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# Technological Institute of the Philippines

## 983 Aurora Boulevard, Cubao, Quezon City

College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## CE405 Fluid Mechanics

Experiment # 4
Determination of the Density of a Fluid
Submitted by:
Malvecino, Juztine (Leader)
Espino, Pamela Shara
Victorio, Ace Louise
Franco, Rebi Jennise
Torcatos, Mark Lester
Macatangay, Jesuzette
Group 3 CE41FB6
Submitted to:
Engr. Sarsonas
Date of Submission:
August 17, 2015
Experiment 4
Determination of the Density of a Fluid
Objective:
The activity aims to determine the density of a fluid.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
At the end of the activity the students shall be able to:
1. Demonstrate ability to measure, collect and record data accurately.
2. Demonstrate ability to use data in a formula to solve for density.
3. Identify the density of water and compare with common liquids.
4. Identify if there is a relationship between the volume and mass of the volume in solving for
density.

Discussion:
Density is a physical property of matter, as each element and compound has a unique density
associated with it. Density defined in a qualitative manner as the measure of the relative "heaviness" of
objects with a constant volume.
Density is the mass of the fluid contained in a unit volume. The specific weight and density of a
fluid both decrease with an increase in temperature, which causes the molecular activity and spacing to
likewise increase. On the other hand, with the application of additional pressure which tends to increase the
amount of molecules in the fluid, it is possible to increase the specific weight and density of the fluid.
More commonly, the specific weight of a gas is computed through the combination of the Boyle
and Charles Laws, which gives
Pg
=g=
RT
Where:
Y = Specific Gravity
P = Density in kg/m3
G = acceleration due to gravity in m/s 2
P = absolute pressure in Pa
R = gas constant in N-n/kg-0K
T = temperature in 0K
Resources/Instruments Required:
Graduated Cylinder
Hydrometer Cylinder
Scale or Triple Beam Balance
Liquids whose properties are to be measured
Block of wood
Procedure:
Method 1
1. Weigh an empty graduated cylinder or beaker.
2. Weigh a known volume of a liquid using a graduated cylinder or beaker.
3. Identify the density of the liquid from the difference in weight divided by the volume.
Method 2
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Weigh a block of wood in air.

Weigh a block of wood in liquid
Identify the buoyant force acting on the object from the difference of its weight.
Identify the density of the liquid from the difference in volume of the liquid displaced
which is equivalent to the weight per unit volume.

Laboratory Report:
Group No.:
Date Performed: Aug. 10, 2015
Name of Members: Malvecino, Juztine M.
Torcatos, Mark Lester
Franco, Rebi Jennise
Espino, Pamela Shara

Section: CE41FB6
Date Submitted: Aug. 17, 2015

## 1. Data and Results:

Method 1
Data needs to be gathered

Water (g)

Oil (g)

96.5

96.5

135.25

133.7

38.75

37.2

40

40

## Mass of the graduated cylinder

Mass of the graduated cylinder
and liquid
Mass of the liquid
Volume of liquid
Density = 968.75

Density = 930

Method 2
Data needs to be gathered
Mass of
cylinder

the

Water (g)
96.5

Oil (g)
96.5

135.25

133.7

38.75

37.2

Water (g)
4.6

Oil (g)
4.6

graduated

## Mass of the graduated

cylinder and liquid
Mass of liquid
Data needs to be gathered

139.8

137.5

4.55

3.6

40

40

6.1

## Mass of the graduated

cylinder + liquid + wood
Mass of the wood in liquid
Volume of liquid
Total volume of the wood
Volume
of
submerged
Volume
of
(displaced)

the
the

wood
liquid
Density = 941.30

Density = 941.66

2. Observation:
We observed in this experiment that using method 1 and method 2, we will get different densities
on water and oil with the difference of no more than 28kg/m^3. Using method 1 and method 2 gave
more difference densities on water rather than on oil. Since the mass of the wood on oil is lighter than
the mass of the wood on water.

3. Analysis:

We analyzed that the mass in oil is smaller compared to water and the volume of the wood
doesn't change when submerge to oil or water. Also that, the mass of the wood decreases slightly
when it is in liquid and decreases more when it is in oil.

4. Source/s of Error/s
The sources of error would be the estimated gathering of data on graduated cylinder and
beam balance. Since we cant get the exact value of data with just using our eyes.

5. Conclusion:

I therefore conclude that using method 1 and method 2 in this experiment gave us more likely the
average or closest value of density of a fluid. I also conclude that since the wood is lighter on oil than water,
it shows that mass is directly proportional to density and inversely proportional to volume just as the
formula for density shows.

