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Study in yoga

at the Indira
Gandhi
Centre for
Indian
Culture.
Phoenix,
Mauritius

April to October

This document consists of an introduction to yoga,


hatha yoga and the Philosophy of Yoga as propounded
by the great Sage Patanjali. Various yoga postures have
been explained, including their methods and benefits.

Certificate
level

+
3
PAVATASANA POSTURE
VEELOM PRANAYAMA

ANULOM

The Indira cultural centre for Indian Culture,


Phoenix
6 months certificate course (practical and
theoretical)
Syllabus

I. Asanas
1. Ardhahalasan (Pada
Uttanasan)
2. Ardhamatsyendrasan
3. Bhadrasan
4. Bhujangasan
5. Brahma Mudra
6. Chakrasan
7. Chanting of OM
8. Dhanurasan
9. Dhruvasan
10.
Dhyaan veerasan
11.
Dronasan
12.
13.

Garudasan
Golfchaman

14.

Golfnaman

15.
Gomukhasan
16.
Halasan
17.
Jiva bandha
18.
Kati Chakrasan (A)
Back (B) Side
19.
20.
21.

Mandukasan
Marjasan (Cat pose)
Markatasan

22.

Padachalan

23.

Padahastanasan

24.

Padangulinaman

25.
26.
27.

Parvatasan
Paschimottanasan
Santulanasan

28.
Sarvangasan
29.
Shalabhasan
30.
Sinhasan
31.
Surya Namaskar
(Salutation to the sun)
32.
Tadasan
33.
Tadasan in lying
34.
35.

Trikonasan
Udarkarshanasana

36.
Ushtrasan
37.
Utkatasan
38.
Vajrasana (Diamond
Pose)
39.

Viparit karani

40.
Yoga mudra in
vajrasan

41.

Yoni Mudra

II. Pranayam
1. Anulom Veelom
2. Kapalbhati

III. Kriya
Jal Neti Sutra Neti

IV. Meditation
Patanjali yoga sutra
1. Atha yoganushasanam
2. Vritaya panchatayah clista/aklistah
3. Pramana Vrittis pratyaksa, anumana and agama vrittis.
4. Viparyaya, Vikalpa, Nidra and Smriti Vrittis
5. Shabda
6. Abhava
7. Anubhuta
8. Ashtaang yog
9. Prana dharna
10.
Deha dharna

PART 1

YOG (ALSO CALLED YOGA)


An introduction to yoga (yog)
The science of yoga has its own terminology. The word yog means to join or to
combine or to establish unity or proximity with.
Unity or proximity can be established by concentration of mind, by observing the
physical and mental disciplines and doing exercises as professed by those who claim to
have been successful in bringing about such unity or proximity by development of
certain virtues.
Various kinds of yoga have been mentioned up to now. Some well-known kinds of yoga
are Bhakti yoga (the yoga of devotion) Karma Yoga (the yoga of action), Jnana Yoga (the
yoga of knowledge), Hatha yoga (Austerity) and Ashtaang yoga (the eight-limb yoga).
The Bhagawat Geeta mentions the three kinds of yoga, that is, Karma Yoga, Bhakti
Yoga and Jnana Yoga.

Karma yoga or the "discipline of action" is a form of yoga. Everything done in


speech, action and thoughts are called karma. In general, there are two types of karma
- good karma and bad karma. All our karmas leave an impression, called Samskara, on
our mind. Karma yoga is the process of achieving perfection in action by doing good
karmas and shedding our impressions from our mind. Of the three paths to realization,
Karma yoga is said to be the most effective way to progress in spiritual life.

Bhakti yoga is a spiritual path or spiritual practice within Hinduism focused on the
cultivation of love and devotion toward God. It has been defined as a practice of
devotion toward God, solely motivated by the sincere, loving desire to please God,
rather than the hope of divine reward or the fear of divine punishment. It is a means
toward a state of spiritual liberation or enlightenment through the "realisation", or the
attainment of "oneness" with God.

Jnana yoga is said to be the most difficult path, requiring tremendous strength of will
and intellect. Taking the philosophy of Vedanta the Jnana Yogi uses his mind to inquire
into its own nature. We perceive the space inside and outside a glass as different, just
as we see ourselves as separate from God. Jnana Yoga leads the devotee to experience
his unity with God directly by breaking the glass, dissolving the veils of ignorance.
Before practicing Jnana Yoga, the aspirant needs to have integrated the lessons of the
other yogic paths - for without selflessness and love of God, strength of body and mind,
the search for self-realization can become mere idle speculation.

Hatha yoga. The word hatha means willful or forceful. Hatha Yoga is first of all
concentrating on the practice of postures (Asanas) and breath controls (Pranayama) to
energize on subtle channels.
Asanas are sets of physical exercises or sitting postures, designed to align your
skin, muscles, and bones. The postures are also designed to open the many channels of
the bodyespecially the main channel, the spineso that energy can flow freely.
Pranayama is the technique by which prana or prana vayu, that is, the air we
breathe in and out can be controlled or regulated in a manner which enables an
aspirant to establish unity. The excercise of Pranayama in Hatha Yoga is essential to

master ones' breathing patterns. If one can master breath, then the mastery of mind is
within reach. Control of the mind enables us to achieve the highest point of spirituality.
There are four stages in Pranayama. These are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Purak in which air is inhaled;


Rechak in which air is exhaled;
Antar Kumbhaka in which the inhaled is retained for some time;
Bahya Kumbhak in which after exhalation, not to allow the air to go inside
for some time.

Pranayama is done by combining these four stages in different ways and achieving
various mental and physical health benefits.
Some of the important Pranayamas include Kapalbhati and Anulom Veelom, also called
Nari Shodhan.

Kapalbhati Pranayam
Method: In kapalbhatai Pranayam, we breathe in (Puraka) normally with usual force,
but we breathe out (rechaka) forcefully. However, the exhalation should not be too
forcefully but, it should rather be with medium force. In doing so, the abdominal area
also makes inward and outward movements and considerable force is applied to the
lower chakras. This pranayama should easily be done for five minutes.
Kapalbhati influences the organs of the abdominal area and removes toxin from the
body.

Anulom veelom/ Nadi shodhan Pranayama


Method: Anulom Veelom is alternate breathing through the right and left nostrils. This
process can be varied by doing bandhas in between.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Close the right nostril with the right hand thumb.


Inhale slowly through the left nostril till the lungs are filled.
Then close the left nostril with the middle and the third fingers.
Open the right nostril and exhale through it.
After exhaling through the right nostril, inhale again fully through the right nostril.
Close the right nostril with the right hand thumb again.
Open the left nostril and exhale through it.
That makes one round.
Repeat this exercise slowly for five to ten minutes.

Anulom Veelom with bandhas: There are three types of bandhas (locks). They are
moolbandha, udhiyaan bandha and Jalandhar bandha. Performing all the bandhas
together is called tri-bandha.
In this variation bandhas are performed after each time we inhale, that is at after 2 and
5 and are release just before exhalation, that is, at before 4 and 7.
This pranayama purifies the body, the mind, the thoughts and the dispositions. All the
diseases are cured and the mind is cleansed and gets absorbed in the meditation of
Omkara.

PART 2
Patanjali Yog Sutras
The origin of yoga is shrouded in antiquity, that is, when, where and how it originated,
is not well known. However, the great sage Patanjali organized it in a definite system
and presented it in his treaty THE YOG DARSHAN (THE PHILOSOPHY OF YOGA). He
presented the Philosophy in SUTRAS (APHORISMS).

1. 1st Sutra of the yoga philosophy as presented by the great sage


Patanajli.


