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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

Myths & Truths
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The Ekkos Clan

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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Sudipto Das 5 .

recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without prior written permission and consent of the Publisher.sudiptodas.wikipedia. 6 . all characters appearing in this book are a work of the author’s imagination.com https://en. portrayed according to the author’s interpretation. Petals Cover Design: Kamalika Dutta & Arun Francis. Any resemblance to actual persons is entirely coincidental.org/wiki/Sudipto_Das https://en. Pixel Passion Layout: Sudipto Das Other than actual historical persons and events. including photocopying. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Published by Sudipto Das http://www. electronic or mechanical.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ekkos_Clan Text © Sudipto Das Editor: Arpita Ghosh. All rights are reserved.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan To the innumerable unnamed unknown poets of the Rig Veda 7 .

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 8 .

mathematics and interesting insights on music are held together by a gripping mystery in Sudipto’s debut novel. linguistic palaeontology. suddenly realises that the stories he and his sister have grown up listening to — about their grandmother Kubha — are not as simple as they sound. Ancient Indian history. then The Ekkos Clan by Sudipto Das might just be the book for you. He discovers that the names of the characters and places have a striking similarity with the Rig Veda and the Aryans. encourages Kratu to decode the “chhele bholanor golpo” (tales told to pacify children). Could the stories preserved for centuries have a greater significance? …The Ekkos Clan is like any fast-paced thriller.’ – The Telegraph ‘If you are a history buff and a thriller aficionado.’ – Jug Suraiya ‘For a debut novel The Ekkos Clan is quite promising. Meeting Afsar.’ – The Hindu ‘Historical fiction. Kratu Sen. with echoes of Dan Brown in the storytelling. a linguist palaeontologist.’ – Bangalore Mirror ‘A tale of the Indian civilization and culture. The Ekkos Clan combines the struggle for survival with Kubha's determination to safeguard her lineage in turbulent times… [It] is a folktale packaged for the contemporary reader. telling 9 . The ekkos Clan written by debutant author Sudipto Das takes you on a roller coaster ride. an engineer in Stanford. replete with murder and miraculous escapes.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Praise for The Ekkos Clan ‘A promising debut in the growing realm of modern Indian fiction.

’ –Newsyaps 10 . and places both the author and the novel at a space currently occupied by a very few. the Rig Veda… The author brings out India’s amalgamation of so many cultures. The Ekkos Clan is essentially a mystery novel. unceremoniously occupying our locale… The Ekkos Clan should be read for its sheer aspiration and the intelligent handling of historical material. orality and linguistics. mathematics.. The Ekkos Clan is a daring novel. and how the everyday preserves history in unique ways. the book follows a pattern where one gets to read about linguistics.’ – The Sunday Guardian ‘Written by debutant author Sudipto Das.. The scope of the narrative is magnanimous and deftly handled.. author Sudipto Das has weaved a cinematic tale of migration. but instead. races. languages. engineering and philosophy moving from chapter to chapter. music. revenge. Bngladesh to Arkaim in the Southern Urals. archaeology.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan the mystery behind the Aryan race as well as delving into the origin of stories behind mankind’s greatest book. but is grounded in a substantial base of research and exploration into our past. music.. breathing form of residue from our ancient past is combed through: language…[The] Application of linguistic palaeontology amidst a mystery novel marked with glimpses of mythology and historical narrative is unique in an Indian setting. history. Involving elements of ancient history. which diminish once you try to step further after going back a few millennia.’ – The New Indian Express ‘For a novel whose setting stretches from the Partition-affected villages of Noakhali. Exploring multiple generations of a family. a more living. This journey was not made with the aid of tangible historical remains and proofs.

Vala Myth 115 11. Constelations. River – The Stream of Life 96 9. People & Conflicts 82 7. Origin of Indian Music 169 18. The Rig Veda 70 6. Amagamatiom with Native People 92 8. Arkaim 62 5. Polestar 142 15. Aryan Trail 18 3. Horses 164 17. Creation Myth 120 12. Rig Vedic Gods 106 10. Later Vedas and Avesta 183 Acknowledgement 203 Selected Reference 206 11 . Surya’s Bridal 133 14. Preparation of Soma 162 16. Languages of Aryan Trail 43 4. Battle of Ten Kings 123 13. Timeline 16 2. Trivias 179 19. Chariot.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Contents Preface 13 1.

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Afsar quickly figures out that the bedtime tales contain rich linguistic fossils and layers of history. all of which together tell a tale of our civilization. Their journey also leads them to discover one of the oldest civilisations of the world. each leading to some prehistoric event or anecdote. the turn of events. will their efforts also unearth the causes behind the series of murders? Kratu finds himself suspended deep in a clash between two mysterious forces. The Ekkos Clan is a work of fiction. something that gave rise to Nazism. It deals with fanaticism in the garb of an extremist nationalism. a graduate student at Stanford mentions Kubha's stories to Afsar Fareedi. the history that has been very controversial ever since its importance was first realized.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Preface Someone wants Kratu's whole family dead. Kubha inherited a basketful of stories. Kratu. The Ekkos Clan tries to bring into life the history of an obscure age. Along with all the other elements that create a story – the characters. Afsar. in a casual conversation. our culture. the mystery. It deals with the gradual evolution of hierarchies in a society and many more. the climax and above all the love and passion – history also plays a very important role in it. where there are a lot of riddles in the form of Kubha’s stories. Is it personal vendetta or is it because they have access to Kratu's grandmother Kubha's stories. Kratu and his best friend Tista travel across continents to trace the origin of her stories. and sets on a quest to find answers to questions that man has posed to himself every now and then: Where did I come from? The Ekkos Clan is essentially a mystery novel. the history that has been interpreted and misinterpreted multiple times to fit into a preconceived idea of the scholar. But. historian. From her ancestors. which conceal perilous secrets? The eventful lives of Kubha and her family span a hundred years and encompass turbulent phases of Indian history. a linguistic palaeontologist. It deals with the identity of India and the Indian civilization. 13 . linguist or even a dictator and a number of nationalists.

A detective. They never looked back. knowledge. Their yearning for seeing and learning severed them from their original homeland. It always looks pleasant and wonderful like a poem.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan As this history has barely left behind any discernable mark it’s best left to the imaginations of the future generations. No one knows what finally made them stop their journey. Like the latai. wisdom and knowledge. They believed that “to see is to learn”. to recreate and reconstruct it in bits and pieces. should be held strong on 14 . but the latai. feel the excitement of someone who had made the first chariot. their urheimat. weid. that vidya. This is where we can liberate the string of reasoning and let the kite of imagination fly high. They had just one word. and took them to unknown lands which eventually became their new homes. The Ekkos Clan may not be for these detectives. for which they had travelled thousands of miles for thousands of years? Or did they get weary of their long trail? Or did they really stop their journey? Can’t it be that they are still travelling but. understand the inspiration that had driven a group of people to cross thousands of miles just to see new lands. or rather someone really very boring. It never looks bare and ruthless as reality. should be held strong on the ground. For them vision was akin to vidya. like a piece of art. go a few thousand years back into antiquity and realize the thrill and amazement of the poet who had composed the first ever poetry of the mankind. This is the premise of The Ekkos Clan. no one knows of it? This is where the history opens up for imagination. to which is wrapped the kite’s string. like music. the history. But a reconstruction always has some degree of creativity in it. for vision. The Ekkos Clan is meant to let loose the imaginations but not the history. It’s about their culture. make new friends and learn new things. It takes the color of the prism through which the creator recreates it. It’s for those who can let free their imaginations. wisdom. can always uncover the layers of creativity and dig out the bare history and find it silly. Did they reach their final destination? Did they attain that knowledge. The history is not about the wars they fought or battles they won. They kept on travelling for thousands of years. their language and the way of their lives that evolved gradually over thousands of years and finally comprised almost half the world. It’s the saga of a group of adventurous and wonderful people who lived on this earth more than five thousand years ago.

academician and layman included. The history we’re talking about is the history of the IndoEuropeans. the history of the Aryans and the history of their trail from their Urheimat to India. which meant “to know” and “to see” evolved into Sanskrit veda and vidya meaning knowledge. It’s the history how the original word weid. for most of the historical background. Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan is meant to provide the historical background behind each of Kubha’s stories. the historical background we’re talking about is not meant purely for any academic purpose. Latin video and viso meaning “to see”. may be often in a partisan manner which fits into the thought process of The Ekkos Clan. The strings of imaginations are left to the readers. one particular line of thought has been presented all throughout. Kubha’s stories. But. wisdom and vision. I’m indebted to him for the correspondence he exchanged with me and the time he spared to browse through some of the chapters. trying to bridge the gap between the fiction and the facts on which it’s built. I have followed the school of thought espoused by Witzel et al. Greek oida meaning “to know”. Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan is an endeavor to provide the historical ground of The Ekkos Clan. as mentioned in the beginning. are all about the Aryan Trail and the Rig Veda. but for a leisurely reading rather. some of which is provided in The Ekkos Clan too in bits and pieces. As many of the topics are very controversial and still not accepted unanimously by everyone. German wissen meaning “to know” and English wise.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan its ground. I’ve relied heavily on the papers written by Michael Witzel of Harvard University. 15 . which form the basis of all the mysteries in The Ekkos Clan.

BMACin Central Asia & IIr. Andronovo Culture 16 .) people Separated from IE (Hut Grave) City States (Sumer) .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 1 TIMELINE BC Indus Valley: Ravi Phase 3300 Bronze Age Late Indo-European (IE) people Kurgan (Pit Grave) Culture 3200 3100 Indo-European Language 3000 M ohenj odaro City Long Distance Voyage with 2900 Mesopotamia 2800 Indo-Iranian (IIr. Old 2700 Kingdom (Egypt) & Elam (Iran) 2600 M ature H arappan Phase 2500 Elamo-Dravidian Language Centum-Satem division complete IIr. a Satem language 2400 First dock at Lothal 2300 Prominence of Babylon 2200 Non IIr.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan BC 2100 2000 Indo-Aryan & Iranian breakup (The Aryan Trail) 1900 Prominence of Ashur (Assyria) Early Andronovo people in BMAC 1800 Later Andronovo people in BMAC Decline of Indus Valley 1700 Spreading of Natives India-wide Aryan migration to Swat & Syria Decline of BMAC 1600 Remnants of Indo-Aryans in Gandhara Graves Start of Aryan/ Vedic Age 1500 Earl iest Vedas: Rig Veda Ochre Colored Pottery Culture 1400 Origin of I ndian M usic 1300 Probable Mahabharata War Settlements outside Punjab 1200 Prominence of Kuru Kingdom Black & Red Ware Culture Atharva Veda mentions Iron 1100 Beginning of Iron Age Eastward expansion of Aryans 1000 Use of Iron: Impact of Plough 900 Prominence of Panchala Painted Grey Ware Culture 800 Kasi. Kosala & Videha 17 .

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 2 ARYAN TRAIL The Aryan Trail. We'll stick to the following designations: 1. the actual path by which the Aryans came to India. the Romans. Many people across ages have tried to claim themselves as the original Indo-Europeans and establish their supremacy over other races. For centuries people have misinterpreted history and come up with various theories of Urheimat. the common ancestors of both the Aryans and the Iranians. The prefix proto in both the above cases may be skipped at many places. One extreme instance of such an attempt was Nazism which claimed the supremacy of a fictitious Aryan race. 2. the Persians. Many Indian historians believe that the Aryans originated from India and eventually moved to the west creating the Iranian. as the historians and linguists prefer to say. This branch. 18 . etc. is referred to as the Indo-Iranians or the Proto IndoIranians. Even more controversial is the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans. along with the Iranians. Iranians. There's no doubt that the original Indo-European people or the Proto Indo-Europeans. the Germans. Romans. the Slavs and the Aryans. were the progenitor of some of greatest cultures and civilizations of the world. They are also designated as Proto Aryans at times because of the close similarities between the Aryan and Iranian cultures. Truly speaking the Aryans. Proto Indo-Iranians (PII) – the eastern branch of the IndoEuropeans (IE). the progenitor of all the branches of Indo-Europeans like the Aryans. is a very controversial topic. Greeks. Germans. Latin. and the progenitor of the Indo-Aryans and Iranians. the original homeland. belong to the eastern branch of the IndoEuropeans. They were the predecessors of the Greeks. Proto Indo-European (PIE) – the original Indo-European people. Due to the German propaganda the proto Indo-European people are often wrongly designated as Aryans. Greek. German and Slavic cultures and languages.

north of the Azov Sea. Compared to the timelines of the Proto Indo-Europeans the Rig Veda is quite young. Equally hard is to prove the same theory due to nonexistence of any conclusive proof. Avestans. thus creating too much confusion among laymen. We find reasons to believe that the researches done by people like Witzel. with the wealth of historical information embedded in the Rig Veda it might not have been that hard to sketch the history of the Rig Vedic Aryans with a certain degree of authenticity. archaeological and linguistic data of those antique times. It’s easy to come up with any theory because it’s really hard to disprove it. But then. Asko Parpola. 19 . J P Mallory and their likes are more credible than that of others who espouse to other theories. Coming up with the correct Aryan Trail is not simple mainly because of the paucity of credible historical. The earliest linguistic materials available for any branch of the Indo-Europeans are the archaic verses of the Rig Veda composed by the Indo-Aryans in an equally archaic form of Sanskrit. Iranians – the Persians. nationalistsand fanatics.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 3. It’s believed to have been composed since 1700 BC whereas even the late IndoEuropean phase dates to fourth millennium BC. nonexistence of the proof of anything is not the proof of its nonexistence. Scythians. But here also the archaic verses have been used by people – amateur and pro. Their culture and way of life later became the foundations of Hinduism. novice or expert. to formulate any theory. We would like to stick to one school of thought which believes that the Indo-European Urheimat is somewhere in the Eurasian Steppe. who are not that adept in either Sanskrit or linguistics. This is the grand lacuna which can be exploited by anyone. Parthians and all other people of Iranian descent. Still. self-proclaimed and real historians – to prove and disprove the same theory. Aryans or Indo-Aryans – the composers of the Rig Veda. 4.

Hut Grave Culture (2800 – 2000 BC): This is the Proto Indo-Iranian (PII) Bronze Age culture which existed in the Ukrainian Steppes. Catacomb. Crimea and along the Don River.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan The Various Phases of the Aryan Trail Legends 1. the coastal region the Sea of Azov. Relics of the culture are widespread in the region along the Dnieper River. This is the late PIE (Proto Indo-European) phase of Indo-European unity where the PIE people stayed together prior to their disintegration and movement towards various destinations. Pit Grave Culture or Kurgan Culture (3500 – 2800 BC): The Pit Grave Culture extends over the entire Pontic Steppe. 2. 20 .

Kalash Culture (1700 BC till date): A very unique group of IndoAryans in the Hindukush has preserved many of the pre Rig Vedic and early Indo-Aryan features including language and culture.2800 BC This is the beginning of the Aryan Trail. the eastern branch of the Indo-Iranians eventually reached Northern Iran. Kabul. Though burial is not common among the Hindus now but in the early Rig Vedic times it was indeed 21 . Timber Grave Culture (2000 – 800 BC): Around Samara on the Volga Basin. 6. Kalash is the last place in the Aryan trail before reaching the final destination in India. Vakhsh – Biskent Culture: Contemporary to BMAC and Andronovo.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 3. of the Indo-European people. The Indo-Aryans. Urheimat. From here the Indo-Aryans moved to northern Iran. this is the Proto Iranian Culture. 5. it's an Indo-Aryan Culture. Swat rivers. Burial mounds may not be a unique thing but burial near rivers is something which perhaps has reference only in the Vedic texts. via Vakshu or Oxus/Vakhsh. Andronovo Culture. This culture is characterized by kurgan or burial mounds near rivers. BMAC Culture (2200 – 1700 BC): This is an Indo-Aryan Culture in Central Asia. It's contemporary to the northern Andronovo Culture (1800 – 900 BC). Afghanistan and India. 8. Kurgan Culture: 3500 . 7. The Proto IndoIranian people arrived here from the Azov Sea. Gandhara Grave Culture (1700 – 1400 BC): Rig Vedic Culture in Punjab in Pakistan & India 1. Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex. Arkaim-Sintashta (1800 – 900 BC): South of the Ural Mountains this is an Indo-Aryan Culture. The Anatolian and the Tocharian branches of the Indo-European people have already separated by this time. Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent in the next few centuries. This can be treated as one of the original homelands. The Iranians stayed back and the Indo-Aryans proceeded further east to Arkaim-Sintashta. The last segment of the Aryan trail to India may be through Vakhsh. 4.

But on the other hand the Sanskrit ratha for chariot doesn't have any cognate in any other IE language with the same meaning. akson in Greek. But there's no cognate for chariot and spoked wheel. The houses were constructed with clay and reeds. Extensive copper items were found in the settlements. Greek omphalos and German nabel are its cognates. As the horses are the trademarks of the Aryans and the Indo-Europeans many scholars espouse to the Kurgan Theory of identifying the Kurgan Culture with the proto Indo-Europeans. Latin umbilicus. Persian charkh. in fortified settlements. Incidentally the area north of the Azov Sea in Ukraine is the site where the horse was first domesticated during the Srendy Stog Culture between 4500 and 3500 BC. often on high hills. An interesting linguistic observation is that all the IndoEuropean languages have cognates for various parts of a solid wheel like the wheel itself. The excavated grave goods provide important information about the socio-economic structures of the culture. the center of the wheel. Similarly nave. Interesting is also the word ara in Sanskrit. to 22 . Persian naf. It comes from the IE root ero. axis in Latin. Ratha and Latin rota. Fortification may imply conflicts. The cognates for axle are aksha in Sanskrit. hunting and fishing were of secondary importance. meaning to move. In one hymn there's a reference to going to the house of clay. Oval houses were secured with walls and moats. The Sanskrit ri comes from the same root and has the same meaning. Greek kuklos. Avestan naba. All they knew was the ancient cart with solid wheel and accordingly they had words only for that. meaning wheel. comes from Indo-European nebh – Sanskrit nabhi. Agriculture. The Latin colus. center of the wheel. the axle and the nave.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan very much in practice. meaning spoke. Sanskrit chakra all come from the Indo-European keklo. Their major economic occupation was animal husbandry. In the kurgans the corpses were covered with red ocher and laid either in supine position or on their sides with flexed legs. Excavations at kurgans revealed primitive carts pulled by oxen. all coming from Indo-European aks. They usually lived in surface dwellings. mrinmayam griham. This may imply that when all the Indo-European people stayed together the chariot and the spoked wheel were still unknown. come from the Indo-European roto meaning wheel and not chariot.

One bright. They take their cattle along with them and return to their village only in spring. When the bitter winds blow from Ghimen—the cold areas of the north—for six months. The story starts like this: “On the bank of the Dhanush river there is a village which is very cold in the winters but pleasant in summers. a place in Dnepropetrovsk on Dneiper River. Ghimen is perhaps the PIE gheimen. It dates back to 3000 BC. This is perhaps the place where the earliest of the Kubha’s stories – The Land of the Ekkos Sea and the Dhanush Rivers – begins. clear winter morning Pethui wakes up and decides he wants to see the sea. which means winter and is akin to Sanskrit hima and Latin heims. He convinces his friends Aggem and Laba to go with him. Incidentally the first remains of chariot and spoked wheel appeared much later. Pethui and Laba live in this village… The adventurous people of the village who set out regularly to explore new places had told them of the nearby Ekkos Sea that looks like a horse’s face. around 2000 BC near Arkaim-Sintashta. The northern areas of Pontic Steppe can 23 . everyone moves to warmer places near the Ekkos Sea. in any other IE language. is one of the sites for kurgan or burial mounds. Storozhova Mohyla. The return of the cows to the village marks the beginning of a new year for these people. Aggem. the sea is always so stormy. the name by which they call the Ekkos Sea…” The Dhanush River is perhaps Danus River – danus is the PIE word from which the name of the river Dnieper is derived.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan move. But there’s no cognate for ara. He offers prayers to God Bello and sets out with his friends… The people of the village tell the three boys that deep inside. It's very likely that both ratha and ara for chariot and spoke were later creations of the Aryans after the chariot and spoked wheels had been discovered. spoke. dark and violent that no sailor has ever returned ashore. The huge body of water eventually became the Akkhain Sea. But near the shore the sea is very shallow… The villagers tell them that the sea was formed when a huge flood had drowned the whole world—the water receded gradually from everywhere else but not from this part.

Pethui can be the simplified version of the Indo-European plethui. The reckoning of a year. Pethui. all coming from the root ud. something which can’t move. 24 . meaning skill and work – the Sanskrit Ribhu. Till now the PIE words have been only hypothetical reconstructions of the linguists – there’s no proof that these words were actually used in the day to day conversations of the Indo-Europeans some five thousand years back. the skillful artist and engineer in Rig Veda. Like the Rig Veda. with the cows returning to the villages at the end of the winter is similar to the phenomenon behind vatsara. which is a sort of a tape recorder which has preserved many archaic Sanskrit words never used later. none of which has managed to survive in its original form anywhere else other than Kubha’s story. ra. So it’s possible that the northern areas were designated as Gheimen – same way as north in Sanskrit is designated uttara. vatsa. and Latin labor come from this word. Laba and Bello – are actually PIE words. from which comes the Sanskrit Varuna and Greek Uranos – both are important Gods in two of the greatest Indo-European cultures. It’s akin to Sanskrit aga and agasti – Agasti is the author of many Vedic hymns. which means up and surely refers to the northern Himalayas. It’s akin to Sanskrit prithvi and Latin planus. which etymologically means the movement. In fact.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan become severely cold during winters. Seasonal movement of cattle herders along with their cattle to warmer places in winter is a common phenomenon still seen in many places across the world. The God Bello may be Welnos. It has become Aggem in Kubha’s story. Pethui and Laba are perhaps Agwem. The proper names Aggem. udach. Plethui and Laba – all PIE words. udichi. Agwem means mountain. the Sanskrit word for year is vatsara. meaning earth. especially in the mountains. of the calves. It has been argued in The Ekkos Clan that these four names – Aggem. Compared to the northern Gheimen the southern areas near the Black Sea are quite warm and comfortable in winter. as seen in the aforementioned Kubha’s story. This story of Kubha may be the only proof that these words are real. Kubha’s stories have perhaps preserved these PIE words. Laba has perhaps come from the IE lab.

So Akkhain of Kubha’s story may be then akin to Skt.) root kshai means bright. in the various IndoEuropean languages. which means inhospitable sea – black may be a euphemism for inhospitable.axeinos and Avestan (Av. shining. This refers to the two types of evolution of the PIE word kemtom. The area of Catacomb culture is adjacent to the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans.2000 BC It was a continuation of the Pit Grave Culture. the Pontic Steppe. The Sanskrit (Skt. The Greeks used to refer to the Black Sea as Pontos Axeinos. It's believed that the IIr people stayed back in the Pontic Steppe even after the other branches of the Indo-European people had already separated from them and dispersed to the west and south. written in an early Iranian language. Then chatam evolved to shatam in Sanskrit. Catacomb Culture: 2800 . 2. In Greek it evolved to hekaton. another name used for the Black Sea in Kubha’s story. It's the first place where the Indo-Iranians arrived after leaving the IE Urheimat. akshai. Prefixing with an ‘a’ is often used for negation – so akshai should mean unlit. The Zoroastrian Avesta. like German.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan It’s explained in The Ekkos Clan how the horse shaped Ekkos Sea is actually the Black Sea. First the original consonant ke in the eastern branch changed to cha and we had chatam as the PIIr word for hundred. Interesting is the reference to Akkhain Sea. or dark.) formation. Eventually these proto Indo-Iranian (PIIr) people moved further east and finally entered into Iran and India. stormy. The Indo-Iranian (IIr) branch is at times referred to as the Aryan branch by many scholars. The Greek (Gk. meaning hundred. satem in Avestan and sad in Persian. Gk.) xaena. Sanskrit and Russian. The evolution of kemtom to centum in Latin represents a type of phonetic change which’s seen in almost all the western branches of IE. Greek and Latin. An immediate linguistic impact of this separation was the Centum-Satem split in the IE languages around 2500 BC. has the formation xaena which means bright and shining. 25 . On the other hand the evolution of kemtom to satem in Avesta represents the change that's seen in almost all the eastern IE branches like Persian. Akshai and axeinos are no doubt cognates.) axeinos is very likely to have come from the Iranian (Ir.

act as linguistic fossils.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Many reconstructions of ancient events can be done using linguistic palaeontology. who had centum and kettra. Donets. and danus and damos in Latin and Greek. A portion of their territory was indeed adjacent to the sites of Kurgan and Catacomb Cultures of the Indo-Europeans in the Steppe. The English word Aryan also comes from Ariyanam. This means that the Finno Ugric people stayed adjacent to the proto IndoEuropeans. which means river. It’s danu in Persian (Per. Finnish is one of the Finno Ugric languages. who had satem and arya. have all come from the IE danus. IE loan words in Finno Ugric languages imply that the ancient Finno Ugric people stayed close to the Indo-Europeans and had good interaction with the latter.) and Skt. and that they also stayed adjacent to the Aryan branch. The names of the countries Ireland and Iran bear traces of these cognates. meaning “of the Aryas”. Iran comes from Ariyanam. Similarly Finnish sata meaning hundred is again a loan from the IIr chata or sata. Another interesting reconstruction is possible from the Finnish word orja which means slave. seems to have come from the PIE kettro and not from the Aryan branch where it's chattra in Sanskrit. Dnieper. from whom they took the loan kehra. This can only mean that the Finno Ugric people defeated and subsequently subjugated the Aryas and hence arya became synonymous to subjugation or slave. stayed back in the original IE homeland north of Azov Sea and that (2) the western branch. and the Persian Ariya are the self designation of IndoEuropeans in many languages. The Finnish word orja is no doubt a loan from the IIr arya and not from any of its other cognates. spoken in north Eastern Europe. which along with its cognates like the German Ehre. But on the other hand the Finnish kehra. The corresponding PIE root is ar. This is possible only if we believe that (1) the eastern Aryan branch. the names of the main rivers here. the Irish Erin. Let us consider a scenario where the IE loan words in the Finno Ugric languages. which’s akin to Sanskrit Arya. Dniester and Danube. meaning spindle. It's very intriguing that Don. The 26 . It's beyond any contention that the ancient Finno Ugric people always stayed in north Eastern Europe. stream or fluid. separated from them. A very important IE loan word is the Finnish orja. unlike the IE meaning master or lord. from whom they took the loan orja and sata.

the Samara Bend. Major excavations took place in the 1950s at the Kut burial site. the anterior river. Eventually the Aryans separated from the Iranians and moved eastward to Arkaim and Sintashta in search of more minerals while the Iranians stayed back at the same place. which is now inundated by the Kakhivka Reservoir on the Dnieper River. Timber Grave Culture may be initially Indo-Iranian and then Iranian. Coming from west and travelling towards east first you get Dniester and then Dnieper – so Dniester is the anterior and Dnieper the posterior river. Excavations of the grave-goods reveal three social groups – the priests. During its existence the patriarchal system replaced the matriarchal order. near Samara. An important site is Potapovka near Samara on the Sok River. his head was replaced with the head of a horse.800 BC From the coastal area of the Sea of Azov the Indo-Iranians might have travelled along the Don and Volga rivers till they reached the Big Crescent. After the grave pit was filled. in addition to pottery vessels and weapons. The older name of Dniester is actually Danastius which comes from Iranian Danu nazdya. Kshatriya and Vaishya. the warriors and the traders – similar to the later Aryan Brahmin. dated between 2200 – 2000 BC. and he was laid down over the filled grave shaft. Timber Grave: 2000 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan etymology of Dnieper and Dniester is interesting. Beneath kurgan 3. The dead were usually buried in a crouched position in catacomb niches of burial pits and sprinkled with red ocher dye. the central grave pit had remains of a man buried with at least two horse heads and the head of a sheep. This 27 . cattle and water. Excavations conducted between 1985 and 1988 in Potapovka exposed four burial mounds. 3. the posterior river. a human male was decapitated. Similarly the older name of Dnieper is Danapris which comes from Iranian Danu apara. Later stages are marked with conflicts for lands. The tribes of this culture are known to have had cultural and trade relations with the people of northern Caucasia. or kurgans. The people of the Catacomb Culture practiced herding and primitive subsistence farming and produced metal objects.

They travel again for weeks and finally come to a place where Rasho forms a big crescent.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan unique ritual provides a convincing antecedent for the Rig Vedic myth of Dadhyac Atharvan who knows the secret of making Soma juice. the land of the Dhanus Rivers (or the Danus rivers. 28 . The Skt. The huge caravan keeps moving for days and months towards east till they reach a bend where the river almost changes its direction completely from east to west. The Asvins insist that Dadhyac tell them the secret. Old Persian jam. discussed earlier – have evolved presently to the Indo-Iranian (IIr) Ajam and Rabha. They cut off his head and replace it with the head of a horse. meaning “to go”. sometime around 2000 BC. Donets and Don – all the three names are connected to danus. They take the right fork of the Dhanush River. through which he becomes an oracle and tells them the secret. The PIE agwem means mountain. The headman knows that soon the Dhanush River will fork into two – if they take left they will return to the place they have just left and if they take right it will lead them to the wonderful country of the mighty and legendary Rasho River. something that doesn’t move. the PIE word for river) and the Ekkos Sea (The Black Sea) to that of the Timber Grave Culture. The Kubha’s story – The Land of the Ekkos Sea and the Dhanush Rivers – has the following: “So again one morning during summer an entire village wakes up early and moves on like a caravan with all their cattle. They enter into the Dhanush River upstream. Dnieper. German kommen.” Rabha and Ajam’s journey from the Sea of Azov to Samara on the Volga (big crescent on Rasho) is perhaps the journey of the IndoIranians from the site of the Catacomb Culture. the nectar of immortality. The headman is confused now… Accompanied by Rabha and Ajam he decides to move around and find out the right way to the Rasho River… They reconstruct the log-boats and sail on Rasho. The PIE names Agwem and Laba – Aggem and Laba in Kubha’s story. He refuses. gam. It comes from the PIE gwem. cows and belongings… They travel along the shallow shore of the Akkhain Sea till they reach the other end of the Dhanush River.

pottery items made by hand and on potter’s wheel. ram.32. This settlement is a part of the large Andronovo Culture which spreads across a wide area of Russia and Kazakhstan.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan English go. ribhu. meaning work. it's said that Indra protects the world like a wheel encircling the spokes. In the 29 . Social structure here is again stratified. Each and every part of a spoked wheel of a chariot – rim nemi. Andronovo Culture. even the peg of the axle. It's further fortified by a wooden fence or wall or a moat. In the Rig Veda Ribhu is a skillful artist. they have elites and commoners. the chariots and spoked wheels being much later creations than the age of Indo-European unity. sometimes with stone bases. Latin labor and English labor. For example. Grave items may be horse. As mentioned earlier. 4. axle aksha. wheels and chariots appear in multiple places in the Rig Veda as metaphors. There are horse hymns in the Rig Veda. rabh.15 (15th verse of 32nd hymn of the 1st book of the Rig Veda). nabha. southeast of Magnitogorsk. Spokes. dhura – appear in hymns. Very much like an Aryan society. The name of the Rig Vedic poet Agasti has a similar etymology as Agwem and Ajam. good metallurgical works and even chariots. They invented the light weight chariots with spoked wheels. Laba comes from PIE lab. a small lake in the Chelyabinsk Oblast of Russia. skill and is akin to Skt. This is a very strong connection to the Rig Vedic Aryans who are obsessed with horse. Arkaim and Sintashta: 1800 – 900 BC East of Potapovka near the Ural Mountains are Arkaim and Sintashta settlements where the earliest known chariot was discovered at Krivoye. center of the wheel. there is no cognate for either chariot or spoke in any other IE language. ox. venio are all cognates of the PIE gwem. Funeral rites of Andronovo include kurgan graves in wooden or timber lining or stone box. It dates to around 2000 BC. in the verse 1. as evident from grave goods. spoke ara. near the Kazakhstan border. Sintashta settlements are square. He works with iron and builds chariots. oval or round layouts fortified with two concentric walls built with clay. spoked wheel and chariot. come and Latin gvemio. It's evident that horse and chariots are very special to this culture.

