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H-07

**PDC Measurements at Generator Bars
**

C. Sumereder, M. Muhr, R. Woschitz Graz University of Technology Institute of High Voltage Engineering and System Management Inffeldgasse 18, 8010 Graz, Austria surname@hspt.tu-graz.ac.at Abstract: The dielectric response function of an electric insulation system can be determined by the measurement of the polarization and depolarization current (PDC). Beside partial discharge and dissipation factor measurements the time domain dielectric response function can be taken to gain information about the aging process and the condition of the insulation medium. The best results for the condition evaluation can be achieved at the frequency domain description in the shape of the complex capacitance and dissipation factor. For this reason the dielectric response function has to be converted with the Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT). Until now the PDC method was successfully applied to determine the water content of oil-paper systems in transformers. This paper should give a view to PDC measurements at insulation systems for rotating machines and the implication for the condition evaluation. First results of the diagnosis with the PDC method are discussed and a comparison to classical dielectric measurements is given. Dielectric Measurements at Generator Bars Dielectric measurements are a very important tool to evaluate the condition of electric insulation systems, different standards were state of the art, e.g. the testing of the insulation resistance [1] or the dissipation factor. The test methods can be divided in AC tests with (0.1) 50/60 Hz or higher and DC methods. circuit of an insulation system and the measured currents during insulation resistance test according to [1]. The total current of insulation resistance measurements is the sum of leakage, conductance, capacitance and absorption current, according to equation {1}. The quantitative characteristic of each is illustrated in figure 2. I T = IC + IG + IL + IA …{1}

Figure 2: Types of currents at DC resistance measurement of insulation systems [1] The absorption current decays at a decreasing rate. The current vs. time relationship is a function according to equation {2}; it may be plotted as a straight line on a double logarithmic scale graph. IA = K. t –n …{2}

Figure 1: Equivalent circuit and DC currents for insulation systems [1] The most popular dielectric measurements were dissipation factor, insulation resistance (polarization index) and partial discharge test. Beside these there were also the absorption (polarization) current, conduction current, geometric capacitance current and surface leakage current. Figure 1 shows the equivalent

IA … absorption Current K … function (insulation system, test voltage) t … time of applied direct voltage n … characteristic function of insulation system The absorption current consists of two components, which are due to the polarization of the impregnating materials and the gradual drift of electrons and ions through most organic materials. Organic molecules, such as epoxy, polyester, and asphalt, tend to change orientation in the presence of a direct electric field. It usually takes several minutes after application of the electric field for the molecules to become reoriented.

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Proceedings of the XIVth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, August 25-29, 2005

H-07

The conduction current in well-bonded polyester and epoxy-mica insulation systems normally is zero unless the insulation has become saturated with moisture. The surface leakage current is constant over time, where a high level can be caused by moisture or some other type of partly conductive contamination present in the machine. The quantity of each current is dependant of the used insulation materials and factors as geometrical arrangement. The characteristic of the total current admits statements about the condition of the insulation system. E.g. a low percentage of the leakage and/or conduction current can be interpreted as cleanliness and dryness, if the windings were wet or contaminated the absorption current is relatively smaller. For clean and dry rotating machine insulation, the insulation resistance is between about 30 s and a few minutes primarily determined by the absorption current. Dielectric Response Function The measurement of dielectric response function and its interpretation for the condition evaluation is a very old method. Beginning in the year 1889 [2] physicist started to investigate the polarisation and depolarisation behaviour of insulants. In 1927 a contribution about the anomaly of dielectrics was mathematical described. The so called Curie - von Schweidler Law [3] describes the dependence of currents during polarization and depolarization as linear function in double logarithmic scale. The theory and results from measurements are shown in figure 3.

systems. The characteristic of the polarization behaviour depends on the geometry and insulation conditions. The time domain response function is converted to the frequency domain description, the Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) is applied [4]:

f (t ) =

− id (t ) C0 ⋅U 0

f (ω ) = ∫ f (t ) ⋅ e − jωt dt

The advantage of this mathematical procedure is that the frequency domain is a complex description of the response function where the parameters conductivity, permittivity and polarization can be described according to the formula:

tan δ = tan δ L + tan δ POL =

κ + ωε 0ε r ″ ωε 0ε r ′

{3} with: κ … conductivity, tan δ … dissipation factor, εr* … complex permittivity The dissipation factor can be expressed according to {3} where the conductivity and the real part of the complex permittivity show a very low dependence to frequency. The imaginary part has a strong dependence to frequency caused of different polarization mechanism in the insulating medium. The results of a simulation for the variation of the parameters κ, c´ and c´´ are illustrated in figure 4 and 5. The rise of the conductivity causes a change in the shape of the tan δ function in the lower frequency area. The process of a rising conductivity should be characteristic for degradation of the insulating medium. The rise of c´ and c´´ proceeds in the opposite way. A rising of c´, which can be interpreted as a rise of the relative permittivity, causes a parallel decrease of tan δ and vice versa for c´´.

