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Bachelor of Science in Nursing

Overview

The BSN program prepares students to meet the current and future health needs of
society through a comprehensive academic foundation in the sciences and humanities. A
minimum of four years of full-time study is necessary, with course work emphasizing
health promotion, disease prevention, health restoration, and maintenance. For students
who wish to combine general education with professional course work, or who plan to go
on to graduate studies, this is the program of choice.

Curriculum and career preparation

The BSN offers a creative curriculum to prepare students for careers as professional
nurses who understand society’s current and future health needs. The curriculum reflects
the current trends in health care, focusing on wellness/illness concepts and the delivery of
care in both hospital and community-based settings.

The BSN curriculum consists of two components:

• 53-55 credit hours of general education course work organized in “clusters”


• 70-72 credit hours of nursing courses that stress critical thinking, communication,
and collaboration skills

The curriculum also provides a foundation for graduate study and leadership positions, as
graduates will possess a broad knowledge of the humanities, biological and social
sciences, and nursing.

An honors option is also available for students who demonstrate exceptional academic
promise and commitment.

A portfolio option is available to students who believe they meet the outcomes of
specific courses through prior learning and/or professional nursing experience. Through a
portfolio review process, you may be able to meet course requirements by documenting
evidence of your nursing skills and experience.

Careers

As a BSN graduate, you will have the problem-solving skills necessary to practice
nursing in a competent and responsible fashion. You’ll be able to assist individuals,
families, and communities with their health goals as you help design and develop more
efficient, effective approaches to the delivery of health care services.

Graduates can function as practitioners in a variety of settings, including:

• Acute and long-term care


• Community settings
• Home care and other nontraditional settings

Bachelor of Science in Nursing Overview of the


Curriculum
Education for the practice of professional nursing demands a substantial knowledge of
nursing, drawing from foundation knowledge of the behavioral and biological sciences.
Three components comprise the baccalaureate curriculum: liberal arts education, nursing
practice, and electives.

The liberal arts education component includes courses in the sciences, humanities, social
studies, and religious studies. The majority of these requirements are met in the first two
years.

The nursing component includes lectures, laboratory, and clinical courses concentrated in
the last four semesters of the program. The nursing courses include coursework relevant
to professional practice, delivery of nursing care, systems for care delivery, and
leadership skill development appropriate to current dynamic and diverse health care
settings. Clinical courses, offered in both hospital settings and the community, provide
students with the opportunity to apply theoretical knowledge to practice.

Clinical Education

Students are prepared for the professional practice of nursing in a variety of settings such
as hospitals, home care agencies, and community-based health care facilities. In addition
to clinical laboratories which are located on campus, we maintain contracts with over 100
institutions in the greater Bay Area for our clinical rotations, which provide students with
a broad and diverse exposure to nursing, multicultural health practices, and state-of-the-
art research. Close supervision of students is maintained, usually with a maximum of 8 or
9 students in a clinical group - based on agency regulations and professional standards.

During the last term of the program students are assigned a clinical nurse preceptor, with
whom they work on a 1:1 basis. Clinical preceptors are carefully selected for their
experience in the clinical management of patients and for their teaching excellence. The
preceptors work closely with the program to ensure that students achieve their clinical
objectives and course requirements. Clinical rotations take place in a variety of settings to
meet the learning needs of students.
At the completion of the program, graduates are eligible to take the National Council
Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) for entry into practice.

Curriculum Overview Intercollegiate Nursing Program (BS Nursing)

