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Modeling the tip-sample interaction in atomic force
microscopy with Timoshenko beam theory

Modeling the tip-sample interaction in atomic force
microscopy with Timoshenko beam theory

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Editorial NanoMMTA

microscopy with Timoshenko beam theory

Abstract

A matrix framework is developed for single and multispan micro-cantilevers Timoshenko beam models of

use in atomic force microscopy (AFM). They are considered subject to general forcing loads and boundary

conditions for modeling tip-sample interaction. Surface eects are considered in the frequency analysis of supported and cantilever microbeams. Extensive use is made of a distributed matrix fundamental

response that allows to determine forced responses

through convolution and to absorb non-homogeneous

boundary conditions. Transients are identied from intial values of permanent responses. Eigenanalysis for

determining frequencies and matrix mode shapes is

done with the use of a fundamental matrix response

that characterizes solutions of a damped second-order

matrix dierential equation. It is observed that surface eects are inuential for the natural frequency at

the nanoscale. Simulations are performed for a bisegmented free-free beam and with a micro-cantilever

beam actuated by a piezoelectric layer laminated in

one side.

Tonetto1 , Daniela Tolfo1 ,

1 Institute of Mathematics, Universidade Federal do Rio

Grande do Sul,

Av. Bento Gonalves, 9500, 91509-900, Porto Alegre,

RS, Brazil

2 Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Universidade

Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,

Rua Sarmento Leite, 425, 90050-170, Porto Alegre, RS,

Brazil

Keywords

Atomic force microscopy nanoscale materials and

structures chemical/biological sensors nanomachining microscaled Timoshenko beams

PACS: 07.79.Lh, 62.25.-g, 81.07.-b, 87.85.fk, 46.70.De

MSC: 74H55, 74H10, 35E05, 35L30, 35L35

Versita sp. z o.o.

E-mail:

E-mail:

E-mail:

E-mail:

julio@mat.ufrgs.br

teresa.mat@gmail.com

ltonetto.mat@gmail.com

danitolfo.cp@gmail.com

1. Introduction

In this work, we determine dynamic responses of Timoshenko micro-cantilever beam models of use in the scanning

probe technique of AFM. This AFM technique allows to obtain images of surface topography at the atomic scale, in a

noninvasive manner, from a wide variety of samples on a scale from angstroms to 100 microns. Conductive and insulating

samples of surface structures can be considered in both air and liquid environments. Its predecessor was the stylus

proler that magnied, greater than 1000 , the vertical surface of a sample and recorded the motion of the stylus on

photographic paper. The AFM is a mechanical system for sensing force at the nanoNewton level between a sample

and a very tiny tip (< 10nm radius) that is mounted on a microfabricated cantilever ( 100 m). This allows AFM to

be capable of imaging features with a magnication of greater than 106 . Since its invention by Binning et al [5], it

has undergone several developments.

A typical AFM consists of a sensitive micro-cantilever with a mounted sharp tip acting as force sensor, a system that

moves the sample or the sensor in order to probe the sample surface, a detection sensor system of the cantilever

deection, a feed-back system which regulates the force interaction and a controller electronic system which records

movements, control the feedback loop and sends the measured data to a computer processing unit (Fig. 1). In

terms of the cantilever state of motion during measurement, the two basic types of AFM modes are: static mode

(contact, friction or lateral force) and dynamic mode (non-contact, tapping or semi-contact, acoustic, piezoelectric,

electrostatic,etc) [33]. They are typically of length 125-450 m, width 28-45 m, thickness 1-8 m, resonant

frequency 12-300 KHz, spring constant 0.1-48 N/m and tip probe height 17m and tip radius less than 10nm. The associated length scales associated are suciently small to call the applicability of classical continuum models into question.

Deflection detection

system

Laser

Feedback

Electronics

and

Imaging

Cantilever / Tip

Sample

Scanning system

Fig 1.

The geometry and the material of the cantilever both contribute to the properties that make a cantilever suitable

for any particular imaging modes. Both silicon and silicon nitride micro-cantilevers are commercially available

but reective back surface coating is used for a better feedback. New generations of nanobeams have included

piezoelectric materials locally attached at the micro-beam with the role of sensors and/or actuators [21]., The inclusion

of smart materials layers will modify material properties between neighboring layers. Active beams for AFM have

been subject to a variety of tip-sample interaction types models and they can be formulated as a second-order

matrix dierential equation subject to boundary conditions and compatibility conditions for transversal vibrations

in neighboring segments whenever having a multi-span micro-beam [11], [2], [17], [38]. The use of the AFM, as

nanomachining or as a platform for chemical and biological sensors in connection with and surface and thermal

eects, make that the eects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia on the frequency be signicant.

With smaller values of the ratio of the probe length to its thickness, the Timoshenko beam theory is able to

predict the frequencies of exural vibrations of the higher modes with higher stiness for the AFM cantilevers [19].