It also resembles a spoked wheel. Small trapezoidal or rectangular lodgings are enclosed between the walls and the central square. Layout of settlement at Arkaim 30 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan center is a common square. Each house can also have provision for smelting. The settlement at Arkaim is very well preserved. Copper is smelted in the center. Fortified settlements imply conflicts. the three fold fort. The settlements are not far from sources of copper and tin or fertile plots.The pur described in so much detail in one of Kubha’s story – The Story of the Pur – is perhaps this structure. It resembles the Vedic tripura. Metallurgy is a very important aspect of this culture.

surely a cognate of rasa. The Gods of the Dasas are called asuras. In the Rig Veda (RV) it's mentioned that the Panis steal the cows and imprison them in a cave. Asura is generally used in the RV as an epithet for Varuna. But still it's equally mysterious to historians due to the lack of proper linguistic and archaeological evidences. Another group of people inimical to the Aryans are the Dasas. Indra is often called the slayer of the asuras. The Monier Williams Sanskrit dictionary states one of the meanings of asura as the supreme spirit. They are shown as enemies. Varuna is indeed the highest God of the Dasas. BMAC Culture: 2200 . niggards and envious demons watching over wealth. There's an Indar Lake on the South Ural River. often multiple concentric walls. demons. The Dasas have forts with concentric. Even now a small group of people who speak the Mordvinic languages in the Volga basin refer to Volga as Rav. The name Volga comes from the Slavic words vlaga and vologa meaning wetness and humidity. The Panis are said to be miser.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan There are other Rig Vedic connections too in this part of the world. It's quite close to India and also quite young compared to the other cultures. asuras.1700 BC This is a very crucial phase of the Aryan Trail. A very confusing thing in the RV is that though the Dasas are held as enemies and their Gods. one of whom is Pipru. generally considered demons by the Aryans whose Gods are called devas. meaning moisture. The cows are freed by the Angirasa seers. There's a mythical river Rasa in the Rig Veda (RV). especially for the protection of the cattle. The ancient Greek name of Volga is Rha. We'll present a very interesting scenario proposed by Asko Parpola and J P Mallory. The most famous Rig Vedic God Indra might have been already known to these people. Indra kills many Dasa Kings. Moreover the Dasa forts are not regularly inhabited cities but temporary shelters. a cognate of IndoIranian (IIr) rasa or raha and Latin ros. But in one instance it's mentioned in the RV that a Dasa King Balbutha Taruksha starts 31 . there are also instances where asuras and devas are both treated as Gods. Rasho in Kubha’s story. like Indra is of the Rig Vedic Aryans. 5.

Similarly Varuna is also elevated to the ranks of one of the RV Gods. The 1st century Greek historian Strabo mentions Parnoi (Iranian Parna) as one of the Daha tribes. The Wakhi language of Iranian origin spoken in the Pamirs has a word dai that means a man. a low grade variant of Parnoi. Also asura and Varuna are IE words. This implies that the meaning of dasa got changed in the branch which’s perpetuated through the Rig Vedic Aryans. a male person. Varuna is one of the oldest IE Gods akin to the Greek Uranos. So it's evident that none of the words dasa and asura means enemies or demons. A very common example is the word arya that means “a noble man” and which along with its cognates have been self designations of many IE people. something similar to and 32 . The names Dasa and Pipru seem to be IE – dasa coming from the Skt. where a civilization. Many people call themselves by their native word for man or human beings. Asura comes from the Sanskrit root as meaning “to become”. like Pipru. This means that Daha or Dasa. and Ahura Mazda is the highest God of the Zoroastrians. Interestingly Ptolemy's Geography written in 2nd century AD talks about a North Iranian tribe called Daha (Daai in Greek texts and Dahi in Latin) who lived in the lower course of Margos (Murghab River). Prini. the question is – why did it happen? That's where scholars have reconstructed a scenario that clarifies all the confusions. Daha is a cognate of Dasa and Pani can be a derivative of Prini. This also implies that the Wakhi language has preserved the original meaning of dasa which has nothing to do with enemies or demons. So now. Wakhi and the Rig Vedic Sanskrit descend from the same Indo-Iranian branch of IE. It's possible that the Indo-Aryans from Sintashta and Arkaim came to Central Asia. A related but now extinct Khotanese language of the ancient Khotan Kingdom in the nearby Xinjiang province of China had the noun daha that also meant man. “to dwell” and is akin to Latin est and English is. should come from the same root pri. might have been the self designation of the tribe known by that name. Etymologically asura can't be associated with demon. Ahura. which also means man.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan worshiping Indra. root das and Pipru from pri. Asura also has an Iranian cognate.

This could have been due to the arrival of the sophisticated IndoAryans from the northern Arkaim-Sintashta settlements. The remnants of BMAC have been excavated recently at Gonur and Togolok near Mary and Balkh. A similar leadership might have suddenly made the people of BMAC very prosperous around 1900 BC. More interestingly. traces of ephedra. They might have happily accepted the leadership of the Indo-Aryan (IA) elites. The most striking among these is the complex with circular walls which resemble closely with the definition of tripura. This civilization.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan contemporaneous to the last phase of Indus Valley Civilization. had already flourished since long. This structure no doubt reminds us of the structure at Arkaim. It's seen that the structured society of Arkaim. have been found at many of these temples. Fortified temple forts protected by three walls have been excavated at all these places. a candidate for the Rig Vedic Soma plant. forts protected by three walls. who could have been the 33 . All these connect them both to Arkaim and also to the RV where Soma ritual is a very important aspect. with very good leadership provided by the elites. Tripura at Dashly near Balkh There was a sudden surge of wealth in BMAC around 1900 BC. helped the people of Arkaim to exploit their abundant natural resources and create a prosperous culture. which stretched between the ancient Bactria (modern Balkh in northern Afghanistan) and Margiana (around modern Mary in Turkmenistan) is called Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC).

It's very likely that the Rig Vedic Aryans entered into a confrontation with the Dasas and the other BMAC natives. can be called the Rig Vedic Aryans and the older Indo-Aryans the Dasas. Over the years the natives of Moru become very rich and happily accept the Pranos as their leaders and teachers. Skt. Their leader is Pipru. kabutar. Skt. kashyap and Per. kadru and Per. it’s very likely that the BMAC people retained their native words. around 1700 BC. kashaf. brave. khar. meaning camel. Skt. ushtra and Per. which later became kacchap in Skt. meaning brown. meaning marijuana. a group of people who call themselves Prano. Interestingly there are quite a few Central Asian loan words in Sanskrit and Iranian languages. Skt. qahd. meaning donkey in both Skt. bang. This lot of Indo-Aryans. As there were no corresponding words for these in the vocabulary of the IndoAryans. strongholds secured with 34 .) hist. and Per. But eventually the Rig Vedic Aryans would have figured out that continuous warfares were not good for prosperity and made a compromise. The Pranos stay in tripur. After a hundred years or so. Pipru could have been one of the Dasa or Pani Kings. That was when the defeated Dasas became slaves and their Gods demons to the Rig Vedic Aryans. a wonderful person. meaning bricks. They advise and guide the people of Moru to work more. meaning pigeon. Some of these words are Skt. intelligent and sensitive. cultivate more crops and produce more things. ushtur. who fought against the rich Dasa kings staying in Tripura like forts. bhang and Per. Here let’s recall Kubha’s story – The Country of Moru: “One day comes from the side of the Tortoise Sea. There are no corresponding IE cognates in any other IE language for these words.. That was when the asura became a Rig Vedic God and Varuna promoted to the same rank as Indra's. kapota and Per. who eventually composed the Rig Veda. ishtaka and Persian (Per. Eventually the BMAC natives would have adopted the language and culture of the Dasas whole heartedly.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Dasas or the Panis (or Prini or Greek Parnoi or Iranian Parna). meaning tortoise. The Panis surely tried to protect their wealth and hence came to be known as envious demons watching over their wealth. a second lot of Indo-Aryans from the north would have again arrived in BMAC. Skt.

the Zoroastrian texts written in a language which’s surreptitiously similar to the Rig Vedic Sanskrit. The people of Moru.” The Pranos of this story may be very well the Iranian Parna. Finally the Pranos and the “more people from the Tortoise Sea” may refer to the two waves of Indo-Aryans – (1) the earlier Dasa people. Interestingly Caspian Sea is referred to as Kashyapa Sea in Sanskrit and Hindi. But they are highly influenced by the worship of a native Goddess who rides on a lion. Eventually they separated from the Vedic Aryan people and moved to Iran. They worship Asur. the predecessors of Zarathrustra. whose followers were later known as Zoroastrians. whose leader is Pipru. and those of the Rig Vedic Aryans were the same lot. The word Caspian is believed to be a cognate of Kashyapa. Central Asia is extensively mentioned in the Avesta. She is the symbol of power. Tripur. along with their cattle. The separation of the Zoroastrians and the Vedic Aryans – few hundred years later than the RV. The God Borun is no doubt the Rig Vedic Varuna. During the time frame of BMAC Culture. their own pantheon of Gods. a loan word from Central Asia. the people who later came to be known as the Panis of the Rig Veda. strength and security for the people of Moru. Pipru and his kin start worshipping Her as the protector of their stronghold. and (2) the later Rig Vedic Aryans. sometime around 1000 BC during 35 . Complete verses in Avesta can be converted to Rig Vedic Sanskrit by virtually transliterating each word. and Borun is the chief of Asur. For many years the Pranos stay happily in Moru till come more people from the Tortoise Sea…They fight fiercely with the Pranos. The Tortoise Sea may be Kashyapa Sea. take shelter in tripur and the Pranos guard them till the end… Eventually they befriend the Pranos and start staying peacefully together in Moru. The Zoroastrians were among the Indo-Aryans who stayed back in Central Asia and Afghanistan. Thereafter they stayed close to the Iranian people emigrating from middle Volga areas (Timber Grave Culture). Eventually She becomes their Tripuri Goddess.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan three layers of walls.

all of which are in Central Asia. both in the Vedas and the Zoroastrian texts. Though Arghandab matches etymologically with Saraswati. Skt. Vehrkana – modern day Gorgan in Iran. maru meaning desert and also mountain. whereas Deva Yasna supposedly paid less importance to morality in religion. Mouru may be a cognate of Skt. yasna being an Avestan cognate of Skt. Sarayu. something which’s referred to in the Zoroastrian texts as Deva Yasna. Skt.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan the time frame of Atharva Veda – might have been due to intellectual conflict between the two groups. Persian Harirud River. and Persian yashn. something which’s referred to as Ahura Yasna. Varena – modern Bannu. The commonly identified places from the list are as follows:         Sughdha – modern Sughd Province in Tajikistan and ancient Sogdiana Bakhdi – modern Balkh in Afghanistan and ancient Bactria. modern Arghandab and Greek Arachosia. the Vedic sacrificial ritual. areas around modern day Mary/Merv in Turkmenistan. The names of the fifteen Aryan countries seem to be enumerated in an anti clock-wise manner. Vrika Haroyu – modern day area around Herat in Afghanistan. There are enough indications. The Avesta talks about an Airyanem Vaejo. surrounded by fifteen Aryan countries. It lay importance on moral character and righteousness and stuck to monotheism. meaning celebration. Skt. a tributary of Helmand Haetumant – modern Helmand River in Afghanistan. Varnu 36 . Skt. Haraxvaiti – cognate of Vedic Saraswati.One of Kubha’s stories – The Country of Moru – perhaps talks about this region. yajna. an Aryan expanse. to believe that Zarathrustra might have risen against the Vedic cult of worshiping Deva Indra. Zarathrustra propagated the cult of worshiping Ahura Varun or Ahura Mazda. Vahlika Mouru – ancient Margiana. but Helmand basin is generally identified with Saraswati.

Vakshu) in Tajikistan are the sites where cremation rites came into existence for the first time. but the pottery. It's believed that the Indo-Aryans of BMAC passed through Vakhsh before entering India. 37 . grave goods. as found in Arkaim-Sintashta and other places of Andronovo Culture. Vakhsh Biskent Culture (~ 1700 BC) This is often considered a part of Andronovo Culture which extended across a wide area of Russia and Kazakhstan.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan  Hapta Hindu .Skt. Sapta Sindhu or the land of the Seven Rivers. are of contemporary Bactria. The cemeteries here are of Kurgan type. the Punjab Central Asia as depicted in Zoroastrian text Avesta 6. Areas around modern day Vakhsh (Skt.

one of the distant countries mentioned in Indian epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Kubha’s story has the following description about the location of the Country of Moru. The kam in Kamboj is of obscure origin. You can remember the names of these eight countries with this poem Kam. lingua franca of the big stretch of Central Asia from Caspian to Pamir. Kuru. the Greek Margiana and the present Merv region in Turkmenistan: “Moru desh is surrounded by eight different countries. Khomaroi. In Kubha’s story “Kam” very likely refers to the same Kom. Ptolemy mentions a tribe variously called as Komaroi. the names like Karakum and Kyzylkum may carry the same kam till date. a cognate of Kamboj. Burushaski. A probable epicenter of the Kom people may be north of Pamir. Between Central Asia and Caucasus many places and rivers bore the name Cambyses across ages. Bakkhu Sughdo. the Kom people might not have been Indo-Europeans. Spread across Central Asia. is now a dying language spoken by the few surviving Burusho (the ancient Mruza) people staying in isolated 38 . Bannu” Apart from the various Avestan places or Aryan countries of Central Asia there seems to be another important country during the BMAC or even earlier time frame – the country of the Kom tribes. Komoi and Tambyzoi which was wide spread in the Highlands of Bactriana and Sogdiana. Kamboj is a later formation. a likely location of Parama Kamboja. Unlike the Dasas and Parnas. Interestingly. it could have been known as just the country of Kam or Kom. Brikkhu Badogis. Komedai. The Kam people should have been very powerful because the name Kamboj has spread quite far. Balik. which is perhaps Mouru. during the time period of BMAC. but four thousand years ago. which was perhaps a major language in the Central Asia. Many Persian kings had the name Cambyses. may be a substrate of an older Central Asian language which existed before the arrival of the Indo-Iranian (IE) languages – this ancient language can very well be the Proto Burushaski language.

In Mahabharata. modern day Vaksh. English and German wolf and Persian warqa. Vatakesha. means wind and kesha is hair. Madra. Vahlik. As Vahlika can be unambiguously identified with modern Balkh. should be also somewhere in Central Asia – identifying it with the present Gorgan is not illogical. Badogis is the present day Badghis in north western Afghanistan. the northwest 39 . the northern Kuru Kingdom. Bakkhu can’t be anything but Vakshu. Kuru and Kabmoj. princess of Madra – this means Madra and Vahlika are either same or neighbouring countries. Uttara Kuru. is also referred to as Madri. imagined as the hair of the world. Badghis is akin to the Avestan Vaitigaesa and Skt. So Vatakesha or Vaitigaesa would mean “someone whose hair is tossed by winds”. Gorgan. Cyrus and Cambyses always go side by side. bordering Turkmenistan. Madra and Vrika. Bactria of the ancient Greeks.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan pockets of present day Pakistan occupied Kashmir hidden deep inside high mountains. Brikkhu is perhaps the Skt. Vrika means wolf in Sanskrit – it comes from the IE root ulkuo and is akin to Greek lukos. Hence Vrika. It’s interesting that Vayukon. the name of a place in northeast Iran. another name for the group of minor Gods referred to as Gandharvas. Avestan Bakhdhi. Vahliki. modified to rhyme with Bakkhu of the previous line of the poem. and the present Balkh in northern Afghanistan. Vahlika should be all in the same region. the princess of Vahlika. Monier Williams mentions Vrika also as the name of the people and country belonging to Madhya Desha – Madhya is akin to Madra of Mahabharata and the later Median and Mada Kingdoms of Persia. the Greek Sogdiana and the present Sughd in northwest Tajikistan. Vatakesha or Vaitigaesa actually refers to a real place known as the “home of the winds”. Balik is the Bengali cognate of Skt. the other two places. So. may be a cognate of Avestan Vehrkana and Persian Varkana. Vata in Skt. where trees. It’s akin to Avestan gaesa and the Persian gesu. Going by the Rig Vedic style of allegories and simile. Vrika and Avestan Vehrkana. Sughdo has to be the Avestan Sughdha. this places Kuru and Kam side by side in Kubha’s story too. and Parama Kamboja are placed side by side in Mahabharata. are tossed by the strong winds. Latin lupus.

vṛddham.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan direction. in Vastu Sashtra. the home of the winds. These graves are little older or contemporaneous to the Gandhara Grave Culture (since 1500 BC) which is considered the entry of the Aryans in India. is considered to be the direction of Vayu. The first lot (Dasa people) would have left BMAC around 1700 BC with the arrival of the second lot. In The Battle of Ten Kings. much older than the composers of the Rig Veda. Kalash & India: 1700 BC onwards Kalash is a very interesting place that has preserved till date vestiges of some ancient Rig Vedic traditions which have disappeared from everywhere else. Bannu is still a place in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Few centuries later when the Rig Vedic Aryans entered India they came across the older Aryans from the first lot. literature. the site of all early Aryan activities in India. Recent excavations in Chitral are unearthing innumerable Aryan graves. is actually the direction of Badghis. So the eight places mentioned in “The Country of Moru” are spread across various areas of Central Asia comprising the BMAC and the Vakhsh-Biskent Culture. They would have reached India around the same time. some Indo-Aryans would have stayed back in the Hindukush and preserved some aspects of the pre Rig Vedic culture. Kavasha is referred to as famed and ancient – śrutaṃ. the two different lots of Indo-Aryans of BMAC would have entered India in two separate waves. The present Kalash people may be direct descendants of either the first lot (Dasa people of BMAC) or the second lot (Rig Vedic people) of Indo-Aryans. described in details in the Rig Veda. He may be a Druhyu King and one of the leaders of the enemies. the wind. Logically. The Druhyus are 40 . in the Chitral district of Pakistan. On their way to Punjab from BMAC and Vakhsh. Rumbur and Birir in Hindukush. Rig Vedic Culture. the Indian science of architecture – northwest with respect to the Punjab. 7. It’s referred to as Varnu in old Skt. Kalash people presently stay only in the three valleys of Bumboret. The reference to “famed and ancient Kavasha” may imply that the Druhyus might have been a group of powerful and famous people.

5.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan also referred to as distant people. Sindh. That was when many Dravidian words started appearing in the middle Rig Vedic books (3. in Afghanistan and Iran. 7. Incidentally none of the ten Kings. 2. the Mruza people. In the Atharva Veda. Magadha and Anga are areas around Vanga – to the east. Druhyu and Puru – of the Aryans. composed around 1000 BC. Gandhara. 3. 4. The despised Gandhara people along with some Indo-Iranian tribes are pushed to the north of the Punjab. The older Aryans (Dasas of BMAC) along with the Dravidian people are pushed to the peripheries – Punjab. To the west of the Punjab are the Avestan people. This may imply that the Aryans migrated to India in waves – some came late and some early from distant places. The Rig Vedic Aryans (the 2nd wave of Indo-Aryans) are settled in the Gangetic plains. Druhyu is in fact one of the “five people” or Pancajana or Pancakrishti – Yadu. Dravida. With respect to the early Aryan settlement in India (the Punjab) Gandhara is a peripheral area to the west and Mujavat – the land of the Burushaski speaking Mruza (present day Burusho) people – to the north. is referred to as non-Aryan. Maratha. 41 . Anga and Mujavat are all referred to as despised. It's not unlikely that the Rig Vedic Aryans of the second wave would be averse to both the newer Dravidians and the older Aryans of the first wave. Further north. the people of Magadha. Anu. But still some of these tribes or people are considered older and distant compared to the others. beyond the Hindukush. Gujarat. Around 1500 BC the Dravidian people arrived in the Punjab and started interacting with the Indo-Aryans. 8 and 9). Turvasha. Utkal (Orissa) and Vanga (Bengal). who are fighting against Sudas. The following diagram depicts a probable scenario in India around 1000 BC where 1. Eventually they would have pushed both of them to the periphery of their settlement. around the Pamir region are the despised Mujavat.

Language Map in 1000 BC 42 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Doesn't this diagram look like the sixteen Aryan countries mentioned in Avesta? Here too the central core area of Aryan settlement is surrounded by peripheral countries.

along the Aryan Trail Sumerian: East of Mediterranean Sea. north of Hindukush Munda: North Indus Region Meluhhan: South Indus Region 43 . Central Asia & India.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 3 LANGUAGES OF ARYAN TRAIL Main Languages of Aryan Trail till 1500 BC Fino-Ugric: North of Urals Indo-European: Across Europe. in Ancient Sumer Burushaski: Around Pamir.

From here the Indo-Aryans moved to northern Iran. this is the Proto Iranian Culture. The Iranians stayed back and the Indo-Aryans proceeded further east to ArkaimSintashta. This is the late PIE (Proto Indo-European) phase of Indo-European unity where the PIE people stayed together prior to their disintegration and movement towards various destinations. The IndoAryans. BMAC Culture (2200 – 1700 BC): This is an Indo-Aryan Culture in Central Asia. the coastal region the Sea of Azov. Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent in the next few centuries. 5. Crimea and along the Don River. 2. The Proto IndoIranian people arrived here from Azov Sea. Timber Grave Culture (2000 – 800 BC): Around Samara on the Volga Basin. Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex. 6. Kalash is the last place in the Aryan trail before entering into the final destination of Punjab. Hut Grave Culture (2800 – 2000 BC): This is the Proto Indo-Iranian (PII) Bronze Age culture that existed in the Ukrainian Steppes. Afghanistan and India. Kalash Culture (1600 BC till date): A very unique group of IndoAryans in Hindukush have preserved many of the Rig Vedic and early Indo-Aryan features including language and culture. 4. via Vakshu or Oxus/Vakhsh. 3. Catacomb. 8. it's an Indo-Aryan Culture. Gandhara Grave Culture (1700 – 1400 BC): Rig Vedic Culture in Punjab in Pakistan & India 44 . Andronovo Culture. Kabul.900 BC): South of the Ural Mountains this is an Indo-Aryan Culture. Pit Grave Culture or Kurgan Culture (3500 – 2800 BC): The Pit Grave Culture extends over the entire Pontic Steppe. Swat rivers. It's contemporary to the northern Andronovo Culture (1800 – 900 BC). The last segment of the Aryan trail to India may be through through Vakhsh. Arkaim-Sintashta (1800 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Legends 1. the eastern branch of the Indo-Iranians eventually reached Northern Iran. 7. Vakhsh – Biskent Culture: Contemporary to BMAC and Andronovo. Relics of the culture are widespread in the region along the Dnieper River.

In this section we'll see how various other languages have preserved linguistic fossils of the ancient Aryan trail. the locus of the BMAC Culture. The Sumerian name for the southern Indus Valley settlement (Mohenjo-daro) in Sind and Baluchistan is Meluhha. all in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. may be Proto Burushaski. But we don't know what language was spoken in Central Asia during that time. Hence the languages of these areas are likely 45 . the different other languages. At this point of time the Indo-Aryans have already reached India. In such a scenario. which have influenced or have been influenced by the IE languages. It's possible that multiple languages were spoken by the various people between Caspian Sea and Pamir but still it's likely that there was a lingua franca. BMAC and Vakhsh-Biskent Cultures.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Most of the Aryan Trail has been deciphered with extensive use of linguistic palaeontology. the language of the Burushos. which. Elamite and Sumerian settlements stretching from east to west. As it can be seen from the previous diagram. passing through the Arkaim-Sintashta. The language of Shimashki is Elamite. To its west is an area referred to as Marhashi by the Sumerians. BMAC artifacts have been found in all these places and also in the northern Indus areas (Harappa). are very important to us. The diagram is a snapshot of the spread of the IE people around 1500 BC. Not very far from the BMAC. Central Asia. is a language isolate spoken in isolated pockets of Hunza. the Fino-Ugric people stayed to the north of the locus of the early Indo-European (IE) and Indo-Iranian (IIr) people. are the Indus Valley. In Aryan Trail we've seen how the IE loan words in Fino-Ugric languages divulge interesting information about the early stages of the migrations of the IE people. plays a very important role in the development of the Iranian and Indic languages. The languages of Meluhha and Marhashi are believed to be the same – we call it Meluhhan. In fact some reconstructions of the ancient past of the Indo-European (IE) people can't be supported explicitly by archaeological evidences. to its south along the coast of Arabian Sea. Now Burushaski. Further west is the Elamite settlement of Shimashki. we've reasons (discussed later) to believe. Earlier we've mentioned that there are quite a few loan words in Iranian and Indic languages from Central Asia. This implies that there were trade links between all these areas. Nagyr and Yasin.

7 & 8 3.Books 6. Amba-wadi.1350 BC) . Bathe-wari.Books 1 & 10 Apart from Burushaski. especially in books 7 and 8. Many place names in Punjab. Fateh-wari. We call it a para Munda language. The books of Early Age have virtually no Dravidian substrate. Palli has become wala in Punjab (Jallian-wala. So there seems to be another language in this area – a Proto Dravidian language. Kardewari) – p of palli changes to v/w and l to r.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan to have some common loan words between them. 4. This implies that Sindh. meaning village. This should be the language of the northern Indus people with whom the Rig Vedic Aryans are likely to have lot of interaction since their early days of settlement in India. On linguistics terms the Rig Veda (RV) can be categorized into three classes: 1. Middle (1500 . Shanh-wari. vali in Maharashtra (Boro-vali.1500 BC) . Gujarat and Maharashtra still bear the Dravidian palli. from the earliest books. a lot of substrates of a language which has similarities with the present day Munda languages. and wari-wadi in Gujarat and Maharashtra (Chanda-wari. Dangra-wadi) and Sindh (Kadan-wari. Gujarat and Maharashtra are within the locus of the Dravidian people. Punjab. 2 & 5 2. Late (1350 . RV has.Books 3. Dogarwala). Sindh. Sara-vali). This implies that the Dravidian people would have reached the Punjab and started interacting with the Rig Vedic Aryans only around 1500 BC – the time period of the Middle Age books. Early (1700 . It's highly possible that they were among the Indus people in Sindh during the last phase of Indus Valley civilization 46 .1200 BC) . Gujran-wala. As the Indo-Aryans were present in Central Asia and India for a considerable amount of time it's likely that their language (Rig Vedic Sanskrit) would have substrates from all these older native languages from the areas around. RV suddenly has lot of Dravidian substrates/loan words in the books of Middle Age.

Monier Williams. Based on the above discussions a plausible language map of Central Asia and Western India in 1900 BC. In Sumerian records there are names of persons with Meluhha as personal names. There's also a village called Meluhha. would be something like this. The shimmar of gis-gisimmar is very likely related to Skt. Burushaski has the word sinda for river. whose connection with Indus people is supported by archaeology. 47 . The products of Meluhha include  gis-ab-ba-me-lu-hha (abba wood from the land of Meluhha). the lingua franca of BMAC people.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan (1900 – 1500 BC) and that they migrated to the Punjab in the north and Gujarat-Maharashtra in south around 1500 BC. The Meluhhan language of Sindh is still an elusive thing to us. religion and civilization. the Proto Burushaski language. It's possible that during the timeline we're talking about. Urkal and Urdlama are called sons of Meluhha. mentions that the word Sindhu is of improbable origin. Shalmali (a tree. Such a connection is possible only if we assume that Burushaski or a related language was spoken in BMAC.  gis-gisimmar (shimmar/shimmal wood). But Sumerian records have some words which are believed to be Meluhhan.  si-in-da (Sindh wood). just before the arrival of the IndoAryans. the name of the river that gave the identity to a country. in his Skt. had a similar word from which came the Skt. etc.  gis-ha-lu-ub (haluppu or perhaps Harappa wood). The word Sinda is quite interesting. dictionary. Sindhu. The Indus scripts are yet to be deciphered. Shimul in Bengali) which seems to be Munda and hence from the North Indus language. Some of these words have striking similarities to the present day Burushaski language. Hence a proto Burushaski language is considered as the lingua franca of Central Asia before the arrival of the Indo-Aryans.

till Eastern Iran. along the coast of the Arabian Sea west of Marhashi Burushaski: Across Central Asia Munda: North Indus Region Dravidian: South Indus Region 48 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Language Map in 1900 BC Meluhhan: Stretching from South Indus. across Balochistan Elamite: Southern Iran.

The “t” in vrishti and the “d” 49 . The Indo-Aryans have arrived in BMAC and reached the north western fringes of India. Similarly the Burushaski and Para Munda (Northern Indus Language) substrates are also visible. 4. This may be an influence of the Burushaski spoken in the Pamir areas north of Hindukush. Retroflexion has been always considered an Indian phenomenon that differentiates the Indo-Aryan from the other members of the IE languages family. The BMAC substrates have already appeared in Sanskrit. may be Kalash in the Hindukush Mountains. The Hindukush is probably the place where retroflexion appears for the first time in Sanskrit. Language Map: 1700 BC The diagram above shows the language map during 1700 BC.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Now let's move on to a little later period of time – 1700 BC. and2) are being composed. This is the early Rig Vedic period where the early books (6.

Interestingly ki in Suremian means country. name of a lineage of poets Kulitara. Sindhu. demon. karpasa. Indus River ~ Bur. the ancient self designation of the Burusho people who speak Burushaski now ~ Avestan Muza ~ Tibetan Bruza ~ Skt. the Five People of the Rig Veda. Muza. sweet drink ~ Tamil kilan. King Sribinda. kuhu. kilala (amrita) and kilata (cheese) ~ Bur.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan in pinda need the tip of the tongue to be curled and touched against the top of the mouth to produce the correct sound. people and also the Mujavat Mountain. name of a chieftain of Turvasha. It's close to the “t” in street and the “d” in donkey as pronounced by an English rather than a French. Srinjaya. Following are some probable Munda substrates in Skt. son of a slave girl elevated to the rank of Rishi – reminiscent of absorption of local people Shambara. Purusha and Burusho all have come from the original word Mruza. new moon ~ Bur. name of a chieftain of enemy Kikata. Purusha. the Meru Mountain ~ Mruza. curd Skt. muja. both may be from the same Munda root bind Kurunga. ram ~ Bur. kilay.) substrates in Skt. another name for Mount Meru. 50 . sinda Skt. cotton ~ Bur. Names of people         Kavasha. Most of the European languages don't have these sounds.       Skt. Following are some probable Burushaski (Bur. mesha. one of the Pancha Krishti. related is Vindhya Mountains. name of a place despised of in the Rig Veda. gupas Skt. kuha Skt. Muja. name of a chieftain of enemy Kushika. mesh Skt.

Gandhar – all may have come from the Munda gad/gand Shatadru (Sutlej) River – old name Shutudri may have come from she-tu-da. niggard karambha. cultivator of land. tree shakunta. name of a flower/tree kinash. The words meaning sickle or “to reap” in various languages seem to be similar. But the Skt. There's a Vibali River of indefinite origin in the RV. boy kurira. woman's head dress kulaya. modern Kabul and Kurram rivers Other words.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Names of places and rivers     Rivers Ganga. It's: 51 . mainly related to plants. nest sharvari. derived from arya. Now let's consider the etymology of two words: langala meaning sickle and godhuma meaning wheat in Skt. a food shalmali. a tribal name kaparda. food and local traditions           kimshuka. shakuntaka. The name Vishpala in RV may also be related Kubha and Krumu. tu means float in Munda Vipasha (Beas) River – old name Vipash may have come from Munda vipaz/vibal. hair knot in the shape of cowrie shell kumara. means slave. agriculture. Also related is Kunti. Mlechchha (or even Mridhra) meaning out-caste may be a derivative of meluhha. night There is no direct Meluhhan substrate in Sanskrit. bird. animals. Gandaki and place names like Magadha. The reason why it means out-caste is also understandable – the same reason why Finnish orja.

took the word langal from the north Indus people who spoke a para Munda language. Avestan gantuma. plants and animals because these are the terms which are likely to be transmitted through trade and commerce. few centuries later. Similarly. Persian and Sanskrit words have surely come from BMAC. Hittite.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan      niggal in Sumerian. Tracking the etymologies of words like these are classic examples of how linguistic palaeontology can help us reconstruct some obscure ancient past which otherwise hasn't left much in “pots and pans”. Referring to the next language map. The Dravidian people of Sindh would have taken the word nankal from the Meluhhans (south Indus). that's archaeology. Iraq Burushaski: Central Asia. Old Egyptian xnd. nankal in Proto Dravidian. Persian gandum and the Rig Vedic godhuma. Dravidian godi. The Dravidian godi might have come from Meluhhan. Egyptian. BMAC gantum. nahel in Santal (a Munda language spoken by some tribes in eastern India). nigal in Afro-Asiatic (Egyptian). nakel in Proto Munda. Southeast of Caspian Sea Elamite: Southern Iran Meluhhan: Between South Indus & Eastern Iran Dravidian: Perhaps South Indus Austro-Asiatic: Munda (North Indus. it's not unlikely that the Sumerian. North India) & Khmer (Cambodia) 52 .  ankal in Khmer and tengala in Malay. the words for wheat are similar across various languages – Hittite kant. The Avestan. and the languages of BMAC and Indus Valley would have between them many loan words related to agriculture. North of Black Sea & Hittite Afro-Asiatic: Egypt Sumerian: East of Mediterranean Sea. How and when the Khmer people reached present day Cambodia and Vietnam is not clear. The Aryans. The Khmer and Munda are both members of the same Austroasiatic language family that might have originated in India. Indo-European: East Europe.

flour Skt. path. ulukkai Skt.       Skt. peacock ~ Tam. stick ~ Telegu danda [The Santal (one of the Munda languages) danta is related] Skt. fruit ~ Tamil (Tam. mayil [The Proto Munda mara is related] Skt.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Language Map of Asia: 1900 BC Next we fast forward another two centuries and we're in 1500 BC – middle Rig Vedic Age. phala. ulukhala. sing 53 . read ~ Tam. dympling ~ Tam. mayura. patu. Here suddenly we see a surge of words of Dravidian origin. danda.) palu Skt. pinti. mortar ~ Tam. pinda.