Atha yognusanam||1||
Sutra meaning
Now begin an exposition of the science of Yoga; or now begins the instruction on the practice
of Yoga.
Interpretation
Atha denotes the beginning of a task. However, it does not mean that Maharishi
Patanjali is the first person to give light on Yoga. Knowledge is eternal. It is the gift of
the almighty GOD. Here Maharishi Patanjali is presenting it again in sutras form. Yoga
existed before the era of Maharishi Patanjali. Mahrshi Patanjali prevented the loss of
such a gem by presenting it again.
Anusasanam is a technical term. Atha Yoganusasanam means that Maharishi
Patanjali is presenting the description of the topic (The Philosophy of Yoga) with its
symptoms, types, proposed solution. Yoga is a technical term meaning Samadhi. Thus,
the interpretation of the sutra is for those people who are eager for self-realization.

2. Question: What is Yoga?


1.2 Yoga is the control (nirodhah, regulation, channelling, mastery, integration,
coordination, stilling, quieting, setting aside) of the modifications (gross and subtle
thought patterns) of the mind field.

3. Question: What happens when the mind is restrained from the


vrittis?
When the waves of consciousness (vrittis) are stilled, the Soul rests in its own
state.
The soul is able to see all objects of sense organs. When all the thought-waves
in the mind come to a standstill, then the man reaches the state of Samadhi and
the Soul starts experiencing its conscious state.
4. Question: What is the state of the soul when the vrittis of the mind
are not restrained?
1.4 At other times, when one is not in Self-realization, the Seer (that is the soul)
appears to take on the form of the modifications of the mind field, taking on the identity
of those thought patterns.
In the state of mind other than self-realization, the soul identifies itself with the
fantasies and thought-waves related to sound, smell, etc.

5. Question: What are the types of waves rising in the mind?


Vrittis are of five types which are klista (tangled) and Aklista (untangled).
Those vrittis which cause tension and depression are called Klista and are the
cause of birth and death.
Those vrittis which eradicate tension and depression are called Aklista and are
the cause of freedom from birth and death cycle.
6. What are these Vrittis originating in our mind?
The five vrittis originating in our mind are: Pramana, Viparyaya, Vikalpa, Nidra
and Smriti.
pramana = real or valid cognition, right knowledge, valid proof, seeing
clearly
viparyaya = unreal cognition, indiscrimination, perverse cognition, wrong
Knowledge, misconception, incorrect knowing, not seeing clearly
vikalpa = imagination, verbal misconception or delusion, fantasy,
Hallucination
nidra = deep sleep
smritayah = memory, remembering
7. Question: What is the form of Pramana Vritti?
The Vritti named Pramana has three forms: Pratyaksa (direct), anumana
(inferred) and agama (learnt)
pramanani = valid means of knowing, proofs, sources of correct knowing
(1)
Pratyaksa Pramana Vritti
pratyaksha = direct perception or cognition
(2)
Anumana Pramana Vritti
anumana = inference, reasoning, deduction
(3)
Agama Pramana Vritti
agamah = authority, testimony, validation, competent evidence
For example, a book written by an authority. It should be authentic and
useful in the past, present and the future.
8. Question: What is the form of Viparyaya Vritti?
Viparyaya is false knowledge which does not exist in the outward form of a
thing.
Viparyaya is a type of illusory knowledge because it does not exist in the same
form of the thing concerned. For example, in the dark a rope appears to be a
snake.
9. Question: What is the form of Vikalpa Vritti?
It is a vritti which originates in our mind from words but is devoid of the
existence of the indicated object, e.g. son of a barren woman, flowers from sky.
10.

Question: What is the form of Nidra Vritti?

Dreamless sleep (nidra) is the subtle thought pattern which has as its object an inertia,
blankness, absence, or negation of the other though patterns (vrittis).

11.

Question: What is the form of Smriti Vritti?

Recollection or memory (smriti) is mental modification caused by the inner reproducing


of a previous impression of an object, but without adding any other characteristics from
other sources.

Whatever object, person, state, etc. we experience by the vrittis of Pramana,


Viparayaya, Vikalpa and Nidra in the awakened or dormant state, the experiences
related to that object, person, etc. leave their impression on our mind. When these
collected impressions on our mind become the fabric of our mind, it starts recalling
those earlier experiences. This is smriti vritti.

PART 3
Eight yogic practices (ashtang yog)
The eight - limbs of Yoga has been propounded by the great sage Patanjali in his treaty
Yog Darshana (Philosophy of Yoga). They are eight fold disciplines for those who
desire to travel in the path of YOG.
The eight principles of yoga as propounded by the great sage Patanjali are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Five Yamas (Resistance towards passions)


Five Niyamas (Rules)
Aasana (Posture)
Pranayama (breathing exercises)
Pratyahara (withdrawal of senses)
Dharna (concentration)
Dhyana (meditation)
Samaadhi (deep meditation)

The first four, that is the yamas, niyamas, asanas and pranayamas are mostly practiced
on physical level, whereas, Pratyahar, dharana, dhyaana and Samadhi are mostly
practiced on spiritual level.

The Yamas
The five Yamas are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Ahimsa (Non-violence)
Satya (truthfulness)
Asteya (Not stealing other things)
Brahamacharya (Celibacy)
Aparigraha (Not collecting the unwanted things)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1st yama - Ahimsa (non-violence)

Violence can be caused in three ways, that is, by our bodily action in our speech and in
our mind.
Non-violence means to treat all living beings with love eschewing feelings of apathy
and hostility through body speech and mind at all times.
Violence, violent thoughts are known as Vitarkas. Violence may be of three kinds:
Krita, Karita or Anumodita. Krita means violence done by oneself. Karita means inducing
other person/s to do the violence. Anumodita means silently approving the violence
which is being done by another person.

2nd yama Satya (truthfulness)


Whatever knowledge/perception gained through ones seeing, hearing, reading or
inferring in ones mind, to express the in speech, to write the same with hand, or to
express the same with other actions of the body, is called Satya.

3rd yama Asteya (not stealing other things)


Not to take anything belonging to other person without his person, or to ask anybody
by words to take that thing, nor to have desire in your mind to take it, is called asteya.

4th yama Brahmacharya (celibacy).


Sacrificing the food items which arise sexual desires, sacrificing obscene scenes,
hearing and dressing and to be a celibate by protecting the chastity is called celibacy.
Eight types of sexual intercourse looking at somebody with lust, touching somebody,
meeting alone, talking, discussing the subject, mutual enactment, thought of sex and
company are the types of intercourse. A celibate should protect himself from all these
things and always control his senses and inspire his senses eyes, ears, nose, skin and
taste towards auspicious things and always think of descent, good things and mission
of his life.

5th yama Aparigraha (not collecting the unwanted things)


Not to accumulate harmful and unnecessary things at physical level and not to
accumulate harmful and unnecessary thoughts at mental level, is called aparigraha.
One should be satisfied with the minimum wealth, cloth, items and houses and to keep
the main objective of devotion towards GOD

The Niyamas
There are five Niyamas. They are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Shawcha (cleanliness)
Santosha (Satisfaction)
Tapa (Devotion)
Swaadhyaaya (Regular study of the Vedas)
Ishwar Pranidhaan (deep devotion towards GOD)

1st Niyama shaucha (cleanliness or maintenance of inward and outward


cleanliness)