As the structural size decreases toward the nanoscale regime, surface/tension eects must be taken into account [20], [15].

In this work, we shall discuss AFM Timoshenko micro-cantilevers models that can involve smart materials or general

devices for describing tip-sample interaction forces. These models are formulated as second-order evolution systems

subject to initial, forcing and boundary data. Its mathematical study will make an extensive use of distributed matrix

impulse response or initial-value Green matrix response. This allows to characterize transients and forced responses

of a variety of AFM models. The vibration modes for general tip-sample interaction will be explicitly formulated in

terms of a fundamental matrix response of a second-order ordinary matrix dierential equation where the corresponding

stiness matrix coecient depends upon the frequency. This matrix response can be determined in closed form in terms

of a scalar solution that has a completely oscillatory behavior beyond a critical frequency value [9], [10].

This work is organized as follows. In section 2, we formulate the Timoshenko beam model in a matrix form. In section 3,

the dynamic response of the matrix model subject to tip-sample interactions and external forcing is given in terms of the

distributed matrix impulse response. Eigenanalysis is discussed in section 4 by solving a non-conservative second-order

matrix dierential system that depends nonlinearly upon the eigenvalue. The cases of micro-cantilevers involving an

elastic append at the free or linearized boundary conditions are discussed in terms of a fundamental response that given

in closed form. In section 5, the Galerkin method is used to obtain reduced-order forced models. Forced responses are

approximated by concentrated responses involving convolution with a concentrated impulse response and a localized

response at the end of the beam due to boundary conditions. Finally, in section 6 we discuss the matrix methodology

with modal analysis for the case of harmonic inputs as well as for modulated linear piecewise inputs with composite

micro-cantilever beams.

AFM was developed for producing high-resolution images of surface structures. The AFM tip has a vertical resolution

on the order of 1nm or below, and it can detect low-amplitude vibrations corresponding to high frequencies. Nowdays

it is also used to probe properties through interactions between the tip and the sample and to modify surfaces. This

interaction process has lead AFM to be used in smart material technology, chemical/biological sensors, tribology and

nanomachining, among others elds [23], [38], [12]. Modeling and simulate an AFM microstructural system is a complex

task [33]. The sharpness of the tip is often a fundamental resolution-limit parameter [8], [7]. The miniaturized cantilever

device depends on the accurate extract of static bending and resonant frequency. Test measurements and theoretical

studies have shown that the vibration behaviour of microstructures at the nanoscale is signicantly size and parametric

dependent. As the structural size decreases toward the nanoscale regime, surface eects must be taken into account

[20]. This dependence has motivated the use of size-dependent continuum theories in modeling microstructures: couple

stress theory [3], surface energy theory [16], [27], nonlocal formulation [26],[36], strain gradient [22], functionally graded

[25], among others.

In this work, we use the Timoshenko beam-type structure for incorporating shear formation and rotary inertia eects.

This allows to consider microbeams with small length-to-thickness aspect ratio. Thick beams have relatively high

transverse shear modulus and the eects of rotary inertia and transverse shear deformation must be used in the dynamic

analysis of such beams. The Timoshenko model corrects the classical beam theory with rst-order shear deformation

eects. Also, piezoelectric shearing coecients can be considered in the constitutive relations once shear deformation

also induce an electric displacement [30], [39]. This model rests on the assumptions of small deformations and linear

elastic isotropic material behavior. Continuum-based formalisms for nanoscale have been proposed that include the

eect of surface properties on the mechanical behavior. Here we shall consider Laplace-Young surface elasticity and

residual surface tension adapted to solid materials [40].

We consider the micro-cantilever having length L, width b, thickness 2h and mass density area of the beam . We let

3

I = 2bh

be the moment of inertia of the cross section area A = 2bh, w(t, x) the exural deection of the beam, (t, x) the

3

rotation angle of cross section of the beam, f(t, x) a transverse dynamic load and q(t, x) a moment load. The governing

equations are given by [1], [13]

Awtt GAwxx + GAx = f(t, x),

(1)

Itt EIxx GA (wx ) = q(t, x),

where

GA = GA (u + b )b,

(2)

EI = (EI + 2bh Es ),

(3)

are the eective curvature eect and exural rigidity, respectively. Here u and b denote the upper and lower surfaces

residual tensions and Es being a surface elastic modulus. The boundary conditions are those of a cantilever beam or

subject to balance of the moment and shear at the free end x = L. In this work, we shall assume that for a uniform beam

the involved coecients are constant.