Vipash. rivers (Sindhu. city ~ Tam. kunda. langal) from local languages and retained only a few from PIE vocabulary for agriculture like krish. Shutudri) and people (Shambar. Language Map: 1500 BC In general the Aryans picked mostly names of places (Gandhar. nagara. vessel ~ Tam. nakar Skt. This is quite natural for immigrating people like the Aryans.ulukhala. sita (furrow) and sira (plough). animals and large number of agricultural terms (phala. kuta. sa (sow). The Burushaski has been majorly replaced by the Indo-Aryan speech across Central Asia. 54 . kuttam The following diagram shows a plausible language map of this era. Pramaganda.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan    Skt. Kikata). hammer Skt. Kulitara) and words of local plants (shalmali).

Zarathrustra. Gandhar falls in the area marked “Other Indo-Aryan and IndoIranian” in the following diagram. Not all the Indo-Aryans from both the waves – early and late – left the BMAC and Vakhsh areas in Central Asia and Afghanistan and entered India. They are the people who later became Zoroastrians – in the Rig Vedic time frame we can call them Proto Avestan people. The Rig Vedic Aryans of the second wave were averse to both the newer Dravidians and the older Aryans of the first wave. So it's apt to consider Avestan in the repository of the languages of Aryan Trail. has surreptitious similarities to the Rig Vedic language. the Dravidian people appeared in the Punjab and started interacting with the Indo-Aryans. Most of the philosophic concepts of Avesta more or less have corresponding counterparts in the Rig Veda. to the west (towards Gandhar) and east (towards Magadha. Eventually more such batches of despised people moved out to the south west towards Punjab. In the years after the Rig Veda the Proto Avestan people gradually separated from the Vedic Aryans due to intellectual conflict between the two groups of the Aryans.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan As seen in the Aryan Trail. Gradually they pushed both of them to the periphery of their settlement. This implies that the Proto Bengali and Magadhan people of the east and the Gandhar people of the west were all the same lot thousands of years back. Then. belonged to the former group. may be sometime around 1500 BC. It's possible that the first batch of the Aryans from the first wave. around 1500 BC. Lot of them stayed back. along with the Dravidian people in the Punjab. People here now speak mainly Pashto (East Iranian branch of Iranian). made way for the younger Rig Vedic Aryans and moved out to the peripheries. Sindh. Gujarat and Maharashtra. the first Prophet of the world and the founder of the Zoroastrian religion. Nuristani (Iranian branch) and Khowar and Kalash (Dardic branch of Indo-Aryan). We’ve observed earlier that the language of Avesta. Vanga) quite early. the Aryans entered India in two waves. the earliest texts of the Zoroastrians. 55 .

Gandhara. Sindhi. Anga (Vanga) and Mujavat – being pushed to the peripheries. Dravida.The peripheral IA languages (Punjabi. There are good linguistic evidences in favor of such a scenario. Oriya and Bengali) are the ones that have more Dravidian influence than Hindi. Marathi. The following diagram depicts a probable scenario in India around 1000 BC where the Rig Vedic Aryans are settled in the Gangetic plains and the older Aryans along with the Dravidian people pushed to Punjab. Incidentally Hindi is spoken precisely in the 56 . Maratha. Gujarat. Gujarati.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan The following diagram depicts the language scenario little after 1500 BC. Sindh. Scenario after 1500 BC It shows the four despised people of the Atharva Veda – the people of Magadha. Let’s fast forward a few more centuries. Utkal (Orissa) and Vanga (Bengal).

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan area shown in the diagram as the locus of the Aryans since the Late Rig Vedic period. This means that there was a considerable Dravidian population in Bengal. This might be really the case if we believe that the oldest lot of Aryans – may be the Dasa people of BMAC from the first wave of the Aryans – along with a considerable number of Dravidian people preferred to leave Punjab soon after the arrival of the Rig Vedic Aryans. Language Map: 1000 BC It's quite interesting that among all the Indo-Aryan languages Bengali is perhaps influenced the most by Dravidian language. Close association with a good number of Dravidian people for a very long time induced strong 57 . They eventually moved to the eastern part of India and settled in the ancient Vanga and Magadha regions.

For example in English we always say “I'll not go”– here the negation “not” appears before the verb “go”.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Dravidian aspects into the Magadha Prakrit (the predecessor of Bengali) and the Bengali language. class. For example pola means a boy and pola ra means boys – both pola and ra are of Dravidian origin. In all the above three cases the structure of a language itself is changed by another language. Bengali still uses these forms in colloquial conversations. But in Bengali we say “Ami jabo na”– the negation “na” is applied after the verb “jabo”. In Hindi we say. Following the Dravidian phonology of joining consonants of same varga.) and Dravidian languages:  Bengali is the only IE language where the negation is applied after the verb. Such changes require very long and extensive interaction between the speakers of the two languages. Following are some of the commonalities between Bengali (Beng.  Since the time of Buddha in the 6th century BC. Same is true for all Indo-Aryan languages. rivers and 58 .  Similarly the plural forming suffix ra in Bengali comes directly from Tamil ar. In all the other Indo-Aryan languages. Pali. Buddhist scriptures are full of such derivatives of the original Sanskrit names or words. “Hum nahin jayenge”– the negation “nahin” is applied before the verb “jayenge”. belonging to different varga were joined in Sanskrit. the language of Buddhist scriptures. In dharma r and m. dharma is converted to dhamma. We see dhamma in place of dharma. Same is true for the other words. and the neighboring Magadha Prakrit languages showed some peculiarities that are no doubt Dravidian. kamma in place of karma. It's surely a Dravidian phenomenon where two consonants can be joined only when they belong to the same varga. All Dravidian languages have the same structure for negation. Pukkusathi in place of Pushkalavati. the Dravidian influence is restricted only to loan words – mainly names of places.

son in Tamil ~ pile in Beng.  gurra. central stem of the solid portion of banana plant ~ thod in Beng. son/daughter in Tamil ~ khoka.  khattai. wadi. problem.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan people and agricultural terms. But in Bengali it's exactly same. wara. We’ve observed earlier that the people of Bengal may be the older Indo-Aryan Dasa people of BMAC who were the earlier IndoAryans to enter into India and were eventually pushed out later to 59 . wall in Telegu ~ goda means base or foundation in Beng. Gujarat and Maharashtra palli is changed to vali. rain in Tamil ~ ban in Beng. Hindi ~ in Barishal district of Bangladesh ghoda is pronounced almost like gurra  akali.  gandra gol in Telegu ~ gando gol. peg in Beng..  khadal. khuki in Beng.  kutta. hunger in Telegu. This implies that the interaction with Dravidian people in these cases has been quite limited. to pick up in Beng.  ban. horse in Telegu ~ ghoda in Beng. Interestingly the banana flower and the tandu or thod are used as vegetables only among the Bengalis and Tamilians. sea in Tamil ~ khadi in Beng.  tandu. Tamil ~ akal in Beng. But in case of Bengali there are Dravidian words for a very wide range of things. commotion in Beng. wada.  pillai. In Sindh. a piece of wood in Tamil ~ khonta. heavy luggage in Telegu ~ mot in Beng.  palli.  koka. Punjab. kuki.  mot. gather in Tamil ~ khonta. village in Tamil ~ palli in Beng.  goda. wala etc. to pick.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan the east by the later Rig Vedic Aryans. By this time Anga has 60 . the Proto Bengali and the Magadhans. durga. But the question is who has kept the memories of tripur alive after thousand years? It has to be the Dasa people. the Gods. There's a striking aspect in Bengal that links the Bengali people to BMAC. the tripur of the Dasas of BMAC. By that time asura has again become a demon. The term tripur is not present in the Rig Veda. More intriguing is the fact that Durga is also known as Tripura. It appears in the Brahmanas. Subsequently the Rig Vedic Aryans make truce with the Dasas and asura is promoted to the ranks of deva. who still remember their ancient religious traditions of BMAC. Below is a seal found in BMAC. It's a Goddess sitting on a lion. especially Bengal and Assam? BMAC seal of a Goddess on lion: Proto Durga? The word durga means stronghold. the protector of the fort. fort. It's also the name of an asura slain by the goddess Durga. In the Rig Veda asura is mentioned as the God of the Dasa people. written some thousand years later than the encounter with the actual tripur and Dasas of BMAC. Doesn't it look like the Goddess Durga worshiped mainly in the eastern India.

The Dardic branch (Kashmiri. The speakers of Burushaski languages reduced considerably with the decline of the BMAC Culture. hence their God asura again becoming a demon is understandable. 1000 BC is also the time when the Avestan people separated from the Indo-Aryans. 61 . Khowar. They settled in the Airyanem Vaejo surrounded by the fifteen Aryan countries in Central Asia. Kalash) of IndoAryan languages started shaping up in the Himalayas and Hindukush.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan again become despised people.

Arkaim too is shrouded in mystery and controversy. 62 . The Aryan settlement of Arkaim-Sintashta is indeed a very crucial part of the Indo-European history. Horses and chariots are among the most typical trademarks of the Aryans. The Arkaim settlement – the pur of Kubha’s story – at the junction of Karaganka and Utyaganka Rivers looks like this. Perhaps it’s the place where the chariot and spoked wheels were discovered by the Aryans sometime around 2000 BC. Like the entire IE history.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 4 ARKAIM Arkaim plays a vital role in The Ekkos Clan. Arkaim’s connection to the Aryans is not unanimously accepted by all.

Following are the sky maps as seen in Arkaim close to full moons around Vernal and Autumnal Equinoxes in 2000 BC. to the twenty seven houses of the inner circle of the pur. as mentioned in Kubha’s story. During these times it's very easy to map the twenty seven nakshatras. the lunar mansions. 63 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan In Arkaim the ecliptic comes very close to the horizon around autumn and spring equinoxes. That’s perhaps also the timeline of Kubha’s story – The Story of the Pur.

its location on 9th April.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan [The red lines are the ecliptics. the full moon close to the Autumnal Equinox. a day earlier. So we can say 64 . should be the adjoining nakshatra Vishakha. The location of sun on a vernal equinox is same as that of the full moon around autumnal equinox and vice versa. should be Krittika – five mansions apart from where the moon is seen on 9th October in the sky map. quite close to the horizon in both cases. As the moon moves from one nakshatra to another with every passing day. Similarly the location of the moon on 4th October. The sky map shows the location of moon in the nakshatra Anuradha on 10th April. some of the visible nakshatras and the associated stars are marked along the ecliptic] 9th April 2000 BC was a full moon closest to the Vernal equinox.

Based on these sky maps the twenty seven lunar mansions at the time of sun rise on a Vernal Equinox – sun in Krittika. rising from the east – can be interpolated and mapped to the twenty seven houses in the inner row of the Arkaim settlement as follows: 65 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan that the sun was in Krittika and Vishakha respectively on Vernal and Autumnal equinoxes around 2000 BC.

was the full moon after the Autumnal Equinox. Afsar and Tista arrived at Arkaim with a big troupe on 5th October 1995.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan In The Ekkos Clan. Three days later. The sky map of Arkaim on that day was like this. Kratu. The moon is in Uttara Bhadrapada. 8th October. 66 . This means that the sun is in the same nakshatra on Vernal Equinox.

In between is the moon. the sky map of Arkaim was like this. three days before the full moon. the bright object exactly on the horizon in the south west direction. exactly in the south east direction.” 67 . roughly in the south east direction and very close to the moon. is the Saturn.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan And on 5th October 1995. “One end of the ecliptic is Pleiades and the other end is the Jupiter.

This means that sun is in the same nakshatra on an Autumnal Equinox. 68 . Likewise the sun is also in these two nakshatras. the two nakshatras diagonally opposite to each other in the ecliptic. The moon is in Uttara Phalguni.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan The following sky map shows the full moon (17th March. Uttara Phalguni and Uttara Bhadrapada on Autumnal and Vernal Equinoxes. As can be seen in the above sky-maps. 1995) around Vernal Equinox. around 2000 AD. full moons at Vernal and Autumnal equinoxes are respectively in Uttara Phalguni and Uttara Bhadrapada.

69 . the position of sun on a Vernal Equinox has changed from Krittika to Uttara Bhadrapada. This is a phenomenon called Precession of Equinoxes.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Comparing between 2000 BC and 2000 AD.

1893. the original inhabitants of Indus Valley were leaving their ancestral homes in the Indus Valley and spreading across India in search of better place to live. these sects were all sucked in. They have all received tremendous shocks and all of them prove by their survival their internal strength. but like the waters of the seashore in a tremendous earthquake it receded only for a while.” That's what Swami Vivekananda had read out in the Parliament of Religions in Chicago on 19th September. But while Judaism failed to absorb Christianity and was driven out of its place of birth by its all-conquering daughter. It was during this period that a group of Indo-Iranians. Zoroastrianism and Judaism. Aryan Migration The once prosperous Indus Valley Civilization was on decline since 1700 BC. started taking shape around 1500 BC in the present day Punjab in India and Pakistan. better known as the Indo-Aryans or simply Aryans. only to return in an all-absorbing flood. By 1700 BC the first group of Aryans would have already reached the Kalash valleys in the 70 . started drifting eastwards from Central Asia towards the Indian subcontinent. and when the tumult of the rush was over. and a handful of Parsees is all that remains to tell the tale of their grand religion. absorbed. The natives. sect after sect arose in India and seemed to shake the religion of the Vedas to its very foundations. The separation of the Indo-Aryans from the Indo-Iranians had started since 2000 BC. a thousand times more vigorous. What he had mentioned as the “religion of the Vedas”. and assimilated into the immense body of the mother faith.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 5 THE RIG VEDA “Three religions now stand in the world which have come down to us from time prehistoric – Hinduism.

most of North India adopted their language and culture. Even today there are traces of the older languages in the modern family of Indo-Aryan languages – we’ve discussed about these older substrates in the previous chapters. over the next few hundreds of years. Remains of horses have been recovered from at least one grave. there is no historical or archaeological evidence of any massacre or massive destruction of the Indus Valley Civilization by the incoming Aryans. were horses and chariots. Remnants of these people can be seen in the innumerable Aryan graves spread across Swat and Chitral districts of Pakistan. No doubt their language and culture was very powerful.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Hindukush Mountains in Pakistan. Contrary to the popular belief that the Aryans entered into India as invaders and destroyed the Indus Valley Civilization. they arrived in quite lesser numbers as compared to that of the natives. which itself absorbed bits and pieces from the existing languages and cultures of the pre-Aryan native people of India. There were instances of non-Aryan elites too. No one expects a child to speak a sophisticated language when she first learns to speak. But from the sophistication of the Rig Veda it's very hard to believe that it was the 71 . more she learns and gradually matures her language. unlike their peers and contemporaries. But. Considering the fact that the Rig Veda is the earliest known book written by anyone in any language in the hirstory of mankind it's quite fascinating to see the maturity of the literal and philosphical aspects of it. in reality. The unique trademarks of these Aryans. The Aryans brought with them a language and culture. It was between 1700 and 1500 BC that the Aryans started giving shape to the world's earliest book in any language – that's the Rig Veda. During the early period of Aryan migration and settlement in the Indian subcontinent the Aryans not only entered into confrontations with the natives but also indulged into constant warfares amongst themselves. in general the natives had lower economic and social status than the Aryans. Eventually. More she sees the world. It's not that the Aryans were always the rulers and the native people poor and exploited subjects. but. to which they had belonged in the remote and recent past. it's indeed true that. which owes its origin to the ancient Indo-European and Indo-Iranians.

so is it with the laws that govern the spiritual world. the Rig Veda is a wonderful compilation of lyrical hymns. From that point of view there's perhaps nothing unique about the Aryans. The moral. Keeping aside the theological and religious aspect. The reverence very soon manifested into a form of worship. rhyme and allegory. It's not that they had answers for all the questions which came to their mind but still they did find explanations for some of their queries. No doubt the Aryans were a much enlightened race with a very high degree of self realization and maturity. But what's indeed unique is the humble and fascinating way the reverence. and would exist if all humanity forgot it. rhythm. were there before their discovery. It's very likely that the Rig Veda. knowledge and feelings are expressed in words. creating the first literature of the mankind. as we see it now. In Swami Vivekananda's words it’s “the accumulated treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in different times. Very naturally they developed a reverence for the natural forces. Worshipping nature and natural forces is not uncommon in most civilizations. but still it's not possible that all the realization happened to a single composer at a particular moment. control the world and the universe. They were stuck with awe at the natural forces which control us. and spiritual relations between soul and soul and between individual spirits and the Father of all spirits. The entire realization process took several centuries to come to a concrete form. might have been the manifestation of literary efforts over a long period of time. ethical. The Rig Veda is all about their reverential praises for these natural forces. and would remain even if we forgot them.” 72 . which manifests abundantly in the Rig Veda. They did realize that the nature with its all engulfing force and enegry can create and also destroy at the same time.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan first book of the Aryans. It is full of surprise and astonishment the composers might have felt as they tried to understand the world around them. They were filled with excitement when they tried to explain what was there behind each and every force of nature. Just as the law of gravitation existed before its discovery. realization. full of poetic ornamentations like alliteration.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Around the World Around 1500 BC when the Aryans were settling down in India. Varuna. both of whom had stayed together in Central Asia till 1700 BC – the Mittanians moved to the west and the Rig Vedic Aryans to the east. meaning praise. But it's quite logical too. This west bound Aryans reached Assyria and gained good control over the native Hurrians. The other contemporary kingdoms in Middle East were Elam (Iran). It's quite metaphorical to associate knowledge with vision. the Kassites gained control over the northern parts of Babylonia. They had attacked Babylonia in the 1600s during the rule of Hammurabi's son but could not conquer Babylon. The root vid is also related to words meaning vision in many modern day languages of the IE family. the Kassites were establishing a strong kingdom in southern Mesopotamia in present day Iraq. The rulers of Mittani were also Indo-Aryans. Uruvanaššil. Egypt and Mittani (western Syria). Though it's written with the intention to praise 73 . which can be identified as the Vedic gods Mitra. who had migrated from Central Asia to Syria around 1600 BC. The city of Babylon lost it's supremacy for some time during the Kassite rule for the next 500 years and the city of Ashur became a very important center for learning and religion in the kingdom of Assyria (Syria). and Nāsatya. Later after the fall of Babylon to the Hittites (present day Turkey) in 1532 BC. and Veda comes from the root vid meaning knowledge and vision. also swears by the Gods Mitrašil. and Našatianna. the Hurrian speaking vassal of Hittite Kingdom. The Kassites established good trade relations with all the existing kingdoms – Hittite. By 1475 BC they had conquered parts of southern Babylonia. Egypt. The Mittani Aryans may be contemporaneous to or little younger than the Rig Vedic Aryans. Indra. Assyria and Elam. after swearing by a series of Hurrian gods. There's an evidence that after signing a treaty with the Hittites in 1380 BC the ruler of Mittani. Indara. Eventually they became the rulers of Mittani. So the Rig Veda means the Knowledge of Praise. Contents of the Rig Veda Rig comes from the Sanskrit root rik.

praising the various Gods or natural forces or elements. Gandhari. Sindhu and Sarasvati – it's almost certain that the land of the Rig Veda was Punjab. the signature of the Indo-Iranians and Indo-Aryans. The Aryans were involved in constant confrontations with the natives and also among themselves.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan the natural forces. It's quite interesting to note that the Aryans were not vegetarians. Puru. who had moved to India before the Rig Vedic Aryans. Kikata and Parsu. It speaks about several Kings and tribal confederations across north India. Out of these tribes mentioned in the Rig Veda Chedi. The priests used to conduct Yajnas. even horse meat. still it provides some information about the history and the people of India at that time. Gandhari and Kikata were referred to as despised people. after the animals had been sacrificed. referring to the Persians as Parsu. perhaps because of the fact that they might have been non Aryans – either native people or the older Aryans. Shutudri (Shatadru or Sutlej). From the various descriptions it can be said that the life of the Aryans during 1500 BC was nomadic in nature. 74 . Kikata is perhaps Magadhi and Parsu Persian. They used to eat animal meat. Magadha and Gandhar eventually became prominent confederations or Janapada. Animals were sacrificed as a part of the ceremony. and finally Maha Janapadas by 700 BC. The association of Parsu with Persians is based on an Assyrian inscription dated 844 BC. Chedi. Horses and Chariots. Some of the tribes mentioned in the Rig Veda are Kuru. Vitasta. sacrificial ceremonies around fire. From the geographical description – with the mention of the rivers like Yavavati (Ravi?). used to be part of these ceremonies. The spread of vegetarianism in India may be linked with the spread of Buddhism and Jainism some 1000 years later. for the welfare and betterment of the Kings. The Kuru and Puru tribes and the respective confederations or kingdoms were quite prominent in the early Vedic Period till 1000 BC. were important and differentiating factors for Aryans. and also an inscription of the great Achaemenid Emperor of Persia Darius I referring to Parsa as the origin of Persians. The hymns of the Rig Veda. Vipash. meaning foothold of people.

the Rig Veda starts with the praise for Agni. Agnimīḷe purohitaṃ yajñasya devaṃ ṛtvījam | hotāraṃ ratnadhātamam || 1 001 01 I Laud Agni. at least a thousand years later. God. the Lord of Fire. yea. 75 . which was compiled much later. aghniḥ pūrvebhirṛṣibhirīḍyo nūtanairuta | sa devāneha vakṣati || 01 001 02 Worthy is Agni to be praised by living as by ancient seers.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan In the present form. glorious. lavishest of wealth. minister of sacrifice. plenty waxing day by day. the chosen Priest. The hotar. Most rich in heroes. the perfect sacrifice which thou encompassest about Verily goeth to the Gods. He shall bring hitherward the Gods. aghninā rayimaśnavat poṣameva dive-dive | yaśasaṃ vīravattamam || 01 001 03 Through Agni man obtaineth wealth. aghne yaṃ yajñamadhvaraṃ viśvataḥ paribhūrasi | sa iddeveṣu gacchati || 01 001 04 Agni.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

aghnirhotā kavikratuḥ satyaścitraśravastamaḥ |
devo devebhirā gamat || 01 001 05
May Agni, sapient-minded Priest, truthful, most gloriously
great,
The God, come hither with the Gods.
The hymn 6.27 (27th hymn of the 6th book) of the Rig Veda refers to a
battle at a place called Hariyupiya between the Vrichivans and
Abhyavartin Chayamana, aided by Lord Indra. The battle was fought
on the banks of Yavyavati (Ravi?) river.

vadhīt indro varaśikhasya śeṣo abhyāvartine cāyamānāya śikṣan |
vṛcīvato yat hariyūpīyāyāṃ han pūrve ardhe bhiyasāparo dart || 6 027 05
In aid of Abhyavartin Chayamana, Indra destroyed the
seed of Varasikha.
At Hariyupiya he smote the vanguard of the Vrichivans,
and the rear fled frighted.
triṃśacchataṃ varmiṇa indra sākaṃ yavyāvatyāṃ puruhūta śravasyā |
vṛcīvantaḥ śarave patyamānāḥ pātrā bhindānānyarthānyāyan || 6 027 06
Three thousand, armoured, in quest of fame, together, on
the Yavyavati, O much-sought Indra,
Vrichivan's sons, falling before the arrow, like bursting
vessels, went to their destruction.
Many people associate Hariyupiya with Harappa, implicating
that this hymn speaks of a confrontation between the people of Indus
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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

Valley and the Aryans. From the mention of three thousand
Vrichivans – perhaps a non-Aryan tribe – gathered on the banks of
Ravi some rough idea about the number of people in a tribe can be
made. There is also a mention of a “Battle of Ten Kings”, often
associated with the battle of Mahabharata, which might have taken
place sometime in 14th century BC. These were the period of lot of
chaos as the Aryans were settling down gradually in a new home and
coming in contact with new people, new cultures and languages. The
battle described in Mahabharata, perhaps in a much exaggerated
manner, might not be totally fictitious.

The verse 3.62.10 (19th verse of the 62nd hymn of the 3rd book) is the
source of the popular Gayatri Mantra, which is in praise of the creator
of the universe, referred to as Savitri.

tat saviturvareṇyaṃ bhargho devasya dhīmahi |
dhiyo yo naḥ pracodayāt || 3 062 10
Ram Mohan Roy has interpreted it as, “We meditate on the
worshipable power and glory of Him who has created the earth, the
nether world and the heavens (i.e. the universe), and who directs our
understanding”. This hymn clearly shows the ever inquisitive mind of
the Aryans. Even at such early stages of human civilization they were
perplexed with the complexities about the creation of universe.
Irrespective of the religion and creed it's indeed a very noble thought
and gesture to show obeisance, without any compulsion, to
a Creator who has created this wonderful world of ours.
The penultimate hymn of the Rig Veda speaks about the Creation of
heaven, earth, day and night.

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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

ṛtaṃ ca satyaṃ cābhīddhāt tapaso adhi ajāyata |
tatorātri ajāyata tataḥ samudro arṇavaḥ || 10 190 01
FROM Fervour, kindled to its height, Eternal Law and
Truth were born:
Thence was the Night produced, and thence the billowy
flood of sea arose.
samudrāt arṇavāt adhi saṃvatsaro ajāyata |
ahorātrāṇi vidadhat viśvasya miṣato vaśī || 10 190 02
From that same billowy flood of sea the Year was
afterwards produced,
Ordainer of the days and nights, command over all.
sūryācandramasau dhātā yathāpūrvamakalpayat |
divaṃ capṛthivīṃ ca antarikṣamatho svaḥ || 10 190 03
Dhātar, the great Creator, then formed in due order Sun
and Moon.
He formed in order Heaven and Earth, the regions of the
air, and light.
But, very interestingly in the same Rig Veda there is also
another hymn (10.129) called the “Song of Creation”, which
deals with skepticism the knowledge about the creation of
universe:
Who verily knows and who can here declare it, whence it
was born and whence comes this creation?
The Gods are later than this world's production. Who knows
then whence it first came into being?
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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all
or did not form it,
Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily
knows it, or perhaps he knows not.
In reference to the above hymn, Amartya Sen has remarked
in Argumentative Indian that ever since the early days of
civilization, Indians have been by and large always
argumentative. They never blindly accepted anything without
any reason. They never attached unnecessarily unreasonable
theological or religious importance to things of reasoning and
logic. Creation of universe has been claimed to be an
achievement of the supreme God in almost all religions. But very
interestingly even in a book of praise for Gods the Aryans didn't
make such a claim without skepticism. That's perhaps one of
the earliest instances of an all inclusive forum where various
thoughts and ideas, irrespective of their contradictions and
divergence, were given equal space. That's perhaps the
beginning of the 3500 years old Indian tradition of absorbing
and assimilating contradicting elements in its culture and
reigion.
There is a reference to twelve months and 360 days of a year
in another hymn. There's also reference to dance and gambling
as forms of entertainment.
The last hymn of the Rig Veda is really very unique. It speaks of
unity among people. Though written some 3500 years back but
still the message is relevant even in today's world for every nation
and people irrespective of their caste, creed and social status.
There's nothing extra ordinary in this hymn of unity. But what
may attract the most is the simplicity with which such an
important and necessary aspect of humanity and mankind has
been expressed. It's nice to know that people have been thinking
of such issues since so long. It's one of the favorite Vedic hymns
of Tagore. He had set it to a wonderful tune.

79

common the mind.191.4 80 .191. samāno mantraḥ samitiḥ samānī samānaṃ manaḥ saha cittameṣām | samānaṃ mantram abhi mantraye vaḥ samānena vo haviṣā juhomi || The place is common. Bring us all treasures as thou art enkindled in libation's place saṃ ghachadhvaṃ saṃ vadadhvaṃ saṃ vo manāṃsi jānatām | devā bhāghaṃ yathā pūrve saṃjānānā upāsate || 10. speak together. common the assembly.2 Assemble.191. so be their thought united. samānī va ākūtiḥ samānā hṛdayāni vaḥ | samānamastu vomano yathā vaḥ susahāsati || 10. As ancient Gods unanimous sit down to their appointed share.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan saṃ-samid yuvase vṛṣannagne viśvāni arya ā | iḷas padesamidhyase sa no vasūni ā bhara || 10. gatherest up all that is precious for thy friend.1 THOU. A common purpose do I lay before you. let your minds be all of one accord. and worship with your general oblation. mighty Agni.

Along with the Rig Veda. which when attributed to humanity. has much more value than just assuming those were God's word. It would be a great injustice to the finesse of the Rig Veda to associate it only with scriptures. The earliest script. It's the manifestation of the realization. Another fascinating thing about the Rig Veda is the tradition of preserving the entire literature for over a millennium just by oral transmission across generations. more than a millennium after the Rig Veda came into existence. dealing with a wide range of subjects. the other three Vedas – Yajur (about sacrificial worship). United be the thoughts of all that all may happily agree. when Iron Age started. It's no ordinary literature – it's the first available literature of the entire mankind. The book might have been first written even a millennium later. Rig Vedic period was still within Bronze Age. Just think about the indigenous techniques that the Aryans would have perfected in order to preserve the literature for more than 2000 years.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan One and the same be your resolve. rather than divinity. Considering it just as a religious book like Bible or Qoran would rip it off its literary value. 81 . was available in India only by 500 BC. Sama (about songs for worship) and Atharva (about prayers) – started taking shape respectively in the subsequent centuries. Brahmi. It's a creative composition. which continued in India till 1100 BC. have been discussed in details in the subsequent chapters. sometime during the Gupta period. and be your minds of one accord. feelings and understanding of the people of an ancient age. One of the available manuscripts of the Rig Veda is included in UNESCO's Memory of the World list as one of the four entries from India. Many more hymns from the Rig Veda. It should be seen as a piece of literature too.

Chumuri. killed by Indra on the other Aryan people side of Sarayu Indra breaks the mountains and Vala Myth frees the obstructed rivers. Atithigva and Conflict among Aryan people Ayu [Not all non-Aryan Kings] Shambara (Munda) is discovered on Conflict with the 40th autumn in his mountain Munda natives hideouts. like the felly (pradhi) of the wheel of a chariot Arna.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 6 PEOPLE & CONFLICTS To know about the Rig Vedic people. [Implicates fightings in mountains.000 Varchins. Chitraratha. the best way is to refer to some verses from the Rig Veda. He crushed Munda natives 100. most likely the Hindukush] 82 . [It's similar to killing Vala and releasing the cow. Refers to Conflict with natives Indra kills Kulitara's son Shambara Conflict with on lofty mountains. breaking the dams (of the Indus people ?) and releasing the river] Indra subdues Kutsa. The rivers run like mothers running towards their children. RV Hymn Verse Book 6 20 4 30 4 30 4 19 2 14 2 12 Description Indra kills Dhuni. both Aryan Conflict among people.

at the priest par with the Aryans 8 6 46 Parshu (Persian Parsa) & Tirindira Iranian people (Tiridates) give 100000 gifts treated as elites 1 112 Ashvini helped Karkandhu. at par various people] 8 12 9 Like rays of Sun Indra consumes Conflict with Arshasana (Iranian Ersan) Iranian tribes 8 32 2 The strong (ugra) Indra kills the Conflict with Dasa Sribinda (Munda). camels to the sage. [Kikata and Pramaganda – both Munda names] 8 46 32 Dasa Balbutha and Taruksha Dasa (a tribe of the (Munda) have made a gift of 100 1st lot of the Aryans. [Iranian. they don't heat vessels for preparing soma. Pipru. Ahishuva and set free the waters. [All Munda amalgamation names] 83 . Munda and Aryan people seen as enemies] 8 5 37 Kashu (Avestan Kasu) gives 100 Iranian people camels (ushtra) and 10000 cows to treated as elites. and Vishpala. natives Rudhikra.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 2 14 Indra destroys Shambara's 100 Conflict with ancient or distant (purvi) castles Munda natives (pura) with his thunderbold (ashman) 2 14 Indra killed Dhribhika. Urana. [Implies Dasas generally inimical to and Munda people are not always the Rig Vedic enemies – points to amalgamation of Aryans) treated as elite. Shushna. Namuchi. Pipru (Aryan). King of Kikata. but the other names seem to be non-IA] 3 53 Kushika (probably Munda) among Natives treated as Aryan offerers elites 3 53 What is the use of cattle in Kikata? Conflict with They don't pour ashira (mixture of Munda natives milk and soma). [Pipru may be IA. Let Indra bring the wealth of Pramaganda. Conflict with Arbuda. Aryan – non Aryan Shryata. Anarshani Iranian tribes (Iranian Ersan).

