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F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 359

The development of tourism in the Balearic Islands is neither impromptu nor accidental, but a clear
sign of initiative, innovation, adaptation and use of territory, population, history and culture with
regard to the opportunities which have appeared thanks to the massive explosion of the modern
traveller. The geographic position of the Balearic archipelago, its geomorphological characteristics
–the climate being the main advantage–, the extension and attraction of its coast, the beauty and
diversity of its landscape combined with its great ability for attracting immigration and strengthened
by business tradition and dynamism –which has as exponents small and medium businesses– have
enabled the creation of a tourism atmosphere, of a supply of products and services oriented to sat-
isfying the needs of travellers and at the same time a wide market of subcontracting and production
of intermediate inputs that have been reinforced by the provision of equipment and public services on
the part of the governments.

From a structural perspective, the influence of tourism on the Balearic economy and society must be
pointed out. The discovery at the beginning of the sixties of a new use for poor land, scrub and pine
woods on the coast, allowed the Balearics to initiate a truly dynamic transformation, of reassigning
resources which, in the long term, has directly and indirectly affected standards of production, oc-
cupation, exportation and generation of wealth and has also left its mark on society –social structure
and class–, cultural identity –language and heritage–, lifestyles and, consequently, the way of life and
the values that characterise the people of the Balearic Islands.

This has been a process which –without obviating the existence of ruptures– has allowed the Balearics
to progress in terms of welfare and quality of life and has favoured the terciarisation of the economy
and, in part, the development of more advanced services in the field of quaternary activities –which
support the tourist industry and the flow of income it generates and quinary services –which easily
connect with tourist specialisation and lead, likewise, to a greater level of development and welfare–.
Nevertheless, this same specialisation has brought deficits in the productive structure which need to
be addressed in order to be successful in confronting competition from emerging destinations, the
progressive integration of economies and the growing configuration of a global framework in which
markets operate and businesses and individuals (tourist) interact. 249
Exclusively related to the rapid
growth of the influx of tourists at
whatever price, without evaluating
It is in this context, and in that of a broader Europe, that the Balearic Islands need to define a strate-
the negative consequences pro-
gy, in capital letters, in order to be positioned among the leading regions of Europe in social progress, voked by tourist massification, the
absence of planning and criteria
development and welfare, not only for economic reasons but also for social and environmental rea-
and the maximization of capacity.
sons; a strategy which is not sufficiently outlined nor agreed on for the present.
Orientation of undifferentiated
market supplies, high concentra-
The fact that the Balearics is able to set this strategy in motion with the banner of tourism is an op- tion of two nationalities (German
portunity that should not be scorned, taking into account the fact that tourism is the backbone of and British), high seasonality,
strong dependence on external
the Balearics and its main tool for exterior projection. However, it must be recognised that the tra- tourist operators, excessive pres-
ditional vision of tourism249 is not, these days, sufficient in dealing with the new patterns of tourist sure on natural resources and
intense urban degradation in
behaviour –the motivations and expectations of which are becoming more and more sophisticated– some zones, low level of training,
nor indeed with some of the traditional patterns, which was already shown more than two decades isolated technologies, obsolete
equipment and facilities, weak
ago and which continue to be unsolved.250 differentiation of products and
services, among others.
360 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

The Balearic tourist system finds itself at a crossroads, in a phase of transition, between what it was
and what it will be. Some of its comparative advantages are on the brink of disappearing, without
there being any new ones in sight. Muscle is being lost and is getting weaker and weaker. This is why,
if the Balearics wants to play a role of leadership, built from its own proven ability to adapt, it should
move towards new conceptual schemes where a guarantee for the future is founded on innovation
and not only on adaptation, otherwise present competition and potential will seize a growing part of
the market and, in the process, returns derived from tourist activity will be lost.

It is therefore necessary to design a tourist strategy which does not depend on maximising capacity or
So erroneous as to orientate increasing the influx of tourists,251 but guarantees the best economic, environmental and social condi-
policy towards increasing the
number of tourists would be to
tions in which to develop tourism. In this task, not only having insufficient statistical knowledge or
orientate it towards reducing it. quality of tourist data available, but also insufficient economic, social, cultural and environmental
information, makes the establishment of the most basic mechanisms that the Balearics need to con-
front this stage of transition, exceedingly difficult.