Sauch means excretion or purification. Excretion or purification is of two types one is


external and the other one is internal. The devotee should purify his body with water
everyday, purify his mind with good behaviour, purify his soul with the study of the
Vedas and devotion and purify his intelligence with intelligence. The holy Ganga can
also purify the body. We can wash our body with soap/shampoo and water as well, to
clean our body. One has to follow the advices of saints and sages for the purification of
the mind, brain and soul.
Moreover, the body inside can be cleaned by various practices as follows:- 1. Jal neti, 2.
sutra neti, 3. vaman, and 4. Shank prakshalan. They are described as follows:
1. Jal neti
Jal neti consists in the putting of water through one nostril and pouring it through
another nostril. You should add salt to the water and it should be warm. Neti should be
done in both nostrils. After doing neti, kapalbhati should be done.
2. Sutra neti
Sutra neti is done with a thread made of cotton or by an elastic band which is put in
one of the nostril and allowed to come out through the mouth. When the thread will
comes into the mouth, it should be taken out with the help of hands.
Neti is said to purify the forehead, increase the eyesight and cures all the diseases of
the throat. It definitely cures running nose, cold and phlegm related problems.
3. Vaman Dhouti.
Dhouti means washing. It is done for cleaning the stomach. It is done in the morning.
In dhouti we drink lukewarm water with salt. We drink as much water as possible. We
then vomit the water by putting the two middle fingers in the throat. All the water
should come out. We can repeat this exercise a few times.
The phlegm in the stomach, bile and undigested food comes out with vaman dhouti. It
is very beneficial for those who have phlegm disease, respiratory problem, asthma and
acidity.
4. Shank prakshalan/shank dhouti; i.e. purification of the intestine
Shank prakshalan consists in the purification of the conch-shaped intestine. Our
alimentary canal consists of a 32 feet long intestine which we never clean in our life
time. This results in the accumulation of light dirt layer, the excretion and secretion of
juices does not place properly, which causes dysentery, indigestion, acidic blenches,
and other diseases. When the faecal matter gets decomposed, the stomach starts
stinking. It causes gastric trouble. The juice is not produced properly. When the main
organ becomes deformed then the subsidiary organs like abdomen, pancreas etc. are
also affected and cause different types of disease.
Required items:
1. one glass of water (to drink)
2. lukewarm water which contains proportionate amount of lime juice and rock salt,
3. kichdi made of rice and moong dal, 100gms of pure ghee per head made out of
cow milk
4. mat or blanket for doing the asana

5. light bed sheet to cover


6. a toilet near the bed.
Method: shank prakshalan should be done in the morning after getting free from bath,
excretion, brushing the teeth, etc. It consists in drinking the prepared water and doing
two repetitions of five asanas prescribed for purification of the intestine and drink water
as per desire. After drinking water repeat the exercises. Drinking water and repeating
the exercises in between will result into bowels. These exercise should be repeated.
After going to the toilet 8 to 10 times water will start coming out. Then drink 4 to 5
glasses of water as desired and do vaman dhouti. Take a rest in shavasana for 30 to 40
minutes. Cover body with cloth. After 30 to 40 minutes consume khichdi.
The five asanas necessary for purification are Urdhawatadasan, tiryaktadasan,
katichakrasan, tiryakbhujangasan and Udarakarshan or shankasan.
Benefits: The body becomes clean, pure and light like a flower. All types of stomach
problems are definitely cured. Joint pains, arthritis, etc. are cured. It is beneficial in the
disease of intestines, kidney, pancreas and spleen.

2nd Niyama Santosha (Satisfaction)


One should fulfil ones objective with the available resources. To be fully satisfied with
whatever results are obtained and not to desire for the things which have not been
achieved and whatever is achieved by the grace of GOD, not to discard it and aspire for
the unavailable things is satisfaction.

3rd Niyama Tapa (Observance of religious austerities)


Heat-cold, hunger-thirst, honour-dishonour, defeat- victory, etc., are the dualities of life.
To endure these dualities with a balanced state of mind, that is, with cheerful
acceptance of these dualities while treading the path of truth is called TAPA.

4th Niyama Swadhyaya (constant study)


Swadhaya is regular study of the Vedas or other scriptures related to the Vedas and
chanting Omkar (japa) with devotion. By doing so, we get purity of the mind and we
develop purity in our deeds.
Repeatedly uttering the sound of OM, imbibing its meaning is called Japa. By doing
Japa, the yog sadhaka realizes his soul and the impediments to Samadhi are
destroyed.

5th Niyama Ishwarapranidhana (Complete devotion to GOD)


To dedicate all your heart to the almighty GOD all your actions with exclusive devotion,
and not even having any desire for its reward, is Ishwarapranidhana

Aasana (Posture)
Aasan means any posture in which the devotee can sit comfortably for long period of
time. The devotee should practice to sit attentively and comfortably for a long time
while doing devotion, worship and meditation.

Those who cannot sit in these postures and those who are sick, Saint Vyas says in their
reference that they can take the support of chairs, walls and practice Pranayam,
Meditation, etc.

Pranayama (breathing exercises)


After accomplishment of the asanas, to proportionate, disintegrate the natural speed of
breath is called Pranayama.
There are four stages in Pranayama. These are:
1. Purak in which air is inhaled;
2. Rechak in which air is exhaled;
3. Antar Kumbhaka in which the inhaled is retained for some time;
4. Bahya Kumbhak in which after exhalation, not to allow the air to go inside for some
time.
Pranayama is done by combining these four stages in different ways and achieving
various mental and physical health benefits. By doing Pranayam we get health benefits
and stability in body and mind which will help us in the observance of the other limbs of
yoga (Pratyahaar, Dharna, etc.)

Note: Yama, Niyama, Asana and Pranayama are practiced mostly at physical
level, whilst, Pratyahara, Dharna, Dhyana and Samadhi are practiced mostly
at spiritual level.

Pratyaahaara (withdrawal of senses)


By practicing Pranayama over a long period of time, Pratyahara is achieved. Pratyahara
is the restraining of the sense organs, as in the case of the mind, when they have no
contact with their respective enjoyments. By attaining Pratyahara, the devotee
achieves supreme control over sense organs effortlessly. However, this is not the final
goal of the devotee. All devotees should note that the eight-limbs of yoga has a serial
order of its own in which the former limb help the latter. Therefore, dharana cannot
properly be achieved properly unless Pratyahara is achieved. So, the next step to be
achieved is Dhaarna.

Dhaarna (concentration)
To fix/hold the mind in some particular spot/place inside the body or outside the body is
called Dharana. Fixing the mind inside the body can be done in terms of Deha Dharna
or Prana Dharna.
In Deha Dharana, the mind is fixed in any part of the body; it can be the chakras, tip of
the nose, etc.
In Prana Dharana, the mind is fixed on the breath, that is, the air that we breathe.

Outside the body, it can be a flower, a picture the polestar, stars and moon, the ripping
sound of flowing river, etc.

Dhyaana (meditation)
After the mind is stabilized in the spot of Dharana, when a sort of stability continues to
be there, that state is called Dhyana.

Samaadhi (deep meditation)


When dhyana reflects itself as the only object of contemplation/meditation and the
meditator almost loses the consciousness of his self, that state is Samadhi.

PART 4
YOGA POSTURES: METHODS AND
BENEFITS
1. Ardhahalasan
Method
1.

In Ardha Halasana (Half Plogh Pose) you can raise your one leg at a time or both
legs perpendicular to the ground.

2.

While lying on yoga mat just relax for a few seconds then inhale slowly to raise
your both legs upwards as shown in the above image

3.

Your legs should be perpendicular to the ground and should not bend.

4.

Hold your breath and posture for a few seconds.

5.

Now exhale slowly and bring your legs again towards the ground.

6.

Repeat this for 3 4 cycles.

7.

You can practice this by completing one cycle by left leg then the right leg.

Benefit
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Improves digestion and appetite.


Improves the function of blood circulation.
Cures menstruation disorders. Stimulates abdominal organs.
Reduces belly fats and lose weight. Cures stomach disorders.
Improve the function of digestion and removes gases.
Tone the thigh and hip muscles overall abdominal muscles.
Good to prevent hernias. Useful to cure arthritis and lumbar spondylosis.