ε r * = ε r ′ − jε r ″

Figure 3: dielectric response function in theory and real The dielectric response of an electrical insulation system at the PDC method is measured in time domain. The polarization and depolarization current in dependence of time is recorded, transformed and evaluated. Several measurements have shown that the so called Curie - von Schweidler law does not meet this behavior in real, because dielectrics were heterogeneous

Figure 4: Variation of dissipation factor in dependence of conductance κ Up to now there were many considerations done about possible connection between the dielectric relaxation

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Proceedings of the XIVth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, August 25-29, 2005

H-07

and condition or residual disruptive strength of the insulation medium, but all this expectations could not be fulfilled, no physical parameter is known which can represents an absolute parameter. For this reason the dielectric parameter κ and εr´ were taken into account for the evaluation of the measurements.

higher temperature disturbs the orientation process as well as the dipoles can not follow the field at high frequencies [5]. The parallel linked Ri and Ci describe further polarization effects, Ri delays the polarisation and depolarisation processes of the serial linked Ci. Test Objects and Measurements The test objects are generator bars of resin rich technology. The generator bars were in operation in different periods of time. The preparation of the test objects and arrangement of the measuring equipment can be seen in figure 7. The PDC measurements were done periodically approximately all 100 h.

Test Voltage

CX

Measuring Electrode

Air Gap

**Figure 5: Variation of dissipation factor in dependence of parameters c´ and c´´
**

Grounded Electrodes

Taking a look to the equivalent circuit of the generator bar insulation several serial and parallel resistances and capacitances can be observed (pancake model). This insulation system is built of two components: mica tape and resin. The R0 represents the geometric resistance, C0 the vacuum capacitance and Ri, Ci the polarization mechanism. The size of these parameters is determined by the proportion of the used components. The per cent by volume of mica at resin rich bars is about 70% and at VPI bars 85-95%. The dielectric strength is mainly destined by the electric field strength and the resulting voltage distribution. Figure 6 illustrates the electric field strength in the material components resin and mica tape (left) and the equivalent circuit with the parallel linked geometric resistances and vacuum capacitances (right).

Figure 7: Preparation of generator bars and connection of power supply test lead for dielectric measurements The air gap was necessary to separate the geometric resistance and vacuum capacitance of the total resistance and capacitance values (with generator bar ends) on the one hand and on the other to prevent leakage currents. Results For the evaluation of the test results the polarization and depolarization currents, the complex capacitance, insulation resistance, dissipation factors were investigated in detail. In diagram 1 the depolarization currents of one generator bar in dependence of load time was observed. The current shows an almost linear decreasing characteristic. In dependence of load time the Depolarization current were rising.

Figure 6: Dielectric model of a generator bar and equivalent circuit of heterogeneous dielectrics This equivalent circuit meets the theory of the Maxwell two-layer model: The dissipation factor is dependant on the temperature and the power frequency for a dielectric with orientation polarization; a temperature rise is equivalent to a decrease of the power frequency. A Diagram 1: Depolarization Currents In diagram 2 the insulation resistances of the same generator bar were shown in dependence of load and measuring time. The Resistances were calculated:

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Proceedings of the XIVth International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, August 25-29, 2005

H-07

IR´ = Uc/IPOL, IR´´ = Uc/(IPOL-IDEPOL), in the diagram the R´´ values are illustrated because of the very small differences between R´ and R´´. From this diagram the Polarization Index (PI) could be calculated. For all curves the PI was within the demanded values according to the standard [1]. According to the Current measurements the insulation resistances had the similar behaviour. In dependence of load time the resistances get smaller and smaller.

Diagram 5: Dissipation Factors Conclusions The results of the PDC measurements and the calculation of dielectric parameters can be summarized as follows: The theoretical considerations about the behaviour of dissipation factor in dependence of resistivity and complex capacitance were met very well. The resistance of the generator bars falls, the complex capacitance raised with load time. The mathematical formulation of dissipation factor according to equation 3 is confirmed. It was observed that the generator bars fail out without sudden. This behaviour can be interpreted that the mechanism which causes the damage and finally the fall out happens very fast. With the PDC method the aging behaviour of an electrical insulation system can be observed. It is an integrative method, for this reason no absolute statements (as a withstand voltage test or PD measurement enables) about the condition of the observed system can be done. It is important to do periodical measurements. Diagram 3: Complex Capacitances, Real Part The processes of aging concerning the imaginary part of the complex capacitance is shown in diagram 4. The curves rise with load time over the whole frequency area. The dissipation factor in dependence of load time is illustrated in the diagram 5. The curves show a rising behaviour with load time over the total frequency area. The PDC method can be applied at generator bars in general. The application to measure a whole winding respectively a whole generator has to be verified. Future measurement should show References [1] IEEE Std 43-2000, Recommended Practice for Testing Insulation Resistance of Rotating Machinery [2] J. Curie, Recherches sur la Conductibilite des Corps Cristallises, Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 1889 [3] E. von Schweidler, Studien über die Anomalien im Verhalten der Dielektrika, Annalen der Physik 1907, 24, 711-770 [4] A. Helgeson, Analysis of Dielectric Response Measurement Methods and Dielectric Properties of Resin-Rich Insulation During Processing, Doctor Thesis, Kungl Tekniska Högskolan Stockholm Sweden, 2000, ISSN 1100-1593 [5] A. Küchler, Hochspannungstechnik, VDI Verlag 1996, ISBN 3-18-401530-0

Diagram 2: Insulation Resistances In diagram 3 the real part of the complex capacitance is shown. The c´ rises with load time in the lower frequency areas. At higher frequency there was almost no change in quantity.

Diagram 4: Complex Capacitances, Imaginary Part

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