Thus, making the principles of the maximisation of profits compatible with the limits of nature, the
conservation of the environment and the ultimate aspiration of guaranteeing welfare, requires not
only a modification of the goals of the tourist policy, but also a commitment of the economic and
social agents, through a deep change in the lifestyle, scale of values and economic culture which im-
pregnates the society. It is also an ethical requirement for future generations, so that they will likewise
be able to satisfy their needs.

For this reason the next ten or fifteen years are crucial. This type of approach must necessarily focus
on the long term, since issues of a structural kind take time to form and become established, and
consequently if they are to be modified, there is no other option than to propose strategic goals and
guidelines in agreement with this time period.

Nevertheless, the visualisation of the long term must not make us forget that the longest road
always begins with the first step. It is time, therefore, to begin a process of transformation, ‘the
second transformation’, and to build a new tourist culture which, from a holistic approach, taking
into account the multiple dimensions inherent in tourism and the interrelations which it estab-
lishes, ensures the destination’s international position and, at the same time, stimulates a lasting
path of economic growth, without jeopardizing the welfare of future generations, as the only way
to guarantee regional prosperity.

Everything considered, moving towards a new tourist culture implies accepting the challenge of sus-
tainability and ensuring competitivity by managing the complexity of the situation; three challenges
on the same road, which allow individual interpretations but which cannot be undertaken separately.
The fact is that the returns derived from the adoption of a sustainable pattern will not give any com-
petitive advantage if the ability to express them in a greater contribution of value is not established in
each one of the processes (interactions) that take place in different dimensions of the tourist system,
and vice versa.
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 361

5 . 1 . T h e ch al l en g e of comp l e xit y

Moving towards a new tourist culture is Thus, for example, the Balearic tourist market is
equivalent to progressing in integral, holistic built according to the capabilities and skills of
tourist planning, capable of making the exist- the regional labour market and, vice versa, the
ence of a competitive tourist market –which labour market responds to the restrictions and
assigns resources efficiently– compatible with potential that the tourist market imposes. In
strategic regulating measures which take into the same way, the Balearic tourist market can-
account the multiple dimensions inherent in the not be understood without the global environ-
tourist system –some of which have only been ment in which products, services, management
marginally contemplated until today– and, es- and technologies of regional tourist production
pecially, the interrelations established between are adopted at a world level and, on parallel
them, with the final aim of determining and de- lines, the appearance of new global structures
signing coherent guidelines which serve as a ref- force the Balearic tourist market to operate
erence framework for taking sectorial decisions with the same solutions, price structures, sales
and responding to the desired tourist option and distribution organisations, invoicing sys-
and to the way of reaching it in the future. tems etc., and force them to adapt –reinventing
new products and services– and differentiate
In fact, on this journey it is essential to have themselves by their intangible elements –repu-
a vision of the future252 which can be used as tation, brand, quality of life, etc.–, with which 252
In the Balearic Islands there
has not been a real social debate
a reference, circulated among economic and they enter into permanent feedback. which addresses the social costs
social agents and which, compared to the cur- and benefits associated with the
different options that the archi-
rent situation, enables the study of foreseeable The success or failure of tourism does not de-
pelago has in tourism.
tendencies and the determining of correspond- pend, therefore, only on the tourist market, but
ing lines of action, in a coordinated way. It is on the set of complex interrelations which are
not, therefore, about determining a set of pos- interwoven with other subsystems (labour mar-
sible future scenarios –tendencial, of rupture, ket, global setting, territory and natural envi-
etc.–, in accordance with what could seem- ronment, social dynamics, legal and institution-
ingly happen, but about showing clearly the al framework, etc.). In fact, the great change
options society has to achieve what it wants. the new tourist culture exacts is, precisely, the
Planning, by definition, is nothing more than importance that it confers on the interrela-
a method of rationalising the decisions which tions between the different subsystems, which
are consciously orientated towards the trans- contain additional information –not directly 253
The UNWTO (1998) sustains
that tourist activity is a complex
formation of reality. observable– which is essential for the transfor-
result of interrelations between
mation of a complex system254 such as tourism. different factors which must be
considered together systemati-
In this process, the reality of Balearic tourism Moreover, as a consequence of these interrela-
cally, that is, a set of interrelated
must be considered as an enormously complex tions, the system acquires a set of properties elements that evolve dynamically.
system, given that it is integrated by multiple that cannot be understood by the simple ad- 254
The complexity of a system is
derived from the links established
components (subsystems) narrowly related in dition of its parts and that, according to the between the elements of the sys-
such a way that acting on one of them impinges principles of Lorenz, explain: (1) the difficulty tem and not from the number of
elements, given that these simply
on the situation and behaviour of the others in of predicting the behaviour of the system, (2) increase the level of complication
a succession of mutually determining factors.253 the existence of a dynamic pattern that can be but not of complexity.
362 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

