

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

Photo 10 and 11. Shops

Photo 12. Food court

5. Public amenities

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

Photo. Public phones

Photo 15. Disabled toilet

Procedure:
Inclusion in Public Spaces
Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

A total of 120 randomly selected users


participated, 40 adults (between ages 25-55),
40 elderly (between ages 56-85) and 40 adult
with impairments (20 physically and 20
visually impaired).
The data were collected during face-to-face
surveys in a caf of the mall.
First, a brief summary of the study.
Then, survey to rate their importance level
for each item on a scale of 1-5, how important
each features is in spending time satisfactorily
and comfortably in a inclusive public space.

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

First, exploratory factor analysis was used.


A rotated component matrix was constructed
to identify the number of potentially
interpretable factors among the set of
correlations.
The matrix indicated the extracted factors
with their factor loadings.

Development of Inclusive Public Space


Factors:
Inclusion in Public Spaces
Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context

Table 1. Total variance explained

Methodology

Factor Scale

Eig.value

Varian.

Cum.

Results and Discussion

Circulation consistency
of user expectations

8.041

21.385

14.078

Ease of access to
services

3.698

11.239

22.340

Multiple path of travel

3.054

7.361

32.124

Comfortable use of
services

1.990

6.123

42.125

Appropriate use of
tactile and audio-visual
design features

1.537

5.038

54.646

Conclusion

Development of Inclusive Public Space


Factors:
Inclusion in Public Spaces
Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

F1-circulation consistency: equitable and simple


use of the stairs, moving ramps, elevators and
escalators, the appropriate uses of the tactile, aural,
visual features.
F2-ease of access to services: using shops, waiting
desks and other public services with low physical effort
and equitably.
F3-multiple path of travel: flexibility and
simplicity of circulation, entering/exiting and way
finding with low physical effort.
F4-comfortable use of services: comfort achieved
with lighting, public seating, sheltering structures, and
user-friendly atmosphere.
F5-Appropriate use of tactile and audio-visual
features: the provision of perceptible information,
legible spaces with clear signs and tactile surfaces.

Development of Inclusive Public Space


Factors:
Inclusion in Public Spaces
Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

Table 2. Reported suggestions for improvement of a public space


Design Elements
Circulation

Suggestion for improvement


More elevators
Smooth ramps
Wider pedestrian walks
Adequate clear space to circulation
Entering and exiting
Ease of access to entrances/exits
Adequate dimensions
Clear path form the site
Close to car park
Wayfinding
Understandable signs
Ease of navigation
Simple layouts
Obtaining product/services More and comfortable waiting areas
Wide passages in shops
Ease of reach to all products
Knee spaces at desks
Public amenities
More disabled toilets
Audio-visual features in ATMs
Ease of reach to public telephones

Correlation Differences between Diverse


User Groups:
Inclusion in Public Spaces
Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology

The study also utilised ANOVA analyses


whether the scale means of the user groups
were significantly different from each other.

Results and Discussion


Conclusion

Statistically significant differences between


the user groups in factors 1, 3 and 5.
Both the physical and visual impairment of a
user can affect the design and usage process of
a public space.

Correlation Differences between Diverse


User Groups:
Inclusion in Public Spaces
Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

For circulation and path of travel (F1 and


F3), most of the adults found simple and
intuitive use items moderately important,
whereas physically impaired and elderly
participants consider using circulation with
low physical effort more important.
Visually impaired found legibility more
important.
Elderly have fear of falling and getting lost .

Correlation Differences between Diverse


User Groups:
Inclusion in Public Spaces
Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

For Appropriate use of tactile and audiovisual design features (F5), most of the
visually impaired participants emphasized the
importance of public phones, and doors with
perceptible information.
Adults, elderly and physically impaired
consider safe features and warning of
hazards more important.
All participants regardless of their ability or
disability found equitable use of public
amenities more important.

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

To conclude;
The most commonly offered improvements
are understandable signs and ease of
navigation.
High quality of public space design is also a
key consideration for sustainable
communities.
The significance of a user-friendly public
space, which provide many ways of contact
for elderly and disabled people.

Inclusion in Public Spaces


Shopping Malls in the Turkish
Context

According to Burton and Mitchell (2006) for


inclusive urban design, there are six key
design principles;

Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

(1)familiarity,
(2)legibility,
(3)distinctiveness
(4)accessibility,
(5)comfort,
(6)safety
which make urban life more inclusive to live,
easy and enjoyable to use by all members of
society.

Thankyouforyourparticipation!
AnyQuestions?
Assist.Prof.Dr.YaseminAfacana
a DepartmentofInteriorArchitecture&EnvironmentalDesign
FacultyofArt,DesignandArchitecture
BilkentUniversity