2.1. Matrix formulation

The coupled Timoshenko model (1) can be written as a second-order dierential equation with matrix coecients

Mv + Kv = F,

(4)

where

v=

w(t, x)

(t, x)

M=

)

f(t, x)

q(t, x)

, F =

(5)

+ R,

, K = E 2 + N

x

x

(6)

with

GA

EI

E=

GA

GA

, N =

, R =

(7)

0 GA

It is frequently found in the literature, that the unforced Timoshenko model is decoupled into the same fourth-order time

dierential equation for the deection and rotating angle [35]. However, the boundary conditions actually couple the

system. Only for very few cases the unforced linear case is completely decoupled. For the case of a forced Timoshenko

model, the transverse forcing and moment load has to be regular in order to admit dierentiation. These arguments

suggest the convenience of keeping the original second-order physical formulation (4).

2.2. Multispan modes

Multispan active micro-beams for AFM are used for improving the detection and sensing imaging performance. In these

situations, the Timoshenko model can be considered in each segment [xi , xi+1 ], i = 0, N 1 where 0 = x0 x1

x2 , xN = L and to require the fullllment of compatibility conditions of continuity and equilibrium for displacement,

rotation and for moment, shear, respectively, in neighbouring segments. In a general setting, we have

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

E21 wi (t, xi ) + F21 i (t, xi ) + G21 wi (t, xi ) + H21 i (t, xi )

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

E31 wi (t, xi ) + F31 i (t, xi ) + G31 wi (t, xi ) + H31 i (t, xi )

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

E41 wi (t, xi ) + F41 i (t, xi ) + G41 wi (t, xi ) + H41 i (t, xi )

=

=

=

=

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

(t, x ) + H (t, x ),

E12 wi+1 (t, xi ) + F12 i+1 (t, xi ) + G12 wi+1

i

i

12 i+1

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

E22 wi+1 (t, xi ) + F22 i+1 (t, xi ) + G22 wi+1

(t, xi ) + H22 i+1

(t, xi ),

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

E32 wi+1 (t, xi ) + F32 i+1 (t, xi ) + G32 wi+1

(t, xi ) + H32 i+1

(t, xi ),

(i)

(i)

(i)

(i)

E42 wi+1 (t, xi ) + F42 i+1 (t, xi ) + G42 wi+1 (t, xi ) + H42 i+1 (t, xi ).

In matrix terms

C1,i wi (t, xi ) = C2,i wi+1 (t, xi ), i = 1, ..., N 1,

4

x1

0

Fig 2.

N-1 N

...

x2

xN-1 L x

Multispan micro-beam

where

wi (t, x)

i (t, x)

wi (t, x) =

w (t, x) ,

i

i (t, x)

C1,i =

(i)

E11

(i)

E21

(i)

E31

(i)

E41

(i)

F11

(i)

F21

(i)

F31

(i)

F41

(i)

G11

(i)

G21

(i)

G31

(i)

G41

(i)

H11

(i)

H21

(i)

H31

(i)

H41

, C2,i =

(i)

E12

(i)

E22

(i)

E32

(i)

E42

(i)

(i)

F12

(i)

F22

(i)

F32

(i)

F42

G12

(i)

G22

(i)

G32

(i)

G42

(i)

H12

(i)

H22

(i)

H32

(i)

H42

, i = 1, ..., N 1.

Thus for a multispan Timoshenko micro-beam, including proportional damping C = aM + bK, we have the second-order

block matrix dierential equations

Mv(t, x) + Cv(t, x) + Kv(t, x) = F,

where

v=

v1

v2

..

.

vN

, M =

M1

0

..

0 < x < L,

, K =

t > 0,

K1

0

..

MN

KN

(8)

, F=

F1

F2

..

.

FN

(9)

with

Mj =

j Aj

0

, Kj =

j Gj Aj x 2

Ej Ij x 2 + j Gj Aj

, vj =

j Gj Aj x

j Ij

j Gj Aj x

wj

subject to given initial conditions v(0, x) = ro (x), vt (0, x) = r1 (x), boundary and compatibility conditions

B1 w1 = n0 , BN wN = nL ,

C1,i wi (t, xi ) = C2,i wi+1 (t, xi ), i = 1, ..., N 1.

(10)

(11)

The tip interaction with the sample has been usually modeled as being subject to springs or dash-springs or attached

mass for normal and lateral interaction and to an external excitation of the base [19, 28].

For instance, when the tip of length h and mass m is subject to normal kN and lateral springs kL and viscous dampers

cN , cL , the moment and shear conditions at the free end are given by

(

w

2 w

m 2 ,

t

t x=L

2

EI

= kL h2 cL h2

mc2 2 ,

x

t

t x=L

GA

= kN cN

(12)

cL

c

h

z

kL

kN

cN

x

Fig 3.

where c denotes the distance between the lower edge of the cantilever and the centroid of the cross section.

In a general setting, separated boundary conditions at the ends x = 0, L of the micro-beam can be given as

a11 w1 (t, 0) + a12 1 (t, 0) + b11 w1 (t, 0) + b12 1 (t, 0) = n11 ,

(13)

a21 w1 (t, 0) + a22 1 (t, 0) + b21 w1 (t, 0) + b22 1 (t, 0) = n12 ;

p11 wN (t, L) + p12 N (t, L) + q11 wN (t, L) + q12 N (t, L) = n21 ,

(14)

p21 wN (t, L) + p22 N (t, L) + q21 wN (t, 0) + q22 N (t, L) = n22 .