studied and understood and (3) most impor- consideration of reality, but quite the contrary;
tantly, the enormous impact a small change in it has propitiated a prejudiced, reductionist ra-
the system can have, known as ‘the lever effect’ tionality, excessively centred on the tourist mar-
(Gleick, 1987). ket forces of supply and demand,256 or, in other
words, clearly orientated to the attainment of
Thus, what is important is integral planning as a some specific results in the short term instead
mechanism to determine a global rationality that of paying attention to the way in which these are
confers on the stakeholders the capacity of antic- reached. The temptation has been, therefore, to
ipation –in the face of a more and more mutant follow inertia and adapt tourism performance
reality– and the right approach to achieve the de- to the events instead of creating or transform-
sired goals. This implies not only identifying and ing internal productive conditions in order to
classifying each and every one of the elements of capture the market and stabilise it for the future
the tourist system, but also, and especially, ana- with the aim of guaranteeing competitivity and
lysing and understanding the interrelations es- sustainability of the tourist system.
These have been, in fact, the tablished between them,255 so that they move in
two principles that have guided
the structure and dynamics of the
favour of the desired transformation. In parallel, the legal and institutional framework
writing of this white book. has centred most of its actions on the sphere
Thus, the true engine of transformation de- of the market without explicitly considering a
On this issues, see section 2.2. pends on the capacity of the Balearic tourist joint vision of the elements which make up the
Analysis of the tourist market, in
the second part of the work. system to make these interrelations act and not, tourist system and disregarding crucial aspects
as has happened until now, only their elements in the long term, such as training, innovation
For more information see the act independently, in favour of a double goal: etc.257 Even in the exclusive field of the tourist
analysis in the forth part: Medium
and long-term conditioners. market, questions referring to the improvement
To satisfy tourists’ needs as much as those of and diversification of tourist supply have been
the resident population through patterns of solved without sufficiently considering aspects
technology, production, consumption, spacial such as obsolescence, the fragmentation of the
For a more detailed analysis localisation (of the service areas, urban aglom- productive sector, the size of the sector, etc.258
see subsection 2.2.4. Business
structure, in the second part of
erations, communication networks and infra- The conclusion is clear: there have been abun-
the work. structures), protection of the land, landscape dant guidelines for development in the last two
design, etc., which guarantee the contribution decades, which, considered altogether, could
of tourism to the attainment of an increasingly form part of an incipient tourist policy, but
high level of welfare (competitivity). each one of these actions seems to have its own
goals, without an all-embracing strategy that
To obtain, through tourist development, a coordinates them in favour of a common goal.
high rate of accumulation, savings and invest-
ment which enable the generation of the fi- A serious and realistic approach to tourism
nancial and economic resources necessary to in the Balearics must consider continuity in
guarantee that future generations will be able time and be conscious of the social and envi-
On this issue, see section 4.2. to satisfy their own needs (sustainability). ronmental consequences259 of the production
Environment and demographic
pressure, in the fourth part of the
and consumption of tourist goods and serv-
work. Having arrived at this point, it must be recog- ices, facts which point out the need to link
nised and asserted that Balearic tourist plan- complementary instruments to the market,
ning has not explicitly adopted this systematic despite its proven capacity to assign resources
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 363

Traditional tourist planning New tourist planning Table 5.1

Understand tourism as a closed system, where the Understand tourism as an open system, where multi- New orientations
bi-directional exchange of a flow of goods and services directional exchanges of flows of goods and services of tourist planning
between tourist supply and demand takes place among various subsystems takes place
Orientated to the output (the results) –for example, the Orientated to the outcome (consequence of the results)
number of tourists, cost, tourist expenditure, etc.– and –for example, change of tourist preferences, etc.– and
measures efficacy (the capacity to reach the goals) measures efficiency (relation between the goals that must
be reached and the resources used for that purpose).
Relies on the number of tangible inputs Relies on knowledge, skills and management. As well as
tangible inputs, considers the intangible ones –brand,
reputation, quality of life, etc.–
Give account of public expenditure Shows the value attached to the production of tourist
goods and services
Justify social and environmental impact Minimises social and environmental impact
Act a posteriori Looks ahead
Linked to the short-term Linked to the long-term