Freshman Year - First Semester


Collegiate Seminar 20/120 Greek Thought 3.5
English 4 Composition 3.5
Biology 15/16 lab Human Anatomy 3.5
Psychology 1 Introduction to Psychology 3.5
Total units 14.0
Freshman year Intersession
Elective 4.0
Freshman Year - Second Semester
Collegiate Seminar 21/121 lab Roman, Early Christian, Medieval
3.5
Thought
English 5 Argument and Research 3.5
Biology 25/26 lab Human Physiology 3.5
Chemistry 2/3 lab Principles of Chemistry 5.0
Total units 15.5
Sophomore Year - First Semester
Nursing 37 Intro to Professional Nursing 3.0
Collegiate Seminar 122 Renaissance, 17th and 18th Century Thought
3.5
*
Biology 40/41 lab Microbiology 3.5
Psychology 140 Human Development 3.5
Nursing 2 Nutrition 2.0
Foreign Language 3.5
Total units 13.0 - 16.5 *
Sophmore Year Intersession
Elective or Education 173 Effective Helping 4.0
Sophomore Year - Second Semester
Religious Studies 97 Survey of Biblical Literature 3.5
Nursing 119 Pathophysiology 3.0
Nursing 124 Health Assessment 3.0
Math 4 Introduction to Probability & Statistics 3.5
Foreign Language * 3.5
Total units 13.0 - 16.5 *
Junior Year - First Semester
Nursing 120 Managing Care of Adults I 5.0
Nursing 130 Mental Health Nursing 6.0
Nursing 118 Pharmacology 3.0
Total units 14.0
Junior Year Intersession
Elective, Religious Studies 4.0 *
Junior Year - Second Semester
Collegiate Seminar 123 19th & 20 Century Thought * 3.5
Nursing 128 Healthy Aging 2.0
Nursing 136 Managing Care of Adults II 5.0
Nursing 140 Reproductive Health Care 6.0
Total units 16.5 *
Senior Year - First Semester
Nursing 154 Nursing Care of Infants, Children, and Youth 5.5
Nursing 164 Managing Care of Adults III 5.0
Nursing 108 Nursing Research 2.0
Total units 12.5
Senior Year Intersession
Elective 4.0 *
Senior Year - Second Semester
Nursing 160 Nursing Leadership, Management, and Health Policy 3.0
Nursing 170 Community Health Nursing 5.0
Nursing 190L Senior Synthesis 6.0
Total units 14.0

Total Units - 129 to 133

* Requirements may vary depending on units transferred from other colleges.

Bachelor of Science in Nursing Degree (2+2 Option) Degree Requirements

The 2+2 Pre-Nursing program is offered in cooperation with Holy Names University,
Oakland, Mills College, Oakland, and Saint Mary’s College of California, Moraga. This
new program allows students multiple options to secure the liberal learning and science
courses required as the foundation for professional nursing education. Admission to the
Samuel Merritt University BSN program (2+2 option) is dependent upon successful
completion of the previous course work with a “B” average (3.0 GPA) or better, the
attainment of a score at or above the national average on the Nurse Entrance Test (NET),
and successfully completing a criminal background check. Prospective students should
consult the catalogs of these respective colleges for admission requirements and courses
to be taken.

Transfer Students

Transfer students may be enrolled in the program. Students who desire to transfer into the
2+2 Pre-Nursing program must meet all of the same requirements as expected from the
colleges and the university named above. Prospective students are asked to check the
Samuel Merritt University website for updates on admission requirements and ability to
be admitted as a transfer student to the 2+2.

2+2 BSN Curriculum Overview

Junior Year—31 Units

Junior One
Nursing 037 Introduction to Nursing 3.0
Nursing 125 Health Assessment I 4.0
Nursing 119 Pathophysiology 3.0
Nursing 129 Mental Health Nursing 5.0
General Education TBA 3.0
Total units 18.0
Junior Two
Nursing 118 Pharmacology 3.0
Nursing 120 Managing Care of the Adult I 5.0
Nursing 128 Healthy Aging 2.0
Nursing 136 Managing Care of the Adult II 5.0
Total units 15.0

Senior Year—32 Units

Senior One
Nursing 108 Nursing Research 2.0
Nursing 144 Maternity Nursing 5.0
Nursing 154 Care of Infants, Children, and Youth 5.0
Nursing 164 Managing Care of Adults III 5.0
Total units 17.0
Senior Two
Nursing 160 Leadership 3.0
Nursing 170 Community Health 5.0
Nursing 190 Synthesis 6.0
General Education Course II (TBA) 3.0
Total units 17.0