2. Ardhamatsyendrasan
Method
1. Sit on the ground, stretch the legs straight.
2. Fold the right leg. Keeps the right legs heel touching the left legs knee.
3. Take the right hand to back of the waist twisting your trunk, spread in palms and
place it on the carpet.
4. Bring the left hand close to right knee and hold the right legs ankle or big toe with
the left hand.
5. Twist the head and shoulder to right side and look straight to the right shoulders
side (i.e back side).
6. Stay in the pose up to 30 counts breathing normally.
7. Turn the head to the front, release hands holding the right legs ankle or big toe,
stretch the legs, keep the palm on the carpet in a relaxed manner and take rest for
10 seconds.

Benefits
1. It is beneficial in diabetes and back ache.
2. It regulates the blood circulation in all the nerves and veins situated near the spine.
3. It cures the stomach disorders and strengthens the intestines.

3. Bhadrasana (The Gracious Pose)


Method
1.
2.

Sit on the floor with legs stretched out.


Fold both the legs and bring them close to each other. The souls of the feet
must touch each other.
3.
Use the hands to hold the toes of the feet. Pull the legs towards the perineum.
The legs should rest on the ground, touching the floor. This will require a good
amount of flexibility in the beginning.
4.
Keep the spine straight and relax the trunk especially the shoulders.
5.
Maintain this final pose for as long as comfortable. The breathing can be slow
and rhythmic. For physical benefits, practice the final pose with awareness of
breath at the nose tip. For spiritual benefit one may also practice awareness of
the Mooladhara chakra.

Benefits
1.
2.
3.
4.

Bhadrasana activates the root chakra or the Mooladhara chakra.


It strengthens the thighs, hips and buttocks.
It is good for developing flexibility of the legs.
Bhadrasana is an excellent posture for meditation. The posture directs the
pranic energy upwards. It also calms the brain and reduces mental activity.
5.
Bhadrasana is mainly practiced for its spiritual benefits as it is one of the four
main asanas mentioned in classical texts for practice of dhyana.

4. Bhujangasan
Method 1
1. Lie down on the belly. Keep the palms on the ground and both hands near both sides
of the chest. The elbows should be lifted up, but they should be kept bent and
tucked to the body.The shoulders should be sticking to the body, too.
2. The legs should be straight and the paws should join together. The paws should be
stretching straight backward and resting on the floor.
3. Inhale and lift the chest and head upward. The lower part and the navel should
touch the ground. While lifting the head, bend the neck as much as you can.
4. Remain in this position for about 30 seconds.

Method 2 (Tiryak Bhujangasan)


1.

Bring both hands near the chest and place palms on the ground, keep the fingers
together pointing front except the thumb drawn towards the body, Touch the
forehead to the ground & raise the forehead, bend the neck backward.

2.

The distance between the legs should be 10-15 inches and touch the toes on the
ground by stretching backwards.

3.

Bend the right hand in elbows and keeping the left hand straight from waist and
give twist towards left along with neck.

4.

Release this position and repeat from right side and complete one round.

5.

Repeat this asana for 6 times.

Benefit
It is important for cervical spondylosis, slip disc and all spine related problems.

5. Brahma Mudra
Method
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

In your meditation posture, fix your gaze softly in front of you. Drop your breath
into your diaphragm, letting your shoulders and neck subtly release. This is the
central position.
As you exhale, bring your head towards the back of your body, extending the
back of your neck instead of contracting it. Let your eyes softly gaze at the tip of
your nose. Inhale and come back to center.
On your next exhale, drop your chin to your chest, extending the back of your
neck. Focus your eyes to the eyebrow center, the Ajna chakra. Breathe as if you are
breathing from the center of your eyebrows. Inhaling, come back to center.
Letting your eyes lead, on the next exhale, allow your head and neck to follow
your eyes to the left, making sure your shoulders are fixed. Look past your left
shoulder. Inhale and come back to center.
On your next exhale, with your eyes leading to the right, allow your head and
neck to follow. Look past your right shoulder, making sure your shoulders are soft,
your spine straight. Inhale and come back to center, taking a few breaths here with
the eyes closed, noticing the changes in your body.

Benefits
1. This asana relieves ailments of the spine especially of the cervical area. This asana
is highly recommended for spondylitis.
2. It is also very beneficial for the neck and shoulder.

6. Chakrasan
Method
1. Lie down on your back and fold the knees. The ankle should be near the hips.
2. Take both hands to the backside and keep them at the back of the shoulders at
some distance, this will maintain the balance.
3. Inhale and lift the hips and chest upwards.
4. Slowly try to bring the hands and legs near, by which the body takes the shape of
wheel.
5. While leaving the asana relax the body and rest the waist on the ground. Repeat this
3 to 4 times.

Benefits

1. It makes the spinal cord flexible and stops ageing. It activates the stomach and
intestines.
2. It activates the body, gives energy and increases sharpness.
3. It is especially beneficial for hip pain, respiratory problems, cervical and spondylosis.
4. It strengthens the muscle of hands and legs.
5. It cures the uterus problems in ladies

7. Dhanurasan
Method
1. Lie on your stomach with your arms by your side, palms facing upwards.
2. Roll your shoulders onto your back so that the heads of your arm bones lift off the
floor and the shoulder blades move towards each other. Bend both knees so that
the feet move towards the buttocks.
3. With as little twisting as possible grasp your ankles with your hands. You can flex
your feet to make a handle. Avoid holding the foot itself.
4. Exhale and contract through the abdominal region in order to lengthen the lower
back and bring support to the spine. Inhale and lengthen out through the crown of
your head. At the same time, keeping the knees hip width apart, press the feet
back into the hands, creating a natural lift.
5. With each breath press the heels back and up, gradually increasing the back bend,
keeping the spine long. Maintain the supportive contraction of the abdominal
muscles to counter any pressure going into the lower spine.
6. Hold for 5 breaths or more.
7. Exhale and slowly release the feet. Lie quietly for a few moments. Repeat if
desired.

Benefits
1. It makes the spine strong healthy and flexible. This asana is useful for cervical
spondylosis.
2. Shifting of the navel is avoided.
3. It is beneficial for the menstrual disorders in female.
4. It cures the kidney and urinary problems. It is beneficial in case of urination due to
fear.

8. Dhyaan veerasan
Method
1.

Sit with both legs straight in front of the body. Keep the back, head and neck
upright straight.

2.

Bend the left leg underneath the right leg so that the left heel is touching the
right buttock.

3.

Bring the right leg over the top of the bent left leg so that the right heel touches
the left buttock. Right knee is kept above the left knee.

4.

Place the hands either on the right knee, one on top of the other. Or keep the
hands on top of each foot.

5.

Hold the head, neck and back upright straight.

6.

Close the eyes and relax the whole body.

7.

Repeat with the other legs.

Benefits
1. This asana is a good meditation asana.
2. It affects the pelvic structure and stretches the outer muscles of the thigh.
3. This position also massages and tones the pelvic and reproductive organs.

9. Dhruvasan
Method
1. Stand straight and lift the right leg and keep it on the left thigh in such a way that
the paw and ankle should be near the beginning of the thigh and the paw facing
downward.
2. Make the namaskar pose with both hands. Remain in this position for as long as you
can and repeat the exercise with the other leg.

Benefits
It removes the wavering of the mind. It develops the nervous system and makes it
stable.

10. Dronasana
Method
While inhaling raise up both your legs upto 45 0 without bending at knees.
Now raise head and shoulders up, lift up arms and hold knees with your hands.
Trying to hold toes with hands leads to more stretch at your back.
Relax your hands and contract abdominal muscles to stay in this position for some
time.
5. While exhaling, bring your back, head and legs to ground and relax.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Benefits
1. This asana helps in strengthening abdominal muscles and thus helps in preventing the
postural imbalance between the back and abdominal muscles.

