Al-Azhar University Faculty of languages & Translation English Department Islamic studies Division

Irshâd Al-Hayârâ Fî Rad` Man Mârâ Fî Adillat At-Tawhîd Wâ Radd An-Nasârâ (Guiding the Bewildered in Deterring Those Who Argue as to the Proofs of Monotheism and Answering back the Christians)
Written by Abd El-Aziz Ibn Ahmed Ibn Sa`id Ad-Dumiri, follower of Shaf``i school, and known as Ad-Derini (born in 612 and died in 694 A.H. (1215 – 1295) Verification, Translation and Analytical Study
[A Thesis Presented to the English Department in fulfillment of the Requirements for M.A. Degree in Islamic Studies in English]

Submitted by Emad Mohammad Abd El-Hamid Fadel Supervised by
Prof. Dr. Muhammad M. Abu-Laylah
Professor of Islamic studies in English Faculty of Languages & translation Al-Azhar University -Cairo

`Prof. Dr. Sa`id `Ateyyah `Ali Mutaw
Professor of the Hebrew Language Faculty of Languages & translation Al-Azhar University -Cairo

Contents of the Thesis Topic Introduction Reasons for Choosing this Topic Statement of the problem Objectives of the study Research hypotheses Research Methodology Literature Review Contents of the thesis Page Num. 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 9 10 10 11 11 13 13 14 16 24 25 27 34 40 42 43 44 45 53 55 57 58 58 58 59 59 61 61 63

Chapter One: Author's Biography & Methodology of Authentication
AD-DIRÎNÎ: AUTHOR’S BIOGRAPHY His family and birth His early years Historical Bachground: Political Status Social and Economic Status Scientific and Religious Status His sheikhs His students The Scientific Status of AD-DIRÎNÎ The Writings of AD-DIRÎNÎ His mysticism and supernatural deeds The Humility of AD-DIRÎNÎ His death Methodology of Authentication Authenticating the Title of the Manuscript Study of the Manuscripts The subject of the Book and the Relevant Books Importance of studying and verifying the manuscript

Chapter Two: AD-DIRÎNÎ position toward the science of Kalâm & AD-DIRÎNÎ methodology of Kalâm
Definition of Kalâm The subject of Kalâm The benefits of Kalâm History of naming this science Kalâm The relationship between doctrine and Kalâm The problem of the verdict of practicing Kalâm The elements of the emergence of the science of Kalâm

Topic The issues that the Muslim scholars dealt with in their polemic writings against Christianity The new Kalâm The Basics of the new Kalâm AD-DIRÎNÎ position toward the science of Kalâm AD-DIRÎNÎ methodology of Kalâm Definition of Christian Theology DIVISIONS OF THEOLOGY THE METHOD OF THEOLOGY Dogmatic development

Page Num. 64 64 65 68 80 86 87 87 88 92 93 95 96 99 103 103 105 109 113 117 118 147 148 165 185 187 196

Chapter Three: The Analytical Study
The Issues of the Book Trinity According to Christians The Christian sects different from the majority of Christians concerning the trinity The Eastern Christian sects The analysis of the text of the manuscript Reporting on the Doctrines of the Christians Knowledge of how the Christians differ from Muslims Christians believe in three hypostases in one substance Christian Doctrine of the Union of the human and the divine and the doctrine of Crucifixion Analysis of the Chapters of the Book

Chapter Four :
The Text of the Manuscript in Arabic The Text of the Manuscript in English