Total Units - 67 units

After Graduation

The BSN degree is the starting point of a rewarding career in nursing. Your BSN degree
assures your employer that you have the best preparation for your new position, including
leadership and critical thinking skills. Graduates of the Bachelor of Science in Nursing
are found in many different health care settings. They are prepared to practice in hospitals
in intensive care units, pediatrics, maternity, emergency rooms, and medical-surgical
units. Additionally, many practice in rehabilitation centers, skilled nursing facilities,
ambulatory care clinics, community health, home care, schools, occupational health, and
industry.

BSN nurses have more opportunity for advancement into supervisory positions and other
positions of responsibility because of their preparation. Our graduates can be found as
leaders in case management, education, and practice. Many graduates have completed
master's degrees as clinical specialists, nurse practitioners, nurse educators, nurse
anesthestists, and administrators. Graduates have also completed their doctoral degrees
and serve as nursing faculty. Our graduates are leaders in the profession and can be found
practicing throughout the Bay Area, nationally, and abroad.

Problem-based learning (PBL in this article) is defined by Finkle and Torp (1995) as, “a
curriculum development and instructional system that simultaneously develops both
problem solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing
students in the active role of problem solvers confronted with an ill-structured problem
that mirrors real-world problems”.

Problem-based learning is instructional design model and a variant of project-oriented


learning.

Source : http://sll.stanford.edu/pubs/jeepark/pblsite/skipintro.htm

Students engage in authentic experiences. PBL's are inherently social and collaborative in
methodology and teach students essential "soft skills" as well as domain specific content
and skills. Through PBL, students learn:

• Problem-solving skills
• Self-directed learning skills
• Ability to find and use appropriate resources
• Critical thinking
• Measurable knowledge base
• Performance ability
• Social and ethical skills
• Self-sufficient and self-motivated
• Facility with computer
• Leadership skills
• Ability to work on a team
• Communication skills
• Proactive thinking
• Congruence with workplace skills

What is PBL?
A Little Historical Background

source: http://sll.stanford.edu/pubs/jeepark/pblsite/whatis.htm

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has become popular because of its apparent benefits to
student learning.

PBL can be thought of as a combination of cognitive and social constructivist theories, as


developed by Piaget and Vygotsky, respectively. PBL is a curriculum development and
delivery system that recognizes the need to develop problem solving skills as well as the
necessity of helping students to acquire necessary knowledge and skills. The first
application of PBL was in medical schools which rigorously test the knowledge base of
graduates. Medical professionals need to keep up with new information in their field, and
the skill of life-long learning is particularly important for them. Hence, PBL was thought
to be well suited for this area. Many medical and professional schools, as well as
undergraduate and graduate programs use PBL in some form, at varying capacities
internationally.

According to García-Famoso (2005), “PBL was first applied in the 60s, in the Faculty of
Health Sciences of McMaster University (Canada) and in the School of Medicine of Case
Western Reserve University (United States). The main objective was twofold: to develop
problem solving skills and bring learning closer to real medical problems. After these
first experiences, many medical and professional schools started to use some form of
PBL, for example, Harvard Medical School or, in the Europe, Maastrich University”.

Overview and Characteristics

(1-3 Adapted from Stepien & Gallagher 1993; Barrows, 1985 // 4 & 5 : From Problem
Based Learning Initiative)

1. Use of real world problems - problems are relevant and contextual. It is in the
process of struggling with actual problems that students learn content and critical
thinking skills.
2. Reliance on problems to drive the curriculum - the problems do not test skills;
they assist in development of the skills themselves.
3. problems truly ill-structured - there is not meant to be one solution, and as new
information is gathered in a reiterative process, perception of the problem, and
thus the solution, changes.
4. PBL is learner-centered - learners are progressively given more responsibility for
their education and become increasingly independent of the teacher for their
education.
5. PBL produces independent, life-long learners - students continue to learn on their
own in life and in their careers.

