You are on page 1of 5

TutorialPreparationAssignment06

StudentID:KYSB20147001
Studentsname:AfiqahAqilahbintiNorhisamshah

INFO101

Data communication means the exchange of data from a source to a receiver through
number of processes that required specific devices and technological assistance. A medium
thatactasasourceandreceivercanbeanetworkofcomputersforsimplereference.

Protocols

x
x

Bandwidth

Internet
Service
Providers
(ISP)

INFO101TPA06

Beforeadatatobesafelytransferredfromonecomputertoanother,
bothofitneedtohaveanagreementontheaspectsofdatathatthey
will receive such as packet size, transmission speed, error
connectiontypes,routing,flowcontrolandothers.
Communicationprotocoliscrucialbecauseifthedataareaboutto
dealwithtwoormorecomputerswithdifferentbrandandoperating
system,aprotocolsuchasTCP/IPorFileTransferProtocol(FTP)
will standardised the data format so that it will be acceptable for
bothcomputers.
Computernetworkcannotexistwithoutcommunicationprotocols.
An analogy on dress code might come in handy. For example, a
prom with horror concept. Those without horror costumes cannot
enter the party and if they do so, there will be awkward situations
with the crowd. Therefore, that person will have to change to a
horrorcostumeinordertomatchtheconcept.

Bandwidth refers to the data transfer rate which means the


amountofdatathatcanbetransferredfromonecomputertoanother
inusuallyonesecond.

The term used to express bandwidth in computer networking are


calledbitspersecondwhichcouldcomeuptoMegabitspersecond
(Mbps)orGigabitspersecond(Gbps)inmodernnetworks.

Differentapplicationsontheinternethavedifferentbandwidthsuch
asanonlinevideowithhighquality(720p)definitionneed4Mbps
toworkwhilestandarddefinition(480p)required1Mbps.

There are also other factors that affect network performance apart
frombandwidthsuchaspacketloss.

Internet service providers (ISP) are organizations usually


telecommunicationoriented which provide internet access to
customerswithfixedmonthlyfees.

AfiqahAqilahNorhisamshah

1347words

TutorialPreparationAssignment06
StudentID:KYSB20147001
Studentsname:AfiqahAqilahbintiNorhisamshah

Broadband
Channels

x
x
x

INFO101

Broadband is another channel of data communication which is


manytimesfasterthandialupconnection.
Broadband could carry several channels at once using only single
wire.AnexampleofthissystemiscableTV
Itcomeswithfourdifferentforms

DSL:Aninternetconnectionwillappearwhenthecomputerisconnected
with a telephone line apart from the ones used for telephone service. The
strength of the connection varies depending on the radius of closeness of
thecomputerwiththetelephoneline.
Cable:ThebroadbandcableconnectionisprovidedbythelocalcableTV
provider.
The speed of the internet is depending on the number of users on the
serviceatspecificperiod.
Fibreoptic:Fibreopticoffersthefastestinternetspeedcomparedtoother
formsofbroadband.However,itconsumestimetosetuptheprocess.
Satellite: It is the slowest broadband service and suffers high installation
cost.
Diagram1:Atableoncomponentsofdatacommunication
Wiredcommunicationreferstotheprocessofconveyingdatausingwiredmedium
suchasfibreopticandcoaxialcables.
Coaxialcableisawidelyusedcableintelevisionindustryandalsocomputernetworks.
Thiscableismoreexpensivethanstandardtelephonewireshowever,itcancarrymuchmore
dataduetoitsphysicalformthatcapabletoavoiddatalossduetointerference.

Source:http://www.phy.davidson.edu,2015
Diagram2:Acrosssectiononcoaxialcable

INFO101TPA06

AfiqahAqilahNorhisamshah

1347words

TutorialPreparationAssignment06
StudentID:KYSB20147001
Studentsname:AfiqahAqilahbintiNorhisamshah

INFO101

Meanwhile, fibre optics is glass or plastic made cables that functioned to transmit data as
fastestaslightspeed.Thereareseveraladvantagespreferredonfibreoptics
x
x
x
x

Fibre optics has greater bandwidth than traditional metal communication line which
meansitcancarrymoredata.
Lesssusceptibletointerference
Thinnerandlighterflexible
Datacanbetransferredinthewaycomputercoulddigestitdigitalform.

Ontheotherhand,wirelesscommunicationisaformofdatatransferthatdoesnotneed
any physical devices or wire as medium to transfer from the source to the receiver. In this
case, data are travelling through waves such as radio waves, microwaves or satellite
communication.

Microwave can carry visual and audio data along a straight line without any
interferencefromatransmittertoreceiver.Initially,microwavesareonlyusedforcoastto
coast network or inbuilding transmission. However, due to the expansion of TV
broadcasting,TVstationsstarttotrynewconceptbyusingmicrowavedishontheirvansto
bringlivereportstraightfromthescene.