Source: own creation

and promote private initiative, among which tems of information and documentation and
planning stands out. promote types of interinstitutional work which
consider principles of new governing –opening,
It is precisely with planning that the Govern- participation, efficiency, responsibility and co-
ment has the opportunity of establishing, in herence–. Only in this way can greater efficiency
coordination with tourist and social agents, a and homogeneity be obtained in the measures
global rationality that makes the actions of the and regulations that will guide the development
tourist market coherent with the socioeconom- of tourism.
ic and environmental structure. In order to put
this type of planning into operation, it is neces- On the other hand, the regional implications
sary to institutionalise tourism –improving the and the structural nature and, in certain meas-
institutional conditions of the organisms that ure, secular of the issues that tourist planning
are directly or indirectly related to it, as well as must undertake, force the consideration of a
human resources and materials–, in a way that sequence of guidelines circumscribed to a long-
occupies a central place in economic policy and term strategy. The Balearic Islands have ar-
be integrated into the sectorial policies of the rived at the present situation after more than
various departments (agriculture, industry, en- fifty years of tourist development, from which
ergy, transport, urbanisation, education, inno- a highly complex socioeconomic structure has
vation, health, public works, natural environ- been created, with interactions of a double na-
ment, work and training, etc.). Moreover, from ture. It would therefore be very risky and sim-
the perspective of public administration, it is plistic to try to analyse, value, propose and
necessary to improve and reorganise the sys- direct very short-term solutions. Moreover, the
364 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

depth to which certain standards of technol- scientific knowledge to the business sector in
ogy, consumption, and production have taken particular and its use by the tourist system in
root, highlights the importance of taking col- general, which makes the linking of units of in-
lective decisions and the necessary participa- terphase able to connect supply and demand,
tion of society in the forming of new values, essential. Likewise, the plan of R+D+i of Bal-
positions and motivations concerning tourism, earics, as an orientor of regional investigation,
which points also to a slow process and a pro- must take into account the needs of integral
longed time period which could be favoured by tourist planning when prioritising certain lines
the incorporation of tourism into educational of research. The lack of entrepreneurial capac-
programmes at different levels of teaching. ity to take on this investigation strengthens the
Many unimaginable short-term lines of action need of preferential attention on the part of
can be key for a long-term tourist strategy. the public sector, even more.

Nevertheless, planning must begin as soon as Thus, integral planning requires, in the first
possible and must be sustained and simultane- instance, an analysis of those internal factors
ous in many areas, which is what is required by –under control– which are essential in relation
the creation of multidisciplinary teams capable to the above two mentioned goals. This is why
of undertaking the complexity of the system it is crucial to increase knowledge of the dy-
and defining a set of medium and long-term namics of the Balearic tourist market and its
guidelines, which move in specific lines of ac- relation to the economic, social and environ-
tion beginning in the short term. Logically, mental context of the islands, highlighting the
these actions directly depend on the identifica- conflictive aspects and their causes as much as
tion of the essential elements of the system and existing potential and restrictions. Moreover,
an analysis of the resulting interrelations. a study of the present state and the forecasted
development of the principle factors that con-
In this sense, the University, with its responsi- dition, in the short and long term, the conti-
bility of meeting the challenges that the Bal- nuity of tourism, already commented on in the
earic society faces, must develop an impor- third part of the white book is inescapable.
tant role in the process of tourist planning, From among all the processes that take place
for which it must documentarily specify and in the Balearic tourist system, it is interesting
support the various interrelations that are to highlight, principally, the way in which it is
produced thanks to tourism and, at the same produced, that is to say, the technology used
time, stimulate the research and development to satisfy resident and tourist needs and their
of new technologies capable of responding repercussions. This conception sees technol-
Despite the economic and to the various strategic goals that stem from ogy as a social product, based on knowledge
sociocultural importance of tour-
ism, research into the various di-
them. This requires the creation of a network –scientific or not– that emerges and develops
mensions of tourism (geographic, of specialists which, conveniently stimulated, in certain economic and sociocultural con-
sociological, environmental, legal,
economic, etc.) has been com-
can join forces around basic and applied tour- ditions to transform or control one or more
paratively reduced in the Balearic ism research, which at the same time requires of the interactions that take place within the
Islands. There has been no inter-
the training of human resources through uni- tourist system and which finally affect the
est in demonstrating the strategic
importance of this research, which versity studies and postgraduate studies.260 The tourist market itself, the natural environment,
has resulted in a dispersion of
spread of innovation is as important as the in- social dynamics, etc. In this sense, the impor-
researchers and in the practical
non-existence of specialist teams. novation itself, that is to say, the transfer of tance of the R+D+i in the creation, from the
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 365