Or in matrix form

B1 v(t, 0) = Av(t, 0) + Bvx (t, 0) = n1 ,

B2 v(t, L) = Pv(t, L) + Qvx (t, L) = n2 .

(15)

More complex descriptions of the tip-sample force include non-linear surface and contact forces at the boundary x = L

due to Derjaguin-Muller-Toporev (DMT), Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKT) [7].

2.4. The Timoshenko AFM model

The Timoshenko microbeam model for AFM operation modes, can be encompassed as the second-order matrix evolution

model

Mv(t, x) + Kv(t, x) = F, 0 < x < L, t > 0,

v(0, x) = vo (x), vt (0, x) = v1 (x),

(16)

B1 v(t, 0) = n1 ,

B2 v(t, L) = n2 ,

where F can include driven excitations or hydrodynamic damping and n1 , n2 interactions terms with the free end. For

instance,

n1 = Cv(t, 0) Dvt (t, 0) Evtt (t, 0),

(17)

(18)

kN GA

R=

cN

, O =

0

kL h2

cL h2

S=

0 mc2

(19)

Although the unforced governing equation Mv(t, x) + Kv(t, x) = 0 might look to be written in conservative form, the

boundary conditions could change such character introducing extra energy terms into AFM system. When using modal

analysis from a micro-cantilever beam with boundary conditions

(

)

1

0

0

1

v(t, 0) +

)

0 0

0 1

)

0

0

0

0

(

v(t, 0) +

vx (t, 0) = 0,

(20)

)

0

1

1

0

vx (t, L) = 0,

the AFM tip-sample interaction can be considered as localized forces at the free end.

The dynamic response of the Timoshenko model (1) or equation (4) can be described in terms of the matrix impulse

response or matrix Green function h(t, x, ) of the associated homogeneous initial-boundary value problem

M

h(t, x, ) + Kh(t, x, ) = 0, 0 < x, < L, t > 0,

h(0, x, ) = 0,

(21)

Ph(t, L, ) + Qhx (t, L, ) = 0,

where 0 denotes the 2 2 null matrix and I the 2 2 identity matrix. The Laplace transform of h(t, x, ) with respect to

time will be denoted by H(s, x, ) and referred to as the matrix transfer response. Thus

(

)

s2 M + K H(s, x, ) = (x )I, 0 < x, < L,

(22)

PH(s, L, ) + QHx (s, L, ) = 0.

It turns out that h(t , x, ) acts a integrating factor in Lagranges adjoint method for the nonhomogeneous equation

Mv(t, x) + Kv(t, x) = F(t, x), 0 < x, < L, t > 0,

v(0, x) = vo (x),

(23)

vt (0, x) = v1 (x),

Pv(t, L) + Qvx (t, L) = n2 (t).

Multiplying (23) by h(t , x, ) and integrating by parts, it turns out the dynamic response

v(t, x) =

+

tL

0

tL

0

L

h(t , x, )F(, )dd + J(v, h)0 ,

(24)

where J is a term containing eects of the initial-value Green function with values of v at the boundary.

The procedure mentioned above is related to the Riemann function method for integrating hyperbolic equations [14], the

formula appears in the eld of control of distributed systems [6] and in elastodynamics in connection with vibrations and

cracking problems is referred to as the dual integral representation [18]. For homogeneous boundary conditions, the

term J vanishes and (24) becomes a variations of constants formula for a second-order linear matrix dierential equation.

If we consider a micro-cantilever beam with a time dependent boundary condition s2 (t) at the free end, the term J can

be identied as

t

h(t , x, L)ET Qn2 ()d,

(25)

J=

0

where

(

)

GA 0

0

EI

E=

(

,

)

0 1

1 0

Q=

(26)

We can observe that the forced response given by (24) will involve the convolution of the impulse response and distributed

or concentrated forcing eects as in (25) and initial-value Green function with values of v at the boundary.

3.1. Frequency response

In practice, when computing the convolution integral for the forced response, we actually have

v(t, x) = vh (t, x) + vp (t, x),

(27)

where vh (t, x) is a free vibration introduced by the system and whose initial values are a priori unknown. It turns out

that these initial values are supplied by the permanent response vp (t, x) that can be determined by other means.

Since the impulse response and its time derivative constitute a basis for the free responses and the forced response in

(24) has null initial values at t = 0, the induced system free response due to a permanent response vp (t, x) can be easily

determined. It turns out

vh (t, x) =

0

(28)

where

h1 (t, x, )() = h(t, x, )M(),

ho (t, x, )() =

ht (t, x, )

M().

t

(29)

Harmonic and piecewise linear forcing are of interest in frequency analysis. When seeking a response of the same type

the transfer function is introduced. Given the harmonic input

f(t, x) = eit v(x),

(30)

(31)

where

H(i)v(x) =

H(i, x, )v()d.