Teaching & learning elements


As faculty design and teach courses, there are a number of basic elements to be
considered, related to which effective use of technologies can often be helpful. CIT is
here to consult with faculty about their specific circumstances, of course, but these
general suggestions may be of interest or may engender ideas about which we can talk
with you further.

The very first steps you take when planning a new course, or when
preparing to teach a course again. Includes setting student learning
Course planning
goals, choosing relevant assessments, and deciding how your
course will run.
Course materials are chosen after your course goals are set, and
Course materials
can be text or media of various types.
Lecturing or presenting is a traditional teaching method, and there
Lecturing/presenting are several ways to incorporate technology tools to help students
engage with your presentations more fully.
A key aspect of any course is communication: between faculty and
Communication
students, and among students.
Many faculty choose to incorporate some form of student group
work, or short- or long-term collaboration in their courses.
Groups/collaboration
Technologies can help students and faculty manage this process, or
even be the vehicle for the collaborative product.
Especially in large classes, but also in any course where online
Managing
submission or review of work would be useful, technologies can
assignments
assist with assignment management or grading.
Large classes can pose particular challenges, with regard to many
Managing large
of the elements listed here. Technologies can help mitigate some of
classes
these challenges.

"Development" describes the process of curriculum-making.

"Design" describes the end result, or the product of curriculum


development.
The Four Steps of Curriculum Development
"The Tyler Rationale"

1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?


2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain
these purposes?
3. How can they be organized?
4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

#1: What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

What Aims, Goals, and Objectives should be sought?

Educational objectives become the criteria for selecting materials, content


outlined, instructional methods developed, and tests prepared.

How to write objectives

Objectives often incorrectly stated as activities the instructor must do, rather than
statements of change for students.

Objectives are also listed as topics, concepts, or generalizations; however, this


approach does not specify what the students are expected to do with these
elements such as apply them to illustrations in his/her life or unify them in a
coherent theory explaining scientific deliberation.

Objectives can be indicated as generalized patterns (To Develop Appreciation,


To develop broad
interests.) These are more goals than objectives. It is necessary to specify the
content to which this
behavior applies.

Should specify the Kind of Behavior and the Content or Area in which the
behavior is to operate.

Examples:

To create a simple web page using a text editor.


To apply Dewey's theory of the child and the curriculum to the process of
developing a curriculum module.

Or:
Upon completion of this module, students will be able to:
...compute the selling price of an automobile given information about list price,
taxes, options, and destination charges
...construct a timeline showing the relationship among at least 20 major events in
the Roman empire
...describe the steps necessary for creating complete Web-based curriculum
modules

Example nonpreordinate objective: "Students will attend a Shakespeare play."

2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain


these purposes?

Criteria for selecting experiences; are they:

• valid in light of the ways in which knowledge and skills will be applied in
out-of-school experiences?
• feasible in terms of time, staff expertise, facilities available within and
outside of the school, community expectations?
• optimal in terms of students' learning the content?
• capable of allowing students to develop their thinking skills and rational
powers?
• capable of stimulating in students greater understanding of their own
existence as individuals and as members of groups?
• capable of fostering in students an openness to new experiences and a
tolerance for diversity?
• such that they will facilitate learning and motivate students to continue
learning?
• capable of allowing students to address their needs?
• such that students can broaden their interests?
• such that they will foster the total development of students in cognitive,
affective, psychomotor, social, and spiritual domains?

Curriculum Content

Criteria for selecting content:

• what will lead to student self-sufficiency?


• what is significant?
o Two definitions of "significance":
1. having or conveying a meaning; expressive, suggesting or
implying deeper or unstated meaning
2. important, notable; consequential
• what is valid (authentic, "true")?
• what is interesting?
o note: student may not even KNOW his own interests
• what is useful?
• what is learnable?
• what is feasible?

3. How can the educational experiences be organized?

Education experiences must be organized to reinforce each other.

Vertical vs. horizontal organization

Continuity - refers to the vertical reiteration of major curricular elements.