11.

Garudasan

Method
1. Stand straight, turn the right leg from the front and fold it on the leg.
2. Fold both hands in the same way and come in the namaskar pose. After doing from
one side repeat it from the other side.

Benefits
1. This is beneficial for hydrosol, males genital glands and kidney
2. It cures the pain in the hand-legs and any other deformity
3. It cures the urinary problems.

12.

Gomukhasan

Method
1. Sit in Dandasan and fold the left leg and place the ankle near the left hip. Do not
sit on the hip.
2. Fold the right leg and place it above the left leg in such a way that both the
knees should touch each other.
3. Lift the right hand and bend it back and take the left hand to the back and hold
the right hand. Keep the neck and back straight.
4. Do this for one minute from one side and repeat with the other side.

Benefits
1. It is extremely beneficial in hydrosol and enlargement of the intestines.
2. It is beneficial in humor related problems, diabetes and gynecological problems
3. It strengthens the liver, kidney and the chest. It cures arthritis and gout.

13.

Gulf Chalan

Method
1. Sit in Dandasana with your legs and your back straight.
2. Place your hands on your hip joints and move your toes forward and backward.

Benefits
1. This exercise is very beneficial for your legs. It seems very easy and it is very easy
but it is really a great workout for the muscles of your thighs and calves. You can
imagine that you can with regular practice reduce extra thigh fat and bring your
thighs into a beautiful shape.
2. Additionally you will feel how it strengthens your lower back muscles.
3. This is also one of the best exercises for stress management and you can practice it
literally anywhere! While you are in the office or travelling in train or plain. You dont
even have to get up!
4. Gulf Chalan keeps your ankles flexible and helps the blood flow through the veins of
your legs which provides instant refreshment even after long periods of sitting.

14.

Gulf Naman

Method
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Sit on the floor with your legs stretched out in front of you and maintain some
distance between both the legs.
Keep your hands on the ground behind your back for support.
Focus on the ankles and ensure that the heels are touching the floor.
While inhaling deeply, move the feet backwards and then exhale while moving
the feet forwards.
Ensure that you stretch the toes both inwards and outwards while doing this
exercise.
Keep your eyes closed and focus entirely on the movement of your ankles.
Take short pauses while bending the ankles forward and backwards so that you
can feel the stretching sensation.
Repeat this exercise 10 times for each leg.

Benefits
1. Ankle bending exercises not only work the ankle joints but also work the muscles in
the entire leg.
2. These exercises help in loosening up the ankle joints and strengthen them as well as
the other muscles in the leg.
3. Ankle bending exercises are also good for people suffering from lower back pain.
The stretching of the leg muscles in turn helps relieve lower back pain effectively
over time.
4. They help in toning the muscles in the leg and feet, which in turn increases our
bodys stability.

15.

Gulf Vritt Sanchalan - Ankle Rotation

Method
Sit in Dandasana with your spine straight. Place your hands on your hips and start
moving your feet in a circular motion. You make big circles with your toes and count.
Then change direction and move them the other way around, counting until the same
number.

Benefits
1.

Rotating ankles is obviously a very good exercise for your legs. You shape your
thighs, reduce excessive fat and strengthen the thigh muscles.
2. Also your back thanks you for practicing it. Especially the muscles of the lower back
are strengthened.
3. This exercise is often recommended by physiotherapists against pain due to slip
discs or a false position of the sacrum.

16.

Halasan

Methods
1. Lie down straight on the back, inhale and slowly lift the legs. First 30 degrees then
90 degrees and then take the legs at the back of the head and then lift the back also
and exhale.
2. Rest the legs on the backside on the floor. Let the breathing be normal. In the
beginning the hands can be used to support the back for comfort. In the completion
stage keep the hands on the floor, stay in this position for 30 seconds.
3. While coming back follow the same steps as used while going up, rest the hands and
press the palms on the floor and straighten the legs and rest the knees on the
ground.

Benefits
1. the spine is healthy and flexible and back muscles become extended and disease
free
2. It activates the thyroid glands and reduces obesity, stunted growth and weakness.
3. It is beneficial in indigestion.
4. It activates the pancreas and reduces diabetes
5. It is beneficial in painful menstruation and gynecological problems

17.

Jihva Bandha

Method
1. Sit on the ground.
2. Place your hands on your knees.
3. Touch the upper palate with your tongue, and then press your tongue against the
upper root of your teeth and palate.
4. Keeping your tongue intact, open your mouth slowly.
5. Close your eyes and lift your face slightly up.
6. Remain in this position for a while.

Benefits
1. Practicing Jihva Bandha makes the muscles of the neck get the appropriate
exercise and the blood circulation therein is improved.
2. Cervical nerves and ganglia are rendered healthier.
3. While Jihva Bandha the pharynx and the larynx are exercised and their health is
also promoted.
4. The thyroid gland is rendered healthier.
5. The salivary glands function more satisfactorily.
6. This asana also removes congestion in the pharynx and tonsillitis of certain types
is checked.
7. Deafness due to the thickening of the drum of the ear is also relieved through
Jihva Bandha.
8. This pose is again known to be very helpful in toning the throat and the facial
muscles.
9. It also shapes the jaw line and reduces the double chin effect.
10.This bandha regulates blood pressure.
11.Heaviness of tongue is eliminated.
12. This bandha also helps to minimize stammering.

18.

Katichakrasana

Method 1
1. Stand firmly along with legs together. Press the heels and feet on the floor.
2. Slowly stretch and raise the right arm above the head and extend with inhalation.
3. Exhale slowly and move the trunk and right arm towards left side the ear will touch
the right upper arm. The left hand should be sided on left leg thigh.
4. Stay in this position for 15 to 30 seconds with normal breathing.
5. Inhale, slowly move the trunk and arm in order to come back to the normal position.
6. Repeat the same be bending on the other side.
7. Practice this exercise two times on both the sides.

Benefits
1. Performing this exercise will help those who are suffering from back pain, stiff back
etc.
2. This helps to promote the function of liver and hence performing this exercise will
help to cure liver problems.
3. Simultaneously stretching on both sides will help to eliminate extra fat in the
abdomen region and also provides good shape to the body.

Method 2
1. Keep your posture in attention position. Put your both hands on your waist, bend
backwards from your waist position as much as you can and close your eyes in this
position for a minute and breathe normally. Do this step while bending frontwards.
Now return to your position and do these steps 4 to 5 times for both sides.
2. Stand in attention position. Keep your hands on shoulders side respectively. While
turning you neck see backwards and breathe normally. Close eyes, stay in position
for 3 minutes and relax. Perform this step for 4-5 times from each side.
3. Standing in attention position, turn your palms and raise your hands upwards and
straighten while maintaining parallel position. Turn your waist towards left while
keeping hands to left. Bend your waist as much as you can and continue your
breathing normally. Close eyes, stay in this position for a while & return. Do this for
4-5 times for each side.
4. Lie down in 'Shavasana' while spreading your hands and keep them in parallel
position. Now take your right leg towards left direction and turn your neck while
seeing right. Keep your left leg straight while doing this. Do it for 4-5 times for both
sides.

Benefits
This will help you in getting a slender waist. Apart from it, with this Asana you will
overcome the problems of constipation & gas and keeps intestines, liver, kidney and
pancreas healthy.

19.

Makarasan

Method
1. First lie down on the floor on your stomach with the hands on the sides. The chin
and chest should be touching the ground.
2. Now stretch both the legs to full length
3. Separate both the legs and put them on the floor such that the toes are pointing
outwards and heels inwards
4. The feet should be at right angles to the legs
5. Now raise your head and trunk and take your right hand under your left shoulder
6. Hold the left shoulder gently with the right hand and take the right shoulder with left
hand.
7. The two hands should be making a double triangle one above the other
8. Now place your forehead on the triangle. Your face should be within the space
created by both the arms.
9. Now close your eyes and relax your body completely
10.Practice abdominal breathing and remain in this position as long as you are
comfortable. It can be 2 to 3 minutes or even more.
11.Turnover and lie on your back. Start again.

