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Course – Manufacturing


Course Overview

Conventional Machining Processes
Material Removal Process
Non Conventional Machining Process
Abrasive Machining Process

such as aircraft. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other. who then sell them to end users – the "consumers". who in turn sell them to retailers. more complex products.Basics • Manufacturing is the use of machines. household appliances or automobiles. • Key Words to know! – – – – Just in Time Production Lean Manufacturing Kanban Toyota – Manufacturing Leaders! . Raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. or sold to wholesalers. tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale.Manufacturing .

Conventional Machining Processes • • • • • • Rolling Drawing Extrusion Blanking Fine Blanking Deep Drawing .

until the desired cross-section profile is obtained. Rolling is ideal for producing constant-profile parts with long lengths and in large quantities. . each set performing only an incremental part of the bend.Rolling • Rolling. is a continuous bending operation in which a long strip of sheet metal (typically coiled steel) is passed through sets of rolls mounted on consecutive stands.

bar. The specific definition for sheet metal drawing is that it involves plastic deformation over a curved axis.Drawing • Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal. It is broken up into two types: sheet metal drawing and wire. . and tube drawing the starting stock is drawn through a die to reduce its diameter and increase its length. bar. and tube drawing. For wire.

A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section. . The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex crosssections and work materials that are brittle. because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses.Extrusion • Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed crosssectional profile. It also forms finished parts with an excellent surface finish.

only the terminology is different: in blanking the punched out piece is used and called a blank.Blanking and piercing • Blanking and piercing are shearing processes in which a punch and die are used to modify webs. The tooling and processes are the same between the two. in piercing the punched out piece is scrap .

and perhaps eliminate secondary operations. This is achieved by compressing the whole part and then an upper and lower punch extract the blank. copper.[5] This allows the process to hold very tight tolerances. . and carbon. brass. Materials that can be fine blanked include aluminium.Fine Blanking • • Fine blanking is a specialized form of blanking where there is no fracture zone when shearing. alloy and stainless steels.

Fine Blanking .

Deep Drawing • Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch. . The process is considered "deep" drawing when the depth of the drawn part exceeds its diameter.[1] It is thus a shape transformation process with material retention.

Material Removal Process .

Turning .

Turning .Few Key terms • • • • • • • • Facing Parting Roughing Drilling Boring Knurling Threading Reaming .

which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape. The solidified part is also known as a casting. casting involves pouring a liquid metal into a mold. which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process. and then is allowed to solidify.Casting • In metalworking. .

Casting – Pictorial Representation .

" or "hot" forging. a hammer strikes and deforms the workpiece. press forging. automatic hot forging and upsetting. Cogging is successive deformation of a bar along its length using an opendie drop forge. impression-die forging. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: '"cold. swaging. . cogging. which is placed on a stationary anvil. Open Die Forging -Open-die forging is also known as smith forging." "warm.Forging • • • • Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. Common forging processes include: roll forging. opendie forging. Once the proper thickness is achieved the proper width is achieved via edging.[6] In open-die forging. It is commonly used to work a piece of raw material to the proper thickness.

.Forging – Contd. Fullering Edging . Fullering is a similar process that thins out sections of the forging using a convex shaped die. These processes prepare the workpieces for further forging processes. The process is called edging. • Edging is the process of concentrating material using a concave shaped open die. because it is usually carried out on the ends of the workpiece.

This is in contrast with soldering and brazing. or by itself. to produce the weld. with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong . • Please check the link. which involve melting a lower-melting-point material between the workpieces to form a bond between them. by causing coalescence.Welding • Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials. usually metals or would be useful : http://en. without melting the workpieces.

Schematic Diagram .

Arc Welding Resistance Welding TIG Welding .

Non Conventional Machining Process .

but capable of tighter tolerances and better surface finish than other machining processes. honing. such as milling or turning. into the surface of the workpiece so that each particle cuts away a small bit of material. Mechanics of abrasive machining Abrasive machining works by forcing the abrasive particles. Abrasive processes are usually expensive. Abrasive machining is similar to conventional machining.Abrasive Machining Process • • Abrasive machining is a machining process where material is removed from a workpiece using a multitude of small abrasive particles. and polishing. . or grains. because each of the abrasive particles acts like a miniature cutting tool. Common examples include grinding.

tumbling . superfinishing • Tape finishing. Diamond wire cutting.Few key words to be remembered! Fixed (bonded) abrasive processes • Grinding • Honing. Wire saw • Sanding Loose abrasive processes • Polishing • Lapping • Abrasive flow machining (AFM) • Hydro-erosive grinding • Water-jet cutting • Abrasive blasting • Mass finishing. abrasive belt machining • Buffing. brushing • Abrasive sawing.

Abrasive Water jet Machining • A water jet cutter. also known as a waterjet. 1 – High Pressure Water inlet 2.Jewel – Ruby or Diamond 3. or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance.[1] is a tool capable of slicing into metal or other materials (such as granite) using a jet of water at high velocity and pressure.Abrasive 4-Mixing Tube 5-Guard 6-Cutting water Jet 7-Cut Material .

Abrasives Conventional • Aluminum oxide (Corundum) • Silicon carbide • Emery • Pumice • Sand • Steel abrasive Superabrasives • Diamond • Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN). Borazon .

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering • Notes taken down during classrooms! . Serope. Steven R. • Pearson • en.References • Kalpakjian. Schmid (2003).