(32)

The kernel H(s, x, ) of the transfer operator H is the Laplace transform of the impulse response h(t, x, ). In particular,

for a concentrated force [29] at a point x = a of spatial amplitude v(x) = v(x)(x a) we have the permanent response

vp (t, x) = eit H(i, x, a)v(a).

(33)

With the initial values vp (0, ) = H(i, , a)v(a), vp (0, ) = ivp (0, ), the induced free response is given by

vh (t, x) =

0

(34)

where

r = ht (t, x, ) + ih(t, x, ).

(35)

(36)

vp (x) = eit

H(i, x, )vo d.

(37)

Lb

As before, by substituting the initial values in (28), the induced free response will now be

vh (t, x) =

(38)

f(t, x) = exp(t)(ct + d),

(39)

(40)

where

C = (2 M + K )1 c,

(41)

D = (2 M + K )1 d 2(2 M + K )2 Mc,

whenever is not an eigenvalue or natural frequency.

The search of exponential solutions

(

t

v(t, x) = e v(x),

v(x) =

)

w(x)

(x)

(42)

2 v

+ Kv = 0,

(43)

t 2

subject to general separated homogeneous boundary conditions (15), amounts to determine nontrivial solutions of the

second-order dierential equation

Mv (x) + C v (x) + K ()v(x) = 0,

(44)

M

M=

GA

0

0

EI

, C =

GA

GA

, K () =

A2

0

(45)

2 I + GA

Av(0) + Bv (0) = n1 ,

Pv(L) + Qv (L) = n2 .

(46)

We should observe that if viscous damping forces are considered, then the matrix M has to be modied to include an

eigenvalue term. Also, when considering localized linearized tip-sample interactions and viscous damping force acting

on a microcantilever beam (clamped-free), the above eigenvalue problem will modify the coecient matrices in (43) but

the boundary conditions (15) will be those of clamped-free beam.

9

In terms of initial values, the general solution of the second-order matrix dierential equations (44) is given by [9]

where

(47)

(48)

v(x) = h(x)c1 + h (x)c2 ,

(49)

for constant 2 1 vectors c1 and c2 . Here h(x) is the 2 2 matrix solution of the initial value problem

Mh (x) + C h (x) + K ()h(x) = 0,

(50)

h(0) = 0, Ah (0) = I,

where 0 denotes the 2 2 null matrix and I the 2 2 identity matrix. The matrix coecients being given as in (45).

4.2. Shape modes in closed form

For a micro-cantilever beam of length L, we have the clamped boundary condition v(0) = 0, that is B1 = I. By using the

initial values of h(x) in (49), it turns out that c2 = 0. Thus we have to determine so that

v(x) = h(x, )c

(51)

satises the boundary condition at the free end x = L. By assuming homogeneous boundary conditions, we have the

nonlinear eigenmatrix problem

(

)

U()c = Ph(L, ) + Qh (L, ) c = 0.

(52)

From this, it turns out the characteristic equation

() = det(U) = 0.

(53)

We should observe that the modes have the same shape, regardless of the conditions at the free end, but the eigenvalue

diers according to the boundary coecient matrices P and Q. For a micro-cantilever beam, these matrices are given

in (20). The matrix U() or the characteristic equation (53) can be determined by computing the fundamental matrix

solution h(x).

4.2.1. Computing h(x)

The fundamental response h(x) can be determined in closed form as follows. Exponential type vector solutions v(x) = ekx u

of (44) exist ( u = 0), whenever k is a root of the characteristic polynomial

4

(

)

P(k, ) = det k 2 M + kC + K =

j k 4j ,

(54)

j=0

where

0 = abm ,

1 = 0,

2 = (ae2 c2 bm a2 + am a),

3 = 0

4 = c2 a + c4 e,

(55)

with

a

= GA,

c = A,

e = I,

am = GA = GA (u + b )b,

bm = EI = (EI + 2bh2 Es ).

10

(56)

P(k, ) = abm (k 4 + g2 k 2 r 4 ),

(57)

where

(

g2 = g2m + s2 , g2m =

)

(

a + e2

.

r 4 = c2

abm

c

e

+

bm

a

)

2

s2 =

1

(am a) ,

bm

(58)

(59)

It turns out that the roots of (57) are

k1 = ,

k2 = ,

k3 = i,

k4 = i,

with

1

=

2

=

2g2 + 2

1

2

g4 + 4r 4 ,

(60)

2g2 + 2 g4 + 4r 4 .