Source:www.cybercollege.com,2014
Figure3:Apictureofmicrowavedish
BunchesofmicrowavedishcanbeplaceatthescenetothenearbyTVproductionvan.The
signalfromthevanwillberelayedtooneofthecityrelaypointswhichusuallyontopof
highbuildingandfromthere,thesignalwillbeconveyedtotheTVstation.
Satelliteshavetheabilitytotransmitandreceivedatafromasmallsatellitedishonearthand
connectedwithgeostationaryorbitingsatelliteinspace.NetworkOperationsCentre(NOC),
isahubthatconnectsbetweenthistwospacesearthandspace.NOCalsoconnectedwith
internetofwhichallcommunicationsfromasatellitedishconnectiontotheInternetmust
flowthroughtheNOC.(HowDoesSatelliteInternetWork?,2015)

INFO101TPA06

AfiqahAqilahNorhisamshah

1347words

TutorialPreparationAssignment06
StudentID:KYSB20147001
Studentsname:AfiqahAqilahbintiNorhisamshah

INFO101

Computernetworkdefinedasbunchesofcomputerslinkedtogetherinordertoshare
resourceswiththeassistanceofprogramsandhardwaretofacilitatetheprocess.
Theexplanationsbelowareexamplesofsoftwareascomponentsduringdatasharingprocess
NetBIOSisprogrammedtoallownetworkofcomputersconnectedwiththelocalarea
network(LAN).Thisprogramdoesnotsupportroutingmechanismtherefore,ifcomputers
wantedtoconnectwithWideAreaNetwork(WAN),ithastouseotheralternativessuchas
TransmissionControlProtocol.TCP/IPor(TransmissionControlProtocol/InternetProtocol)
iscreatedtoensurethatdataarriveintactandcomplete.
NetworkInterfaceCard(NIC)isacircuitboardinstalledtothecomputersforcapturing
networkconnection.Furthermore,personalcomputerswiththeabilitytoconnectwithLAN
meanthatthecomputerhasalreadybuiltinLANNIC.
NetworkAttachedStorage(NAS)isatermthatreferstotheprogramthatcapableonfiling
storagethroughtheinternet(cloud).
Withthisapplication,thefilescanbeaccessedbymultipleofusersatonetime,without
worryingofdatadisappearancebecauseallofthedatawillbeautomaticallysavedupon
changes.
Generally,computernetworkingpromotesseveraladvantagestothecommunityduetothe
connectionbetweencomputersthatallowsefficiencyandpermitsdatasharing.
(Kozierok,2005)
Firstly,computernetworkinghasupliftcommunicationtoahigherlevel.Reviewingfromthe
currentsituation,communicationisimportantduetoexpansionoftrades.Forexample,file
sharingandexchangingofideas.Before,itisahassleforbusinesspeopletoactuallymaking
appointmentsjusttogivedocuments.However,withcurrentnetworkingsuchasvideo
conferencingandemail,businesspeoplecanattaindocumentsandsharetheirideasquickly.
Lastly,networkingcouldprovideenhancementandbalance.Duetotheconnected
environment,taskscouldbedelegateeffectivelytotheusers.
Thisishowinternetstarts
AccordingtoRouse,ARPANETisaninternetprototypethatwascreatedontheyear1967
byAdvancedResearchProjectsAgency(ARPA).Theyconductedaprojectwhichaimsto
createasystemthatenablesconnectionbetweenfouruniversitiestoenableideassharingfor
scientificresearch.Theirprojectwasahumblesuccesswiththeinterconnectionoffour
universitycomputers.Whathappenwasatechnologicalengineeringofinformationtransfer
insmallunitscalledpackets.Thesepacketsareroutedtoanothercomputerthroughnetworks
usingdestinationaddress.Thisactioncalledpacketswitching.Sincethen,ARPANEThas
becomethefundamentaloftheinternet.

INFO101TPA06

AfiqahAqilahNorhisamshah

1347words

TutorialPreparationAssignment06
StudentID:KYSB20147001
Studentsname:AfiqahAqilahbintiNorhisamshah

INFO101

WAN

LAN
INTERNET

Figure4:Adiagramonnetworkcoveragebetweenthreeformsofnetwork
LocalAreaNetwork(LAN),WideAreaNetwork(WAN)andInternationalNetwork
(Internet)dohaveaboutthesamefunctionbutdifferentintermsofcoveragearea.Ifnetwork
ofcomputersareconnectedwithlinecommunicationsorwirelessinsmallgeographical
radiussuchasofficebuildingorhome,itiscalledLAN.Meanwhile,WANencompasses
morewidegeographicalradiusthanLAN.WANcouldbeaprivateorrentedconnection.
However,thetermusuallyreferstopublicnetwork.Ontheotherhand,internetisanetwork
ofnetworkthatcouldbeaccessthroughtheentireworldiftheygetthepermissiontodoso.

References
HowDoesSatelliteInternetWork?(2015).RetrievedAugust26,2015,from
www.groundcontrol.com/How_Does_Satellite_Internet_Work.htm
Janssen,C.(2010).CommunicationProtocol.RetrievedAugust26,2015,from
www.techopedia.com/definition/25705/communicationprotocol
Kozierok,C.M.(2005,September20).TheAdvantages(Benefits)ofNetworking.RetrievedAugust
26,2015,fromwww.tcpipguide.com/free/t_TheAdvantagesBenefitsofNetworking.htm
Rouse,M.(2008).ARPANETdefinition.RetrievedAugust26,2015,from
searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/ARPANET

INFO101TPA06

AfiqahAqilahNorhisamshah

1347words