Reading social studies materials continued up through higher grades

Sequence - refers to experiences built upon preceding curricular elements but in


more breadth and detail. Sequence emphasizes higher levels of treatment.

Integration - unified view of things. Solving problems in arithmetic as well as in


other disciplines.

We aim for educational effectiveness and EFFICIENCY.

Most institutionalized education is MASS education: we want to be able to teach


GROUPS instead of individuals.

Most education is DEPARTMENTALIZED, because we expect someone trained


in a specific topic to be more likely to be able to teach that topic. (This is based
upon the notion that WORKERS will have higher productivity if they do the same
thing over and over again, related to the "social efficiency" theories of Frederick
Taylor.)

Generally, we arrange educational experiences from easiest to hardest, and from


most general to more specific. (There is some evidence that this is not the best
way to teach--that students are more likely to learn if specific skills or topics are
introduced first.)

4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

This question concerns evaluation, which is discussed in WIT 2001's


Assessment of Educational Sites module.

This image summarizes the steps of the Tyler Model.


National League for Nursing
Evaluation and Learning Advisory Committee (ELAC)
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

ELAC Members:
Marilyn H. Oermann (Chair)
Karen Saewert (Chair-elect)
Pamela Rutar
Suzanne Yarbrough

Sub-committee Members:
Reba Childress
Dawne-Marie Dunbar
Sally Erdel
Barbara Haas
Evelyn Hayes
Debra Hurd
Sheila Kyle
Gayle Preheim, Chair
Linda Siktberg
Gale R. Woolley, Chair
A comprehensive literature review was completed, reflecting best practices in
assessment,
evaluation, and grading in nursing. This annotated bibliography of the literature is
organized into
four areas: assessment and evaluation in (a) the classroom, (b) the online environment,
(c)
clinical practice, and (d) learning and simulation laboratories. There is a fifth section that
provides references on the assessment of psychomotor learning and performance; that
section is
not annotated. This work was completed by members of ELAC and its subcommittees as
noted
above.
1
CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT
Ahmad, N. (2002). Evaluation of teaching: Through eyes of students. Plano: Institutional

Research Office, Collin County Community College District.


This article reviews the student evaluations instruments used to evaluate learning and
faculty in
the classroom. The purpose of this article was to search for come standardized
instruments of
student evaluations. Instruments used are: Individual Developmental and Educational
Assessment (IDEA), Student Assessment of Learning Gains( SALG), Instructional
Assessment
System (IAS), Student Instructional Report II (SIR II), Course/Instructor Evaluations
Questionnaire (CIEQ), Student Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ), San Francisco
State
University Instrument, Indiana University at Bloomington’s Multi-Op (Multiple Option
System
of Course and Instructor Evaluation), Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI), Murdoch
University Student Survey’s of Teaching, University of Alberta Instructor Designed
Questionnaire System (IDQ). Timing of doing the student evaluations were suggested to
take
place at midterm. A great deal of controversy exists regarding how to interpret and use
the
student evaluation surveys.
Alexander, J. W., Polyakova, V., Johnston, L. W., Christensen, P., & Loquist, R. S.
(2003).
Collaborative development and evaluation of an online nursing course. Distance
Education, 24(1), 41-56.

This article is a case study of three nursing schools that designed and taught an online
undergraduate nursing course. Challenges by students and faculty encountered are
discussed
related to the online courses, recruitment, and retention. Qualitative and quantitative
methods
were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the course. Suggestions to overcome the
problems
encountered are given at the end of the article. Online students rated the online course
lower than
those receiving other methods of instruction. A reason was possibly that it was the
adjustment
phase of the new delivery method. Students reported too much time required in the online
course
while another student stated that the student had too think about every question which
required a
response.
All, A., & Huycke, L. (2007). Serial concept maps: Tools for concept analysis. Journal
of
Nursing Education, 46(5), 217-224.
This article discusses the difficulty of getting nursing students to be able to use and apply
abstract thinking. Ways to assist students in abstract thinking are concept analysis,
concept maps,
and “serial concept mapping.” Students and educators utilize the above listed approaches
to
apply nursing theory and practice. The “serial concept mapping approach is useful for
online and
classroom approaches.