(61)

j1

4

i d(j1i) (x)h4j ,

(62)

senh(x) sen(x)

,

abm ( 2 + 2 )

(63)

h(x) =

j=1 i=0

where

d(x) =

is the solution of the initial value problem

d(0) = d (0) = d (0) = 0, abm d (0) = 1,

(64)

and the matrices hj = h(j) (0) satisfy the matrix dierence equation

Mhj+2 + Chj+1 + Khj = 0,

(65)

h0 = 0, Mh1 = I.

By substituting values, we arrive to the closed formula

h(x) =

(a + e2 )d(x) bm d (x)

am d (x),

ad (x)

ad (x) + c d(x),

11

(66)

For a supported Timoshenko model, we have the boundary conditions

u(t, 0) = 0, x (t, 0) = 0,

u(t, L) = 0, x (t, L) = 0,

(67)

(

A=F =

1 0

)

,

0 0

J =Q=

)

.

(68)

0 1

0 0

The matriz U can be reduced to a half size one due to the boundary conditions, that is, c12 = 0, c21 = 0. We thus have

the reduced system

)T

(

c11

UD c = 0, c =

,

(69)

c22

where

UD =

(a e2 )d(L) bm d (L)

iv

ad (L)

d (L)am

ad (L) d (L)c

(70)

The natural frequencies = i can be obtained from (60) or (61) by substituting the roots of the characteristic equation

() = det(UD ) = A sin(L) sinh(L) = 0,

(71)

where

A=

.

a2 b2m ( 2 + 2 )2

we can obtain from (61), while for = i m

we can use (60). This later kind of frequencies

L

L

are associated with the so-called second spectrum [4], [34], [24]. By considering the surface parameter values given in

[1], this second spectrum will appear for frequencies above the classical critical frequency c2 = ae .

4.4. Frequency equation for a micro-cantilever

For the cantilever Timoshenko model, we have the boundary conditions

w(t, 0) = 0,

(t, 0) = 0,

(72)

(

A=

1 0

(

,

J =

F=

)

,

0 0

0 1

(

0 0

(

,

Q=

0 1

0 1

1 0

12

(73)

)

.

By following the same reasoning as before, we obtain that due to the boundary conditions, the matrix U can be reduced

to a half size one, that is, c21 = 0, c22 = 0. We thus have the reduced system

(

UD c = 0,

where

UD =

c11

c12

c=

ad (L)

)T

,

(74)

ad (L) + 2 cd (L)

2

(75)

The natural frequencies = i can be obtained from (60) or (61) by substituting the roots of the characteristic equation

() = 4 ce (d (x))2 + 2 [ac d(x) d (x) (ae + cbm ) d (x) d (x)] + (a2 aam ) (d (x))2 abm (d (x))2 .

(76)

For a for micro-cantilever beam described by the Timoshenko model with surface eects, Figure 4 below illustrates the

size dependence in the natural frequency of Timoshenko classical model and Timoshenko model including surface eects,

The solutions based on classical Timoshenko beam theory and Timoshenko beam theory including surface eects are

denoted by TB and TMB,respectively. The natural frequencies are normalized to fundamental frequency of cantilever

Euler-Bernoulli beam. In this gure are considered the parameters utilized in [1] for the same purposes. The material and

types of surface crystal orientation determine the surface elastic constants. For an anodic alumina Al (Youngs modulus

E = 70GPa, Poissons ratio = 0.3 and = 2700kg/m3 ) are considered two types of crystallographic direction

Al[100] : Es = 7.9253N/m and = 0.5689N/m,

Al[111]: Es = 5.1882N/m and = 0.9108N/m.

Fig 4.

Inuence of surface eects and size dependence on the normalized fundamental natural frequency of the micro-cantilever for 2h=0.2L,

b=0.4L and = 5/6

In the Figure 4 we can observe that for beam length on the order of nanometer to microns, the dierence between

natural frequencies is apparent and by increasing the length of the microbeam, the results tend to Timoshenko classical

theory. This same behavior was observed in [1] for a microbeam simply supported. Other observation is that the natural

frequency of vibration of TB beams is independent of the beam length while for TB this is not occur, that is, the surface

eects are signicant only in nanoscale.

13

The Galerkin method [13] can be used for determining approximate dynamic responses of the AFM micro-cantilever beam

described by the Timoshenko model. From (24), we actually need to nd an approximation of the fundamental matrix

response h(t, x, ). For this, we rst introduce the block matrix

(

V(x) =

)

,

(77)

whose columns are the rst n cantilever eigenfunctions (51) corresponding to the micro-cantilever eigenvalues, that is,

(

)

wj (x)

j (x)

vj (x) =

= h(x, j )cj ,

(78)

where cj is obtained by nding a nonzero solution of (52) with j = ij . Since the AFM micro-cantilever modes share

the normal mode property, we can assume that they have been normalized with respect to the mass matrix M. Then we

consider the obtention of an approximate response

n

.

v(t, x) =

pj (t)vj (x) = V(x)P(t),

(79)

j=1

)

For determining the time amplitudes PT (t) = p1 (t) p2 (t) . . . pn (t) , we substitute (77) into (4), pre-multiply the

resulting matrix dierential equation by V()T and integrate in order to apply the normal mode property. It turns out

the n dimensional system

+ 2 P(t) = f,

P(t)

(80)

where

2 =

12 0

0 22

0 0

0

0

2

N

,

f

=

V()T Fd.