Old – Books 6. They were the Rig Vedic Aryans who later composed the Rig Veda. The first wave was around 1700 BC. It's likely that on their way they fought with the native tribal people.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 1 53 8 Indra kills Parnaya. Asura. The second wave was around 1500 BC – the Rig Vedic Aryans. There are instances where Dasa Kings (like Balbutha) are referred to as offerers in the prayers. Many of the people with whom they fought in the mountains seem to have Munda names like Shambara and Kulitara. It's possible that the local people of north Indus areas spoke a para Munda language and the Indo-Aryans confronted them 84 . 2 and 5 (1700 – 1500 BC) 2. We can divide the ten books of the Rig Veda into the following three classes: 1. the following may be summarized:  The Dasa (Daha) and Pani (Parnoi) people of BMAC were Indo-Aryan people who arrived in the Central Asia around 1900 BC. At least one of these people entered India through the Hindukush Mountains. Late – Books 1 and 10 (1350 – 1200 BC) Refering to these verses and recalling some of the discussions in the previous chapters. 7. Middle – Books 3. probably the Dasa people. passing through the Kalash valleys in Chitral and traveling along Kabul and Panjkora rivers. 8 and 9 (1500 – 1350 BC) 3.  Around 1700 BC a second group of Indo-Aryans arrived in the Central Asia.  The Aryans entered India in two waves. the gods of the Dasa people are first considered demons and then promoted to the ranks of Aryan Gods.  The Rig Vedic Aryans first fight with the Dasas and later enter into a truce. They stayed in tripur style forts fortified by three walls. 4. Karanja [Both Munda names] Conflict with Munda natives The above verses are arranged chronologically in the probable order they might have been composed.

The Battle of Ten Kings is a sort of civil war between the various tribes. Tirindira (Trinidates). North and South and the fifth one the region in the center. Anu. The Paktha may be the Pakhtun or Pashtun people of Afghanistan and Pakistan.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan     first in the mountains of Hindukush. There's also a surge of Dravidian words in this book. King Sudas of the Tritsu tribe and a descendant of the legendary King Bharata is fighting against ten other tribes – Bhrigu. East. Turvasha. Druhyu and Puru. The five divisions of the earth are most likely the four directions. There are multiple references to the “Five People”. root krish which means “to plough” or “to make furrows” on the ground with plows. It's mentioned in the Languages of Aryan Trail that the Dravidian people arrived in Sindh from eastern Iran during the last phase of 85 . Bhalanas. The confrontation with Shambar is mentioned a number of times throughout the Rig Veda. both Munda names. there are also instances of friendship with the Munda people. The present day Puris may be the Rig Vedic Puru. The Bhalanas people should be related to the Bolan Pass in Pakistan. Parshu (Old Persian Parsa). Kanita (Scythian Kanites). West. Shiva. Pancha Jana or Pancha Krishti or Pancha Kshiti – Yadu. The word krishti is derived from the Skt. are listed as Aryan offerers in rituals. Alina. Kushika and Taruksha. Anarshani (Iranian Ershan) –which appear suddenly in the Book 8. The Bhrigu lineage still exists among Hindus. Vishanin. Shryata and Vishpala – all Munda names. Druhyu. then its inhabitants and finally an Aryan race. The designation Pancha Krishti literally means “Five Furrows”– or the tribes dwelling between the five furrows or divisions of the earth. Anu and Puru. Like the amalgamation with the Dasa people. There are a number of people with Iranian sounding names – Kashu (Avestan Kasu). Krishti originally meant cultivable land. The Rig Vedic doctor twins Ashvini Kumars are said to have helped Karkandhu. then an inhabited land. Many of the kings of these tribes seem to have Munda names like Kavasha and Shimyu. Turvasha. Paktha.

Both parsa and parsava seem to be akin to Skt. A related word in OP is parsava. So. In fact the term Persia comes from the Old Persian (OP) Parsa. it's not surprising that they are also. term Parshava means the Parshu people. If the Parshu people referred to in this verse are taken to be the proto Persian people – the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranians – then they are kins of the Aryans. bordering.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Indus Valley civilization (~1900 BC or earlier). from Tirindira. close to the Aryans. And presents of the Yadavas. considered among the elites. at times. Some of these Iranian sounding tribes may be the Dravidian people – the pre Iranian native inhabitants of east Iran. who migrated north.46 A hundred thousand have I gained from Parshu. Now let's focus on some of these Iranian tribes mentioned in the later books. Parshu may be one of the early Iranian tribes who have moved into Iran from the Steppes (Timber Grave Culture. Even the Skt. borderlands. parshva. they migrated to north and south.6. which is derived from parshu and means near. In the next few centuries. modern Fars. 86 . after the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization. śatam ahaṃ tirindire sahasraṃ parśāv ā dade | rādhāṃsi yādvānām || 8. meaning border. possibly a proto Iranian culture) during the middle Rig Vedic Age (post 1500 BC) and are now neighboring. The Dravidians. started mingling with the Rig Vedic Aryans around 1500 BC. Here also not all the Iranian people are considered enemies.

It's possible that around 1500 BC the Parthians. Similarly Media comes from OP Mada and Avestan Maidiia. may possibly refer to Media. The country of Madra. The term Parthia comes from OP Parthava which is surely akin to Skt. Madhya. which appears later in the Skt. akin to Skt. the early Iranian people (Persians. the Medians 87 . are all located side by side in northern Iran. The next two verses seem to be referring to the Parthians and Medians. meaning central. which we’ve already seen earlier. within the locus of the Proto Avestan people. Medians and Parthians) may be located in northern Iran. middle.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan In the following diagram. epic and is no doubt located to the north west of India. Prithu and Parthava (of Prithu). Medians and the Persians. all of whom later adopt Zoroastrianism and eventually create three of the biggest empires of the world.

Have mercy on us once. All of these people seem to be in close interaction with the neighboring Indo-Aryans in Afghanistan and India. O Indra. O ye Men. There are instances where the natives are treated as elites and also their own folks treated as enemies. Bounteous Lord (maghavan).3 As rats eat weavers' threads (śiśnā). and helped Sudās with favour.1 it's mentioned that Indra-Varuna have killed the Dasa and Aryan people – both of them are Sudas' enemies. This particular verse is important because it explicitly says that the Rig Vedic people don't see the natives discriminately as their only enemies. madhya. the desire for go. be thou a Father unto us. we know by now. mūṣo na śiśnā vyadanti mādhya stotāraṃ te śatakrato | sakṛt su no maghavan indra mṛḷayādhā piteva no bhava || 10.83. may be the earlier Aryans from the first wave.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan being in the middle.83. In the verse 7. Indra-Varuṇa. Ye smote and slew his Dāsa and his Āryan enemies. the Prithu-Parshus (pṛthu-parśava) went forward (prācā yayuḥ).1 Looking to you and your alliance (āpya). cattle).33. The Dasa people. fain for spoil (gavyanta. So here the enemies of Sudas are his own folks. 88 . yuvāṃ narā paśyamānāsa āpyam prācā gavyantaḥ pṛthuparśavo yayuḥ | dāsā ca vṛtrā hatam āryāṇi ca sudāsam indrāvaruṇāvasāvatam || 7. the Madhyas do the same to worship (stotṛ). O Shatakratu (Indra).

all meaning to make. In the same way the ancient region of Khorasan (parts of north-eastern Iran. Shravana means fame. Kuru comes from the root kri and means action. the priests' Ṛṣi (vāghatāṃ ṛṣi) The Skt. build. performance. sun. Kuru are same. 89 . Old Prussian kura. The Kuru people should be a powerful tribe coming into picture in Central Asia in the later Rig Vedic Age (1500 BC onwards). to build. Kuru eventually becomes one of the most important clans in India. It's also possible that Kurushravana degenerated to sound like Khorasan much later in historical times. I. to do. But unlike the later Vedic and epic literature they are not omnipresent in RV.33. It has cognates in many IE languages – Old Irish cruth. Kuru is surely a cognate of OP Kurush. The meaning of Kurush in OP is not clear. the original name of the Persian King Cyrus the Great (Cyrus is a Greek formation). or literally fame of action. Lithuanian kurti. in India they are the main people of Mahabharata and in Iran the emperors (Cyrus) take their name. northern Afghanistan and southern Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) is also connected to khur. Kuru does sound like khur but the phonetic association must be a much later event. One of the meanings connects kurush to khur.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan The next verse is important because it introduces the term Kuru for the first time. surya in Sanskrit. Later. kuruśravaṇam āvṛṇi rājānaṃ trāsadasyavam | maṃhiṣṭhaṃ vāghatāṃ ṛṣiḥ || 10. the son of Trasadasyu. It's very likely that the OP Kurush and the Skt.4 I chose as prince most liberal (maṃhiṣṭha) Kurushravana. coming from khwar in Persian and akin to svar. meaning sun. The Skt. So Kuru Shravana may simply mean famous. to make.

Vedas and Puranas it can be roughly said that one important dynasty (or tribe or confederation of tribes) – might be the mythical Sun Dynasty – ruled over India between 1700 and 1500 BC. even though the name of the king or the tribe can be debatable. mentioned in the Rig Veda).Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Other Probable Early Dynasties and Kingdoms of India 1700 . Rama. So it can be 90 . the period when the earliest pieces of the Rig Veda were being composed. a descendant of the Bharata dynasty. coming to prominence around 1400 BC. The Bharata dynasty might have ruled between 1700 and 1500 BC. With the Mahabharata war attributed to sometime in the 14th century BC. The Magadhan King Jarasandha is mentioned in Mahabharata as a party to the war. the main character of Ramayana and belonging to this dynasty. Bharata is seen as the first king to consolidate a major part of the Indian subcontinent. Not everything can be historically correct. might have been that of the mythological King Bharata who would have ruled over Northern India sometime around 1600 BC. followed by the Kuru dynasty (to which belonged the cousins Pandavas and Kauravas of the Mahabharata) between 1400 and 1300 BC. 1500 . Hence the instance of the earliest consolidation around 1600 BC under a victorious king or tribe doesn't seem to be unlikely. might have ruled between 1500 and 1400 BC. contemporaneous to the Sun dynasty. ruling over western part of Indian subcontinent – precisely the regions of the early Aryan settlement in India. Another important kingdom or confederation in the east could be Magadha (Kikata. the kings mentioned in Mahabharata would have ruled around 1300 BC. Another important dynasty. might have ruled around 1500 BC. Such effort for consolidation was not uncommon around 1500 BC.1300 BC The Puru dynasty. But still from the various references in the epics. It was a very natural instinct for the tribes and the kings to indulge into continuous warfares among themselves.1500 BC There are references to various dynasties and kings in the ancient literatures.

It may be noted that though the Mahabharata war is believed to be a fictional/literary depiction of the Rig Vedic Battle of Ten Kings. but the dates of the two need not be same. dated sometime around 1100 BC. would have ruled between 1300 and 1100 BC. same as the Kuru dynasty. The Kuru King Parikshita is mentioned in the Atharva Veda. It’s also possible that an older Battle of Ten Kings was recreated with characters inspired by later Kings. the period of the Mahabharata War. 1300 .1100 BC The Pandavas consolidated their rule after the victory in the Mahabharata war and their dynasty. who fought against Alexander in 4th century BC – were also referred to as the descendants of the Pandava dynasty. Much later. the Kings of Taxila – Ambhi and Porus. The present day people with last name Puri are believed to be descendants of the Purus.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan assumed that he would have also ruled sometime around 1300 BC. 91 .

IIr languages are spoken almost everywhere from Afghanistan to Assam. Welsh and other native languages of England. So we discount those as being taken over by Indo-Iranian languages. English is the dominant language in USA now but the American Indians still speak their native language.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 7 AMALGAMATION WITH NATIVE PEOPLE A very interesting thing about North India is that almost all the languages and dialects here are derived from Sanskrit or Persian. Apart from the few pockets of tribal areas. both of which are Indo-Iranian (IIr) languages. The Bolivian and the Peruvian Indians may be Spanish speaking Christians now. The mainly English people subjugated the Native Americans in what later became USA. Apart from a few family names there are only very few remnants of that conquest and centuries of elite domination by the Normans. Even centuries of subjugation and elite dominance couldn't impose English and Christianity on them. where Austro Asiatic Munda languages are spoken. After the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 AD the elite dominance of the Norman French people influenced heavily and nearly replaced the Anglo Saxon. Dravidian languages were never native to northern India. But in the end nothing happened. but a large part of them still speak the native Queucha as well. often in a Christian garb. This means that the IIr languages took over almost all the native languages. 92 . Let's see some of the other cases of language takeover in historical times. The most recent scenario of immigrating foreigner elites imposing their language on the subdued natives is the arrival of the Europeans in the American continents. Traces of the ancient native languages in USA are now limited only to names of places and rivers like Mississippi and Missouri. Many native customs and tenets of the Inca religion still survive. of which Munda and Burushaski may be the only two known to us.

’ she said. adopted their language and culture and accepted them as their rulers or bosses spontaneously. but still …’ She paused. very rarely results in a complete language takeover. Tajikistan etc. The Turkish language didn't survive in the Ottoman Empire in Balkans. ‘Unlike the elite dominance in Latin America. the Aryans showed better ways of lives to the native people. You did mention that you were enjoying all the extra attention and the feeling of being their boss. Even the bloody Arab dominance on the Parsis. Now that the USSR has disintegrated the fate of Russian in all these countries is questionable. otherwise such a near-complete language takeover wouldn’t have been possible in the subcontinent. something which happened in India with the advent of the Indo-Aryans people. But somehow I felt your attitude towards them was what I would call elitist. en masse. It was possible perhaps through amalgamation with the native people. uppish. They made them prosperous. couldn't replace the Persian with Arabic. It's logical to believe that such a feat was not achieved by elite dominance of the Aryans. though you’ve never consciously wanted to be the boss or act as if you were superior to them. Kyrgyzstan. the Aryans. not to check my reaction but to take a breath. even fewer in number. They brought considerable change in their standard of living. It’s not quite the same as the elite dominance which the Aryans have often been accused of. The natives. far greater in number. So it's quite obvious that an elite dominance. must have.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan The Russian language was enforced on the erstwhile Soviet Republics of Central Asia – Turkmenistan. where the few European colonialists imposed their language and religion on the natives. which led to the coining of the term persecution. ‘Today I saw you with Baron and his folks for the first time. But 93 . Even centuries of elite dominance by the elite English people in India couldn't replace any of the regional languages. The following passage from The Ekkos Clan refers to elite dominance and language takeover. didn’t impose Sanskrit on India. “ ‘I’ve been thinking about this since evening. More than everything. They became the rulers not by force.

RV mentions Indra destroying Vritra. This resulted in much less surplus in grains and might have been the reason for the lack of internal competition and also external attack. that they are inferior. This very flooding. using the fertile silt left by the periodic flooding of the rivers. This might have been the reason too for minimal change over 1500 years. The Aryans do make the natives a part of their society. Indus Valley had no canals as in Mesopotamia. ‘While purporting. might have been one of the causes for the decline of their civilization. They seem to be acceptable to you only because they learn to be more like you.’ ‘What do you mean by this?’ I was irritated. They had a primitive way of cultivation. fearless and open minded. which was so essential for farming. Indra is said to have removed rodhas. obstacle. but the same prejudice. which means restrainer. and may refer to the barrage that obstructed the water. They seem to exist just to make you feel that you’re adventurous. to see Baron and his people as different and good. The Aryans might have destroyed the dams and brought greater areas under cultivation. Perhaps you wouldn’t have been so close to them had they been rich Americans … ‘I see the same situation throughout Aryan history. obstacles. Lack of better agriculture in Indus Valley is a striking difference from contemporary Mesopotamia and Sumer. speaking Bengali and cooking Bengali food. in their hymns … ‘In the Rig Veda there are enough instances where native Kings are promoted in status only when they adopt the Aryan way of life and worship the Aryan gods like Indra and Agni …’ ” Indus Valley didn't know the use of plough.’ she continued in her characteristic academic style. that the natives are inferior.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan the Aryans too had an elitist attitude towards the indigenous Indian population. does spill out in their actions. ‘the way you deal with them actually perpetuates prejudice. on the surface. Artificial dams and barrages were used to flood the river. but in the process an age-old prejudice is revealed. but she didn’t seem to notice. which in the context of Indus Valley 94 .

Several groups of people separated for ages were brought together. But still that's much better than treating them as slaves. producing more and enhancing trade and commerce. The Aryans never displaced anyone or enslaved entire lots of natives. Coming back to the topic of language takeover. thus stimulating more trade and prosperity. It's a very rare instance in the history of mankind that a few elites make such a great positive impact on the lives of the natives that they eventually adopt not only the language but also the culture and religion of the former. They introduced better production techniques. became public. Rather it was done through amalgamation and cooperation. Various skills. The Aryans brought in new techniques and knowledge and provided the much needed guidance that led to their prosperity by better harnessing the natural resources. it's important to understand that such a thing was possible not through force. A similar thing would have happened in BMAC around 1900 BC when there was a sudden surge of wealth with the arrival of the IndoAryans from the northern Arkaim and Sintashta Cultures. This made the Aryans very much acceptable to the natives as their elites. The Aryans broke barriers between primitive and conservative tribes which had managed to preserve their archaic religion and tools for long. In fact the addition of shudra as the fourth class was to accommodate the natives. It may be still argued that the natives were put in the lowest stratum of the society. In most cultures the natives were always enslaved by the intruders.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan might be the dams and embankments. 95 . But in case of the Aryans there are multiple instances where the natives were promoted to the ranks of elites. which were local secret.

The River. cows and. rivers. A cursory glance at the Rig Veda may lead to the apparent belief that the hymns are desperate pleadings of a bunch of helpless people seeking divine intervention in almost everything. not to forget. natural or historical things like fights. who in most cases are demoted to the ranks of demons. It also appears that the people of the Rig Veda have nothing else to do than to fight among themselves and also with the natives. But a close look into the hymns reveal something more profound which’s hidden under the garb of simplistic physical. clouds. In this context it's interesting to trace the etymologies of some words used in different forms at various places. days and nights. In other words RV is full of double meanings. Going by Aurobindo's interpretation. mountains. If we go by the literal meaning of all the words.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 8 RIVER – THE STREAM OF LIFE DOUBLE MEANINGS IN THE RIG VEDA Aurobindo Ghose has provided a very interesting interpretation to the various aspects of the Rig Veda. each of these physical and natural things very logically point to deeper meanings which very consistently flow all along the Rig Veda. His interpretations seem very logical. All these words may appear to have different meanings in different contexts if we go by 96 . floods. is one of the various such instances of double meanings in RV. horses and chariots. then this continuity of thoughts is broken at various places. The simplistic meanings are meant for the normal people and the profound meanings for the learned. The invokers of the hymns seem to be lazy guys who want to win every battle with the help of the Gods. interpreted as the inspiration of life.

Greek decto. Greek doxa and PIE deks. It comes from the PIE kert from which also come the Skt. Let's consider the related Skt. kratu means resolution. meaning to cut. evolves gradually to mean strength. but also means to hurt. strong etc. means state or condition of life in Skt. gain.. means to do. akin to Greek dakno and PIE denke. all coming from the PIE dek meaning respect. kartati and Greek korno. biting. 1. dasha. resolution. Here the simple physical meaning of the words gradually gets profound philosophical meanings. like strength. respect etc. The same is true for the Indo-European languages. power. dams. hurting etc. That's exactly what we see in RV too – profound philosophical interpretations behind simple physical and historical events. intelligent. The various words which evolved from these roots have quite diverse meanings... It also means to teach or to direct (PIE dans and Skt.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan their literal sense. In the early days of human civilization whenever man wished to have words for abstract things. all meaning strong. Another meaning of daksh is to hurt and that of dams and damsh is to bite. akin to Latin decet. mean wonderful deeds in Skt. daksha. Similarly the root kri in Skt. Many words for strength across all languages had originally this idea of a force or injury because that was what it meant to the early humans to secure their existence and prove their strength and superiority in this world. The Skt. akin to Latin dexter. 3. his readiest method was to apply simplistic ideas of physical actions. It's possible that the original physical meanings of the words were still not forgotten during the Rig Vedic age and the composers of RV used 97 .. power etc. So it can be seen that the original and nascent word for cutting. from the root dams. But they all convey the same meanings if we consider their original roots. roots damsh. coming from the PIE dans meaning to teach. dish). daksh. from the same root dams and damsh. from the root daksh. in Skt. power and is akin to Greek kratos meaning strong. damsa and dasra. 2. means dexterous.

Through our actions we learn many things and become matured. the force or the fire in humanity which initiates any action. moving continuously towards our destination and enjoying the every single moment. 2. Indra is that element of 98 . Hence Agni is invoked at the beginning of any yajna. Agni symbolizes the divine will. So Agni is that element or strength of our personality which comes into play the moment we're born. aware. The Ashvin twins are akin to the twins Castor and Polydeuces (Pollux) of the of Graeco-Latin mythology. Yajna. 4. The life is full of violent actions – breaking each obstacle that comes in our way. is work and the person who does the work is actually the soul or the personality of the person. Like the twin stars Castor and Pollux that protect the sailors in their voyages. save them in storm and ship wrecks. Even an animal has to have the will to survive and only then can it search for food – without this fire of will within. The Gods are the personifications of the elements or traits of the personality or the various strengths in the personality. They represent the prana or the life energy which moves and acts and desires and enjoys. to the state of infinite consciousness. Indra is the illuminated mentality or the mind power and his horses are the energies of that mentality. He comes impelled by thought and driven by the illumined thinker within – dhiyeshita viprajuta. thoughtful and conscious. He comes with the speed and force of the illumined mind power. it perishes. the Ashvins are the powers that carry the Rishis of RV. 1.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan the same technique of double meaning to present deeper thoughts under the garb of simplicity. the sacrificial ritual of RV. A life without a will or desire to achieve something is like death. to the other shore beyond the thoughts. This will drives us throughout our lives in all our actions. 3. Now let's see some of the common double meanings in RV. as in a ship. Ashvins are the twin divine powers whose special function is to direct the life energy in the sense of action and enjoyment.

The experiences of all the actions in our lives arouse the consciousness. which is light or knowledge or consciousness in the form of knowledge. go. concealed by Vritra and freed by Indra. pajas. lead to the truth. River Hippocrene. 6.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 5. is the intellect or thought that is offered in the yajna. the power of discernment and greater consciousness. after Agni's will and Ashvini's actions. enriched and purified intellect or thoughts. Agni. the intellect. The rivers are the streams of truth and bliss. They are themselves the source of the truth. represent two companion ideas of Light and Energy. The waters of inspiration gushed out. Soma represents the intoxication of Ananda. Saraswati represents the divine inspiration. Surya represents the illumination of ritam. Mitra-Varuna is that element of our personality which comes into play at quite an advanced stage of life when we're close to infinite consciousness and infinite bliss. force or the consciousness in the form of force. the truth. the power of the perfected. They flow into the unobstructed and shore less Vast Ocean. Go and ashva. The seven streams or the seven rivers. 7. The fruits of the offerings are the cow. our personality which comes into play in the third stage of our life. the cow and the horse. the fountain of Horse. Sapta Sindhu. the divine delight. 9. rising upon the mind. rtasya dhara. the purified butter. consciousness and force. It's akin to the Homeric kine of Helios (Sun). 99 . raises the level of consciousness in man. Mitra-Varuna represents the Truth Power. Ghritam. 8. means strength and also brightness. akin to Skt. From this gushes out the waters of inspiration which elevates the physical existence to infinite existence. The seven rivers are the seven states of consciousness. sprang when the divine horse Pegasus smote the rock with his hoof. Pegasus. Association of river with inspiration is seen in Greek mythology too. Here force is associated with inspiration. Horse is the energy. Dawn represents the dawning of illumination in human mind. The rock is the symbol of formal existence of physical nature. Kindled by fire.

all limitations. Indra smites the dragon Ahi and releases the water from the mountain. rays) in caves. sometimes plunging from great heights and sometimes meandering violently through deep ravines. vastness. the slayer of Vala. River – the Stream of Life is a very important aspect of Kubha’s story.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan the divine will or the cosmic will. Full of life the liberated waters flow like streams of milk. The river thus formed rushes and gushes through the slits and splits of mountains like freed cattle running towards their mother. releasing from captivity the swollen waters. 10. coverers. increases truth. infinite bliss and gives a feeling of freedom from all bondage. Gods or the elements of personalities bring light. With all her force she surpasses all obstacles and flows down towards the plains. He melts the ice. the enemy who captivates the cows (light. specially the twin stars named Jam and Jami. There may be a connection between the Greek Bellerophon. with all its life. “In the high altitudes of the Snow Mountain a powerful Indar. Whenever there’s a serious crisis and life seems to come to a standstill Kubha always gives the example of the unbeatable river that stops at nothing and keeps flowing to its destintion all its life. tearers. sometimes breaking big stones. She is always directed by the stars in the sky. bigger and wider she becomes and finally she merges happily with the vast ocean of limitless waters. confiners etc. a big dragon.” 100 . On the contrary the demons are powers of division and limitations. and Indra referred to as Valahan. with his thunderbolts and fire. breaks into pieces the glaciers that crawl like Ahi. the slayer of Bellerus. More she flows. She no longer rushes and gushes but flows magnificently and thoughtfully fertilizing the lands with her silt and feeding the people with her sweet waters. they flow towards the Vast Ocean the same way a mortal human moves towards infinite consciousness. By the time she reaches the plains she has acquired enough water and silt form the hills.

But it comes from the root shru. In RV drishti and shruti.The Indar mentioned in the story is no doubt the Indra of RV. meaning to hear. the seer’s will. It’s like Agni igniting the fire of will at the beginning of a life. rita. Agni agnir hotā kavikratuḥ satyaś citraśravastamaḥ | devo devebhirā gamat || 1. the resolution towards action. The violent movements of the river through the mountains represent the actions of prana that finally lead to consciousness. truthful. and chitra shravastama. The God.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan The river is an allegory for life.1. the cascading small rivulet finally grows into a wide and calm river. are used in the sense of revelation and inspiration. Indra’s breaking into pieces the glacier and releasing the river is like Pegasus smiting the rock with his hoof and releasing the river Hippocrene. Like a faltering child. the eternal truth. The Jam-Jami stars are the Gemini twins of Greek mythology. The main aspect of Agni is kavi kratu. the eternal bliss. who becomes conscious after each fall and eventually grows into a matured man. vision and hearing. the Priest with a seer's will towards action (kavi kratu). Indra and Mitra-Varuna are introduced in the first book of RV. the knowledge that's heard.5 May Agni. the strength of mind. The Vedas are called shruti. 101 . The word shravas generally means fame. glory.The infinite vastness of the ocean. into which the river flows at the end. represents the infinite consciousness. Following are the hymns where the concept of Agni. most rich in varied inspiration. Ashvin. the Yama and Yami of the Hindus. Kubha’s story uses this river perhaps in the same way as it’s used in the Rig Veda too. most rich in varied inspiration (chitra shravastama). come hither with the Gods.

life energy. Take delight (chanasyata) in the energies of the sacrifice (yajvarīr iṣa). rich in wondrous deeds (purudaṃsasā).2 Ye Aśvins. Also resolution and inspiration make a perfect combination. dasrā yuvākavaḥ sutā nāsatyā vṛktabarhiṣaḥ | ā yātaṃ rudravartanī || 1. Accept our songs (gira) with mighty thought (dhiṣṇa). Lord of bliss (śubhas patī). Ashvin signifies the power of action and the power of movement which drive our prana.3. In that sense shravas should mean inspiration. Ashvin aśvinā yajvarīriṣo dravatpāṇī śubhas patī | purubhujā canasyatam || 1. yours are these libations with clipt grass (vṛktabarhiṣa) Come ye with the fierce speed on the path (rudravartanī).3. 102 .1 YE Aśvins. Nāsatyas. aśvinā purudaṃsasā narā śavīrayā dhiyā | dhiṣṇyā vanataṃ giraḥ || 1.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan and the knowledge that's meant to inspire us throughout our lives. ye heroes with powerful thoughts (śavīrayā dhiyā). in all our deeds. swift footed (dravatpāṇī). Dasra. Nasatya. and wonder-worker. To achieve anything we need to have a will and also an inspiration. Agni stands for both. karma.3.3 Lord of the voyage. much enjoying (purubhujā).

The other Ashvin is named Dasra. come. 103 . Thus by fine fingers purified. the doer of wonderful deeds and actions. This is the consciousness and the intellect that we acquire through the various experiences of our life. Throughout our lives we've to keep on doing actions and move towards our destination. overcoming all obstacles with all fierceness and swiftness and Ashvin signifies all of these. It's very aptly the name of one of the Ashvinis. come. purudamsa. driven forward by the illumined thinker (viprajūta). Indra indrā yāhi citrabhāno sutā ime tvāyavaḥ | aṇvībhistanā pūtāsaḥ || O Indra marvellously bright (citrabhāna). means “to reach”. It's the power that's impelled by thoughts and driven forward by the illumined thinker (dhiyeṣita viprajūta). root nas and the PIE nek. the wonderful deeds.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan coming from the the Skt. these libations long for thee. Indra stands for the power of the mind and intellect. The words dravatpani and rudravartani signify the swiftness in the actions. Indra. indrā yāhi dhiyeṣito viprajūtaḥ sutāvataḥ | upa brahmāṇi vāghataḥ || Impelled by mind (dhiyeṣita). We attain this power only through the actions and deeds we do throughout our lives. to the prayers Of the libation-pouring (vāghata) priest (brahma). known as the Lord of the voyage – the voyage or journey to reach the destination of life.

something that's referred to variously as salvation. through Law.02. the Truth.02. Ashvins. The following table correlates the Rig Vedic concepts with those of Vedanta philosophy. the power of the perfected. These interpretations of the powers of Agni. seven planes of existence and the seven planes of consciousness. lovers and cherishers of Law. Beyond this are infinite delight. we possess the profound knowledge. I call. and foe-destroying (riśādasa) Varuṇa. Have ye obtained your might power The main aspects of Mitra-Varuna are pūtadakṣa and dhiyaṃ ghṛtācī. of purified strength and discernment (pūtadakṣa). Indra and Mitra-Varuna and the corresponding phases of life they come into play form the foundation of the Vedantic (post Vedic) concepts of the seven worlds. sapta loka.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Mitra Varuna mitraṃ huve pūtadakṣaṃ varuṇaṃ ca riśādasam | dhiyaṃ ghṛtācīṃ sādhantā || 1.07 Mitra. When the consciousness acquired through our deeds and actions is perfected. ṛtena mitrāvaruṇāv ṛtāvṛdhāv ṛtaspṛśā | kratuṃ bṛhantamāśāthe || 1. Who accomplish (sādhanta) perfecting the bright thoughts (dhiyaṃ ghṛtācī). infinite consciousness and infinite existence. nirvāna etc. enriched and purified.08 Mitra and Varuṇa. 104 . enriched and purified intellect or thoughts.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 105 .

Indra. Day after day we violate. the guardian of immortality. although with a more spiritual conception.25. styled as hating falsehood and seizing transgressors with his noose. Mitra-Varuna – are personifications of the various strengths and traits of the personality of human beings. Ashvin.01 Whatever law of thine. Varuna Varuna is one of the oldest of the Vedic gods.25. etc.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 9 RIG VEDIC GODS In the previous chapter we've seen that the main Rig Vedic Gods – Agni. yac cid dhi te viśo yathā pra deva varuṇa vratam | minīmasi dyavi-dyavi || 1. as we are men. and is commonly thought to correspond to the Greek Οuranos. In this section we'll see some of the hymns that talk about the simplistic virtues normally associated with the main Gods in RV. O Varuṇa.01 106 . He stands for truth and law. pardoning sin. possessing extraordinary power and wisdom called maya. O God. This interpretation is more profound – and more logical too – than the simplistic view that each of these Gods signifies some specific virtues. 1. He is often regarded as the supreme deity.