Conclusion Bibliography Copies of the Manuscripts of the Book

Acknowledgements I am extremely grateful to my supervisor, Prof./ Muhammed Muhammed Abu Laylah, Professor of Islamic studies in English, Faculty of Languages & translation, and the previous head of English department. He honored me by supervising my thesis. I would like to thank him for his continual support and advice throughout this work. His wisdom, excellent manners and kindness never ceased to impress and educate me. I would also like to thank Prof. Sa`id Ateyyah Mutaw`, Professor of the Hebrew Language, and the vice-deen of the faculy. Being my cosupervisor, he has been providing me with very useful comments. Thanks to him for his extensive academic help, encouragement throughout the course of this work. I would like to thank Prof. Mary Knight for revising my thesis linguistically. I would like to extend my appreciation to Prof. Bakr Zakî `Awd, Prof. of Comparative Religions and the deen of the Faculty of Usûl Ad-Din (Theology), Al-Azhar University –Cairo and Prof. Muhammad `Abdullah Ash-Sharqarwi, Prof. of Islamic Philosophy and Comparative Religions and the head of Islamic Philosophy Department, Faculty of Dar Al`Ulûm, Cairo University. I thank them both for accepting to examine me and discuss my thesis. This is really a great honor for me and my thesis. Finally I would like express my love and appreciation to my family for supporting all my endevours. To my grandfather and grandmother, my father and my mother, my wife and my son, and my brother and my sister. Whatever was right in this thesis Allah made me write it. And If there is a mistake or omission or forgetfulness, it is from me or from the Satan. May Allah grant me success.