(81)

P(0) =

=

V()T vo ()d, P(0)

V()T v1 ()d.

(82)

Thus the solution of (80) with the initial conditions (82) can be written as

+

h(t ) (f) d,

(83)

sin(t)

h(t) =

=

sin(1 t)

1

sin(2 t)

2

14

sin(N t)

N

(84)

By substituting (83) in the approximated dynamic response v(t, x) = V(x)P(t) of (24), we have

v(t, x) =

(85)

Consequently, we obtain the spectral approximation for the initial value Green matrix response

N

sin(j t)

.

sin(t) T

h(t, , ) = V()

V () =

vj ()vjT (),

j

j=1

(86)

N

vj ()vjT ()

.

H(s, , ) = V()(s2 I + 2 )1 VT () =

.

s2 + j2

j=1

(87)

We observe that when the probe deection is considered due only to the interaction tip-sample force n2 at the end x = L

of the micro-cantilever, we can use (25) to obtain the approximated response

v(t, )

=

(88)

6. Numerical simulations

In this section, we shall consider the eigenvalue problem for a free-free bi-segmented Timoshenko beam and the obtention

of forced responses for a Timoshenko micro-cantilever beam with to a piezoelectric layer above it. The computations

were performed in exact rational arithmetic using the symbolic computation language Maple. Expansions were truncated

with a small number N of terms, usually between 5 and 10.

6.1. Bi-segmented free-free Timoshenko beam

In [31], it was considered the eigenanalysis for a free-free Euler-Bernoulli bi-segmented beam. By using the same data,

as given in Table 1.

Properties of beam elements

Parameter(unit)

Table 1.

l1

l2

0, 254

0, 140

t1

0, 01905

t2

0, 00549

Width (mm)

0, 02545

71, 7

Density (K g/m3 )

2830

We have simulated the eigenanalysis of a free-free Timoshenko bi-segmented beam by using the matrix basis generated

by a fundamental matrix response in the study of the eigenvalue problem (52).

The corresponding boundary conditions

E1 I1 1 (t, 0) = 0,

E2 I2 2 (t, L)

2 G2 A2 [w2 (t, L)

= 0,

15

2 (t, L)] = 0,

(89)

(

)(

0

0

0 1 G1 A1

)

w1 (t, 0)

1 (t, 0)

)(

0

0

0 2 G2 A2

(

+

)

w2 (t, L)

2 (t, L)

)(

)(

)

0

0

=

)

w2 (t, L)

2 (t, L)

0

E2 I 2

2 G2 A2 0

)

w1 (t, 0)

1 (t, 0)

0

E1 I 1

1 G1 A1 0

(90)

(91)

)

0

0

w1 (t, l1 ) = w2 (t, l1 ),

1 (t, l1 ) = 2 (t, l1 ),

1 (t, l1 ) = 1 2 (t, l1 ),

w1 (t, l1 ) 1 (t, l1 ) = 1 (w2 (t, l1 ) 2 (t, l1 )),

where 1 = E2 I2 /E1 I1 and 1 = 2 G2 A2 /1 G1 A1 . In matrix form, we have

0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

0 1 1 0

w1 (t, l1 )

1 (t, xi )

w1 (t, l1 )

1 (t, l1 )

0 1

0 0

0 1

0 0

0 1 1 0

w2 (t, l1 )

2 (t, l1 )

w2 (t, l1 )

2 (t, l1 )

(92)

C1,i =

1 0

0 1

0 0

0 1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

, C2,i =

1 0

0 1

0 0

0 1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

, Wj (t, x) =

wj (t, x)

j (t, x)

wj (t, x)

j (t, x)

(93)

In Table 2, we have theoretical and experimental values obtained in [31] for an Euler-Bernoulli beam model (EBT), those

obtained in this work with a Timoshenko model (TBT) and by applying similar methodology for multispan Euler-Bernoulli

beams [37]. We observe that the frequencies obtained for the Timoskenho model are closer to experimental ones. The

corresponding multispan shape modes for transversal displacement and rotation are illustrated in Figure 5.

Freq. Theoretical Experimental This work This work

(Hz)

(1)

(2)

(3)

1st

292

286 291

292.42

291.77

2nd

1181

1159 1165

1181.28

1167.89

3rd

1804

1759 1771

1804.01

1775.94

(2): Reference [31]

(3): Reference [37] (Euler-Bernoulli beam theory)

Table 2.

16

Fig 5.