To thy fierce anger when displeased. 1.25. with the hymns. He is also shown as someone who pardons the sins of the human beings. as seen earlier.03 The three verses above speak of Varuna as the upholder of law.03 To gain thy mercy (mṛḷīka). as the charioteer. The more profound significance of Varuna. The third verse shows the obsession of the Aryans with horses and chariots. something that's the signature of the Indo-Europeans. to be destroyed by thee in wrath. is putadaksha and dhiyam ghritachi. gira. vrata.25. He stands for the truth. mridika.25.02 Give us not as a prey to death (vadhāya hatnave). vish. the power of the perfected. Varuṇa. It's says that to gain Varuna's mercy. vedā yo vīnāṃ padam antarikṣeṇa patatām | veda nāvaḥ samudriyaḥ || 1. It’s logical that simplistically He would possess extraordinary wisdom and be the upholder of law and truth. 107 . as binds The charioteer his tethered horse. the offerer wants to bind Varuna's mind. who violate the law day after day. ritam. dyavi dyavi.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan mā no vadhāya hatnave jihīḷānasya rīradhaḥ | mā hṛṇānasya manyave || 1.25.07 He knows the path of birds that fly through heaven.02 vi mṛḷīkāya te mano rathīr aśvaṃ na sanditam | gīrbhir varuṇa sīmahi || 1. ashva. enriched and purified intellect or thoughts. 1.25. binds the horse. manas. rathi. with hymns we bind (sīmahi) thy heart.

25. knows of the twelve moons and their progeny. nava. This month is later known as the extra month or the adhika masa.25. He knows the ships. This verse has tremendous historical significance as a proof of the astronomical knowledge possessed by the Rig Vedic Aryans. the spreading. padam. Conceptualizing the luni-solar calendar and synchronizing the lunar and solar orbital movements many thousands of years back was indeed incredible – till date the Hindus follow the same luni-solar calendar.09 He knows the pathway of the wind.07 veda māso dhṛtavrato dvādaśa prajāvataḥ | vedā ya upajāyate || 1.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan He knows the ships that are thereon. 108 . and mighty wind: He knows the Gods who dwell above. upajayate. He knows the paths. who is the upholder of law. 1.25. he knows the twelve moons with their progeny: He knows the moon of later birth.08 True to his holy law. Here the twelve moons refer to the twelve months and the progeny the cycle of new moons. 1. prajavata. samudra. 1. He also knows about the moon of the later birth.08 veda vātasya vartanim uror ṛṣvasya bṛhataḥ | vedā ye adhyāsate || 1. high. of the birds. antariksha. The moon of the later birth is surely a reference to the intercalary month or the thirteenth month of a lunisolar calendar. It says that He.25. of the oceans. vi.25. The second verse is very interesting. dhritavrata.09 The above three verses speak of Varuna as the God with extraordinary knowledge and wisdom. which fly through the skies.

01 śṛtaṃ yadā karasi jātavedo athem enaṃ pari dattāt pitṛbhyaḥ | yadā gacchāti asunītim etām athā devānāṃ vaśanīr bhavāti || 10.01 This verse speaks about going to the house of clay. spare me. In fact throughout the Aryan Trail the Indo-European people have left behind the marks of their graves. 10.16.01 Let me not yet. The earliest traces of cremation have been found in the Vakhsh-Biskent Culture sometime around 1700 BC. when thou hast matured him. Agni mainam agne vi daho mābhi śoco māsya tvacaṃ cikṣipo mā śarīram | yadā śṛtaṃ kṛṇavo jātavedo athem enaṃ pra hiṇutāt pitṛbhyaḥ || 10.16. enter into the house of clay: Have mercy. Agni: let not his body or his skin be scattered. Mighty Lord.01 Burn him not up. he shall become the Deities' subject. 7. Jātavedas. Cremation is a much later invention by the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Europeans. King Varuṇa.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan mo ṣu varuṇa mṛnmayaṃ ghṛhaṃ rājan ahaṃ gamam | mṛḷā sukṣatra mṛḷaya || 7.02 When thou hast made him ready. mrinmayam griha. O Jātavedas. then send him on his way unto the Fathers.16. which are their only archaeological remnants.89. 10.16.02 109 . This surely refers to the early Rig Vedic tradition of burial after death. then do thou give him over to the Fathers. When he reaches the world of spirits. nor quite consume him.89.

ech. don’t consume the baza. PIE yend. to earth or heaven. 10. It says. referred to as Valahan. and Indra.16. Agni. don’t burn the shish. make him ready. as thy merit is. burn (daho) him not. mature or purify (shrita) him.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan sūryaṃ cakṣur gacchatu vātam ātmā dyāṃ ca gaccha pṛthivīṃ ca dharmaṇā| apo vā gaccha yadi tatra te hitam oṣadhīṣu prati tiṣṭhā śarīraiḥ || 10. his head. the enemy who captivates the cows (light. if there be thy good. We’ve observed that there may be a connection between the Greek Bellerophon. agu. go. nor can water wet it. Go. athi.03 The Sun receives thine eye. make thine home in plants with all thy bodies. The Kalash people of Hindukush seem to have similar hymns for their goat sacrifice – Angar. send him to to his Fathers (pitri). when he reaches the world of spirits (asuniti). It's akin to Old Greek hadro. unto the waters. Fire can’t burn it. he will become the subjects (vashani). the Wind thy spirit. the slayer of Bellerus. ka. don’t scatter his skin and body. ears. consume (shocho) him not. when you cook. wind can't dry it.03 The above three verses on Agni talk about cremation. send him to his bozorg. eyes and fingers. The word Indra is derived from root ind. These verses have reflections of Krishna's words in Bhagavat Gita composed at least a thousand years later – Weapons cannot destroy the Self. don't scatter (chikshipa) his skin (tvacha) and body (sharira). his arms. This verse is from the tenth book of the Rig Veda. and is in general a symbol of generous heroism. to the waters and to the plants. one of the later books. of the Gods. 110 . Indra Indra is the Indian Jupiter Pluvius or lord of rain. the demons of darkness.16. go. He fights against and conquers with his thunder-bolt vajra. as per his merits (dharma) he will go to the earth (prithivi) or to the sky (dya). bones. when you mature him. meaning strong. the slayer of Vala.

The episodes of Indra killing the Vala or Vritra or Ahi are all similar in significance and all represent the philosophy of setting everything free. The verses below are typical of Indra and similar things come innumerable times throughout the Rig Veda. breaking all obstructions and removing all confinements. the first that he achieved. the Thunder-wielder.32. The physical power and strength of Indra which’s praised throughout the RV is actually the power of the illumined mind.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan rays) in caves.1 I WILL declare the manly deeds of Indra.32. Indra signifies the illuminated mentality or the mind power and his horses are the energies of that mentality. indrasya nu vīryāṇi pra vocaṃ yāni cakāra prathamāni vajrī | ahann ahim anu apas tatarda pra vakṣaṇā abhinat parvatānām || 1. He slew the Dragon. then disclosed the waters.1 ahann ahiṃ parvate śiśriyāṇaṃ tvaṣṭāsmai vajraṃ svayaṃ tatakṣa | vāśrā iva dhenavaḥ syandamānā añjaḥ samudramava jagmurāpaḥ || 1.32. 1. and cleft the channels of the mountain torrents. Like lowing (vāśrā) kine (dhenava) in rapid flow (syandamāna) descending the waters glided downward to the ocean. He comes impelled by thought and driven by the illumined thinker within – dhiyeshita viprajuta – and liberates us of all our confinements and bondages. 111 .2 He slew the Dragon lying on the mountain: his heavenly bolt of thunder Tvaṣṭar fashioned.

as though like a rim. 1.15 The last verse above is again an instance of the Indo-Aryans' obsession with spoked wheel of a chariot. That.15 Indra is King of all that moves and moves not (avasita). They represent the prana or the life energy that moves and acts and desires and 112 . They are the Lords of the journey – the journey of life. thou crossedst nine-and-ninety flowing rivers (sravantī)? indro yāto avasitasya rājā śamasya ca śṛṅghiṇo vajrabāhuḥ | sedu rājā kṣayati carṣaṇīnāmarān na nemiḥ pari tā babhūva || 1.32. In this particular verse it's said that Indra rules over men (referred to as cultivators. dating few centuries before the Rig Veda. of creatures tame (śama) and horned (śṛṅghiṇa). Horses are trademarks of IndoEuropean people and chariots and spoked wheel of the Aryans. containing all as spokes (ara) within the felly (nemi). Ashvin The Ashvins appear in the sky before the dawn in a golden carriage drawn by horses or birds.32. charshani) like the rim of the wheel (nemi) containing or encompassing the spokes (ara). resembles very much a wheel with spokes encompassing a central courtyard. Over all living men (carṣaṇī) he rules as Sovran. the Thunderwielder. Throughout the RV there are several references to spoked wheel. like a hawk (śyena) affrighted through the regions.14 Whom sawest thou to avenge the Dragon. that fear possessed thy heart when thou hadst slain him.32. sometimes in quite intricate details. the purest of the Aryan lands. Indra. the journey of fierce and violent actions and wonderful deeds we've to accomplish everyday in our lives.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Aheryātāraṃ kamapaśya indra hṛdi yat te jaghnuṣo bhīraghacchat | nava ca yan navatiṃ ca sravantīḥ śyeno na bhītoataro rajāṃsi || 1. Interestingly the IndoAryan or Indo-Iranian settlement at Arkaim. the Aryan expanse. chariot and horses. Connections to wheel is also found in the Avestan list of the fifteen Aryan countries surrounding the central Aryanem Vaejo.

Atharvan's offspring Dadhyac made known to you the Soma's sweetness. you. for gain. 1. tad vāṃ narā sanaye daṃsa ugram āviṣ kṛṇomi tanyatur na vṛṣṭim | dadhyaṅ ha yan madhu ātharvaṇo vām aśvasya śīrṣṇā pra yad īm uvāca || That mighty deed of yours. as ’twere an order.116. 1. and gave to her a son Hiraṇyahasta. When. Nāsatyas. gives Vishpala an artificial leg of metal (ayasijangha) when she loses her leg (charitra) in the battle of Khela. it can be recalled something which was mentioned in an earlier chater – in one of the graves in the Timber Grave Culture.13 113 . The following verses show Ashvin as the divine physician who helps a woman with an impotent husband (vadhrimati) by giving her a child. They are considered as the physicians of heaven. by the horse's head. Ye heard the weakling's wife (vadhrimatī). as thunder heraldeth the rain. the central grave pit had remains of a man buried with at least two horse heads and the head of a sheep. The first verse refers to the Dadhyach Myth (a man with a horse's head) which has ancient Indo-European connections. O Heroes.12 ajohavīn nāsatyā karā vāṃ mahe yāman purubhujā puraṃdhiḥ | śrutaṃ tac chāsur iva vadhrimatyā hiraṇyahastam aśvināv adattam || In the great rite the wise dame (puraṃdhi) called. to assist her.116. gives a poet (kavi) a perfect vision (vichaksha). In this context. I publish. Lords of many treasures (purubhujā).Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan enjoys. Simplistically they bring enjoyment to men and women by averting misfortune and sickness.

O Heroes.116. set free the quail. as ye stood together. O Nāsatyas. Ye. 1. Straight ye gave Viśpalā a leg of iron (jaṅgām āyasī) that she might move what time the conflict opened.14 caritraṃ hi ver ivācchedi parṇam ājā khelasya paritakmyāyām | sadyo jaṅgām āyasīṃ viśpalāyai dhane hite sartave prat adhattam || When in the time of night (paritakmyā).Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan āsno vṛkasya vartikām abhīke yuvaṃ narā nāsatyāmumuktam | uto kaviṃ purubhujā yuvaṃ ha kṛpamāṇam akṛṇutaṃ vicakṣe || 1. Lords of many treasures.15 114 .116. a leg (caritra) was severed like a wild bird's (āja) pinion (parṇa).14 Ye from the wolf's jaws.116. in Khela's battle. 1. gave the poet his perfect vision as he mourned his trouble.

go) and the Rig Vedic Aryans had to break into the tripurs and free the cows. Here again a historical event may be hidden under layers of double meanings and mysticism. ritasya dhara. In Monier Williams’ Sanskrit dictionary the word vala means an enclosure or cave and vritra coverer. hostile host. tripurs. Vala has an Avestan counterpart – Vara. liberates the waters and allows the rivers. Vritra is often identified with Ahi. In the Rig Veda cow is often used as a simplistic symbol for sun rays. along with their wealth (cattle. Vritra is the Vedic personification of an imaginary malignant influence or demon of darkness and drought. light and wealth. the streams of truth. Two of Indra’s most popular enemies are Vala and Vritra. cow. Indra is represented as battling with this evil influence in the pent up clouds. 115 . restrainer. Indra kills Vala and liberates the cows. causing them to obstruct the clearness of the sky and keep back the waters. His enemy is anyone who is a confiner. poetically pictured as mountains or castles which are shattered by his thunderbolt and made to open their receptacles. It’s possible that the Dasa and Pani people – Pipru is one of their leaders – took shelter in their fortified strongholds. the dragon. restrainer.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 10 VALA MYTH Throughout the Rig Veda Indra is shown as the liberator. Vala is said to imprison the cows in a cave in an island of the mythical Rasa River. Ahi may be the personification of a frozen glacier that ‘confines’ the waters. an enemy. and coverer. It takes possession of the clouds. Indra kills Ahi. foe. The entire episode of Vala imprisoning the cows and Indra freeing them may be a poetic rendition of the Rig Vedic Aryans fighting in the Central Asia with the Dasa people belonging to the older lot of the Aryans. to flow like kines running towards their mother. The Dasa people and the two lots of the Aryans have been discussed in details in earlier chapters.

He slew the Dragon Ahi. releasing from captivity the swollen waters. The river thus formed rushes and gushes through the slits and splits of mountains like freed cattle running towards their mother…” The following verses are some of the many ones in the Rig Veda about the myth of Vala and Vritra. 116 . indrasya nu vīryāṇi pra vocaṃ yāni cakāra prathamāni vajrī | ahann ahim anu apas tatarda pra vakṣaṇā abhinat parvatānām || 1. with thunderbolts and fire. then disclosed the waters. the first that he achieved.32. ahan ahiṃ parvate śiśriyāṇaṃ tvaṣṭāsmai vajraṃ svaryaṃ tatakṣa | vāśrā iva dhenavaḥ syandamānā añjaḥ samudram ava jagmur āpaḥ || He slew Ahi lying on the mountain: his heavenly bolt of thunder Tvaṣṭar fashioned. breaks into pieces the glaciers that crawl like a big dragon named Ahi. and cleft the channels of the mountain torrents.01 Will declare the manly deeds of Indra.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan One of Kubha’s stories about a river is perhaps about this myth that’s repeated in the Rig Veda in various forms: “In the high altitudes of the Snow Mountains a powerful Indar. the Thunder-wielder. full of life. Like lowing kine in rapid flow descending the waters glided downward to the ocean. He melts the ice. that flow down like streams of milk.

32.32. He. challenged Indra. crushed Indra's foe – the shattered forts in falling. brooking not the clashing of the weapons.05 Indra with his own great and deadly thunder smote into pieces Vṛtra.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan ahan vṛtraṃ vṛtrataraṃ vyaṃsam indro vajreṇa mahatā vadhena | skandhāṃsīva kuliśenā vivṛkṇāhiḥ śayata upapṛk pṛthivyāḥ || 1. 117 . like a mad weak warrior. low on the earth so lies the prostrate Ahi. what time the axe (kuliśa) hath felled them.07 Footless and handless still he challenged Indra. As trunks of trees (skandhāṃsa). ayoddheva durmada ā hi juhve mahāvīraṃ tuvibādhaṃ ṛjīṣam | nātārīd asya samṛtiṃ vadhānāṃ saṃ rujānāḥ pipiṣa indraśatruḥ || 1. who smote him with his bolt between the shoulders.32. worst of Vṛtras (vṛtrataraṃ). the great impetuous many-slaying Hero. apād ahasto apṛtanyad indram āsya vajram adhi sānau jaghāna | vṛṣṇo vadhriḥ pratimānaṃ bubhūṣan purutrā vṛtro aśayad vyastaḥ || 1.06 He.

the son was under and like a cow beside her calf lay Danu. perhaps in the tripurs. atiṣṭhantīnām aniveśanānāṃ kāṣṭhānāṃ madhye nihitaṃ śarīram | vṛtrasya niṇyaṃ vi caranti āpo dīrghaṃ tama āśayad indraśatruḥ || 1. the robber.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Emasculate yet claiming manly vigour. 118 . the waters stayed like kine held by Pani.32. bila. when he had smitten Vṛtra. referred to as caves. water. flow above him. opened the cave wherein the floods had been imprisoned.32. The background of this particular event – the Dasas and Panis seen as robbers of cows and wealth – has been discussed earlier with reference to the conflict between the two lots of the Aryans in BMAC in Central Asia. The Dragon lies beneath the feet of torrents which Vṛtra with his greatness had encompassed. referred to as apa. nadaṃ na bhinnam amuyā śayānaṃ mano ruhāṇā ati yanti āpaḥ | yāś cid vṛtro mahinā paryatiṣṭhat tāsām ahiḥ patsutaḥ śīr babhūva || There as he lies like a bank-bursting river. thus Vṛtra lay with scattered limbs dissevered. The mother was above. The last verse is a very direct reference to the Dasas and the Panis as people who confined cows and wealth.10 Rolled in the midst of never-ceasing currents flowing without a rest for ever onward. But he. nīcāvayā abhavad vṛtraputrendro asyā ava vadhar jabhāra | uttarā sūr adharaḥ putra āsīd dānuḥ śaye sahavatsā na dhenuḥ || 1. The waters bear off Vṛtra's nameless body: the foe of Indra sank to during darkness.09 Then humbled was the strength of Vṛtra's mother: Indra hath cast his deadly bolt against her. dāsapatnīr ahigopā atiṣṭhan niruddhā āpaḥ paṇineva gāvaḥ | apāṃ bilam apihitaṃ yad āsīd vṛtraṃ jaghanvāṃ apa tad vavāra || Guarded by Ahi stood the thralls of Dāsas. the waters taking courage.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan This is a classic example of how a historical event has been used as a pretext. an external façade. to explain something which is much deeper philosophical in the Rig Veda. 119 .

e air.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 11 CREATION MYTH ṛtaṃ ca satyaṃ cābhīddhāt tapaso adhi ajāyata | tato rātri ajāyata tataḥ samudro arṇavaḥ || 10. Ordainer of the days nights.190. commandover all. and thence the billowy flood of sea arose. the great Creator. Now let’s 120 .190.02 From that same billowy flood of sea the Year (saṃvatsara) was afterwards produced. samudrād arṇavād adhi saṃvatsaro ajāyata | ahorātrāṇi vidadhad viśvasya miṣato vaśī || 1. mentioned earlier in a chapter about the Rig Veda. He formed in order Heaven and Earth.190.03 This is the creation hymn.190. the penultimate hymn of the Rig Veda. and light. sūryācandramasau dhātā yathāpūrvam akalpayat | divaṃ ca pṛthivīṃ ca antarikṣam atho svaḥ || 1. then formed in due order Sun and Moon.01 FROM Fervour kindled to its height Eternal Law (ṛta) and Truth (satya) were born: Thence was the Night (rātri) produced. 1.03 Dhātar.

the laws of material physics started governing the elements of universe. For old stars a large core of iron accumulates in the center. the temperature of the stars increases gradually. Hence this is called the Dark Age. The heavier metals move towards the surface and are shed eventually. Finally the stars collapse as they exhaust burning hydrogen. Stars were formed due to gravitational instability inside this molecular cloud. Initially the hydrogen created was nonionized and readily absorbed all light. which spread across the galaxy. Some of the protons and neutrons combined to form deuterium and helium nuclei in a process called Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Over long period of time slightly denser regions of uniformly distributed matter in the universe started gravitationally attracting nearby matter forming proto galaxies or molecular clouds. Further these nuclei and electrons combined to form mostly Hydrogen atoms and fewer Helium atoms. As density increased the gravitational enegry was converted into heat energy and the temperature increased. Stars spend 90% of their lifetime fusing hydrogen to produce helium in high temperature and high pressure reactions near the core. The above scientific description can be paraphrased a little poetically in the following way: 121 . massive stellar explosions or galactic collisions which created regions of higher densities. Most of the protons remained uncombined as Hydrogen nuclei.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan consider the following description of Big Bang and the creation of the universe: At the very beginning when the temperature was very high and the random movement of the particles relativistic. carbon and iron. form planets. to maintain the required rate of nuclear fusionin its core. These atoms filled almost uniformly the universe like a sea. Gradually. the basic laws of material physics were not applicable. often trigerred by shock waves. with cooling and expansion. These regions increased in density due to the gravitational forces between the materials within. thus creating a proto star. These heavier metals. helium. As helium increases.

it was a very long night (Dark Age). the great Creator. then formed in due order Sun and Moon. He formed in order Heaven and Earth. And thence the billowy flood of sea arose. Thence was the Night (rātri) created.  Then.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan  At the very beginning the fervour was kindled to its height (temperature was extremely high) and there was lawlessness every where (basic laws of material physics were not applicable). 122 .  First was created the sun (star) and then the moon and earth (planets). proto galaxy) was created. Does it not sound very much like the Creation Hymn? From Fervour (tapas) kindled to its height Eternal Law (ṛta) and Truth (satya) were born.  Gradually the eternal law and truth were born (with the cooling and expansion of the universe laws of material physics came into action). Dhātar.  Eventually a billowy flood of sea (molecular cloud.

but earlier Aryans could have entered India before that. they didn't know the art and science of urban dwelling. the descendants of the IndoEuropean and Indo-Iranians – started migrating into India since 1700 BC through the Gandhara region.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 12 BATTLE OF TEN KINGS Socio-economic conditions in India in 1300 BC The Aryans – the Indo-Aryans. They stayed in villages and constructed houses with woods and other easily perishable materials. The Aryans came in some sort of conflict with the people of Indus Valley. most of the works of literature used to be period dramas based on some historical events. the present day Swat in Pakistan. the Proto Dravidians and the Para Mundas. where as the cities of the earlier Indus Valley civilization didn't perish even after 5000 years. It can be argued that literature can't be treated as historical accounts. Most of Shakespeare's works are based on historical events. But it's also true that till recent past. who were gradually getting scattered throughout India. Perhaps that was the reason why there's absolutely no archaeological evidence of the Aryans. the Upanishads and the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. The once prosperous Indus Valley civilization was declining at that time. it's not unlikely that the Aryans entered into India across several centuries. The only accounts of the life and society of the early Aryans can be constructed from their literature – the Vedas. the Meluhans. Most early literatures across the world in any language used to derive their content directly from interesting 123 . Same is the case with Kalidas' works. Unlike the people of the Indus Valley. The Aryans settled in the Punjab were indeed the composers of the Rig Veda around 1500 BC. The Aryans were nomadic and pastoral people moving and settling in groups. Though historical and archaeological records suggest that the earliest Aryans settled in Punjab since 1600 BC.

but then mythologies are also some sort of literary creations. since the Aryans had started entering into India around 1700 BC. The Kassites attacked Babylon in the 1600s during the reign of Hammurabi's son. There was no direct form of taxation for the people. were marked with several conflicts – between the different Rig Vedic tribes. Even in Mesopotamia there were continuous warfares between the various city states till Hammurabi consolidated most of them under Babylonian Empire (Iraq) around 1700 BC. Even if we discount the authenticity of the names of the Kings and Kingdoms still we can get a picture of the Aryan society of that period. It's always possible to segregate the historical content from the imaginations of the writers. These conflicts are mainly for control over more pastures. Such warfares among the various tribes were not unique to India. and also between the Rig Vedic and non Rig Vedic people. So it's not unrealistic to depend on the Rig Veda for an account of the earliest Aryans in India. Even if some of the characters are not historical. He drove the Elamites (Iranians) out and created quite a big Empire. By that time the Kassites had already gained 124 . Each and every dialogue between Julius Caesar and Cleopatra. In the mean time the Indo-European Hittite Kingdom (Turkey) was gaining prominence to the west of Babylon. but most of the characters and the chronology of events are indeed historical. Warfares provided one of the main sources of accumulating wealth by the kings. The Rig Veda speaks about several confederations of tribes. many of which are referred to as non-Aryans – they can be either the native people of India like that of the Indus Valley or the earlier Aryans.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan historical events. but the depiction of the society. In some cases they were also based on mythology. The initial few years. The plunders of the wars were shared among the people. may not be accurate from historical point. The tribes were generally led by kings chosen democratically by the people but the kingship also became hereditary at many places. Even in the accounts of Sherlock Holmes Arthur Conan Doyle gave a very true picture of London and England of the 19th century. as depicted by Shakespeare. the lives of the people and the political and economic conditions of the nation and kingdoms are very accurate in most cases. which finally fell to the Hittites in 1532 BC. Apart from the accumulation of wealth there was also the urge for consolidation.

These conflicts were just natural events in course of amalgamation of different languages and cultures. Though the Aryans were a minority compared to the native people.18. Assyria (Syria). By 1475 BC they gained control over the southern part too. none of these conflicts can be termed as Aryan invasion. to the west of Assyria. in due course most of the earlier languages and cultures were finally absorbed into their language and culture.06 ā pakthāso bhalānaso bhanantālināso viṣāṇinaḥ śivāsaḥ | ā yo anayat sadhamā āryasya gavyā tṛtsubhyo ajagan yudhā nṛn || 125 . It's very likely that all these amalgamations would be associated with conflicts and confrontations between opponent parties. The Bhṛgus and the Druhyus quickly listened: friend rescued friend mid the two distant people. 7.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan control over the northern part of Babylonia. Hittite (Turkey) and Mittani. the Hurrian speaking vassal of Hittite. still. By the 1300s the various kingdoms ruling over Middle East were Kassite (Iraq).18) puroḷā it turvaśo yakṣurāsīd rāye matsyāso niśitā apīva | śruṣṭiṃ cakrur bhṛgavo druhyavaśca sakhā sakhāyam atarad viṣūcoḥ || Eager for spoil was Turvaśa Purodas. Battle of Ten Kings The Rig Veda mentions a battle of ten Kings in the various hymns. An interesting one is the 18thhymn in book 7 (7. Also that was the period when the culture and language of the Aryans were influencing most of the native people in Northern India. Nevertheless. It's not something exceptional that around the same time in India too the various smaller kingdoms or confederations of tribes were involved in constant flights with the urge to create a consolidated empire in India. fain to win wealth. Elam (Iran). like fishes urged by hunger.

18) is dedicated to Lord Indra. They are also sometime identified with the people of the Gandhar region (present day Kandahar). Paktha may be identified with present day Pathan or Pasthun or Pakhtun in Afghanistan. They may be historically identified with the people of Central Asia (the BMAC culture) – more specifically Bactria. Indra is referred to as the friend of Arya. “Sadhama Aryasya”. Yet to the Tritsus came the Ārya's Comrade. Alina. Whatever be the true historical identification of the Druhyus. arṇāṃsi cit paprathānā sudāsa indro gādhāni akṛṇot supārā | śardhantaṃ śimyum ucathasya navyaḥ śāpaṃ sindhūnām akṛṇod aśastīḥ || 126 . The Bhrigus may be the people who eventually separate from the Rig Vedic Aryans and become the followers of Zoroaster. Bhrigu. through love of spoil and heroes' war.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Together came the Pakthas. the Vishanins. who is mentioned to take side with King Sudas of the Tritsu tribe. The Alinas are sometimes identified with the people of Nuristan in Afghanistan. as mentioned in the above verses. are Druhyu. Vishanin and Shiva. Eight of the tribes opposing him. Turvasha. Historically the Gatha is younger than the Rig Veda and contemporary to the Atharva Veda.18. present Balkh in Afghanistan and the Sanskrit Balhika of the epics. Bhalanas. There are striking similarities between the language and the content of the Rig Veda and the Avestan Gatha. who himself may be one of the Bhrigus. to lead them. the Shivas. the Bhalanas. The name of Bolan Pass in Pakistan may be related to the Bhalanas.7. The Bhrigu and Druhyu tribes are referred to as friends rescuing friends (sakha sakhayam atarad) mid the two distant people. Sudas is fighting against at least ten other tribes. the reference to “distant people” may point to the fact that they are not native people. the Alinas.07 This hymn (7. the earliest books of the Zoroastrianism (present day Parsi religion) and believed to be composed by Zoroaster himself. Paktha.

the Warriors (rantaya) and the harnessed horses (niyut).018. They who drive spotted steeds (pṛśnigāva).10 They went like kine (gāvo) unherded (agopā) from the pasture.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan What though the floods spread widely. each clinging to a friend as chance directed. 7. the leader of the ten kings fighting against Sudas. foe of our hymn. Sudas.05 The climax of the battle is fought on the banks of the river Parushni.11 127 . wrought their downfall. the modern Ravi in Punjab.18. Indra is praised for making the river shallow and thus facilitating Sudas to cross it easily. 7.018. sent down by Pṛśni. so hath the Hero Indra. ekaṃ ca yo viṃśatiṃ ca śravasyā vaikarṇayor janān rājā ni astaḥ | dasmo na sadman ni śiśāti barhiḥ śūraḥ sargam akṛṇod indra eṣām || The King who scattered one-and-twenty people of both Vaikarna tribes through lust of gloryAs the skilled priest (dasma) clips (śiśāti) grass (barhi) within the chamber. caused the Shimyu. Indra made them shallow and easy for Sudās to traverse. worthy of our praises. is swept away by the furious flood. He. īyur gāvo na yavasād agopā yathākṛtam abhi mitraṃ citāsaḥ | pṛśnigāvaḥ pṛśninipreṣitāsaḥ śruṣṭiṃ cakrur niyuto rantayaś ca || 7. the leader of the Tritsus crosses the river even though the flood is spreading wildly. to curse the rivers’ fury. But Shimyu. He curses the river's fury. gave ear.

the person who brought these spotted steeds. Vishanin. Turvasha. Kavasha along with the Druhyus are killed in the waters. where it was worshiped. may be a Druhyu King and one of the leaders of the enemies. Yakshu and Shigru. thunder-armed (vajrabāhu). These three verses give a graphical description of the war. Paktha. Druhyu. 128 . agopā. Few other tribes. brought by Prishni. Some of them may be Kavasha. It was also very important in ancient Persia. it's mentioned that the enemies are riding “spotted horses”.12 Thou. Anu and Puru. o’erwhelmedst in the waters (apsu) famed (śruta) ancient (vṛddha) Kavasa and then the Druhyu. So the list of ten tribes is: Bhrigu. the warriors of the confederation of ten Kings. pṛśnigāva. referred to as famed and ancient. Others here claiming friendship to their friendship. So from the timing of the Rig Veda and the probable dating of the battle of Ten Kings (around 1300 BC) it's likely that the “spotted steeds” or pṛśnighāva might have come from Central Asia. But they may not be led by their own Kings. A later verse of the same hymn mentions the other two tribes in opposition – Anu and Puru. In the first of the three verses above. Not all the Kings are named. might have been a King of the Druhyu or Anu or Bhrigu. śrutaṃ. The reference to famed and ancient Kavasha may hint at the reputation of the Druhyus as a powerful and strong race of ancient times.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan adha śrutaṃ kavaṣaṃ vṛddham apsu anu druhyuṃ ni vṛṇag vajrabāhuḥ | vṛṇānā atra sakhyāya sakhyaṃ tvāyanto ye amadan anu tvā || 7. Kavasha. The enemies. Then Prishni. Bheda and Prishni. All these Ten tribes are led by their respective Kings and thus making the Ten Kings. It became a subject of art around 1400 BC in Egypt and Greece. devoted unto thee. are also mentioned as oppositions in connection to the Battle of Ten Kings. are running like unherded cattle.018. like Aja. all of whom may be identified with the people of Central Asia. vṛddham. This may imply that most of the leaders of the enemies are killed and hence they are unherded. Shiva. Bhalanas. Spotted horse or Appaloosa is a horse breed – one of the oldest breeds known to humanity and depicted in cave paintings in Asia and China – which originated in Central Asia. in thee were joyful. Alina.