Benefits
1.

Makarasana is very good asana pose for complete relaxation of


mind and body

2.
3.
4.

Makarasana relieves fatigue after strenuous yoga session


Makarasana controls high blood pressure
Breathing problems are cured by Makarasana.

20.

Mandukasan

Method
1. Sit in Vajrasan and close the fists of both hands. While pressing the fists, fold the big
finger inside and press inside.
2. Pressing the navel with fists, exhale and bend forward. Look straight.
3. Stay in this position for some time and come back to Vajrasan. Repeat three to four
times.

Benefits
1. It activates the pancreas and is beneficial in curing diabetes.
2. It is beneficial in stomach problems, to the heart and liver.

21.

Marjasan (Cat pose)

Method
1.

Come onto the floor on your hands and knees. Bring the hands shoulders width
apart and the knees hips width apart. Become aware of the length and quality of the
breath.
2.
Inhalation slowly and completely. Open the chest forward, arching the back
downward. Feel the tailbone and the crown of the head lifting equally towards the
sky. Try to feel every part of the back, every vertebra.
3.

Exhale slowly and completely as you begin to arch the back upward. Tuck the
tailbone and the crown of the head moving them towards each other. Use your

hands and knees for support in the pose. Try to feel every part of the back, every
vertebra.

4.

Continue to coordinate the breath and the movement of the spine, repeating this
sequence and many times as is desirable. When you are ready to stop simply bring
the spine back to a neutral position, parallel to the floor.

Benefits
1. Brings flexibility to the spine. This asana makes the spine flexible. It also helps cure
backache and neck ache. This is a basic balancing asana.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Strengthens wrists and shoulders


Massages the digestive organs and improves digestion
Tones the abdomen
Improves digestion
Relaxes the mind
Improves blood circulation

22.

Markatasan

Method 1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Lie down straight on supine position and spread your hands


at shoulder level. The palm should open towards the sky.
Place right ankle between the big and toes of left foot.
Slowly bend your legs to the right and at the same time bend
your head towards the left completely. While bending your whole body will twist.
Slowly come to the original position, and then do the reverse
bending.
After having completed this part, try with the other legs.

Method 2
1. Lie down straight and spread your hands at the shoulder level. The palm should
open towards the sky. Then fold both legs together up to the knees and keep the
near the hips.
2. Now turning the knees towards the right side, rest the right knee on the ground. Left
knee should rest on the and left ankle should rest on the right ankle. Turn the neck
to the left side.
3. Similarly repeat the exercise from left side as well.

Method 3
1.

Lie down as mentioned in method 2. Fold both legs and


keep them near the hips. There should be a distance of one foot between the legs.
2.
Now bending the knee towards the right side rest it on
the ground. Bend to an extent so that the left knee should reach the right paw and
rest the left knee on the right side on the right knee on the ground. Turn the neck on
the left side.
3.
Similarly, repeat with the other legs.

Benefits
1. This exercise is especially useful for backache, cervical spondylosis, slip disc and
sciatica.

2. It cures stomach ache, dysentery, constipation, gas and makes the stomach light.
3. It is beneficial for the hip, joints pain. It cures all the deformities of the spine.

23.

Pad Chalan Kriya

Method
1. Stretch both the legs and keep the palms at the sides on the floor.
2. Raise the right leg straight up and rotate it clockwise to form big circles 6 to 8 times.
Then perform it anticlockwise also. Keep your breathing normal.
3. Perform the same procedure while raising the left leg.
4. Now similarly do it with both legs simultaneously together in the circular clockwise
and anti-clockwise directions.

Benefits
The thigh joints are strengthened. The nerves and muscles of the legs are also
energized.

24.

Pad hastanasan

Method
1. To begin, come to a standing position at the front end of your mat with your legs
close together.
2. Inhale and lift your arms straight up over your head with your arms touching your
ears.
3. Exhale and bend forward from the hips as shown in the photograph, keeping your
back straight as long as possible. Keep your legs straight with the weight of the
body over the balls of the feet. Feel that the hips are lifting up and the body is falling
away from the hips.
4. If possible, put your hands flat on the floor, or wrap your fingers around the big toes.
If you can't reach the floor you can also wrap your hands around the back of your
legs.
5. Try to bring the head in as close to the knees as possible with the neck relaxed.
6. In the beginning, hold the posture for 5 seconds, gradually working up to 1 minute
or more.
7. To come out of the posture inhale and slowly roll the body up bringing the head up
last.

Benefits
1.

Stretches the hamstrings on the back of the legs

2.

Stretches and lengthens the entire spine

3.

Massages the internal organs, especially the digestive organs

4.

Relieves digestive problems such as constipation

5.

Relieves problems with sciatica

6.

Invigorates the nervous system

7.

Increases the supply of blood to the brain

8.

Removes flesh from the abdomen

25.

PADANGULI NAMAN (Toe-Bending)

Method
1.

Sit in the base position with the legs outstretched and feet slightly apart. Place
the hands beside and slightly behind the buttocks. Lean back a little, using the arms
to support the back. Keep the spine as straight as possible. Move the toes of both
feet slowly backward and forward, keeping the feet upright and the ankles relaxed
and motionless. Hold each position for a few seconds. Repeat 10 times.

2.

Inhale as the toes move backward. Exhale as the toes move forward.

Benefits
1. Padanguli Naman, is an excellent stress buster for the feet and the toes. It can be
practiced by people of all age groups.
2. This asana also helps those afflicted with Rheumatism. So go ahead and try it out, to
experience relief from exertion and pain.

26.

Parvatasan

Method
12.Sit in padmasan.
13.Raise both hands and join them in namaskar position above the head.

Benefit
It increases the concentration of the mind.

27.

Paschimottanasan

Method
14.Sit in Dandasan and hold the toes with the help of big and index fingers of the
hands.
15.Exhale and bend forward and try to place the head in between the knees. The
stomach can be kept in the position of Uddhiyan Bandha. The knees and legs should
rest on the ground and the elbows should also rest on the ground. Remain in this
position for half to three minutes according to capacity. While exhaling come back to
normal position.

16.After this asana, the reverse asanas Bujangasana and Shalabhasana should be
done.

Benefits
1. All the back muscles become strong. The stomach muscle contracts and this
increases their health.
2. It is an important asana to increase the height.

28.

Pavan Muktasan

Method
17.Lie down straight.
18.Flex both knees and interlock both hands on them.
19.While inhaling, press both knees and rest them on the chest. While lifting the legs,
touch the knee with the nose. Remain in this position for 10 to 30 seconds while
stopping the air outside and then lie down straight.
20.Repeat this exercise two to four times.

Benefits
1.
2.

This Asana is very beneficial for wind related stomach problems.


It is beneficial for gynecological problems, mild menstruation,
painful menstruation and uterus related diseases.
3.
It is beneficial in acidity, heart disease, gout and backache.
4.
It reduces fat in the stomach.
5.
If there is severe pain in the back, then do not lift the neck and
touch the knee with the nose. In this way slip disc, sciatica and backache are cured.

29.