Abstract Preface: Almighty Allah created people and sent prophets and messengers to them in order to teach them the religion and inform them about what Allah sent down of revelation to them to follow. Allah decreed that scholars will be inheritors of the prophets; they inherit their knowledge and call to Allah after their death. The prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, said: “Scholars are the inheritors of the prophets. However, the prophets did not leave behind a dinar or dirham rather they left knowledge to be inherited. So, whoever inherits this knowledge then he inherited a very valuable thing.” 1 This is the why it is so important follow scholars and write down whatever they dictate of knowledge they are versed in as well as spreading this knowledge among people to achieve the maximum benefit. This thesis is meant to study, verify, and translate the manuscript entitled “Guiding the Bewildered in Deterring those who Argue as to the Proofs of Monotheism and responding to the Christians”, which was authored by sheikh Ad-Dirînî. Available Copies of the Manuscript The researcher obtained four copies of manuscripts of this book; two of them from the Egyptian Book House, one from Al-Azhar Library, and one from the Central Library of the Ministry of Endowments. The importance of this manuscript lies on the following two aspects: First, The importance of its author who was a good writer in many branches of knowledge, the second is the importance of the subject of the manuscript which appears at the first glance when one reads the title “Guiding the Bewildered in Deterring those who Argue as to the Proofs of Monotheism and responding to the Christians”. In brief, the manuscript is nothing but a live application of the ayah that reads: “Say: O People of the Book, come to a word that is equitable between us and you – that we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with him; that we take not, from among ourselves, lords and patrons other than Allah. If then they turn away, then say, “Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Allah].” “ 2 Reasons for Choosing this Topic There is no doubt that studying and publishing the Islamic heritage constitute a task that should be assumed and undertaken perfectly, as it adds to the Islamic library what enriches it, including books and studies from which readers and those interested
It was narrated by Ibn Hibân in his book “Sahîh”, Vol. 1: 289, number 88, Published by Dâr An-Nashr – Muasasat Ar-Risâlah, Beirut, Lebanon, second edition year 1993, edited by Shu`ayb Al-Arna’ud. It was also narrated by At-Tirmizî in his book “Sunan”, chapter on “Knowledge”, Vol. 5: 48, number 2686, published by Dâr Ihyâ’ At-Turâth Al-`Arabî, Lebanon, edited by Ahmad Mohammad Shâkr and others. 2 Surah Al `Imrân: 64
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in researches can benefit. This manuscript which I shall work towards examining, translating, and studying derives its significance from the fact that it is concerned with important creed issues; such issues are dealt with by the author in a distinguished manner while depending on argument and reason. As the author’s argument is directed to certain people who might not acknowledge a lot of the established facts of the Islamic Sharî`ah, it should be carefully studied and pondered on in order to reach the desired objectives. Addressing those who deny the truth and do not listen to it, Allah, Exalted be He, says, {Say (to them O Muhammad): "I exhort you on one (thing) only: that you stand up for Allâh's sake in pairs and singly, and reflect (within yourselves the life history of the Prophet): there is no madness in your companion (Muhammad), he is only a warner to you in face of a severe torment}3. Thus, there should be serious study in order to realize the truth. The manuscript was written by a scholar widely known for his abundance of knowledge in more than one field of study in the Islamic Sharî`ah; he, Sheikh Ad-Dirînî was an exegete of the Qur’ân, jurist, thinker, historian, preacher, and a man of letters.4 He also Kalâm according to school of Ashâ`rih. 5 Statement of the Problem This study shall deal with the chapters of the manuscript in details and with a lot of explanation. The author of the manuscript focuses on discussing the claims of Christians that they believe in monotheism while holding the belief in Trinity at the same time. He also discusses other topics such as the deification of Jesus Christ, and the issue of the Crucifixion. Such topics are evident from the manuscript title, “Guiding the Bewildered in Deterring those who Argue as to the Proofs of Monotheism and responding to the Christians”. Sheikh Ad-Dirînî ends the manuscript by establishing the obligation of believing in the Prophethood of the Last of Messengers, Muhammad (PBUH), and establishing as well the argument against Jews and Christians. Objectives of the Study This study is meant to verify, translate and study the manuscript entitled Irshâd Al-Hayârâ Fî Rad` Man Mârâ Fî Adillat At-Tawhîd Wâ Radd An-Nasârâ (“Guiding the Bewildered in Deterring Those Who Argue as to the Proofs of Monotheism and Responding to the Christians”). Research Hypotheses
Surah Saba’: 46 Kahâlah: Mu`jam Al-Mu’llifîn, published by Dâr Ihya’ At-Turâth Al-`Arabî, Beirut, Lebanon, Vol.5: 421. 5 As-Subkî: Tabaqât Ash-Shâfi`iyyah Al-Kubrâ, edited by `Abd Al-Fatâh Mohammad Al-Hilw and Mahmoud Mohammad At-Tanâhî, published by Dâr Ihyâ’ Al-Kutub Al`Arabiyah, Vol. 8: 199-208, number 1182.
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1- It impossible to believe in trinity and monotheism at the same time. 2- Believing in the Message of the Prophet Muhammad is one the essentials of believing in the Message of Jesus. 3- The Christian belief has adopted some beliefs of polytheism. 4- Pure monotheism exists only in Islam. Research Methodology This study shall follow the analytical and comparative approach when dealing with the chapters of this manuscript. It shall also attribute the claims of Christians to those who believe in them from the Christian sects; besides, it shall verify the responses to such claims from the Islamic perspective. The study shall also mention what have been written by Muslim scholars or by the Christians about the chapters dealt with in this study. Literature Review This manuscript has not been given due care and attention as it was published two times as will be shown later, but not verified or edited according to the scientific way. These two old published copies were therefore full of mistakes and contain no introduction about the author or the subject of the book. This is what motivated the researcher to verify, study and translate this book depending on four different manuscripts of the same book. The most related study to the present study is the one that Pro. Muhammad Muhammad Hasanîn offered when he edited the book “arrad `ala ansara” by Abû al-Baqâ’ Salih Ibn al-Hussein al-Ja`farî who died in the seventh century after hijrah. This book “ar-rad `ala ansara” is a summary of another book for the same author which called “takhjîl man haraf al-Injîl”. The study of Prof. Muhammad dealt with the manuscripts of the book, the author, the Islamic Christian debate and its methodologies and finally offered the verified text of the book. It is noted that the author of this book lived in the seventh century and he was living in Egypt. Although we do not know much about him, but this makes him a contemporary of sheikh `Abd al-`Azîz Ad-Dirînî. One of the studies that the researcher reviewed is “Early Muslim polemic against Christianity” Abû `Isâ al-Warrâq’s “Against the Incarnation”, edited and translated by David Thomas. In this study, the editor wrote an introduction that dealt with the following: 1Christians and Muslims in the early Islamic society. 2Abû `Isâ al-Warrâq and the study of religions. 3The doctrine of Incarnation in the time of Abû `Isâ 4Abû `Isâ’s refutation of the Incarnation. Then he offered the text both in Arabic and English.