It may not be illogical to place all these tribes and the battle 129 . the native place of the people of Indus Valley. Probably they spoke some dialect which was different from that of the Tritsus. May we in sacrifice conquer scorned (mṛdhravāca) Puru ni gavyavoanavo druhyavaśca ṣaṣṭiḥ śatā suṣupuḥ ṣaṭ sahasrā | ṣaṣṭirvīrāso adhi ṣaḍ duvoyu viśvedindrasya vīryā kṛtāni || 7. Here it may not be implied that Puru spoke the language of Indus Valley. This goes well with the observation made earlier that the Aryans came in waves carrying with them different but still related cognate languages. yea. The Babylonians referred to the people of Indus Valley Civilization as Meluhha. A probable etymology for the word mridhra or mleccha is interesting. The goods of Anu's son he gave to Trtsu. And six and sixty heroes. barbarian. mridhravacham. the people who won the Battle of Ten Kings.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan vi sadyo viśvā dṛṃhitāni eṣāmindraḥ puraḥ sahasā sapta dardaḥ | vi ānavasya tṛtsave gayaṃ bhāgh jeṣma pūruṃ vidathe mṛdhravācam || Indra at once with conquering might demolished all their strong places (pura) and their seven castles. non-Aryan. This makes sense only when we assume that the Aryans immigrated from outside into India. the sixty hundred. both meaning a foreigner.14 The Anus and Druhyus. This logically leads to the idea that not all the Aryans spoke the same language. About Puru it's said that they speak a slang language. seeking booty (gavya). No doubt all these tribes did exist during the time of the Rig Veda. language or vacham of the mridhra. six thousand. For the pious were all these mighty exploits done by Indra. any person who does not speak Sanskrit. which may be the source of mleccha and mridhra. man of an outcast race. have slept.018.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

around 1300 BC – little later than the arrival of the Rig Vedic Aryans
in India sometime round 1500 BC. As most of the dates we mention
here are not unanimously accepted by all and there’s always a lot of
questions unanswered as to what would be the most authentic date,
we can, for the sake of simplicity, stick to something which seems
plausible. And, a date of 1300 BC for the Battle of Ten Kings does
seem plausible from many aspects.
A very interesting thing in the second verse above is the use of
six thousand synonymously with sixty hundred. This means that the
Aryans used the same numeric system, the place value system with
ten as the unit, which we still use now and which was later evolved
significantly into the modern day place value system by Aryabhat in
5th century AD and which traveled to Europe via Arab much later.
The same verse mentions that in the battle of ten Kings, the
tribes Anu and Druhyu lost 6666 people. Though this figure may not
be taken very seriously, but it's indeed a rough indication of the order
of number of people belonging to any tribe in those days.
In another verse we get to know that the Tritsu wore white robes
and made hair knots, like cowry shells, on the right sides of their
heads.

ādhreṇa cit tad vekaṃ cakāra siṃhyaṃ cit petvenā jaghāna |
ava sraktīr veśyāvṛścad indraḥ prāyacchad viśvā bhojanā sudāse ||
E’en with the weak (ādhra) he wrought this matchless
exploit: e’en with a goat (petva) he did to death a lion
(siṃha).
He pared the pillar's angles (srakti) with a needle (beshī).
Thus to Sudās Indra gave all provisions (bhojana).
7.018.17
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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

śaśvanto hi śatravo rāradhuṣ ṭe bhedasya cicchardhato vinda randhim |
martāṃena stuvato yaḥ kṛṇoti tigmaṃ tasmin ni jahi vajramindra ||
To thee have all thine enemies (śatru) submitted: e’en the
fierce Bheda hast thou made thy subject (randhi).
Cast down thy sharpened (tigma) thunderbolt, O Indra, on
him who harms the men (marta) who sing thy praises.
7.018.18
āvadindraṃ yamunā tṛtsavaśca prātra bhedaṃ sarvatātā muṣāyat |
ajāsaśca śighravo yakṣavaśca baliṃ śīrṣāṇi jabhrur aśvyāni || 7.018.19
Yamuna and the Trtsus aided Indra. There he stripped
Bheda bare of all his treasures (sarvata).
The Ajas and the Sigrus and the Yaksus brought in to him
as tribute (bali) heads of horses (śīrṣāṇiaśvyāni).
The above verses give some more details about how Sudas,
leading the Tritsus, inflicts a decisive defeat over his enemies. Bheda,
perhaps a King of the enemy tribes, is stripped off all his belongings
and finally killed. Three other Kings or leaders from the enemy side –
Aja, Shigru and Yakshu – bring the heads of all the horses killed in
the battle.
A very important thing that comes out in the first of the three
verses is that this battle is a very skewed one – as if the goats (petva)
are fighting against lions (simha). This reminds of the skewed battle
that the Pandavas fight against the mighty Kauravas in
Mahabharata.
Various things discussed in this chapter appear in Kubha’s
story too:
“In The Battle of Ten Kings, on one side is Sudas, the powerful
King of the Bharat clan and on the other side are the ten chiefs
of Drujju, Anu, Bhrigu, Bolan, Puru / Bishoni, Alin, Pakhto, Shibo,
Turu…
Sudas decides to capture all the cows from the surrounding
ten villages where fierce people like him have been living for long.
He sits on his favourite milk white horse while his enemies ride
on horses with black spots. Sudas attacks Simmu, the chief of
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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

the Turu people. When Simmu figures out that he alone can’t fight
against the powerful Sudas, he makes a plan. He talks to the
protectors of the nine other ghottas and forges an alliance against
Sudas. Now with a much bigger army he chases Sudas and his
small army. Sudas is now like a meek goat fighting against
powerful lions. Simmu pushes Sudas to the edge of the river
Pusni. Sudas has no option but to jump into the river. His warriors
follow him. Suddenly the river becomes very shallow, allowing
Sudas to get across. He reaches the other side with his army.
When Simmu tries to follow him with his huge army the waters
of Pusni rise like the surging baan, the high tide in the Meghna.
Simmu and his forces drown in the river.”
Drujju, Anu, Bhrigu, Bolan, Puru, Bishoni, Alin, Pakhto, Shibo
and Turu of Kubha’s story are actually the Druhyu, Anu, Bhrigu,
Bhalanas, Puru, Vishanin, Alina, Paktha, Shiva and Turvasha people
mentioned in the Rig Veda. Simmu is Shimyu and Pusni the river
Parushni, the present day Ravi.
This Battle of ten Kings has striking similarities with the war depicted
in the Mahabharata. Both the wars are some form of civil war
involving multiple parties, with one side, the much weaker one, being
supported by some divine power. Both the wars are for consolidation
of power over North India. In the Mahabharata the weaker Pandavas
are helped by Krishna and here Indra is helping the Tritsus. Keeping
aside the divinity and other super natural elements in the
Mahabharata as poetic license, the historical elements are not very
hard to identify. Various people have given different dates for the
historical period of the Mahabharata War. The most logical period
appears to be sometime in the 14th century BC, mentioned also by
Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Discovery of India”. This period coincides
with the probable date of the Battle of the ten Kings.

132

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

13
SURYA’S BRIDAL
The hymn 10.85 of the Rig Veda is about the marriage of Sun (sūryā)
with Moon (soma). This hymn is important because it throws light on
quite a few real things about the lives and thoughts of the people who
composed the Rig Veda. The personification of Sun and Moon as the
bride and the bridegroom respectively may have more of poetic
significance, but the detailed description of the marriage ceremony
may not be a thing of imagination or poetic license. After her marriage
in her own house Surya goes to the groom's house in an elaborate
procession (vahatu). She is wearing a wonderful dress. She has put
kajal on her eyes. Accompanying her in the bridal procession is her
close friend Raibhi and the Ashvin twins – from the groom's side. Still
now in India most Hindu marriages happen in the same way as
described in this hymn.
In this hymn more important is actually something else. It's the
natural phenomenon that's actually poetically depicted as Surya's
marriage. Throughout the Rig Veda, many real events and simple
natural phenomena are poetically expressed through allegories and
personifications. Often there are quite deep inner meanings and
layers of philosophical thoughts hidden behind the simplistic event.
In this case the event of Sun's going to a new house and beginning a
new life is actually the beginning of a new revolution of Sun or the
starting of a new year. The heavenly bodies are things of deep interest
to the Rig Vedic people. The stars and the constellations and the
night sky are observed with great enthusiasm and often used as
personifications in various hymns.

somenādityā balinaḥ somena pṛthivī mahī |
atho nakṣatrāṇām eṣām upasthe soma āhitaḥ || 10.85.02
133

who is Sun's groom. Lovely was Sūrya's robe: she came to that which Gatha had adorned.85.06 Raibhi was her dear bridal friend (anudeyī). by Soma mighty is the earth. 10. and Narasamsi led her home. nakṣatra. But gravitation seems to be a very likely candidate for the natural phenomenon which is personified here as Soma.85.07 134 . ẉhen Sūrya went unto her Lord (pati). What else can it be other than the gravitational force that has its place ‘in the midst of all these constellations’? What exactly was meant by this verse by the composer is surely a matter of contention.85.85. Here Soma is something that binds the constellations. 10. 10. raibhi āsīd anudeyī nārāśaṃsi nyocanī | sūryāyā bhadram id vāso gāthayaiti pariṣkṛtam || 10.85.07 Thought (citti) was the pillow (upabarhaṇa) of her couch.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan By Soma are the Ādityas strong. Thus Soma in the midst of all these constellations hath his place. sight (cakṣu) was the unguent (abhyañjana) for her eyes: Her treasury (kośa) was earth (bhūmi) and heaven (dyau).06 cittir ā upabarhaṇaṃ cakṣurā abhyañjanam | dyaur bhūmiḥ kośa āsīd yad ayāt sūryā patim || 10.02 Soma in the above verse is surely not the Moon.

when The Sun-God Savitar bestowed his willing Sūrya on her Lord. Agni was leader (purogava). pratidhi. add strength and tranquility to her life. The ceremonial plume.85. into which she can immerse herself for the rest of her life and spend nights of peaceful sleep.09 Raibhi is the anudeyī. 10. Surya is wonderfully dressed in a lovely robe made by Gatha. accompanying Surya in the bridal procession to her husband's house. 135 .85. of her chariot. stoma. 10. The bridesmen (varā) were the Aśvin pair. Bestowing is an integral part of a Hindu marriage where the eldest of the family from the girl's side gives the bride to the groom.08 somo vadhūyur abhavad aśvināstām ubhā varā | sūryāṃ yat patye śaṃsantīṃ manasā savitādadāt || 10.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan stomā āsan pratidhayaḥ kurīraṃ chanda opaśaḥ | sūryāyā aśvinā varāgnir āsīt purogavaḥ || 10. abhyañjana. bride's maid. she is wearing on her head. The Sun God Savita bestows Surya to her husband. is like a decorative canopy. She is so happy that she feels as if both the earth and the heaven are her treasury. As pointed out at several instances. which’s making her look more beautiful. Like the cross bars of the pole. The above verses are indeed very rich in poetic ornamentations. the divine marriage hymns. opaśa. pratidhi.85. The wonderful thoughts of a new life are like soft pillows. the canopy (opaśa).09 Soma was the suitor (vadhūyu): the groomsmen (varā) were both Aśvins. as though the head-dress of the bride (kurīra). meter. They also throw light on how important chariot is to the Rig Vedic people – there's even a name. for the small piece of cross bar that is affixed to the axle of the wheel in order to keep the wheel steady and prevent it from sliding along the axle. which keep the wheels of her chariot fastened strongly to the axle. All the beautiful things she is seeing around herself are like the adornment of her eyes.08 Hymns were the cross-bars of the pole of the carriage (pratidhi). kurira. upabarhaṇaṃ. horses and chariots are the most significant trade marks of the Rig Vedic Aryans.85.

85. which may 136 . fast rolling – sucakram. Sūrya: make for thy lord (patye) a happy bridal journey (vahatu). 10. and decked with Kimshuka and Salmali flowers. colorful – viśvarūpaṃ. fashioned of Kimsuka and Salmali (sukiṃśuka śalmali). navo-navo bhavati jāyamāno ahnāṃ ketur uṣasām eti agram | bhāgaṃ devebhyo vi dadhāti āyan pra candramās tirate dīrgham ayuḥ || He (the moon). is new and new for ever. all-shaped (viśvarūpa). Bound for the world of life immortal (amṛtasya loka).20 Mount this. 10. he orders for the Gods their portion. he goes before the Mornings Coming. strong wheeled – suvṛtaṃ. So an ensign of the days may refer to first day or rather the beginning of the lunar year.85. In the same verse it's mentioned that the Moon prolongs the days. born afresh. ensign (ketu) of days (ahna). The Moon prolongs the days of our existence. gold-hued (hiraṇyavarṇa). with strong wheels (suvṛta). A later verse describes Surya's chariot as spirited – manasmaya. These verses also have an indirect reference to the beginning of a new year at the time of Surya's marriage. light-rolling (sucakra). navonavo bhavati jāyamāno – a direct reference to the fact that the moon is born afresh every time there's a New Moon.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan The following verses describe Surya's chariot as gold hued – hiraṇyavarṇaṃ.20 The Moon is referred to as born afresh and new forever.19 sukiṃśukaṃ śalmaliṃ viśvarūpaṃ hiraṇyavarṇaṃ suvṛtaṃ sucakram | ā roha sūrye amṛtasya lokaṃ syonaṃ patye vahatuṃ kṛṇuṣva || 10. The Moon is also referred to as ahnāṃ ketu – the ensign or the leader of days.85. A leader carries the ensign or the flag and marches ahead and all his people follow him.

is moving along with her. 10. it's mentioned that the engagement happens on a Magha day. which was started by Savitri. Her bridal procession vahatu. proceeding to her Lord.85.85. it speaks about a tradition that's still a part of any Hindu marriage. 10.13 The bridal pomp of Sūrya (vahatu). seems to be a popular thing during the Rig Vedic times. A thing to be noted here is that slaying oxen. manasmaya.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan refer to the longer days of summer.12 Sūrya. which indicates beef eating. ano manasmayaṃ sūryārohat prayatī patim || 10. in Arjuni they wed the bride. In Magha days are oxen slain. It's also mentioned that before her marriage the oxen were slain on a Magha (agha) day and finally she is married on a Phalguni (Arjuni) day. mounted a spirit-fashioried car. moved along.13 It says that Surya is proceeding to her Lord. nakshatra. It's also mentioned that the actual marriage 137 . Firstly. on a spirited chariot. Next. So the complete verse may refer to a beginning of year in the summer.85. This last line is very important for us as this has tremendous historical value. Slaying of oxen is indicative of the grandeur of such an event. Till this day most Hindu marriages are preceded by an equally grand engagement ceremony.12 sūryāyā vahatuḥ prāgāt savitā yam avāsṛjat | aghāsu hanyante gāvo arjunyoḥ pari uhyate || 10.85. It refers to a time of month when the Sun is in the Magha asterism. The verses below throw some more light on the time of the year when Surya gets married. pati. which Savitar started.

In all ancient civilizations and cultures a new year was always reckoned with one of the four cardinal points – the two equinoxes and the two solstices. Even today many new years begin on one of these four days. when frogs croak and when the hot summer comes to an end. The cyclic order of a year can be preserved only when the origin is identified and this twelfth month is nothing but the origin. and never do the men neglect the season. return after a year and when the hot glow.09 It says that the frogs preserve the sacred order. So this means that this hymn actually points to the twelfth month or the beginning of a new year when the hot summer ends and the rains 138 .103. It refers to that time of the year when rains come. the God appointed order of the twelfth. The new year of the Kalash people begin on a winter solstice. Soon as the Rain-time (prāvṛṣ) in the year returneth.09 They keep God-appointed (devahiti) order (ṛtu) of the twelfth (dvādaśasya). This makes sense because it's also mentioned that the frogs maintain the ‘order of the twelfth’. devahitiṃ jugupur dvādaśasya ṛtuṃ naro na pra minanti ete | saṃvatsare prāvṛṣi āgatāyāṃ taptā gharmā aśnuvate visargam || 7. prāvṛṣ. Here the word twelfth is very important. devahitiṃ dvādaśasya. We've seen earlier that the Surya's bridal is a euphemism for a new year. The Frog Hymn below further corroborates a summer new year.103. Men never forget this important season when the rains. visarga. This word twelfth here can be taken as an ordinal. 7. tapta gharma. of the sun finds its end. the twelfth month. the order of the twelve months. Tilak and Jacobi find reasons to believe the New Year began on a summer solstice during early Rig Vedic period.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan happens on a Phalguni day which refers to a month when Sun is in Phalguni nakshatra. The Nauroz of the Persians falls on Spring Equinox. which can't be anything other than the year. these who were heated kettles gain their freedom (visarga). a new beginning of a journey.

it 139 . If we assume that a new year can begin either on a solstice or an equinox then this actually points to the summer solstice. when Surya gets married. The axis makes a full circle in roughly 26000 years. This corresponds to Taurus (since Dec 1989 AD) in summer solstice and Pisces (since 67 BC) in spring equinox. That's due to a phenomenon called Precession of Equinoxes.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan appear. Due to this phenomenon the sun moves from one nakshatra to another on solstices and equinoxes and returns to the same nakshatra every after 26000 years. which is a very important tool for historians to ascertain ancient dates. As there are 27 nakshatras. At present (2000 AD) sun appears in Mrigashira on summer solstice and in Uttara Bhadrapada on a spring equinox. If we consider that a Phalguni day. is actually a Summer Solstice then it points to a date that's around 3000 BC. Precession is a phenomenon where the earth spins like a top with its tilted axis moving in such a way that the locus of its poles forms a circle.

We know that the Rig Veda was not written before 1500 BC. Later the Aryans did align the reckoning of their years with respect to the current position 140 . So the question may arise how such an ancient date (3000 BC) is referred to in the Rig Veda. The following figure below shows the location of sun on Spring Equinox and Summer solstice in 3000 BC. It's possible that the Rig Vedic people remembered a much older phenomenon from a much older period when the Proto Indo-Iranian people.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan implies that the sun stays in one nakshatra for close to 1000 years on an equinox or solstice. had not yet separated from the Proto Indo-Europeans – 3000 BC is indeed the age of Indo-European unity. the predecessors of the Rig Vedic Aryans.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan of sun. This corresponds. The knot looks like a jhinuk. Some of the aspects of Surya’s Bridal discussed in this chapter appear in Kubha’s story – The Battle of Ten Kings: “Sudas grows up hearing heroic tales of his ancestor Bharat. His wife wears her kurir. Later Vedic texts mention Kritiika as the position of sun on a spring equinox. a big knot. on the right side of his head. She adorns herself with simmal flowers. the decorated bridal crown that decks her head like the sky. Sudas wears a milk white robe. a cowrie shell. get married every year with the first splash of rain.” 141 . as we've seen. The frogs mark the day by croaking and jumping merrily into the lakes. For a long time Krittika was considered as the starting nakshatra as New Year began from spring equinox when sun was in Krittika. the Sun and Moon. Finally comes the day of his coronation. It’s the beginning of a new year and a very auspicious day when Suri and Mastruk. Like the Muzo people he ties his long hair in a kaparda. to a date around 2000 BC and that's very much within the time line of the Rig Veda.

2. The Rig Veda has several references to chariots. So it's very logical that everything they do would have chariots in it. Unlike the chariots and spoked wheels. constellations are not the trademarks of the Aryans. predating the Aryans by at least a thousand years. appears in hymns. Even an intricate part of a wheel like dhura. The sky. to have stared at the night sky with bewilderment and amazement. the peg with which the axle pole aksha is fastened to the center nabha. It may not be unnatural for any one to stare at the night sky and feel profoundness within. in astronomical lingo it's the projection of the earth's orbital plane on the 142 . The Aryans were not unique in this regard. The unending darkness sprinkled with an unending number of sparkles of stars vanishing into nowhere has always aroused lot of questions in the minds of humans. Chariot and its spoked wheel appear in double meanings to represent multiple things. if we consider the date of RV from 1700 BC onwards. They were surely the earliest sky gazers. Staring at the sky for hours can very easily bring out some basic facts: 1. in the shape of an inverted bowl. In fact the Babylonians were the first in the world. POLESTAR Chariots are the trademarks of the Aryans. of the wheel containing the spokes. ara. Almost each and every part of a spoked wheel and chariot is mentioned in RV. seem to revolve around you: this is nothing but the celestial sphere in astronomical terminology. the sun. along with millions of stars. at least in the recorded history. In the discussions on Rig Vedic Gods we've seen that one hymn says Indra rules over the world like the rim. nemi. moon and the visible planets always appear in a line.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 14 CHARIOT. CONSTELLATIONS. an arc: this arc or line is the ecliptic. rather.

which are located close to the earth's orbital plane. what's different in the case of the Rig Vedic Aryans is that they used these basic astronomical observations liberally in their double meanings and poetic creations. moon and the planets seem to be moving from one of these compartments to the other in a fixed cycle of time: the Babylonians were the first to study these stars. 4. Astronomy too plays an important role in The Ekkos Clan. Incidentally almost all the ancient civilizations made the same observations. nakshatras. it's also roughly the plane on which all the planets orbit round the sun. 143 . 3. each and every other star appears to be rotating around the Polestar. Many things discussed in this chapter are referred to in The Ekkos Clan in bits and pieces. lunar mansions and Polestars. the star that's located exactly to the north of or above the earth's north pole. remains at the same place as long as the night sky is visible: this is the Polestar. It can be assumed that it didn't take much intelligence for the Rig Vedic Aryans to observe these basic things about celestial sphere. Perhaps. simplistically it signifies the plane on which earth orbits round the sun. there's only one star that doesn't seem to revolve – it doesn't move. for the Rig Vedic Aryans these stars that compartmentalize the ecliptic constituted the twenty seven asterisms. ecliptic. Before proceeding further let's see how the night sky looked like around 2000 BC in Arkaim – the site of an early Aryan settlement. which is eventually named lunar mansion.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan celestial sphere. the number twenty seven comes from the twenty seven lunar days which roughly make a lunar month – dividing the ecliptic into twenty seven compartments makes the moon appear everyday in a new compartment. doesn't rise. doesn't set. the ecliptic can be marked with a number of bright fixed stars which can divide it into several compartments – the sun. which plays an important role in The Ekkos Clan. and which later constituted the twelve zodiac constellations.

In 2000 BC Thuban of the Draco constellation was very close to being the Polestar (it was the Polestar around 2800 BC). all with the same legend and in the same format – the red arc is the ecliptic. Due to the Precession of Equinoxes different stars. 2000 BC in Arkaim. Some of the lunar mansions with very bright stars like Spica. This sky map shows how the night sky looked like on 10th April. 144 . the names of the constellations and the bright stars visible very easily with naked eyes are marked in yellow and red.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Following are a number of sky-maps. It was just a day before the full moon nearest to Vernal Equinox. all arranged in a circle. Arcturus. Antares and Shaula are marked on the ecliptic. the constellation boundaries are marked in green.

145 . Following are the sky-maps of 9th and 8th April. 9th was a full moon coinciding with the Vernal Equinox. Polaris (now) and Vega (12000 BC & 14000 AD) are marked in the sky-map. These sky maps show how the moon passes from one nakshatra to another with each passing day. the moon is in the nakshatra Anuradha. Thuban (2800 BC).Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan become Polestars at various points of time. 10th April. On this particular day. something that happens once in roughly nineteen years. On 9th and 8th the moon was respectively in the adjoining nakshatras Vishakha (full moon) and Swati. 2000 BC.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 146 .

2000 BC – the full moon close to Autumnal Equinox. But it may not be tough to interpolate the nakshatras from the knowledge of their locations in the night.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Next. Identifying the stars during the day time is not that trivial. it's quite trivial to observe the stars and map them to their respective nakshatras on ground. where the ecliptic comes quite close to the horizon. The full moon at Vernal Equinox was in 147 . It has been observed earlier that at a place like Arkaim. is the sky-map at the time when the sun is rising on the Vernal Equinox on 9th Apr. in Arkaim. It can be recalled that the location of full moon around Autumnal Equinox is same as that of the sun on Vernal Equinox and vice versa. The sun is in Krittika and the full moon in Vishakha. 2000 BC. Next is the sky-map on 4th October.

Hence the full moon around Autumnal Equinox should be in Krittika – that's what is seen in the sky-map too. Let's see some of these hymns. 148 . had left deep impact in the minds of the people of the Rig Veda. These observations. which can be noticed in the night sky without much difficulty.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Vishakha and the sun in Krittika. Very poetically they have merged their favorite chariots with these and composed some wonderful hymns.

draws it. Mars. In the next line it stresses on the fact that the wheel is three naved. seven horsesdraw them onward. It's really tempting to identify the single wheel with seven horses with the ecliptic.03 The first verse talks about a single wheeled chariot.02 imaṃ ratham adhi ye sapta tasthuḥ saptacakraṃ sapta vahanti aśvāḥ | sapta svasāro abhi saṃ navante yatra gavāṃ nihitā sapta nāma || 1. the single Courser. The part of ecliptic that's visible to anyone during night does appear like an ellipse – with its three foci.162. ekachakra ratha. the seven stars of the Ursa Major constellation representing the seven sages. The gravitational power that drives the wheel. Perhaps this is the first usage of an expression that means horse power. and on it rests the whole world. Mercury. sapta ashva. on which rests the Seven.164.164. The stress on the point that the wheel is three naved. Jupiter and Saturn. 149 . This seems to be a reference to the Big Dipper asterism. bearing seven names (saptanām). 1. Another interesting thing in this verse is the term “driven by a single horse”. where Cows with seven names are laid (nihita). Three-naved the wheel is. trinabhi. again point very simplistically to the ecliptic.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan sapta yuñjanti ratham ekacakram eko aśvo vahati saptanāmā | trinābhi cakram ajaram anarvaṃ yatremā viśvā bhuvanādhi tasthuḥ || Seven yoke to the one-wheeled (ekacakra) chariot (ratha). an ellipse really has three centers or naves. driving a seven wheeled chariot. undecaying and strong. sapta chakra ratha. the ecliptic. moon and the five visible planets. vishva bhuvana. yoked to seven horses and driven by a single horse. whereon are resting all these worlds of being (viśva bhuvana). Seven Sisters (saptasvasāra) utter songs of praise (navante) together. Saptarshi. ajaram anarvam. is wonderfully and poetically referred to as the power of a single horse. which is also a sort of wheel that carries the seven horses – the sun. The next verse talks about the seven horses. 1. Venus. sound (ajara) and undecaying (anarva). or with three centers.03 The seven on the seven-wheeled car (saptacakra ratha) are mounted.

Knowing that many natural things are used as the outer layers for something more profound and philosophic.164. Indeed it's referred to in several verses as the ONE. the sages. tastambha. someone who has created all things that have existence. bhutani.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan In another verse there's a reference to the One that's beyond the seven sages. vishvani bhuvanani tasthu. garbham prathamam. the entire sky that rotates round it. bhuvanani vishva. The following few verses talk about this One in the typical Rig Vedic style of double meaning. the One that supports the skywheel. rajas. unaltered and firm since ages. like a peg. the One on whom rests the whole world. someone who's older than the Gods and the Asuras and earlier than the earth and heaven.164. who's strong in mind. it's very likely that the Polestar. and who's the Maker and Disposer. sapta rishi. dhura. prithivi and diva. the One that has fixed firmly. who's respected even by Vishwakarma. that doesn't move. The outer and simplistic identity of this One is surely the Polestar. vimana vihaya.06 150 . unknowing (acikitva). acikitvāñ cikituṣaś cid atra kavīn pṛchāmi vidmane na vidvān | vi yas tastambha ṣaḷ imā rajāṃsi ajasya rūpe kimapi svid ekam || 1. with which the axle pole of the wheel is affixed. rajamsi. someone who's sought after even by He who has made us and who knows the whole world. the One that's at the center of the celestial sphere. remains unchanged. those who know (cikituṣa). the six regions of the sky. would be used in the Rig Veda very effectively. What was that ONE who in the Unborn's image hath stablished and fixed firm these worlds' six regions (ṣaḷ rajāṃsi). dhata vidhata. someone who's like the germ primeval. as one all ignorant (na vidvān) for sake of knowledge (vidmane). 1. doesn't rise or set.06 I ask.

Indra and Soma. he who.82. the Deities' name-giver (devānāṃ nāmadhā). Disposer (vidhātā).19 viśvakarmā vimanā ād vihāyā dhātā vidhātā paramota sandṛk | teṣām iṣṭāni sam iṣā madanti yatrā saptaṛṣīn para ekam āhuḥ || 10. Maker (dhātā). Even he alone. 10. and most lofty Presence. Their offerings (iṣṭāni) joy in rich juice where they value One (ekam).02 yo naḥ pitā janitā yo vidhātā dhāmāni veda bhuvanāni viśvā | yo devānāṃ nāmadhā eka eva taṃ sampraśnam bhuvanā yanti anyā || Father who made us. steeds bear as ’twere yoked to the region's car-pole (dhura).164. only One.19 And what so ye have made. 1.03 151 . 10.82.82.164.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan indraś ca yā cakrathuḥ soma tāni dhurā na yuktā rajaso vahanti || 1. as Disposer. him other beings (anyā bhuvanā) seek for information. beyond the Seven Ṛṣis. knoweth (veda) all races (dhāmāni) and all things existing (bhuvanāni viśvā).02 Mighty in mind and power (vimanāvihāyā) is Visvakarman.

82.82. made a perfect circle around the Polestar Thuban during the timeline of the Rig Veda (~ 1700 BC). near (sūrta). and lower region (rajas). 10.04 To him in sacrifice they offered treasures (draviṇa).Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan ta āyajanta draviṇaṃ sam asmā ṛṣayaḥ pūrve jaritāro nabhūnā | asūrte sūrte rajasi niṣatte ye bhūtāni samakṛṇvan imāni || 10.04 paro divā para enā pṛthivyā paro devebhir asurair yad asti kaṃ svid garbham prathamaṃ dadhra āpo yatra devāḥ samapaśyanta viśve That which is earlier than this earth (pṛthivī) and heaven (diva). in numerous troops.06 It's worth mentioning that the Seven Sages of Saptarshi. 10.—Ṛṣis of old. Who.— What was the germ primeval (garbhaṃ prathamaṃ) which the waters (āpo) received where all the Gods were seen together? 10.05 tam id garbham prathamaṃ dadhra āpo yatra devāḥ samagacchanta viśve | ajasya nābhāv adhi ekamarpitaṃ yasmin viśvāni bhuvanāni tasthuḥ || The waters. 152 . in the distant (asūrta). made ready all these things that have existence (bhūtāni). the Big Dipper asterism.82. before the Asuras and Gods had being. The terms like “beyond the seven sages” and the “One that supports the sky-wheel like a peg” surely made much more sense when the Polestar was really at the center. that One wherein abide all things existing. as singers. The dotted lines show the locations of the asterism at different times of the same night. But now the stars of Big Dipper don't make a tight circle around the current Polestar Polaris. It rested set upon the Unborn's navel (ajasya nābha). they received that germ primeval wherein the Gods were gathered all together.82. The following sky-map shows how the Big Dipper stars revolved round the Polestar Thuban forming a perfect circle in 2000 BC.

Had the Rig Veda been written now the Saptarshi stars might not have been so important in this context – it no longer makes a proper circle around the current polestar Polaris. 153 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan The following sky-map shows the locus of the Big Dipper asterism as seen now.

It's worth mentioning that a very precise and scientific calendar system has been in place in India since the Rig Vedic times. Let's recall the following diagram we've seen in the discussions on Surya's Bridal.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Finally let's see how the ideas about these constellations impacted the calendar system in India. It depicts the scenario during 3000 BC – sun is in 154 .

From a few verses of RV it can be deduced that one of the beginnings of year during Rig Vedic times is this Summer Solstice when the sun is in Uttara Phalguni. which means the commencement of a year. From the circular arrangement of the nakshatras we can identify that the nakshatra diametrically opposite to Mrigashira on the ecliptic is Mula – that's the location of sun on Autumn Equinox and full moon close to Spring Equinox. This means that the Vernal Equinox is also a beginning of year.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Mrigashira on Vernal Equinox and Uttara Phalguni on Summer Solstice. On the other hand another name of Mrigashira is Agrahayana. A lunar month in India is named after the nakshatra where the moon resides on the central full 155 . In fact one or more of the four cardinal points – the two equinoxes and two solstices – have been considered beginnings of year in RV.

While Zodiacs are all of the same length the constellations are quite different – the constellation Libra is smaller than half of Virgo. So this again corroborates that Vernal Equinox is also a beginning of year. shown in a read arc. There's a difference between the Zodiacs (or Indian Rashis) and the Zodiac constellations. The location of each nakshatra in the ecliptic. is specified starting from 0 degree for Ashvini. means root. In fact later Vedic texts start the list of nakshatras with Krittika. or the lowest part of anything. With respect to a year the “root” month is nothing but its first month. Along with the nakshatras. That's the time line of Surya Siddhanta. The word mula in Skt. Now let's see the circular arrangement of the nakshatras in another format.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan moon of that month. The sky maps presented earlier show the boundaries of the constellations – the constellations roughly along the ecliptic. in terms of the longitudinal degrees it comprises. 156 . the astronomical treatise based on which the present list has been derived. But the constellations are the actual boundaries of the groups of stars that comprise them. which divide the ecliptic equally into twenty seven compartments or lunar mansions. are the Zodiac constellations. is given the location of the twelve zodiac constellations. the location of sun on a Vernal Equinox around 2000 BC. The sun was in Ashvini on Vernal Equinox around 500 BC. The present enumeration of nakshatras starts with Ashvini. very much like the nakshatras. So the month of Vernal Equinox around 3000 BC is Mula because that’s the position of the moon on the central full moon in that month. The former divides the ecliptic into twelve equal regions.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 157 .