Santulan Aasan

Method
1. Standing up on the right leg, bend the left leg at the knee. Bring the heel of the left
leg near the hip. If the heel cannot be brought nearer the hip due to pain in the
knee, fold the leg backward as much as possible.
2. Grab the toes of the left leg with the left hand holding all the toes with the palm
properly. Bring heel of the bended leg to the buttock.
3. Now slowly raise the right hand firmly up towards the sky with palm in the
straightforward position.
4. Retain this position for 6 to 8 seconds. Keep the lifted hand tight and firm. The right
leg on which you are standing should be tight and straight. Keep looking straight
and breathe normally.
5. Slowly bring the lifted hand down, keeping it in a tight condition. Do not drop the
hand. When the raised hand has reached the side, release the left leg to come on

the floor. Now rest for some time and do further rounds alternately by following the
same process.

Benefits
1.

Santulan Asana has curative and corrective effects upon the knees, ankles, shoulder
joints, wrists, palms and fingers.

2.

It removes rigidity and brings flexibility to the major joints of the body normalizing
the blood circulation in the affected areas and tones up the muscles so pain in the
joints is corrected.

30.

Sarvangasan

Method
1. Lie down straight on your back. The legs should be together, join the hands to the
sides and rest the palms on the ground.
2. Inhale and raise the legs 30 degrees upwards, then 60 degrees and then 90
degrees. You can support the back while lifting the legs. If the legs cannot be kept
straight at 90 degrees take them back at 120 degrees and rest the hands at the
back. The elbows should rest at the ground. The paws should be straight. The eyes
should be closed otherwise glance at the toes. In the beginning it should be done for
2 minutes and then slowly increase the time up to half an hour.
3. While coming back keep the legs straight and bend backwards slightly. Remove both
hands from the back and rest them straight on the ground. Now, press the floor with
the palms and get up in the same position as you had lied down, first back and then
the legs should be laid straight on the floor. The duration for Sarvangasan and
shavasan should be the same. The reverse asanas for these is Matsyasan.
Therefore, performing Matsyasan before Shavasan is more beneficial.

Benefits
1.

It activates the thyroid and pituitary glands and make them


healthy

2.

It reduces obesity, weakness and tiredness, etc. and


increases the height.

3.

It is beneficial for two or three stages of asthama.

18.

Sashakasan

Method
1.

Sit in Vajrasan and while inhaling lift both hands

upwards.

2.
3.

Bend forwards, exhale and stretch both hands forward


and place the palms on the ground and rest the hands on the ground.
Stay in this position for some time and again come
back in Vajrasan.

Benefits
1.

It massages the heart naturally. Therefore, it is


beneficial for heart patients.

2.

It gives strength to the pancreas, intestines,


liver and kidneys.

3.

It cures mental illness, stress, anger, irritation,


etc.

4.

It strengthens the uterus in the females. It


reduces the fat from stomach, waist and buttocks.

31.

Setubandhasana (bridge pose)

Method
1. Keep some distance between your legs and fold them at knees to bring heels near
buttocks.
2. Keep your arms beside your body, palms facing down.
3. You may hold your heels with hands. Raise your waist and back slowly while
inhaling.
4. Try to raise body till your chin touches chest. Stay in this pose for some time and
while exhaling bring your waist and back down to touch ground.
5. Straighten your legs and relax.

Benefits
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

32.

Strengthens the back muscles


Relieves the tired back instantaneously
Gives a good stretch to the chest, neck and spine
Calms the brain, reducing anxiety, stress and depression
Opens up the lungs and reduces thyroid problems
Helps improve digestion
Helps relieve the symptoms of menopause and menstrual pain
Helpful in asthma, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and sinusitis

Shalabhasan

Method
6.
7.
8.
9.

Lie down on your stomach.


Close your fists placing your thumb inside.
Place both hands below the thigh.
Inhale and lift both legs. They should be bent at the knees. The chin should rest on
the ground. Remain in this position for 10 to 30 seconds.
10.Repeat for 2 to 4 times.

Benefits
It cures all the diseases below the spine. It is especially beneficial for the backache and
sciatica pain

33.

Sinhasan

Method
1. Sit in Vajrasana .
2. Now raise your buttock a little and cross the heel and toes of the right leg over that
of left leg.
3. Sit on the heels and place both hands on the respective knees. Spread out the
fingers.
4. Inhale and bring out the tongue as much as possible. Look in between the eyebrows
and exhale.
5. While returning back to the original position, take the tongue in, release the tension,
loosen your hands and come back to the original position.

Note: Jiva Bandha should be practice alternately with this asana for two to three
times.

Benefits:
1. It is useful in tonsils, thyroid and other throat problems
2. It is beneficial in ear-problems and unclear pronunciation
3. It is beneficial for children who lisp
4. It improves the blood circulation in the throat, face and brain.

34.

Surya Namaskar (Salutation to the sun)

Method
1. Stand facing towards the sun, fold the hands in position of namaskar and keep on
the chest.
2. Inhale, stretch the hands in front and take them back. Look towards the sky. Bend
the waist towards backside as much as possible.
3. Exhale and bend the hands towards front and rest them near the legs on the
ground. If possible touch the ground with the palms and try to touch the knees with
the head.
4. Now bend forward and place the hands on both sides of the chest. Lift the left leg
and take it back. Let the right leg be in between both the hands. Knee should be in
front of the chest and rest the ankle on the ground. Look towards the sky and stop
the breath inside.
5. Inhale and take the right leg back. The neck and head should be in between the
hands. Lift the hips and waists and bend down the head and look at the navel.
6. Keeping the hands, legs and paws straight, touch the knees and chest on the
ground. In this way, when both hands, legs, knees the chest and head touch the
ground. Keep the breathing normal.
7. Inhale and lift up the chest up and look at the sky, rest the waist on the ground and
keep the legs and hands straight.
8. As mentioned in step 5.
9. As mentioned in step 4. Change the position of the legs. In this case keep the left
leg in between the hands.
10.As mentioned in step 3.
11.As mentioned in step 2.

12.As mentioned in step 1.

Benefits
1. Surya namaskar is a complete exercise. With this all the body parts and joints
become strong and healthy.
2. At makes the stomach, intestine, pancreas, heart and lungs totally healthy.
3. It makes the spinal cord and waist flexible and cures their deformities.
4. It regulates the blood circulation in the entire body.
5. The muscles of hands, legs, shoulders, thighs become strong and toned up.
6. It increases mental strength, sharpness and vitality of the brain.
7. It is useful for diabetes.

35.

Tadasan

Method
1.

Stand straight and keep both hands on


the sides.

2.
3.

While taking deep breath raise the hands.


As the hands are raised simultaneously
the ankles should be raised.

4.

The body weight should be on the paws


and it should be fully stretched.

5.

While exhaling, slowly bring your hands down.


Bring your heels on the floor as in starting position.
6.
Repeat this asana 2 to 3 times. Try to increase
the duration you can stay in this asana.
7.
After sufficient practice, while you are
standing on your toes, take 4 steps forward and 4 steps backwards. This will improve your
grace while walking.

Benefits:
1. Due to deep breath the lung gets strength.
2. It is good to increase the height. This develops the nerves of the body and activates
them.
3. Spine becomes flexible.
4. Visceroptosis and pain in the backbone is removed.

36.

Tadasan in lying position

Method
Lie down in supine position. Hands by the side of body, palms facing downwards. Legs, waist
and neck all should be in a straight line.
1.

While inhaling, raise both arms slowly upwards and place the arms behind your head.
Both the arms parallel to each other, palms facing upwards.

2.

Retain breath. Stretch your hands and feet in opposite directions as far as possible. Keep
your legs and arms straight (no bending).

3.

While exhaling, slowly bring your hands to the starting position.

4.

Repeat this asana four times. Try to increase the duration you can stay in this asana
position.

Benefits
1. This asana increases height.
2.

The vertebral column and heart are strengthened. Good for regulating the menstrual
cycle.

3.

Cures indigestion.

4.

Strengthens arms and legs and helps to remove lethargy.

37.