Ambrose, M. S. (2003). Perceptions of effective teaching behaviors in a RN BSN


classroom.

Widener University School of Nursing. Proquest Dissertations and Theses 2003. Section
0969, Part 0569. 0969, Part 0569.

Today there is pressure to improve quality and effectiveness of teaching. Students


evaluate
instructors on their perceptions of the class while most schools accept this as the teacher’s
2
evaluation in the classroom. This is a qualitative study examining RN-BSN students and
faculty
perceptions of effective teaching behaviors. A pretest and posttest measuring the
students’
professional attitudes is utilized. The data analysis reflected no statistical significance in
professional attitude scores following the completion of this introductory course.

Baseline data was obtained from the RN students’ and faculty perceptions of effective
classroom
teaching behaviors. Seven categories were discovered from the faculty and student
responses
including: “communication/collegiality, encouragement/feedback, personality traits,
personal
philosophy, professional competence, supportive environment specific for the adult
learner and
teaching strategy.” Further research from this student population is necessary. This is
useful for
nurse educators interested in promoting behaviors that will promote an effective learning
environment.
Andrade, H. G. (2000). Using rubrics to promote thinking and learning. Educational

Leadership,
57(5), 13-18.

Rubrics are useful tools in developing critical thinking skills and in evaluating student’s
progress. By using a rubric for grading, the students are then responsible for the
performance on
the assignment. This holds the student accountable for learning and earning the grade.
Descriptions of various levels of grading rubrics are useful to students as it allows them
to see
what the actual expectations and grading criteria are. The descriptions of the various
levels of the
rubric are clear and concise. This enables the student to earn whatever grade is desired by

meeting the criteria. The educator’s expectations need to be clear and concise. In a study,
students performed better when they had the rubric versus no rubric. Valuable steps are
included
in designing a quality rubric.
Arter, J. (2000). Rubrics: scoring guides, and performance criteria: classroom tools for
Assessing and improving student learning. ERIC, ED446100.

Rubrics, scoring guides, and performance criteria help both the teacher and the student in
meeting course objectives. Educators become more effective in the classroom in grading
student’s work and more methodical in giving concise feedback to students. High quality
rubrics
are useful in classroom evaluations. The rubric must meet four requirements: “content,
clarity,
practicality, and technical soundness.” Seven strategies are listed in using rubrics as an
effective
tool. The use of rubrics has a positive influence on education and student performance.
Illustrations are given of useful rubrics listing advantages and disadvantages of each.
Arthurs, J. B. (2007). A juggling act in the classroom: Managing different learning styles.

Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 2, 2-9


.
This article discusses the challenge of using teaching methods that can accommodate a
variety of student learning styles. Three learning style models are discussed; Kolb’s
model,
Fleming and Mills’ sensory-based model, and the Dunn and Dunn learning style model.
The
author acknowledges that most students use a variety of learning styles, and that
educators can
maximize student learning by incorporating techniques from many methods into the
classroom.
Classroom strategies that keep students active in the learning process are beneficial.
Although it
can be challenging for faculty to include a variety of approaches, the student will benefit.
3

Badros, K., Seldomridge, L., & Walsh, C. (2005). Issues in critical thinking:
Measurement of
advanced practice students. Nurse Educator, 30(4), 139-140.
This article discusses problems from critical thinking encountered with advanced practice
nurses
using two tools: the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI) and the
Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA). Advantages and disadvantages of
using
these two instruments are listed. Recommendations are given at the end of article for
using newer
versions of the tools and for educators to require more examples from students to
demonstrate
effective critical thinking.
Baker, S., & Pomerantz, N. (2000/2001). Impact of learning communities on retention at
a
metropolitan
university.
Journal of College Student Retention, 2(2), 115-126.