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 158 .

whereas the Western tropical. The positions of Vernal equinoxes with respect to these fixed entities are shown in the above chart. when the Western and the Indian astronomies both took proper shapes. the Indian nakshatra Ashvini. The Indian Zodiac is called sideral.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan During the time frame of Surya Siddhanta (the centuries following 500 BC and more precisely the years around 0 AD). Cancer. Capricornus. on Summer Solstice. on Winter Solstice. The Rashis or the Indian zodiacs are still at the same locations as they were in the past.  Vernal Equinox is at the beginning of the zodiac Mesha (Aries) and nakshatra Ashvini. the time when the Western Zodiac and the Indian Rashi began their reckoning and were aligned to each other. the Western Zodiacs have drifted in such a way that the start of Aries is still aligned with the present Vernal Equinox (2000 AD). The offset is around twenty four degrees – that's the amount by which the equinox has precessed over the past two thousand years. The positions of the nakshatras.  The sun enters into the zodiac Karka. Due to the precession of equinoxes the Vernal Equinox no longer aligns with the start of Aries. relative to the fixed nakshatras. and the zodiac (rashi) Aries (Mesha) all started at the same point – the point of the Vernal Equinox or. Next let's see the scenario around 0 AD. more correctly. the constellation Aries. 159 .  Like wise the sun enters into the zodiac Makara. relative to the drifting equinoxes. the Zodiac constellations and the Rashis are fixed. But. the position of sun on the Vernal Equinox at that time. The Western Zodiac has an offset against the Indian Rashis.

even now. The rest of India (Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu) celebrates new year when sun enters into Mesha. sometime around 14th April – it's called Vaishakhi. south). Gujarat. sometime in late March or early April – it's called Ugadi. Though Vernal Equinox is no longer at the beginning of Mesha. Beginning of a month on a new moon day has been the tradition in India since long. In fact that's the most logical thing to do for a lunar or a luni-solar calendar.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan If Spring Equinox is taken as the beginning of the year then the year starts precisely when the sun enters into the zodiac Mesha. In a luni-solar calendar the twelve lunar 160 . still. celebrates new year on the new moon day just after the Vernal Equinox. Aries. east. half of India (north.

A lunar month generally starts and ends with a new moon. the sun entered into Makara zodiac on a Winter Solstice around 0 AD. Much later. Even later. coming from PIE root kale. It's possible that the Rig Vedic Aryans remembered their ancestors' veneration for the winter solstice.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan months totaling to roughly 356 days are synced up with solar year of roughly 365 days by adding an extra or intercalary thirteenth month from time to time. had lunar months. and akin to Skt. 161 . in historical times. a winter solstice may not evoke any special feeling. A closer look will reveal why this is such an important day. Passage of sun into a zodiac is called samkranti in Sanskrit and Makara Sankranti refers to sun's entry into Makara zodiac. Referring to the previous diagram. krand and Greek kalein. when winter solstice no longer coincided with Makara Samkranti other significances were added and the ancient ritual was retained for ever in India in its various later avatars. where winters are not at all dreadful. That's why in Latin a new moon or the first day of the month was called kalendae. the new moon day. astrology and rituals were being codified and given proper shapes in India. is so important to them. a much colder. but still this is the only Samkranti that's celebrated in India with much veneration. northern Steppes we can understand why the day. But if we consider that the Rig Vedic Aryans actually came from. Even the ancient Roman calendar. In a tropical country like India. Today the Winter Solstice is no longer on a Makara Samkranti. celebrated around winter solstice. No points for guessing that the word calendar comes from the Latin kalendae. when astronomy. the predecessor of Julian and Georgian calendars. As it coincided with the Makara Samkranti the latter name would have remained. An interesting trivia is that in the ancient Roman Kingdom the first day of the month. meaning to shout. used to be announced loudly to the people. It's worth remembering that the biggest festival of the Kalash people of the Hindukush is Choumos. this ritual of celebrating the winter solstice was retained. which heralds the end of winter and the beginning of longer days. We’ve seen that the Rig Veda has reference to intercalary month.

O Indra.28. drink with eager thirst the droppings (suta) which the mortar (ulūkhala) sheds. 1.03 In The Ekkos Clan a reference to the preparation of Soma plays a very important role in deciphering the mystery behind Kubha’s stories. O Indra.28.02 yatra nāri apacyavam upacyavaṃ ca śikṣate | ulūkhalasutānām aved vindra jalghulaḥ || 1.02 Where. to hold the juice the platters of the press (adhiṣavaṇa) are laid. 1. drink with eager thirst the droppings which the mortar sheds.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 15 PREPARATION OF SOMA yatra grāvā pṛthubudhna ūrdhvo bhavati sotave | ulūkhalasutānām aved vindra jalghulaḥ || 1.03 There where the woman learns the pestle's constant rise and fall (apacyavaupacyava).28.01 THERE where the broad-based (pṛthubudhna) stone (grāva) raised on high to press the juices out. drink with eager thirst the droppings which the mortar sheds. 1.28. as 162 . O Indra.01 yatra dvāviva jaghanādhiṣavaṇyā kṛtā | ulūkhalasutānām aved vindra jalghulaḥ || 1. like broad hips (jaghana).28.28.

Then you join the base of your palms in the same way as the hips appear to be joined.’ Afsar tried to join her palms like me. like this.’ I joined my palms making a ‘V’ shape. somehow it sounds familiar to me even though the comparison is really weird. ‘What are you thinking?’ I asked. The stuff we’ve got […] is dried and hence there’s no question of pressing the juice out of it. I helped her. Interestingly.’ ‘What’s that?’ ‘First you are supposed to crush the stuff with a broad stone which is called gabo.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan it triggers in Afsar’s mind a curiosity which finally leads to the unravelling of the mystery. The following passage from the novel talks about the preparation of Soma: “ ‘…There’s a very detailed description of how Bobhru crushed the stuff to get the juice out of it. joining the two mounds of Venus to appear like hips. but this is a good way to make the stuff finer so it can be easily put inside cigarettes. that’s a very good way to press anything really hard. As kids we would love the comparison of palms with hips. I too remember the stuff because of the weird comparison. I’m trying to figure out where I might have heard it. I remember it well because of something interesting. ‘That hip stuff you just mentioned. Staring at the joined palms she suddenly seemed to be thinking about something.’…” 163 . ‘And then you press the crushed stuff between the palms.

—a Bird (pataṃga) that from below flew through the heaven. from out the Sun ye fashioned forth the Courser.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 16 HORSES Horses and chariots were the trademark of the Indo-European people.163. Following are few verses which talk about horses. In The Ekkos Clan. 1.02 ātmānaṃ te manasārād ajānām avo divā patayantaṃ pataṃgam | śiro apaśyaṃ pathibhiḥ sugebhir areṇubhir jehamānaṃ patatri || 1. the Ekkos Clan. Most ancient civilizations had totems and the horse seems to be the most prominent totem of the Indo-Europeans. and him. striving upward by paths (pathin) unsoiled by dust (areṇu). O Vasus. the first of all. yamena dattaṃ trita enam āyunag indra eṇaṃ prathamo adhyatiṣṭhat | gandharvo asya raśanām agṛbhṇāt sūrād aśvaṃ vasavo nir ataṣṭa || This Steed which Yama gave hath Trita harnessed.163. the Ashwa Gotra. the Aryan race is implicitly referred to as the Horse Clan. His bridle (raśanā) the Gandharva grasped.06 164 . pleasant to travel (suga). I saw thy head (śira) still soaring. Horse appears in the Rig Veda in various ways.163.06 Thyself from far I recognized in spirit. hath Indra mounted. 1. the lineage of the family of the Horse.

some purely physical.11 These verses describe horses in different ways. like swans (haṃsa) in lengthened order.163. the Celestial Coursers Put forth their strength.163.163. mettled like heroes (śūraṇa). O Charger. Thy horns (śṛṅghāṇi) are spread abroad in all directions (purutr): they move with restless beat in wildernesses. when they. have reached the heavenly causeway. first of all (prathama).11 A body (śarīraa) formed for flight (patayiṣṇu) hast thou. The Gods have come that they may taste the oblation (havir) of him who mounted. is Indra. swift (dhrajīmān) as the wind (vāta) in motion is thy spirit (cittaa).10 Symmetrical in flank (silikamadhyama). though swift as thought. 1. 1.163.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan hiraṇyaśṛṅgo ayo asya pādā manojavā avara indra āsīt | devā id asya haviradyam āyan yo arvantaṃ prathamo adhyatiṣṭhat || Horns made of gold (hiraṇyaśṛṅga) hath he: his feet (pāda) are iron/metal (ayas): less fleet than he. the Steeds. It’s said that the Vasus have created 165 .163. the Courser (arvan).09 īrmāntāsaḥ silikamadhyamāsaḥ saṃ śūraṇāso divyāso atyāḥ | haṃsā iva śreṇiśo yatante yad ākṣiṣur divyam ajmam aśvāḥ || 1. some very poetic. 1.10 tava śarīraṃ patayiṣṇu arvan tava cittaṃ vāta iva dhrajīmān | tava śṛṅghāṇi viṣṭhitā purutrāraṇyeṣu jarbhurāṇā caranti || 1. with rounded haunches (īrmānta).

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

(tashta) the horse from the Sun, the Gandharvas hold tight (gribh, akin
to English grip) its bridle (rashana) and Indra is the first one to mount
on it. The horse is compared to a bird (patanga) with its head soaring
high, flying through the heaven. It’s extolled for its aerodynamic
(patayishnu) body with golden horns (hiranyashringa), metallic feet
(ayaspada), rounded hips (irmanta) and symmetrical flank (silikamadhyama or shirsha-madhyama).
The following verses talk about the horse-sacrifice (ashva-medha)
ritual.

yad dhaviṣyaṃ ṛtuśo devayānaṃ trir mānuṣāḥ pari aśvaṃ nayanti |
atrā pūṣṇaḥ prathamo bhāgha eti yajñaṃ devebhyaḥ prativedayan ajaḥ ||
When thrice the men lead round the Steed, in order, who
goeth to the Gods [as oblation, sacrifice],
The goat (aja) precedeth him, the share of Pūṣan, and to the
Gods the sacrifice (yajña) announceth. 1.162.04
hotādhvaryur āvayā agnimindho grāvagrābha uta śaṃstā suvipraḥ |
tena yajñena svaraṃkṛtena svaiṣṭena vakṣaṇā ā pṛṇadhvam || 1.162.05
Invoker (hotṛ), ministering priest (adhvaryu), atoner, firekindler (agnim-indha) Soma-presser (grāva-grābha), sage
(suvipra), reciter (śaṃstṛ),
With this well ordered (svaraṃkṛta) sacrifice (yajña), well
finished (sviṣṭa), do ye fill full the channels of the rivers
(vakṣa). 1.162.05
yūpavraskā uta ye yūpavāhāś caṣālaṃ ye aśvayūpāya takṣati |
ye cārvate pacanaṃ sambharanti uto teṣām abhigūrtir na invatu || 1.162.06

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The hewers of the post (yūpa-vraska) and those who carry it
(yūpa-vāha), and those who carve the knob (caṣāla) to deck
the Horse's stake/post (aśva-yūpa);
Those who prepare the cooking-vessels (cārvate pacana) [for
the Steed],—may the approving help /song of praise
(abhigūrti) of these promote our work. 1.162.06

ye cārvato māṃsabhikṣām upāsata uto teṣām abhigūrtir na invatu ||
And, craving meat (māṃsa-bhikṣā), await the distribution,—
may their approving help promote labour. 1.162.12
yan nīkṣaṇaṃ māspacanyā ukhāyā yā pātrāṇi yūṣṇa āsecanāni |
ūṣmaṇyāpidhānā carūṇām aṅkāḥ sūnāḥ pari bhūṣanti aśvam || 1.162.13
The trial-fork (nīkṣaṇa) of the flesh-cooking (mās-pacana)
cauldron (ukha), the vessels (pātrāṇi) out of which the
broth/juice (yūṣa) is sprinkled,
The warming-pots (ūṣmaṇya caru), the covers (pidhāna) of the
dishes, hooks (aṅka), carving-boards (sūnā),—all these
attend/decorate the Charger (aśva). 1.162.13
It’s said that the horse is the oblation (havishya), leading to the
God (devayana). As a part of the horse sacrifice ritual, the goat goes
first and the people go round the horse. The invoker (hotri), the
ministering priest (adhvaryu), the fire-kindler (agnimindha), the Somapresser (grava-grabha), the sage (suvipra), the reciter (samstri) – everyone
does his part of the job and makes the sacrifice well ordered
(svaramkrita) and well finished (svishta). The cutters of the sacrificial
post (yupa-braska), those who carry it (yupa-vaha), those who carve the
knob (chashala) to deck the post (ashva-yupa), those who prepare the
cooking-vessels (charvatepachana) – everyone’s contribution is
important. The laddles (nikshana) of the flesh-cooking vessels (ukha),
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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

the lids (pidhana), the hooks (anka) – everything, it’s said, embellishes
and adorns the horse. The dress, the upper and the lower garments
(vasa and the adhivasa), with which the horse is covered, and its golden
ornaments – everything is said to be gifted to the God. The horse, it’s
said, is well roasted so that nothing is raw – the fire doesn’t kill the
horse, but it purifies and leads it faster to the God.
Following is a portion from The Ekkos Clan:
“ ‘That’s Indrunkot,’ said ghomitta, ‘the place under the Tok tree
where we will offer a goat’s heart into angar. We’ll sing: Angar,
don’t burn the shish, his head; don’t consume the baza, athi, ka,
ech, agu, his arms, bones, ears, eyes and fingers; don’t scatter
his skin and body; when you mature him, make him ready, send
him to his bozorg. Then we’ll cook the meat properly. The cooking
vessels, the ladles, the pots and the dishes, everything will be
onjeshta, pure …”
I noticed Afsar’s eyes flashing motley expressions, a
supersaturated mixture of suspicion, amazement and excitement.
‘What?’ I asked her.
‘He is quoting almost verbatim from the Rig Veda,’ she
whispered…”

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17
ORIGIN OF INDIAN MUSIC

Oldest Legacy of Music
Indian movies are often considered silly and unrealistic in the west
because of the excessive song and dance sequences. Even now the
most serious movies in India can't be thought without any song.
Music and songs are so much part of our culture and civilization that,
irrespecttive of what others perceive of us, we can't do away with it.
Everything – from marriages and worships to mourning or victory
ceremonies – is incomplete without music, especially songs. For
169

the varied hues and colors that poured into India's palette for the past 4000 years gave rise to a dazzling and gorgeous plethora of a stunning and matured music. which in turn might have imbibed many of the legacies and practices from the Indus Valley and other native civilizations and cultures. art and entertainment in any civilization and culture. The chirping of the birds. In fact we. to have been composed around 1500 BC. But archaeological evidences of all those early endeavors of mankind are mostly lost. The Vedic music. But the position. the sound of the breeze. though controversially. perhaps. No other civilization or culture has an uninterrupted legacy of music for close to 4000 years. Apart from the antiquity. music has existed ever since the world was created. is thought. both humans and animals. Like the light and air. religion. Rig Vedic Music The Rig Veda. influence and stature of music in Indian civilization is. It might be preposterous to claim that before the Vedic Age there was no music in India. Any natural sound is melody to ears. there did exist a strict way of chanting the hymns of the Rig Veda. If we consider 1500 BC (16th 170 . the roaring of the seas. the flowing of the rivulets.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan thousands of years music has been so much a part of everything that it's really impossible to take it out of us. may be treated as the most ancient tradition of music that didn't get lost. Humans have always endeavored to create the same melody they have heard around them. the first of the four Vedas. as a civilization. Though compiled or written much later. The present day Indian Classical Music can trace back its origin to the chants of the Vedas. since the time of the Rig Veda. much more crucial than anywhere else. the falling of the rains – everything is music and has always mesmerized the living beings. Music has been always an integral part of spirituality. Music is as old as life and it existed in all civilizations in all ages in some form or other. have the oldest tradition of music in the world. Perhaps that's one of the reasons why music is so deeply rooted into us. This long tradition of Indian music can be traced back to the early Vedic Age.

anudatta (A) is marked with a horizontal line under. This tradition of chanting. the term "udatta kantha" means a voice which can sing freely and loudly without any inhibition. has been preserved very authentically by successive generations of Brahmins for nearly 4000 years. Even today in Bengali. like the complete texts. when the Rig Veda was finally written down. This is again the earliest form of written notation for music in the world. Much later after the advent of scripts. and swarita (S) with a vertical line above the syllable. anudatta and swarita – were used for chanting. In Rig Vedic texts udatta (U) is not marked with any notation.Natyashastra (probably 1st century AD) and Naradiyashiksha (probably 5-6th century AD) – provide some good information about Vedic chants. specially the Sama Gana or the Songs of Sama Veda.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan century BC) as the rough period of the composition of the Rig Veda. The two earliest treatises on Indian Music . a raised one. till the Rig Veda was finally written down. Udatta was the principal accent. we may assume that in 15th century BC the Rig Vedic chants would have attained a definitive shape. For many centuries. That's exactly what it meant also in the context of chanting the Rig Vedic hymns. Three different pitches or accents or swars – udatta. Preceded by udatta was the anudatta – which literally means “that which is not udatta”– an accent not raised. Agnim īḷe purohitaṃ yajñasya devaṃ ṛtvījam | hotāraṃ ratnadhātamam || 171 . the language that has retained the maximum words from Sanskrit among all the descendants of Sanskrit in India. The third accent swarita – meaning sounded – was a transitional one marking the transition from a raised to unraised accent. the accents were represented by signs with the fingers of the hands. This is the earliest form of notation for music. a very simple form of written notation was used.

nevertheless. This particular style of using three consecutive notes alternatively is perhaps the earliest form of Indian music. udatta the middle (C) and swarita highest (D flat) – is presented below. the style remained in some form or other in Indian music. The staff notation of a typical Vedic chant in one of the recensions – where anudatta has the lowest pitch (B flat). The three different accents indirectly correspond to three different pitches. the chosen Priest. The hotar. Following is the staff notation the “Alaap” or the first movement of three Ragas sung in Dhrupad style. The Rig Vedic pattern of the usage of three consecutive notes is quite visible in these notations. God. the legacy of which can be still visible in the Dhrupad style of Hindustani Classical Music. minister of sacrifice. lavishest of wealth. Though the term “Dhrupad” is much new compared to the Rig Veda. 172 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan I Laud Agni. Various recensions use different pitches for these accents.

events. but also to the earliest Indian drama. Sama Vedic Music The Sama Veda is believed to have been composed between 1400 BC and 1100 BC. Drama was considered an important element of music. To facilitate singing of the verses the three accents or pitches or notes of the Rig Vedic chants eventually expanded to a full fledged scale of seven-notes and twenty two intermediate tones (shruti) of varying pitches. So the Rig Vedic chants not only gave form to the earliest Indian music.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan In the early treatises on Indian music the Rig Vedic chants were classified as natya (drama) of pathya (recitation) type. actions etc. 173 . The Sama Vedic chants took the proper form of music over time. The relation between drama and music has been always very strong in India in all ages and the Rig Veda might have created that close association for the first time. unraised (anudatta) and the transitional (swarita) accents originated to give expression to dramatization of the Rig Vedic chants. Indeed the Rig Veda contains all the elements of drama – characters. narration. The pitch modulation through raised (udatta). emotions.

extended. In the absence of any written text of the Sama Veda in the initial years. the seven notes were represented by seven signs with fingers – an extension to the three signs used in Rig Vedic chant. When texts came into being. mournful. the seven signs were represented by the seven numerals starting from one. which is a much later concept in Indian music than 1400 BC. The first note – referred to as krushta. soft and moderate). Apart from the seven notes of the scales there were also the five qualitative types of tonal color (bright. This can be seen as the earliest foundation of the Indian Ragas. Each of the seven notes was assigned one of the five qualitative tonal colors and also one of the three Rig Vedic accents. So if you needed to express sadness in a low (unraised) voice then there was a note for you which would match your requirement. It speaks of the origin of each of the seven notes from natural sounds produced by animals and birds. 174 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan The Naradiya Shisksha is a very good treatise on Sama Vedic music. meaning loud note – was Madhyama or Ma.

which are represented (or notated) in Sama Veda by numerals – udatta is 1. 175 . Such flexibility is perhaps the biggest asset of Indian music till date. God. the people sing reverent praise to thee for strength: With terrors trouble thou the foe The Sama Vedic song books had two flavors – Gramageya or “songs for village singing” and Aranyageya or “songs for forest singing”– both adapted from different portions of the Sama Veda Samhita (texts). to fit into singing styles. In later times the scale was changed from “Ma Ga Ri Sa Ni Dha Pa” to “Sa Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Ri”– with the Sa in the higher octave – to allow for the usage of higher notes for better audibility. The scale used to start from Ma and end at Pa instead of starting from Sa and ending at Ni. No other book. Also at later times the scale was converted from the diminishing to the present day ascending one. In contrast to the rigidity maintained in the pronunciation and accents of the Rig Vedic verses this is indeed a very remarkable change for the sake of music. considered sacred in any other religion. which themselves are derived from Rig Vedic verses. swarita is 2 and anudatta is 3. Another interesting thing of the Sama Vedic music is the modification and addition of syllables to the original texts. namaste agna ojase grinanti deva krishtayah amairamitramardaya O Agni. has been allowed to be altered so much just for the sake of music! The original Sama Vedic texts (known as Samhita) can be chanted in the same way as the Rig Veda with the three Rig Vedic accents.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan A very interesting thing about the Sama Vedic scale is that it's a diminishing one in contrast to what we've now in all the styles of music in the world.

Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

Below is the song adaptation (along with numeric notation) of
an original Sama Vedic text presented earlier. It can be noted that
the word “Namaste” in original text is converted to “namastau” in the
song adaptation. Similarly “agna” is converted to “hognaai”. Sylables
like “au”, “ho” and “vaa” are also added for the sake of singing.

A very simplified staff notation for the above song can be created
based on some simple principles of the Sama Vedic notation. The
salient features of this notation are as follows:



Numerals 1-7 denote the seven Sama Vedic notes in a
diminishing scale (considered here as the C major scale)
Numerals above any syllable denotes the pitch/note used for
pronouncing/singing that particular syllable
Numerals within the text denote elongation of the preceding
vowel
In general simple vowel has a single beat duration. The
compound vowel has a three beat duration by default, but two
beat if notated with an additional “r” along with the numeral on
top of the syllable
A “^” on top of the syllable means a three beat duration

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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

In contrast to this simple notation in reality the Sama Veda is
sung in a much more complicated way (with kampan or vibrato) as
depicted in the staff notation presented next.

The sequence and combination of the notes in this notation
clearly point to what later developed into Indian Ragas. Starting from
the seven notes and scales to the sequence of notes, the legacy of
Sama Vedic music is omnipresent in Indian Classical Music in
various forms.

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Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan

Though the Sama Vedic music reached a great height even at such
an early stage of Indian civilization around 1400 BC, still the concept
of “taal” or beat was still unknown. The duration of a single beat note
was not fixed and changed from syllable to syllable.

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19
TRIVIAS

Units of measurements
Some units used in ancient India can be traced back to the Rig
Veda. The later Sanskrit literature has many more units. It's
not possible to confirm how many of these units were in use
since the Vedic Age. Below is a list of some units widely used in
ancient times.

179

Datra and khanitra are two tools for agriculture mentioned in RV. matha andtila  Pakti means prepared cakes or any cooked food. Literally yojana means yoking or harnessing. Uranus is Varuna. Yava or barley corn was also used as a measure of length and weight. Prometheus is Pramantha  Yava in RV probably meant wheat and barley or food grains in general. purodasa. mentioned in RV/AV as leavings of an offering. It's possible that the distance which could be traversed in a single harnessing. Krosha means loud cry. also has an interesting etymology. mentioned in RV. or without unyoking. eventually came to be known asyojana. cake of flour or any meal. karambha. also referred to as Soma juice. any grain or corn yielding flour and meal. apupa. one type of food. It surely means the range of the voice in calling. Scholars have interpolated from various references in later literature. unploughed lands were akrishivala. The corresponding values of each of these units are not mentioned explicitly in the Vedas. can be interpreted as food. the unit of distance. a cake of flour or meal – it's likely to be a Munda word.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Yojana. Daphne and Athena are Vedic Dahana and Ahana the dawn. There's no mention of rice (vrihi) in the Rig Veda. groats or coarsely ground oats. is interesting. Vrihi is mentioned in the Atharva Veda (AV) for the first time along with yava.  Plough is called sira (RV).  Zeus or Jupiter is Vedic Dyu or sky. As a unit of length it was 1/8th or 1/6th of a finger and as weight it was same as 6-8 mustard seeds or 1/2 gunja. Settlers (vish) were peasants (krishti).  Dhana means fried barley. kind of fine bread. another unit of distance. It's found in the Rig Veda. mentioned in RV. Krosha. 180 .

Introduction of iron might have enabled more efficient agriculture and land use with better equipments.  Metals in Yajur Vedic times – gold. any ornament or amulet. earrings. globule  The Old Testament place name Goshan seems to be derived from go. mani. lead. referred to as powerful beast. nishka gold ornament worn on neck or breast. harp. cattle. vetches. kurira kind of head ornament worn by females.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan  The main source of wealth is cattle. buffalo.  Gold was given to priests in units of krishnalas or gunja (Abrus Precatorius) seeds – still used by Indian Goldsmiths for small weights  During the Yajur Veda horse meat is no longer eaten. and type of drums  Dress: undergarment (nivi). lentils. may be the Aryans. sesame (tila). iron. kind of ring worn as an armlet or anklet. khadi. garment (vasa) and over garment (adhivasa)  Ornaments: karna sobhana. the 181 . barley (yava). millet and wild rice. horse and mahisha.  The Yajur Veda mentions extensive land clearing. bronze. something that started in RV. The Rig Veda has no reference to iron. copper. Fights were for cow/cattle (goshu). It marks the invasion of Cannan by strange pastoral raiders of a new type. beans (makushta). who wins apsu. Makara Samkranti coincides with the 2nd sesame crop in western India – example of modified rituals suited to the crops.  During Yajur Vedic (post Rig Vedic) time crops were rice (vrihi). flute. Horse sacrifice is still very important. wheat (yava). Indra is referred to as apsujit.  Music: mute. We see extensive usage of canals and ploughs with yokes of six or eight oxen. children (tanaya) and water (apsu). tin. kidney beans (mudga).

The name Shashank. founder of Kosalan line of Kings. the lineage of Lord Rama.  Name of Ikshaku. Dasaratha sounds like Mittanian Tuzaratta.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan descendants of the Mittani Aryans of Syria. common to Pharaos of 22nd and 23rd dynasties of Egypt (around 1000BC) has a definite Aryan sound. 182 . seems to have pre Aryan trace.

Many verses of the Rig Veda are reused in various forms in all the other three later Vedas. There is no concrete proof of the timelines of these three Vedas. the only sources for the post Rig Vedic history of India are the later three Vedas – Yajur. wind and earth – the five basic natural forces. are older than Atharva Veda which was composed perhaps between 1100 and 900 BC. So it's nothing extraordinary or exceptional for the Indians to worship fire. Yajur Veda the Knowledge of Sacrifice. Yajur Veda has references to fully developed caste systems. water. when the human race was still under the spell of the powers and mysteries of the nature. Commonly accepted chronology is that the Yajur Veda and Sama Veda. all the other three are composed as perfect metrical verses. Sama and Atharva Veda. At their core the four Vedas are just books of knowledge and enlightenment as realized by the learned people of the time. The present forms of all the four Vedas didn't take place for sure within these time frames. Yajur. Apart from the Yajur Veda. handicrafts. Sama Veda the Knowledge of Chanted Hymns and Atharva Veda the Knowledge of Prayers. Charms and Spells.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 19 LATER VEDAS AND AVESTA Later Vedas Like the the Rig Veda. composed perhaps between 1400 BC and 1100 BC. it was 183 . Sama and Atharva – are the earliest literature of the mankind. Almost all the ancient civilizations were worshipers of nature and natural forces. At the dawn of civilization. considerable advances in art. trade and occupation. commonly and also erroneously at times. which are evidently of much later date of early first millennium. The Rig Veda is the Knowledge of Recited Praise. The four Vedas – Rig. sky. known as Hinduism. They also form the basis of the way of life that gradually metamorphosed into a religion. It had taken several more centuries before they would have arrived to the present forms.

It stresses about an all expanding growth of mankind ‘spreading with a hundred branches’ in absolute harmony with the nature. Though the Vedas are regarded as religious books. Still. It's quite fascinating to know that some 3000 years ago Indians were equally concerned about the harmony between man and nature. preserving forests and natural resources and the stress on a greener way of living did come to the minds of our ancestors.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan very natural that most of her rituals would be centered on pleasing these mysterious forces. Yajur Veda Two versions of the Yajur Veda – Shukla (White) and Krishna (Black) – have remained till date in various recensions or shakhas or theological schools specialized in learning various Vedic texts. That's precisely what makes the Vedas so unique. No other religious book in any other religion perhaps has such great value beyond religion and spirituality. When the people were settling down at newer places across India they were cutting down forests to setup habitats. The Yajur Veda speaks about being ‘in accordance with the earth’. Metaphorically each of these forces was given a shape and form of super humans or Gods. some where in their mind they did have this concern about the vices of exploiting the natural resources. It's indeed quite incredible to find that all the thoughts we see today towards eco-friendliness. It’s perhaps logical to think that the crisis of natural resources which we see today couldn’t have been a matter of concern some 3000 years ago. Lot of non religious knowledge – about philosophy or environment or mathematics or governance – was packaged into the widely respected ritual manuals. 184 . These thoughts were considered so important that these were included in the religious manuals to be reminded to everyone during the practice of rituals. Most of the content in Vedas is relevant even now. Most importantly the history of the ancient India is impossible to construct without the Vedas. when the population was sparse and resources plenty. still they have wealth of valuable information and knowledge and tremendous literary value.

with a hundred branches. Harm not mid-air. God. Shukla Yajur Veda: 17.43 dyamma lekhirantarikshamma himsih prithivya sambhava ayam hi tva svadhitistetijanah praninaya mahate saubhagaya atastvandeva vanaspate shatavalsho viroha sahasravalsha vi vayam ruhema Graze not the sky. Hence. madhya (10 billion). prayuta (1million). grow thou up.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Shukla Yajur Veda: 5. Lord of the Forest. anta (100 billion) and parardha (1trillion).2 ima me'agna'ishtaka dhenavah santveka cha dasha cha dasha cha shatancha shatancha sahasrancha sahasrancha ayutancha ayutancha niyutancha niyutancha prayutancha arbudancha nyarbudancha samudrashcha madhyancha antashcha paradhashchaita me'agna'ishtaka dhenavah santvamutramushmilloke 185 . arbuda (10 million). May we grow spreading with a hundred branches. nyarbuda (100 million). niyuta (100K). or 10K). Be in accordance with the earth. samudra (1billion). The following verses from Shukla Yajur Veda mention the numbers upto ten raised to the power of 12 in steps of powers of 10 – ayuta (10 raised to the power 4. For this well-sharpened axe hath led thee forth to great felicity.

clearly indicating that the people of the Vedic age had a good grasp of the basics of decimal system for positive integers. May these bricks be mine own milch-kine in yonder world and in this world.2.1 through 6. but they were masters in technology of town planning.25.4. a trillion (parardha). navigation. may these bricks be mine own milch kine: one.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan O Agni.3. At the same time it's quite confusing to learn that the same people. The Atharva Veda Samhita (6.8.4. A similar list is available in the Taittiriiya Samhita of Krişhņa Yajur Veda (4.21). and a hundred thousand. five and fifty. 10 billion) and end (anta. Yajur Veda also has the first reference to numeric infinity (purna or fullness) stating that if you subtract purna from purna you're still left with purna. It forms the earliest foundation of Indian Classical Music. and ten thousand – a myriad (ayuta). It's quite a unique development in the field of science and mathematics on the part of the Indians compared to their contemporaries. 7.1) specially emphasizes the common relationship between one and ten. and a hundred millions (nyarbuda).20). nine and ninety. and ten hundreds – a thousand. and ten. lacked the knowledge of technology and engineering. Sama Veda The Sama Veda is the first book of songs known to mankind. which over the ages has been proved to be the most popular form of worship in all religions.11 and 7. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization might not have known such level of mathematics. Kathaka Samhita (17. Music and sound not only play important roles in 186 . and an ocean (samudra. and ten tens – a hundred. and a million (niyuta). who had such in depth knowledge about mathematics. The number four three two (four hundred and thirty two) million occurring frequently in Sanskrit works occurs in the Atharva Veda (8. ship building and many others. 100 billion).3.10) etc. It also sets the foremost legacy of using songs as a form of worship. Maitrāyaņi Samhita 2. and a thousand billions. 1 billion) middle (madhya.12.25. three and thirty.