There was also another book called “Anti-Christian polemic in early Islam” Abû `Isâ al-Warrâq’s “Against the Trinity” edited and translated by David Thomas. In this book the editor wrote an introduction that handled the following: 1Early Islamic theological investigations. 2Abû `Isâ’s life and thought. 3Early Islamic refutations of Christianity. 4The structure and contents of Abû `Isâ’s Radd `alâ alNasârâ. Furthermore, the researcher reviewed the book “Ma`a al-Jahiz fî risâlitihî fî ar-Rad `alâ an-Nasârâ, commentaries on the treatise of al-Jahiz that responds to the christians” by Prof. Ibrahîm `Awadh. This study reviews the false allegations of Christians that was presented and refuted by al-Jâhez in his treatise “ ar-Rad `ala an-Nasârâ “. It discusses such allegations in detail while showing it history along ages as well as refuting them through depending on the sayings of the Jews and Christians themselves. Also, there were some other studies that are not closely related to the subject of this study but they are somehow deal with the methodologies of the Muslim polemics against Christianity. One of these is the book entitled “Uslûb al-Imâmîn al-Qutrubî wa al-Qarâfî fî da`wat an-Nasârâ ela al-Islam, The methodologies of both Imâm al-Qurtubî and Imâm al-Qarâfî in calling the Christians to Islam” a doctorate dissertation submitted to the college al-Da`wah & Media, Islamic Unversity of Imâm Muhammad Ibn Su`ûd, by Bayân Sâlih Hassan. This study consists of seven chapters. The first chapter showed the universality of the call of Islam and the duties of the callers to Islam. It also reviews the Christian sects, the biographies of both Imâm al-Qurtubî and Imâm al-Qarâfî as well as the sources of the study. The second chapter deals with the political, social, and religious environment as well as the religious combat between the Muslims and Christians at the time of al-Qurtubî. It also shows the positive and negative effects of such environment on the methodology of al-Qurtubî in calling Christians. The third chapter deals with the issue of using the textual and reasonable proofs as well as the value of using different patterns of emotional discourse used by al-Qurtubî in calling Christians to Islam. The fourth chapter dealt with the political, social, and religious environment as well as the religious combat between the Muslims and Christians at the time of al-Qarâfî. It also shows the positive and negative effects of such environment on the methodology of al-Qarâfî in calling Christians.

The fifth chapter deals with the issue of using the textual and reasonable proofs as well as the value of using different patterns of emotional discourse used by al-Qarâfî in calling Christians to Islam. The sixth chapter is a comparison between the characteristics of both the methodologies of al-Qurtubî and al-Qarâfî in calling Christians to Islam. The seventh chapter is an evaluation of both methodologies of al-Qurtubî and al-Qarâfî. Another study is “Juhûd `Ulamâ Al-Muslimîn Fî Ar-Rad `ala AnNasârâ khilâl Al-Qurûn Al-Sittah Al-Hijriyah Al-Ulâ, the efforts of the Muslim scholars in responding to the Christians through the first six hijri centuries” a doctorate dissertation submitted to the college of Da`wah and Theology, University of Umm Al-Qurâ, by Badr Ibn Muhammad Tarâd Al-Mi`îql. This study consists of three chapters. the first chapter deals with the efforts of Muslim scholars in responding to Christian creeds in the field divine matters. It namely dealt with refuting trinity as well as the Christian creeds that deal with the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The second chapter deals with the efforts of Muslim scholars in responding to Christian creeds in the field of prophethood. In detail, it deals with stating the Christian creed of Jesus and responding to it as well as that of crucifixion and atonement and responding to them. It also states the position of the Christians towards the prophethood of Muhammad and responding to them in this respect as well as responding to the allegation that Islam was widespread by swords and stating their creed about paradise and its bless. The third chapter shows the efforts of the Muslim scholars in critizing the texts of the holy csriptures of the Christians. It is worthy mentioning that there a doctorate dissertation - in faculty of Usûl Ad-Dîn, Assuit, Al-Azhar University - by prof. `Ali Ramadân `Abd Al-Majîd in which he verifed and studied part of the book of sheikh AdDirînî “At-Taysîr Fî `Ilm At-Tafsîr”, namely this part starts from the interpretation of surah As-Sâfât till surah At-Tahrîm. Also there are five dissertations submitted to the department of Tafsîr [Qura’ân Interpretation] in the Islamic University in Medina studing and verifiying “Al-Kifâyah Fî Tafsîr Al-Qur’ân by Imam Ad-Dirînî”.

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