Trikonasan

Method
1. Stand in Tadasana. With an exhalation, step or lightly jump your feet 3 to 4 feet
apart. Raise your arms parallel to the floor and reach them actively out to the sides,
shoulder blades wide, palms down. Turn your left foot in 45 to 60 degrees to the
right and your right foot out to the right 90 degrees. Align the right heel with the left
heel. Firm your thighs and turn your right thigh outward, so that the center of the
right kneecap is in line with the center of the right ankle.
2. With an exhalation, turn your torso to the right, and square your hip points as much
as possible with the front edge of your sticky mat. As you bring the left hip around to
the right, resist the head of the left thigh bone back and firmly ground the left heel.
3. With another exhalation, turn your torso further to the right and lean forward over
the front leg. Reach your left hand down, either to the floor (inside or outside the
foot) or, if the floor is too far away, onto a block positioned against your inner right
foot. Allow the left hip to drop slightly toward the floor. You may feel the right hip
slip out to the side and lift up toward the shoulder, and the torso hunch over the
front leg. To counteract this, press the outer right thigh actively to the left and
release the right hip away from the right shoulder. Use your right hand, if necessary,
to create these two movements, hooking the thumb into the right hip crease.
4. Beginning students should keep their head in a neutral position, looking straight
forward, or turn it to look at the floor. More experienced students can turn the head
and gaze up at the top thumb. From the center of the back, between the shoulder
blades, press the arms away from the torso. Bring most of your weight to bear on
the back heel and the front hand.
5. Stay in this pose anywhere from 30 seconds to one minute. Exhale, release the
twist, and bring your torso back to upright with an inhalation. Repeat for the same
length of time with the legs reversed, twisting to the left.

Benefit:
1.

The hip area becomes flexible. The fat on the side reduces. With the
pressure on the backside, the muscles become healthy. The chest expands.
2.
Increases mental and physical equilibrium
3.
Helps improve digestion.

38.

Udarkarshasan

Method
1.

Sit in the squatting position with the feet apart and the hands on the knees.

2.

Breathe in deeply.

3.

Press the heel firmly into the abdomen.

4.

Breathe out, bringing the right knee to the floor near the left foot.

5.

Using the left hand as a lever, push the left knee towards the right,
simultaneously twisting to the left.

6.
7.

Keep the inside of the right foot on the floor.


Try to squeeze the lower abdomen with the combined pressure of both thighs.
Look over the left shoulder.

8.

Hold the breath out for 3 to 5 seconds in the final position.

9.

Breathe in when returning to the starting position.

10.

Repeat on the other side of the body to complete one round.

11.

Practice 5 rounds.

Benefits
1.

This pose is very useful for abdominal ailments because it alternately


compresses and stretches the organs and muscles of this region.

2.

It also relieves constipation.

39.

Ushtrasan

Method
6. Sit in Vajrasan position.
7. Now lift the ankles and keep both hands on them. Keep the hands in such a manner
that the fingers are towards inside and the big fingers are towards outside.
8. Inhale and bend the neck and head backwards and lift the waist.
9. While exhaling sit back on the ankles. Repeat for 3 to 4 times.

Benefits
1. This asana is good for respiratory system. The pores of the lungs strengthen and
benefits the patient from asthma.
2. It cures cervical spondylosis, sciatica and other spinal problems.

3. It is useful for thyroid.

40.

Utkatasan

Method
1.
2.

Come into a squat with your feet flat on the ground.


Keep your feet parallel with the inner edges touching, or if you need
to, bring them to hip distance apart. You may need to extend your arms in front of
your knees at first to counterbalance your weight.
3.
Press your hands at the chest in Namaste and hold the pose for a
few breaths. Next, rise up on the tiptoes of both feet, sitting on your heels, with your
weight propped on each sit bone.
4.
Keep your eyes open. Remain in this position for a while.

Benefit
1.

This pose helps improve our physical balance, concentration,


strength and flexibility especially in the lower extremities including our hips, thighs,
toes, knees as well as our ankles.
2.
It will allow you to experiment with balance in a squatting position.

41.

Uttanpadasan

Method
1. Lie down flat on your back, keeping your knees and feet together.
2. Keep your arms by your side on the floor, palms facing downward. Breathe
normally.
3. Inhale and raise both legs slowly, placing pressure on your hands.
4. Hold your legs at an angle of 60 degrees to the ground, for as long as you can.
5. Do not strain yourself. Release the pose as soon as you feel some strain.
6. Breathe normally. You should feel maximum pressure on your legs and abdomen.
Do not let your face or neck get tense.
7. Return the legs slowly to original position. Repeat 3-4 times.

Benefits
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

Very helpful in toning and strengthening lower abdomen region,


boosts the health of digestive organs, lung and heart.
This yoga pose is excellent for belly reduction.
This improves the working of the inner organs like the intestines,
pancreas and liver. This ultimately is beneficial in digestion, constipation and
diabetes.
Blood circulation improves when the legs are raised vertically.
The spine is stretched and toned, thus helping to correct back pain
or other back problems.
Raising the legs also strengthens the muscles of the buttocks, hips
and waist.

42.

Vajrasana (Diamond Pose)

Method
1. Fold both the legs and place them under the hips in such a way that the ankles are
protruding out and the paws are near the hips.
2. In this position the toes of both legs will be together. The back, neck and the head
should be straight. Knees should be joined together. Keep the hands on the knees.

Benefits
2.

Calms the mind and bring stability in mind. It is a meditative asana.

3.

Cures constipation, acidity, gas and increases digestion process.

4.

Those suffering from gas problems can practice immediately after lunch or
dinner.

43.

Viparit karani

Method
1.

Sit down with your support about five to six inches to your right side. Place a
bolster or two-folded blankets close to your waist so that they can support you when
you tilt backwards.

2.

Take in a deep breath and while exhaling, tilt your torso slightly towards the bolster
while swinging your legs up against the wall for support.

3.

Allow the front portion of your torso to round up gently as you tilt yourself
backwards and lie down. The bolster pillow or folded blankets should support your
waist. If you find yourself slipping off, readjust your position and try again. You may
need to move a little closer to the wall.

4.

Feel the stretch from your pubis to your shoulders. Keep your legs straight up even
if all you can think of is bending them.

5.

Release the base of your skull and lift it away so that you soften the stretch that
you feel on your throat. Tilt your head downwards, but do not allow your chin to touch
the sternum.

6.

Open up your shoulder blades and allow your arms to rest at your sides, with both
the palms facing upwards.

7.

To keep your legs firm and straight, release the weight of your torso and feel it
weighing deep into the back of your pelvis.

8.

Hold the pose for at least five minutes. More proficient practitioners may hold the
pose for 15 minutes. Keep breathing normally throughout the pose.

Benefits
1.
2.

It helps to reduce inflammation and soreness in the abdominal area.


The legs up the wall pose helps in circulating the blood back to the heart, thus

detoxifying them and keeping them healthy.


3.
It stretches the back muscles and therefore can be helpful in treating back aches.
4.
It opens the chest area and therefore helps to breathe easily.
The neck muscles are easily exercised when practicing the legs up the wall pose.

44.

Yoni Mudra

Method
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Assume a comfortable meditation posture with the head


and spine straight.
Place the palms of the hands together with the fingers and
thumbs straight and pointing away from the body.
Keeping the pads of the index fingers together, turn the little, ring and middle
fingers inwards so that the backs of the fingers are touching.
Interlock the little, ring and middle fingers.
Bring the thumbs towards the body and join the pads of the fingers together to
form the base of a yoni or womb shape

Benefits
1.
2.
3.
4.

Relieving stress
Relaxation and rejuvenation of the mind. Stabilizing the nervous system
Maintaining a state of mental clarity and relaxation
Attaining spiritual calmness and mental development

Note: all asanas improve flexibility of the body, remove toxins and increase
immunity.