Even a notation was also followed.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan spirituality. Sama Veda (Samhita): 4.7 namah sakhibhyah purvasadbhyo namah sakannishebhyah | yunje vacham shatapadim || Praise to the friends who sit in front to those seated together. containing songs meant for singing in the forest (aranya). The song book has two variants – Gramageya. the first instance of notated music in the world. The text of the Sama Veda. containing songs meant for singing (geya) in villages (grama). Jagat hymn.9.2. though it was textually represented much later when the Vedic texts were first written. without modification and additions of syllables. praise I use the hundred-footed speech. to suit singing. no doubt. yunje vacham shatapadim gaye sahasravarttani | gayatram traishtubham jagat || I use the hundred-footed speech. but also in our normal lives. lyrics and music in a wonderful way to create the right aura and ambiance for spirituality and divinity. where ever needed. I sing what hath a thousand paths. The texts of the songs from the Sama Veda were taken mainly from the Rig Veda. Many syllables were further modified and even added. This was. and Aranyageya. Gayatra. The original Rig Vedic verses were altered to fit into lyrical forms of the Sama Veda. 187 . The Sama Veda used the sound. is known as the Sama Veda Samhita. Trishtup.

It's clear from this verse that these meetings were taken quite seriously by the people. 188 . the forms united and complete. for the prosperity of cattle  Hymn 5: To the waters. Have the Gods made familiar friends. Atharva Veda The Atharva Veda. It. Jagat hymn. for health and wealth  Hymn 11: A charm to be used at child-birth  Hymn 22: A charm against jaundice  Hymn 23: A charm against leprosy  Hymn 24: A charm against leprosy  Hymn 25: A prayer to fever. is often criticized for dealing with super naturals.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan gayatram traishtubham jagadvishva rupani sambhrita | deva okamsi chakrire || Gayatra. But philosophically it's perhaps much deeper than the other three Vedas. The main purpose of these meetings was to discuss things of relevance openly in a common forum. the last of the four Vedas. It's being pointed out that everyone should be fair in their words and every man should respect every other man in these meetings. as a charm against his attacks  Hymn 26: A charm to obtain invisibility The following verse speaks about the importance of Sabha and Samiti. The importance of such meetings is great in the proper governance of a state. for strength and power  Hymn 6: To the waters. deals with topics more complex in nature. no doubt. the two popular forms of meetings during the Vedic Age. The first book of the Atharva Veda speaks of the following:  Hymn 2: A charm against dysentery  Hymn 3: A charm against constipation and suppression of urine  Hymn 4: To the waters. Trishtup. It's the first Vedas that speaks about medicine and physiology.

and dust (pamsu).12. May every man I meet respect and aid me. Sabha and Samiti. Fair be my words.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Atharva Veda: 7. the stones agglutinating to form the rocks (shila) and the rocks held together to form the Earth (bhumi). at the meetings.1. both protect me. 189 . and stone (ashma). this Earth is held together.26 shila bhumirashma pamsu sa bhumih samdhrita dhrita | tasyai hiranyavakshase prithivya akaram namah || Rock earth (shila bhumi). Here “atoms” (pāṃsu) are seen as forming the stone (ashma). O Fathers.1 sabha cha ma samitishchavatam prajapaterduhitarau samvidane | yena samgachchha upa ma sa shikshancharu vadani pitarah samgateshu || In concord may Prajapati's two daughters. firmly bound. To this gold-breasted Prithivī mine adoration have I paid. The following verse speaks about atoms as the smallest unit of any object. This is quite a unique realization made by the Indians some 3000 years back much before the concepts of atoms and molecules in modern science came into existence. Atharva Veda: 12.

gnats the husks. Champa. and so on. 6. copper its blood. (6) Grey (shyama) iron (ayasa) is its flesh. Atharva Veda: 11. (7) The above hymn is in glorification of Odana or the boiled rice. (5) Kabru is the husked grain. capital of Anga. Heaven and Earth are the ears. Chedi. The Kuru kingdom or the confederation of tribes would have been an important one in northern India around 1100 BC. the rain cloud is the reed.3. apparently as lands of despised people. It glorifies Odana metaphorically in many ways by saying that Brihaspati is its head. 7 ashva kana gavastandula mashakastushah ||5|| kabru phalikaranah sharo'bhram ||6|| shyamamayo'sya mamsani lohitamasya lohitam || 7|| Horses are the grains. Gandhara (present day Kandahar region in Afghanistan) and Mujavat (perhaps an ancient non Aryan settlement beyond the Himavat. the Sun and Moon are the eyes. the Himalayas. a staple diet for most Indians even now. the seven Rishis are the vital airs inhaled and exhaled. and the Hindukush in the Pamir region). thus heralding the start of the Iron Age and the end of Bronze Age sometime around 1100 BC. The Atharva Veda mentions the Kuru King Parikshita.5. oxen the winnowed ricegrains. mentioned in the 190 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Most importantly the Atharva Veda refers to iron as a metal for the first time. was one of the biggest cities and ports in Ancient India with trade links with far off places like Thailand (perhaps referred to as the mythical Suvarnabhumi) and Vietnam. The first reference to Anga is found in the Atharva Veda along with Magadha (referred to as Kikata in the Rig Veda). Brahma the mouth.

The Zoroastrian scriptures are called Avesta and the language Avestan. Yasna 29. First let's take a look into the language of Gatha.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Rig Veda. The actual dating of Zarathushtra and his first sermons in the form of Gatha is a matter of debate and controversy. the earliest Zoroastrian text. Gatha 2. It's like the Bhagavat Gita. believed to be composed by Prophet Zarathushtra Himself. We'll consider 1100 BC as the timeline of the Atharva Veda. The cognates sound so similar that entire texts in 191 .) and Rig Vedic Sanskrit (Skt. The language of Gatha is an early form of Avestan.) – are. transliterated by Jatindra Mohan Chatterji. It will show how close the two languages – Gathan Avesta (Av. Gatha is a very important part of the Zoroastrian scripture known as Yasna.2 Now let's see the Rig Vedic translation of the verse. Avesta Perhaps the most important thing contemporary to the Atharva Veda is Gatha. or Great Kingdoms. Like the Vedas the timeline of Gatha too is shrouded in mystery. over the next few centuries. It's presented in Devanagari script. which is inserted in the Mahabharata and which forms the crux of Hindu spirituality and philosophy. All of these early kingdoms later became Mahajanapadas. It's a collection of highly philosophic and profound hymns considered most sacred by the Zoroastrians. Here also we'll stick to one particular view point that appears more logical than the others. Each and every word in Gatha has a very close Rig Vedic cognate. Zarathushtra and Gatha. Following is a verse from the second hymn of Gatha. was also another important kingdom.

asha. cow. someone who stands for righteousness and truth Skt. godha is used in the sense of sustainer (coming from Skt. ratu. Like the RV rita the Avestan asha is also a very important concept. truth in general.. vastra. Skt. root dha) of the world (go) Av. rita meaning divine law. apostle. asura and Av.rita → Av. arta come from Skt. Thwaksh meaning creation Skt. meaning enemy – drugvadbhi comes from dru. dominant – comes from root kshi Skt. Creator – related to the root tvaksh and Av. and Av. is used in the sense of Prophet. powerful. righteousness. ahura – God Skt. to live. is used in the sense of active Skt. a related word. arta → arsha → asha. arsh. used in the sense of wicked. signifying the world. go and gava. cattle – used here in the sense of people. coming from root vas meaning to remain. Avestan Adâ tashâ gêush peresat ashem Kathâ tôi gavôi ratush | Hyat hîm dâtâ kshayañtô hadâ Vâstrâ gaodâyô thwakshô | kêm hôi ushtâ ahurem Yê dregvôdebîsh aêshemem vâdâyôit ||        Rig Vedic Ada tasa goh aprisat asham Katha te gave ratus | Yah him dhata kshayan sada Vastra godhah tvakshah | Kam asya ushatha asuram Yah drugvadbhi ishmam vadhayayet || Skt. tasa.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Gatha can be translated to Rig Vedic Sanskrit by simply transliterating each word. to shine. kshayan. 192 . eresh. dru.

that ye may be able to appoint him zealous tendance as well as fodder? Whom do ye will to be his lord.8. a cattle-chief who was both skilled and likewise energetic? Whom did ye select as her (life's) master who might hurl back the fury of the wicked? -. Mills. as one who can thwart the violence of the wicked?’ --Translated by Jatindra Mohan Chatterji. This is from Yasna 28. ye made her? (In what manner did ye secure) for her.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Then the Creator of the world asked Asha. as having power (over all her fate). 1898 Then the Ox-Creator asked of the Right: ‘Hast thou a judge for the Ox. Yasna 28.Translated by C Bartholomae Let's see another hymn from Gatha.Translated by L. together with pasture. would sustain her always? Whom do you intend as her Lord. world-forester and vigorous. 1967 Upon this the Creator of the Kine (the holy herds) asked of Righteousness: How (was) thy guardian for the Kine (appointed) by thee when. ‘Where is thy Prophet for the world who. capable.8 Avestan Rig Vedic Vahishtem thwâ vahishtâ ýêm Ashâ vahishtâ hazaoshem | Ahurem ýâsâ vâunush Vahishtham tvâm Vahishthah ayam Ashayâ Vahishthayâ sujoshâm | Asuram yâse vanvânah 193 . H. who may drive off violence together with the followers of the Lie?’ -.

vahishta. with Rectitude. would worship Ahura. meaning bestowing. meaning heaven and the English best come from Av. root vas. I. meaning to be delighted. for manly Frashoshtra. sujosham. beloving. winning by physical means of hurting and injuring is transformed into winning by means of love. to whom You consign Conscience. vohu – come from the Skt. the best Skt. comes from root ra This one (myself). the best. to grow bright. Vasishtha is a composer of RV and very famous personality in Hinduism. cherish – used in the sense of divine love and enjoying divine delight . would realize You. akin to Eng. O Best. The Persian behest. vanvana.I. Vasishtha and Av. and for me. the best. rarasi. comes from root van. -Chatterji The best I ask of Thee. the best (faculty). Av. win and Lat. hazaoshem come from the Skt. meaning loving. as well as for those. for all time. venus. with Asha. another example of simplistic physical meanings getting transformed into something more profound philosophic Skt. zaosha. enjoy. vasu and Av.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Narôi Ferashaoshtrâi maibyâ câ | Yaêibyas câ ît rånghanghôi Vîspâi ýavê vanghêush mananghô ||     Nare Prishoshtrâya mahyam ca | Yemyah ca râsasi Vishvâya yavâya vasoh manasah || Skt. Ahura (Lord) of one will with the Best Asha. the superlative of Skt. the best (Deity). will enjoy You. Skt. root jush and Av. Vahishta means most excellent. desiring (it) for the hero Frashaostra and for those 194 . meaning to shine. being at his best (Purity). love.

It's not a surprise that Avestan. As the Avestans stay close to the Iranians – their kins. In the Aryan Trail we've mentioned that a group of Indo-Aryans stayed back in Central Asia and Afghanistan while the others entered India. For a very long time the Indo-Aryans of India and Afghanistan had a very good relation. The Vendidad starts with: Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zarathushtra. move towards India and stay connected to the culture and religion of the Aryans of India. even though it had no charms whatever in it: had I not made every land 195 . is about sixteen perfect lands created by Ahur Mazda. the Highest God of the Zoroastrians. eventually founds the Zoroastrian religion. a later Avestan text. (the best gift) of Good Mind through all time. Now if we assume that the proto Avestan people stayed in Central Asia and Afghanistan for a long time then we should expect the reference to places from this region in their texts.Mills The similarities in the languages indeed mean that the composers of Gatha and those of the Rig Veda were very closely associated. who separates from the proto Avestan people. Zarathushtra. saying: ‘I have made every land dear (to its people). practiced almost the same religion and followed the same tradition. Around the timeline of the Atharva Veda there seems to be an intellectual conflict between two groups of Aryans that leads to their separation. is classified as an Iranian language. The other group of Indo-Aryans. One group continues to stay in Afghanistan and very soon comes in close contact with the Iranian people coming from the steppes (Timber Grave Culture) and settling in various parts of Iran. one of them. despite the strong Rig Vedic connection. The first chapter of Vendidad.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan (others) to whom thou wilt give (it). We may call this group of people proto Avestan as their language gradually moves away from the Rig Vedic Sanskrit and takes the shape of Avesta. In fact they are better than the Rig Vedic people in this respect. being members of the same Indo-Iranian people – their language starts picking up more Iranian components. -.

holy Mouru. Persian Harirud River. Skt. Vrika 196 . 4. Vaekereta. Khnenta which the Vehrkanas inhabit. Bâxdhîm srîrãm eredhwô-drafshãm – Balkh in Afghanistan and ancient Bactria. the house-deserting Haroyu. then the whole living world would have invaded the Airyana Vaeja. areas around modern day Mary/Merv in Turkmenistan. gâum ýim Sukhdhôshayanem – modern Sughd Province in Tajikistan and ancient Sogdiana 3.’ It continues: Asanghãmca shôithranãmca vahishtem frâthweresem azem ýô Ahurô Mazdå The best (vahishtem) lands and countries which I. created (frâthweresem. that lies between the Mouru and Bakhdhi.shayanem – Gorgan in Iran. Vaêkeretem ýim dûzhakôsayanem – probably some place in north east Iran. it's a place between Merv & Balkh. 7. Sarayu. Nisâim ýim añtare Môurumca Bâxdhîmca – as mentioned. Skt. from the Av. Mouru may be a cognate of Skt. Ahura Mazda. even though it had no charms whatever in it. Harôyûm ýim vish-harezanem – area around Herat in Afghanistan. 8. Skt. the plain which the Sughdhas inhabit. 6. root thwaksh) Then it gives the list of the sixteen best Aryan countries: 1. the strong. Môurum sûrem ashavane– ancient Margiana. the Airyana Vaeja 2.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan dear (to its people). the beautiful Bakhdhi with high-lifted banner. Nisaya. Xneñtem ýim Vehrkânô. of the evil shadows. Urva of the rich pastures. Urvãm pouru-vâstrãm – area around Hamum Lake in Iran 9. Vahlika 5. maru meaning desert and also mountain.

Caxrem sûrem ashavanem – a place by the name Carx in the ancient Khorasan in Central Asia (Northern Iran) 14. modern Arghandab. Though Arghandab matches etymologically with Saraswati. the bright. Greek Arachosia. the beautiful Harahvaiti. 12. Harahvaitîm srîrãm– Vedic Saraswati. Varnu 197 . a tributary of Helmand.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 10. glorious Haetumant. but Helmand basin is generally identified with Saraswati. Varenem ýim cathru-gaoshem – Bannu. Ragha of the three races. south of Tehran 13. the four-cornered Varena. Haêtumañtem raêvañtem hvarenanguhañtem – Helmand River in Afghanistan. Skt. holy Chakhra. Rakhãm thrizañtûm – modern Rai. the strong. Central Asia as depicted in Avesta [With reference to Kubha’s stories] 11.

Mainyu is surely a cognate of Skt. The word Asura means supreme spirit and in the Rig Veda is generally said of Varuna. We've argued in the Aryan Trail that the Dasa people. a work of the Daevas”. medha. all of which are in Central Asia and are perhaps enumerated in an anti clock-wise manner. and he counter-created Winter. “Thereupon came Angra Mainyu. first fought with the Dasa people and later came to a truce. means both God and demon in the Rig Veda. 16. the later lot of Aryans appearing in BMAC around 1700 BC. Angirasa seem to be cognates. Av. Sapta Sindhu or the land of the Seven Rivers.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 15. one of the oldest Indo-European 198 . upa aodhaêshu Ranghayå ýô asârô aiwyâxshayeiñti – Rangha or Rasa. the Seven Rivers. the first lot of Indo-Aryans to arrive in Central Asia in BMAC around 1900 BC. we've seen in Aryan Trail. may be one of the unexplored or lesser explored northern tributaries of Indus in Hindukush region. Angra and Skt. that's the Punjab. mind and Angra may refer to the Rig Vedic Angirasa – here also Av. Ahura is akin to Skt. the Aryan expanse. which means intellect. which. Av. The term Asura meaning demon and then being elevated to the status of God may be an indication of the animosity and eventual truce between the two groups of Aryans. Ahura Mazda is the Supreme God of the Zoroastrians and Zarathushtra is His Prophet. Hapta Heñdu – Skt. the land by the sources of the Rangha. used to call their Gods Asura. So Ahura Mazda stands for the divine intellect. Mazda is akin to Skt. Opposite to Ahura Mazda is the devil Angra Mainyu. Each of the sixteen verses that defines the sixteen holy lands of the Aryans ends with a reference to the devil. The Rig Vedic Aryans. Asura. where people live who have no chiefs. manu. who is all death. a mythical river in the Rig Veda with strong Indo-European connections. is surrounded by the other fifteen Aryan countries. It’s likely that the Airyanem Vaejo. This is the clue to the conflict between the two groups of Aryans in Afghanistan – this conflict finally leads to the separation of the two.

In contrast Varuna is the more lofty and spiritual one. or pitriyana. impelled by thoughts and driven by the illumined thinker. He is the chief of all the deities. He stands for perfected intellect (dhiyam ghritachim). He stands for wisdom and discernment (putadaksham). We've pointed out in many discussions that Varuna is the upholder of truth and law (satyam-ritam). We call on you. Indra-Vauna. The following verse from the Rig Veda depicts the popular image of Indra and Varuna: Vṛtrāṇyanyaḥ samitheṣu jighnate vratānyanyo abhi rakṣate sadā | Havāmahe vāṃ vṛṣaṇā suvṛktibhir asme indrāvaruṇā śarma yacchatam || One of you Twain destroys the Vṛtras in the fight. the Other evermore maintains his holy Laws (vrata). wisdom and consciousness that's represented by Varuna.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Gods. Indra is always represented by a physical strength that destroys and kills enemies. is very likely none other than Varuna. deva is associated with Indra. Like the epithet asura. their worshipers – the devayanists and the 199 . Both the Rig Veda and Atharva Veda mention Pitriyana.83. rita). with our hymns of praise (suvṛkti). the pitris. which stands for divine intellect and is associated with Asha (Skt. dhiyeshita viprajuta. When the intellect. We've seen that Indra is the power of mind and intellect. which is associated with Varuna. deva. the thought is further perfected and enriched we see the power of profound knowledge. So the cult of Indra worship may be called devayana.9 We can very well assume that going by the popular images of Indra and Varuna. asura medha). He stands for generous heroism. 7. ye Mighty (vṛṣaṇa). Though Varuna is an older God still Indra seems to have more authority among the Rig Vedic Aryans. But going by the double meaning in the Rig Veda. Vouchsafe us your protection. So the Avestan Ahura Mazda (Skt. Varuna being the oldest God the cult of Varuna worship can be very well called the path leading to the elders.

With passage of time the deeper meanings and inner significances of Indra and Varuna might have been superseded by the simplistic and more popular aspects. in the third world may we be unindebted. debt-free. The Avestan cognate for Atharvan is Athravan and Zarathushtra. the samhita or the book written by Bhrigu and Angiras. the worshipers of Varuna. abide in all the pathways the devayana and pitriyana. Anrina asmin anrinah parasmin tritiye loke anrinah syama | Ye devayanah pitriyanah ca loka sarvan patho anrina a kshiyema || 6. There are references to devayana and pitriyana in the Rig Veda and Atharva Veda. As the Avesta and Zarathushtra are so closely associated with the Fire Priests Atharvan (and in turn the Atharva Veda) let's find out the identity of Spitama and his connection to the Atharvans. the founder of Zoroastrianism. The breakup of the two groups of Aryans in Afghanistan might have been due to this conflict. Himself is an Athravan. May we. the worshipers of Indra and Varuna – would have intellectual conflicts between them because at a very low level their Gods are so very different – one stands for lofty spirituality and the other for heroism. which means fire.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan pitriyanists – would surely be two different lots.117. the Atharvans. It's not unlikely that these two groups of people – the devayanists and pitriyanists. But now only Angiras is associated with the Atharva 200 . He is said to be a descendant of someone called Spitama.3 May we be free in this world and that yonder. Who eventually becomes Ahura Mazda. In Avestan too atar means fire. Now let's again shift our focus to the Atharva Veda. Atharvan literally means fire priests and Atharva Veda is the book of hymns of the Fire Priests. Following is one instance from the Atharva Veda. a later Vedic text refers to Atharva Veda as Bhrigu Angirasi Samhita. The proto Avestan group is surely the pitriyanists. Gopatha Brahmana. The term atharvan is derived from an obsolete word athar.

The Homeric Trojan War is also believed to have occurred sometime in the 12th century BC. Angra Mainyu. So now we know that the Avestan people are pitriyanists. We also know that Zarathushtra descends from Spitama. having descended from Spitama. Finally after five centuries Babylon was conquered back by native ruler Nebuchandrezzar I in 1125 from the Kassites. who eventually broke up from each other around the time frame of Atharva Veda – the Angirasas are then associated with the Atharva Veda in India and the Bhrigus with the Avesta in Afghanistan. 201 . Around the World Early Vedic Age is contemporary to 18-20th dynasties of New Kingdom of Egyptian Empire. one of the Bhrigu atharvans. also a Bhrigu atharvan. and directly means fire. The word angiras comes from the root ang or ag. the ancestors of the Avestans. So it may not be illogical to deduce that Zarthushtra Himself is one of the Bhrigu atharvans. The term Bhrigu and Angiras refer to the individuals Bhrigu and Angiras and also to the people. So the Bhrigu-Angirasa Samhita mentioned in Gopatha Brahmana may refer to the parallel development of Atharva Veda and Avesta by the Angirasas and Bhrigus. and the mythical Bhrigu race is closely connected with fire in the Rig Veda. Both Bhrigu and Angiras are no doubt fire priests. which means to shine.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Veda. The name Spitama. in contrast to Bhrigu. It also finds credence in Angirasa being referred to in Avesta as a devil. meaning brightest and surely an epithet for Bhrigu. worshipers of Varuna. We can also infer that the aforementioned two conflicting groups of Aryan people in Afghanistan were the Bhrigus and the Angirasas. are pitriyanists and the Angirasas devayanists. while the other group of Aryans is devayanists. Their rule came to an end in 1155 BC when it fell to Elam (Iran). Bhrigu comes from the root bhraj. the descendants or the followers of the Bhrigu and Angiras. Spitama. the ancestor of Zrathushtra. If we correlate these two points we can say that the Bhrigus. In west Asia the Kassites have been ruling in Babylon since 16th century BC. seems to be a cognate of svetatama. sparkle and glitter. Troy being one of the most important ones. Ahura Mazda. came to a spectacular end. Around 1100 BC Greek City States.

Also Israel was getting formed. 202 .Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Around the same the Hittites (Turkey) were declining and the Assyrians becoming more and more powerful. The first Assyrian Empire was established around the same time.

methodically called an endless number of book stores across India. Had it not been for Pallavi’s contagious positivity which she would always excude. after the hectic days at office. I wouldn’t have painstakingly gone to the various book stores across Bangalore. It was an honor for me to talk about them and express my humble gratitude. Soon my book was available at many stores in Bangalore.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Acknowledgement In the acknowledgement of The Ekkos Clan I’ve mentioned the names of each and everyone without whose contribution and support the novel woudn’t have been possible. and spent the evenings meeting people and talking tirelessly about my book to them. making sure that she talked to at least one person about the book in each trip. Writing a book is one thing and creating the awareness about it among the readers and making it available to them is a totally different thing. many of whom expressed their interest to read more about the research work that had gone behind the writing of the book. It takes a lot of effort to promote a book and create the initial interest about it among the readers. I would like to start with Pallavi Mishra. Without them this present book wouldn’t have made any sense. especially if it’s a work of a debutant author. One day the PR person of a leading bookstore in Bangalore whom I was pursuing hard for a book launch called me up and said that she had seen someone talking excitedly about my book in the bus. But I never got a chance to acknowledge the contribution and support of many other people without whom The Ekkos Clan wouldn’t have reached to so many readers. who. She would make it a point to read my book in the Volvo buses while commuting to and from office. her persistent encouragement and insistence. Soon she agreed for the book launch. So it’s very important to acknowledge the support and help of all those people who’ve selflessly and earnestly worked towards popularizing The Ekkos Clan. immediately after the release of The Ekkos Clan in July 2013. The idea of compiling something like Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan came only when The Ekkos Clan had already attained a certain degree of acceptance among its readers. rebuking them for not keeping my “masterpiece”. Soon the store managers started keeping my book at the most advantageous locations and talking about it 203 .

When The Ekkos Clan was not yet available outside India. Samhita Chakraborty. arranging a series of talks at their stores across the country and enabling effective media coverages in Mysore.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan themselves to their customers. I wish Pallavi all the success in all her endeavors. Urvashi Verma. which gave a much needed boost to the initial sales and popularity of the book. Kamalesh Ghosh and many other present and previous students of IIT KGP helped me with online and other forms of promotions among the IIT fraternity. I also wish she were available to promote my next “masterpiece”! That Tirthankar Ghose was my hall-mate in IIT KGP and my flatmate in Bangalore. Among many things he has done for me over the past twenty years. Chandreyee Ghose and Ayesha Tabassum wrote wonderful articles about me and my book in leading dailies across India. he has also painstakingly hand delivered so many copies of my book to people across Bay Area. just to make sure that my book reached out to as many people as possible. Mona Gantayat not only helped me with the launches of The Ekkos Clan at the Oxford Book Stores in Bangalore and Delhi. Kavya Hegde and the team at JustBooks did a wonderful promotion of The Ekkos Clan by making it a featured book. Shrey Goyal. 204 . Abhinav Gupta. Sahana Gupta helped me with the first book launch in Bangalore. Juthika Sinha and the team at Neucleus did a fabulous job in handling the overall PR and media coverage for my book. Sooraj Rajmohan. is just a very small aspect of our association. Aditi Sharma. Arka Sengupta. within a fortnight of its release in July 2013. took the pain of couriering each copy of the book to interested people across the US. Sravasti Datta. Sourav Das. Tarunjeet Rattan. she was also instrumental in getting my first interview-feature in the media and liaisoning for a series of book talks at major corporate houses in Bangalore. Shevlin Sebastian. Kamalika Dutta and Arun Francis of Pixel Passion managed the entire social media and graphic design for all sorts of promotional activities. Pune and Cochin. my brother.

Dipankar Khasnabish. Sudeshna Sanyal. Utkal Ranjan Mohanty. Prof. catalyzed my urge to finally compile Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan and publish it in the form of a coffee table book. Ritushree Dutta. Jonali Saikia.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Thanks are also due to Sulagna Chaudhury. Aroon Raman. Munish Jassi. Sarathi Socio Cultural Trust and many others for their direct and indirect support in promoting The Ekkos Clan. Giving me an opportunity to deliver a talk at IIT KGP in February 2014 on “A Scientific Exploration of the Rationale and Basis of Indo-European Language Systems (IELS)”. Sonal Ranjan. Debojit Saha. and making me a part of the Science-Culture interface. 205 . a new initiative (2014 – 2017) which attempts to conduct a number of research and exploratory projects to look at Indian and World Heritage Systems through the ‘lens’ of scientific exploration. Rakesh Godhwani. as a part of a lecture series under the SANDHI (A Scientific Approach to Networking and Designing of Heritage Interfaces) Project. Sharmin Ali (Bonny). Shivanand (Shivoo) Koteshwar. Prerna Narula. Joy Sen of IIT Kharagpur has been a great motivation behind my delving more into the various aspects of the IndoEuropean studies I’ve used in my book.

com 18. Issue 2. Bright Stars: http://www. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. by D D Kosambi 4. Ancient Indian History and Civilzation. by R C Majumdar 5. Database of Indo-European etymology: http://starling.cosmobrain. Ancient India. Eurasian Stepppe Archaeological Research: http://users.html 206 .html 13.arkaim-center. published in UNESCO journal Museum International. Arkaim: http://arkaim-home. A Dictionary of the Vedic Rituals: Based on the Śrauta and Gṛhya Sūtras.ru 10.ru 11. Argumentative Indian. Encyclopaedia of Ukraine: http://www.org 16.hartwick. by R C Dutt 3. Archaeology and Ethnic Politics: The Discovery of Arkaim.cgi?basename=\data\ie\ piet&root=config 14. by Amartya Sen 9.iranicaonline.narod.net/artifacts/archaeologyindia. April-June 1998 7. Encyclopaedia Iranica: http://www. Avesta—Zoroastrian Archives: http://avesta.archaeologyonline. Archaeology Online: http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.org 12. by Jawaharlal Nehru 15. by V A Shnirelman. A History of Civilization in Ancient India: Based on Sanscrit Literature. Volume 50.html 8. Douglas Q Adams 17. Discovery of India. by Chitrabhanu Sen 2. Arkaim Center: Official Site: http://www.edu/anthonyd/home.rinet.ru/cgibin/query. by J P Mallory.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan Selected Reference 1.com/cosmobrain/res/brightstar. by Shailendra Nath Sen 6. An Introduction To The Study Of Indian History.

Roshan Gupta 32. The Ancient History of India. by K C Singhal.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00fwp 20. by Franciscus Bernardus Jacobus Kuiper 34. J P Mallory 207 . by Benjamin W Fortson IV 28. by Ahmad Hasan Dani.co. Volume 1. edited by Edwin Francis Bryant. Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson 24.utexas. by Malati J Shendge 33. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. Columbia University – webpage: http://www.stephen-knapp. The Aryans in the Rigveda. History of Indian Theatre. edited by George Erdösy 37.columbia.html 29. Indo-European Grammar & Etymology Dictionary:http://indoeuropean. The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language.in 22. by Gyan Swarup Gupta 26. by Manohar Laxman Varadpande 25.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 19. Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. Frances Pritchett.google. by Alice Albinia 35.harappa.info 27. Vedic Period: A New Interpretation.com 31. Material Culture and Ethnicity. Google Books: http://books. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. by Elena E Kuz’mina. The Empires of Indus. India: From Indus Valley Civlization to Mauryas.com 23. Stephen Knapp – homepage: http://www. Indo-European Lexicon: http://www.com: http://www. The Aryas: Facts Without Fancy and Fiction.no/baser/morgenstierne/english/index.org 30. Internet Archive: http://archive.html 21.edu/cola/centers/lrc/ielex/PokornyMaster-X. Laurie L Patton 36.nb. Harrappa. Georg Morgenstierne’s Page: http://www. The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History.

com/indian_history. Webster’s Kalasha . Harvard University – webpage: http://www. The Spring Festival of The Kalash Kafris.htm. Monier Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary: http://www. http://indiatimeline.uni-koeln. published in India Antiqua.org/books 49. by Georg Morgenstierne 42. Michael Witzel. Voice of Dharma – online books: http://voiceofdharma. http://indiatimeline. Harvard University – various papers: http://indiatimeline.com/Indo_European.edu/~witzel/mwpage.htm 43. The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate.tripod.English Thesaurus Dictionary 50.harvard. edited by Edwin Bryant 39.htm 44.tripod.sanskrit-lexicon. Zoroastrian Heritage: http://www.php 47.com/usefullinks.php 46.htm.com/usefullinks. http:// indiatimeline.tripod. tripod.htm 208 . Useful Links: http://www.fourmilab.de/monier 45. The Rig Veda.htm 40. Vedas – Original Texts in Sanskrit and English Translations: http://www. Your Sky: http://www. translated by Ralph T H Griffith: http://sacredtexts. Michael Witzel.com/kalash. by Aurobindo Ghosh 41. http://indiatimeline.Myths & Truths Behind The Ekkos Clan 38. by Zenaide A Ragozin 48.sudiptodas.sudiptodas.people.ch/yoursky 52.fas. Vedic India As Embodied Principally in The Rig Veda.com/hin/rigveda/index.com/linguistics. The Secret of the Veda.tripod. Wikipedia 51. htm.htm.com/zoroastrianism/index.heritageinstitute.com/vedas.

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