## Assessment (Rubric for Laboratory Performance):

CRITERIA

BEGINNER
1

ACCEPTABLE
2

PROFICIENT
3

I. Laboratory Skills
Manipulative
Skills

Members do not
demonstrate needed skills.

Experimenta
l Set-up

## Members are unable to

set-up the materials.

Process
Skills

Members do not
demonstrate targeted
process skills.

Members occasionally
demonstrate needed skills.
Members are able to set-up
the materials with
supervision.
Members occasionally
demonstrate targeted
process skills.

Members always
demonstrate needed
skills.
Members are able to setup the material with
minimum supervision.
Members always
demonstrate targeted
process skills.

Score

Safety
Precautions

## Members do not follow

safety precautions.

## II. Work Habits

Time
Managemen
Members do not finish on
t / Conduct
time with incomplete data.
of
Experiment
Cooperative
and
Teamwork

## Members do not know their

tasks and have no defined
responsibilities. Group
conflicts have to be settled
by the teacher.

Neatness
and
Orderliness

## Messy workplace during

and after the experiment.

Ability to do
independent
work

Members require
supervision by the teacher.

## Members follow safety

precautions most of the
time.

## Members follow safety

precautions at all times.

incomplete data.

## Members finish ahead of

time with complete data
and time to revise data.

## Members are on tasks

and have defined
responsibilities at all
times. Group conflicts are
cooperatively managed at
all times.
Clean and orderly
Clean and orderly workplace
workplace at all times
with occasional mess during
during and after the
and after the experiment.
experiment.
Members have defined
responsibilities most of the
time. Group conflicts are
cooperatively managed
most of the time.

## Members require occasional

supervision by the teacher.

## Members do not need to

be supervised by the
teacher.

## Other Comments / Observations:

TOTAL SCORE
RATING = (

TotalScore
24

) x 100%

Malvecino, Juztine M.
CE405/CE41FB6
Observation:
We observed in this experiment that using method 1 and method 2, we will get different
densities on water and oil with the difference of no more than 28kg/m^3. Using method 1 and method 2
gave more difference densities on water rather than on oil. Since the mass of the wood on oil is lighter than
the mass of the wood on water.
Conclusion:
I therefore conclude that using method 1 and method 2 in this experiment gave us more
likely the average or closest value of density of a fluid. I also conclude that since the wood is lighter on oil
than water, it shows that mass is directly proportional to density and inversely proportional to volume just as
the formula for density shows.

## Torcatos, Mark Lester C.

CE405/CE41FB6
Observation:
I observe that the mass of the wood decreases slightly when it is in liquid and decreases
more when it is in oil. When the wood is submerge the volume of it is still the same.
Conclusion:

I therefore conclude that the water has higher density compared to the oil. The
computation are not accurate because of the measuring tool that are used to get the masses of materials.

## Franco, Rebi Jennise J.

CE405/CE41FB6
Observation:
Based on my observation the mass of wood is affected when it is in oil or water. The mass
in oil is smaller compared to water. The volume of the wood doesn't change when submerge to oil or water.
Conclusion:
I therefore conclude that the water has greater density than oil. The measuring tools that
was used affects the measured masses and volumes.

## Espino, Pamela Shara L.

CE405/CE41FB6
Observation:
We observed that the mass of liquid samples on methods 1 and 2 have slight difference on
each other resulting on quite different densities. I also observed that the volume of the wood on method 2
have different values. The volume of the wood is greater in the oil than the water.
Conclusion:
I therefore conclude that this experiment show that the water has higher density than the
oil. Which is approximately 60-70kg/m^3. It also concludes that the mass of the fluid is directly proportional
to density while the volume of the fluid is inversely proportional to its density.

## Victorio, Ace Louise B.

CE405/CE41FB6
Observation:

I observed that using method 1 and method 2 gave us more difference densities on water
rather than on oil. Also that mass of the wood decreases slightly when it is in water and decreases more
when it is in oil. Since the oil has lower density.
Conclusion:
I therefore conclude that in method 2, the mass of the object used (wood) varies
depending on what liquid will be using. And it shows that the change in mass of the object affect the density
of the fluid in this experiment. Which precisely shows that the mass of the liquid and object is directly
proportional to the density of the liquid and the volume of the liquid and object is inversely proportional to
the density.

## Questions and Problems:

1. Are the results of all density measurement in agreement?

2. How does the buoyant force vary with the depth of the submerged object? Why?

3. An ice berg weighing 8.96 kN/m 3 floats in seawater (y=10.10 kN/m 3) with a volume m 3 above the
surface. What is the total volume of the iceberg?

4. A log 1m long and having a diameter of 30 cm floats in fresh water. If its specific gravity is 0.75,
what is the depth of floatation?