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 Research is an art of scientific investigation. It refers to a search for knowledge. It is a scientific and

systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. It is actually a voyage of discovery, a

movement from the known to the unknown.

 According to Clifford Woody, research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating

hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions

and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit

the formulating hypothesis.

 Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its

advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and


 Every letter of the term ‘RESEARCH’ has a special and dignified meaning as

R : Rational way of thinking

E : Expert and exhaustive treatment

S : Search for solution

E : Exactness

A : Analytical analysis of adequate data

R : Relationships of facts

C : Careful recording, Critical observation, Constructive attitude, Condensed generalisations

H : Honesty and hardwork

 The basic steps or procedural guideline regarding the research process may be summed up as

01. Formulating the research problem

02. Extensive literature survey / Review of literature

03. Developing the hypothesis

04. Preparing the research design

05. Determining the sample design

06. Collecting the data

07. Execution of the project

08. Analysis of data

09. Testing of the hypothesis

10. Generalisations and interpretation &

11. Presentation of the results / Formal write-up of the conclusions reached

 Good research is systematic, logical, empirical and replicable.

 Descriptive Research

Descriptive research includes surveys and fact finding enquiries. In this method, the researcher has

no control over the research variables. He can only report what has happened or what is happening.

It is also known as ‘ex-post facto research.’

 Analytical Research

Under this type of research, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and

analyse these information to make a critical evaluation of the material.

 Fundamental Research

Fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a

theory. Discovery and the development of an organised set of scientific knowledge is the subject

matter of fundamental research. It can be experimented in a laboratory. It does not involve any

results of immediate application or practical value. It is also known as ‘pure research’ or ‘basic


 Applied Research

Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem. The central aim is to discover

a solution for an immediate practical problem. It is not concerned with the development of any

theory. It is also known as ‘action research.’

 Quantitative Research

Quantitative research is applicable to a phenomenon that can be expressed in terms of quantity. It

is based on the measurement of quantity or amount.

 Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, that is, the phenomena relating to

or involving quality or kind. It aims at discovering the underlying motives, desires and attitudes of

qualitative phenomenon. It is specially important in behavioural sciences.

 Conceptual Research

This type of research is related to some abstract ideas or theory. It is generally used to develop new

concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.

 Empirical Research

Empirical research is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which a re capable of being

verified by observation or experiment. The evidence gathered through experiments or empirical

studies is considered to be the most powerful support for a given hypothesis.

 Clinical or Diagnostic Research

This type of research follows case study methods or in-depth approaches to reach the basic causal

relations. Such studies usually go deep into the causes of things or events that interest us, using

very small samples and very deep probing data gathering devices.

 Exploratory Research and Formalised Research

Exploratory research is primarily concerned with the development of hypotheses rather than their

testing where as Formalised research studies are those with substantial structure and with specific

hypotheses to be tested.