This article discussed learning communities of freshman developed and instituted at a


commuter
metropolitan university. The learning community developed, linked three courses
together and
grouped the students according to demographics. The learning impact on the students
were
assessed and evaluated. Those in the learning community had higher grade point
averages, more
credits, had a positive perspective about the overall college experience and had less
likelihood of
being on probation.
Barakzai, M., & Fraser, D. (2005). The effect of demographic variables on achievement
in
and satisfaction with online coursework. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(8), 373-380.
This article studied the effect of language in an online course. Nurse practitioner and
physician
assistant students of ethnically diverse backgrounds were studied. The variables were
native
language, gender, and prior computer experience. Successful completion and satisfaction
with
online coursework were evaluated and compared between the groups. No statistical
difference
was noted in the language and course satisfaction, gender, or prior computer experience.
Becker, K., Rose, L., Berg, J., Park, H., & Shatzer, J. (2006). The teaching effectiveness
of standardized patients. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(4), 103-111.

This article is about teaching nursing students therapeutic communication in the


classroom. A
pilot study compared the standardized patients over the traditional methods of teaching in
a
baccalaureate nursing program. The standardized patient had a specific illness or
scenario. The
students that had the standardized patient reported the experience as positive, creative,
and
meaningful. No significant difference was observed when comparing interpersonal skills,
knowledge of depression, and therapeutic communication.
Beers, G. (2005). The effect of teaching method on objective test scores: Problem-based
learning versus lecture. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(7), 305-309.

This article reports studying the teaching methods in a school of nursing. Traditional
lecture and
problem based learning were compared. Test scores of both sets of students were
reviewed and
no statistical difference was revealed with the scores of both groups studying diabetes.

Beers, G., & Bowden, S. (2005). The effect of teaching method on long-term knowledge
retention.
Journal of Nursing Education, 44(11), 511-514.
4
This study repeated an earlier study comparing the difference of traditional lecture versus
problem based learning (PBL). Long term knowledge retention was analyzed after 1 year
after
having received the content. The scores of a comprehensive test and the endocrine
content were
evaluated. A statistical significant difference was found as the PBL group scored higher
on the
endocrine content and in the repeat posttest from 1 year ago. Therefore PBL’s may help
students
retain the information on a long term basis.

Bloom’s taxonomy: Affective domain. Retrieved from


http://nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html
October 27, 2007.
This is a brief, concise reference that outlines Bloom’s major categories in the affective
domain
along with examples and keywords useful in describing behaviors related to those
categories.

Bonnel, W., Fletcher, K., & Wingate, A., (2007). Integrating geriatric resources into
the classroom: A virtual tour example. Geriatric Nursing, 28(5), 301-305.

A Virtual Tour (VT) assignment is used to teach geriatric content to nursing students.
VTs used
in this article are based upon Vella’s model. Basic concepts of the model are reviewed. In
the VT
exercise, students are given an assignment sheet to introduce the topic and to clarify the
objective
of the exercise. Students complete the VT prior to class and share the assignment as part
of class
discussion. The authors assert that the exercise promotes critical thinking through
reflection on
previous experience and review of Web-based resources. This reflection enables students
to
apply knowledge to future care situations.

Bowers, S. (2004). The effect of problem-based learning on nursing students' clinical


decision-making and learning satisfaction. University of South Dakota.

Case studies are an effective tool for adult learners. This study evaluates the effectiveness
of case
study learning on students’ clinical decision-making and learning satisfaction. This
research was
a quasi-experimental design that investigates the above mentioned. Nursing students from
an
associate degree program were studied. The learning factors in the focus of the study
were
critical thinking, therapeutic communication, interventions, assessment, analysis,
planning,
implementation, evaluation, and overall exam score. Students in the experimental group
scored
higher in all areas except for communication. The students in the experimental group
scored
higher in the interventions demonstrating a positive reflection of the use of case studies.
The
students also showed a high acceptance and approval of the use of case studies in the
class which
improved their clinical decision- making and nursing judgments.