First three matrix shape modes of a bi-segmented free-free Timoshenko beam. Left: transversal deection component w(x). Right: rotation

component (x).

A Timoshenko micro-cantilever beam actuated by a piezoelectric layer laminated on one side of the beam was studied in

[32]. The governing equations included viscous damping and the moment at the free end is subject to an applied voltage

to piezoelectric layer. The equations and boundary conditions were established for a Timoshenko micro-cantilever with

a laminated piezoelectric layer having length L, thickness hp and width b as in Figure (6).

z

x

L

b

hb

y

Fig 6.

By incorporating the boundary condition due to piezoelectricity at the free end as a concentrated forcing into the model,

we can describe this later as a forced damped Timoshenko micro-cantilever model. In matrix formulation, we have

Mv + Cv + Kv = F,

where

v=

w(t, x)

M=

M11

M22

, F =

(t, x)

(94)

k1 1 (x)V (t)

, K =

K11

K12

K21

K22

Here

17

, C =

c1

c2

(95)

2

p

p

b b

b b

K11 = 4( p c55 hp b + b c55

h b) x 2 , K12 = 4( p c55 hp b + b c55

h b) x ,

p

p

b b 2

b b

p p p

b b b

K21 = 4( c55 h b + c55 h b) x , K22 = (c11 Ip + c11 I ) x 2 + 4( p c55 hp b + b c55

h b),

p

k1 = e13 zm b,

u(t) = V (t),

b =

10(1+ b )

,

12+11 b

p =

(96)

10(1+ p )

.

12+11 p

c1 and c2 are viscous damping constants, zm is the distance between the middle line of the piezoelectric layer and the

neutral axis of beam and V (t) is the applied voltage to piezoelectric layer.

The beam geometrical and material properties are described in the Tables 3 and 4.

Properties of beam elements

Parameter(unit)

Table 3.

Length (m)

150

Width (m)

30

Thickness (m)

hb

10

b

c11

73

Density (K g/m3 )

2200

Poisson coecient

0.17

Parameter(unit)

Table 4.

Length (m)

lp

150

Width (m)

30

Thickness (m)

hp

10

c11

71

Density (K g/m3 )

7700

Poisson coecient

0.31

The rst four obtained natural frequencies are shown in Table 5 for comparison with those of the formulated model in

[32]. The micro-cantilever shape matrix modes in Figure 7 are mass normalized. It is observed that the inclusion of

rotatory inertia and shear in beam modeling inuences the rotation component of the forced responses due to a spatial

concentrated and spatial pulse moment excitations that are modulated with a harmonic input.

Freq. Reference Present work

(KHz)

(1)

1st

547

544

2nd

3314

3298

3rd

8833

8797

4th

15951

16210

Table 5.

18

Fig 7.

Mass normalized matrix shape modes of a micro-cantilever beam with a piezoelectric layer. Left: transversal deection component

w(x).Right: rotation component (x). First mode: solid blue line, Second mode: dash-dotted red line, Third mode: dotted black line,

Fourth mode: dashed gray line.

19

Fig 8.

Above: transversal deection component w(t, x) due to a concentrated moment q(t, x) = k1 1 (x)V (t) at the free end of the micro-cantilever

and proles for several times. Below: rotation component (t, x) and proles for several times.

7. Conclusions

This paper addresses a matrix formulation for micro-cantilever models in AFM that are subject to quite general tip-sample

interactions, surface eects and external excitations. Although we have considered a nite length uniform Timoshenko

beam model, the matrix formulation can be used with other beam models. The use of piezoelectric materials as both an

actuator and a sensor has motivated to incorporate the matrix treatment of multi-span beams. In this work, it is proposed

the extensive use of fundamental matrix responses such as the distributed matrix impulse response of the micro-cantilever

for predicting forced responses and concentrated matrix responses for determining modes and frequencies of the microcantilevers. The eigenalysis involved the solution in closed form of a second-order damped dierential equation with

matrix coecients. The case of a supported micro-beam with surface eects can lead to a second spectrum above a critical

frequency. For the micro-cantilever case, it was observed the size dependence in the natural frequency of Timoshenko

classical model and Timoshenko model and that surface eects are signicant only in nanoscale. Simulations were

performed by using the Galerkin method with micro-cantilever eigenfunctions. The shape matrix modes and frequencies

for a bi-segmented free-free Timoshenko beam were determined. Forced responses of a piezoelectric micro-cantilever

beam where computed when subject to concentrated and pulse harmonic excitations at the free end.

8. Acknowledgments

We thanks the reviewers for their important comments and suggestions.

20

Fig 9.

Above: transversal deection component w(t, x) due to a concentrated pulse moment q(t, x) = 0.01V (t)(H(x 6L/8) H(x 7L/8)) at the

free end of the micro-cantilever and proles for several times. Below: rotation component (t, x) and proles for several times.

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23

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