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Introduction to Linux

Mr. Amar H. More


What is Linux
History of Linux
Linux Today
Open Source Software
Popular Linux Distributions
Software Applications
Languages Supported by Linux
Why to switch to Linux?
Why not to switch to Linux?
Comparison between Linux and Windows

What is Linux

UNIX like Operating System

Multi-user, Multitasking, Multiprocessor
Has the X Windows GUI
Runs on multiple hardware platforms
Source Code is available

History of Linux
In 80s, Microsofts DOS was the dominant
OS for PC
Apple MAC was better, but expensive
UNIX was much better, but much, much
more expensive. Only for minicomputer for
commercial applications
People were looking for a UNIX based
system, which is cheaper and can run on

History of Linux
Both DOS, MAC and UNIX were
proprietary, i.e., the source code of their
kernel is protected
No modification is possible without paying
high license fees
A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum
developed Minix, a simplified version of
UNIX that runs on PC

Minix is for class teaching only. No intention for

commercial use

History of Linux
In Sept 1991, Linus Torvalds, a second year
student of Computer Science at the University
of Helsinki, developed the preliminary kernel
of Linux, known as Linux version 0.0.1

Linux Today
Linux has been used for many computing
platforms like PC, PDA, Supercomputers, ...
Not only character interface but also user
interface is available

Linux Today

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Jaguar

supercomputer, as of November 2009 the
world's fastest supercomputer. It uses the Cray
Linux Environment as its operating system.

Linux Today

Open Source Software

When programmers on the Internet can read,

redistribute, and modify the source for a
piece of software, it evolves
People improve it, people adapt it, people fix
bugs. And this can happen at a speed that,
compared to conventional software
development, seems astonishing

How do we get it?

Download it from the Internet

From a Distribution (e.g. RedHat)

Linux kernel
X Windows system and GUI
Web, e-mail, FTP servers
Installation & configuration support
3rd party apps
Hardware support

Why is it significant?

Growing popularity

Runs on multiple hardware platforms

Users like its speed and stability
No requirement for latest hardware

Its free

Licensed under GPL

Vendors are distributors who package Linux

Popular Linux Distributions

Knoppix, a Live CD
Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Software Applications
OpenOffice: word processing, spreadsheets,

Adobe Acrobat Reader

Konqueror: The KDE File Manager and Web


Kmail: The KDE Mail Application

Evolution: An Email and Calendar Program

XMMS, VLC: Multimedia Applications

Software Applications
TV, Video, Radio, and Webcam

K3b: The KDE CD Burning Application

Digital Cameras

Kooka: Scanning Application

Graphics with the GIMP

Powerful Shell system (Console)

Languages Supported

Afrikaans, Amharic, Arabic, Azerbaijani,

Belarussian, Bulgarian, Bengali, Breton,
Bosnian, Catalan, Czech, Cymraeg, Danish,
German, Greek, Esperanto, Spanish,
Estonian, Euskara, Farsi (Iranian), Suomi
(Finnish),French, Furlan, Gaeilge (Irish
Gaelic), Galician, Hebrew, Hindi, Croatian,
Hungarian, Armenian, Indonesian,
Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Georgian,
Kannada, Korean, Kurdish, Kyrgyz, Lao,
Lithuanian, Latgalian, Latvian, Macedonian,

Languages Supported

Malay, Maltese, Dutch, Norwegian Bokml,

Norwegian Nynorsk, Punjabi (in gurmukhi
script), Polish, Portuguese (Portugal),
Brazilian Portuguese, Romanian, Russian,
Sardinian, Slovakian, Slovenian, Albanian,
Serbian, Swedish, Tamil, Tajiki, Thai,
Turkmen, Filipino (Tagalog), Turkish,
Ukrainian, Urdu, Uzbekian, Vietnamese,
Walloon, Chinese (simplified), Chinese

Why to switch to Linux?

Security: Linux will keep our systems away

from Malware and Viruses
Cost: Linux is the most cost efficient OS in
the world. Why? Because its free...and not
only is it free, it also (typically) comes with
applications that would cost hundreds,
hundreds if not thousands of dollars
Linux is highly resistant to System Crash and
rarely needs rebooting

Why to switch to Linux?

Ease of use: Linux is extremely easy to use.

If you know Windows, youll be able to work
easily in Linux...
Linux plays well with others: Linux includes
software to make it easy to network with
Windows, Macs, and other Linux based
Support is everywhere: If youre having a
problem with Linux, help is as close as the
nearest message board.

Why not to switch to Linux?

If you are using any propriatory software

which is not supported by Linux
If you are using any hardware which is not
supported by Linux

Comparison between Linux and


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