standpoint of a certain body of knowledge, of changes in the technological structure and in

alternative technologies that adapt to the new the modes of conduct of business people, citi-
preferences of society with respect to tourism, zens, and tourists.261 261
For a more detailed analysis, see
section 4.5. Legal structure and
is understood. institutional framework, in the
It is evident that, despite the importance of fourth part of the work.
As well as the internal factors, the growing in- the regulatory network which the Government
terdependence of the economies and transna- establishes, the companies of the sector and
tional character of tourism, also force us to the financial organisations are the backbone
consider external factors –out of control– with of transformation. If the first are necessary
reference to tourist dynamics seen at state, because they accumulate knowledge and have
Mediterranean, European and world level. It the human and material resources with which
does not seem logical to think about a strat- to confront the volume of technological invest-
egy outside what happens at an international ment necessary in the short, medium and long
level, because, among other reasons, external term, the second are also necessary to supply
determining factors could invalidate Balearic the necessary financing and cover risk. However,
strategy. This analysis must consider the de- in order to obtain participation in this process,
velopment of competitor countries, geopoliti- a clear framework of reference together with
cal aspects, motivations of demand, the abil- a real policy of incentives is necessary. Strong
ity of supply to meet demand, the capacity of economic signs (prices), limitations and precise
interconnection with external markets, etc., but goals are needed in order to favour cooperation
also global aspects such as dislocation, climate among economic agents and reorientate invest-
change, etc. ment in the desired direction. The design of a
coherent policy of incentives will be a key aspect
Beyond internal and external factors, planning in the future of Balearic tourism.
must make explicit the environmental condi-
tions that legal and institutional framework In this sense, tourist planning must be inscribed
imposes on the market, where tourist agents in a legal framework that permits and promotes
act following their own interests with the aim the development of a long-term tourist strate-
of orientating tourism in the direction chosen. gy, and that constitutes an essential instrument
In no case must planning substitute or interfere with which to take sectorial decisions, favour
in the freedom of the establishment of compa- investment and develop the markets. Order, vi-
nies, which must invest in order to participate tal for the establishment of any system, comes,
in the tourist market business, but they must mainly, with the legal and institutional frame-
determine goals and specific measures –in the work, norms and procedures. If this stability is
form of restrictions, regulatory instruments, not attained, all the elements of the system are
elimination of obstacles, etc.– in order to tack- centred on maximising the short term and dis-
le specific aspects such as obsolescence, the regard the effects of their decisions in the long
lack of cooperation among agents, the deficit term. This is why it is important to stabilise the
in innovation, etc. In this sense, all the possi- system. According to experts on complexity, the
ble regulatory instruments must be considered self-organisation of a system is reached largely
initially, as much those genuinely of the market by the presence of ‘factors of attraction’ (Ritter,
–taxes, subsidies, etc.– as those of compulsory 2009). A factor of attraction can be the profit
regulation, in order to produce the necessary motive, but also cooperative spirit, leadership.
366 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

In the present time, companies and destina- into decline. Thus, obsolescence as an optimal
tions need to see beyond day to day in order strategy of one or more private agents results
to discover the reforms that need to be intro- in loss of social efficiency, with relation to the
duced and the way to apply them, with the resources available for tourism and, at length,
purpose of foreseeing the products and servic- in the loss of private and social profits.
es that, in an increasingly mutant market, will
become obsolete, and at the same time lead Together with obsolescence, the absence of
the appearance of new products, services and regulation or collective action, the weak defi-
processes, convincing and inducing everyone nition of property rights, the existence of ex-
else to make modifications. ternal effects and of asymmetric information
or the characteristics of public goods also
The fight against the obsolescence of certain explain that common pool resources –natu-
areas and tourist establishments is one of the ral resources, landscape, urban environment,
most complex phenomenon that the Balearic among others– are not only the object of over-
Islands must tackle. With respect to this ques- exploitation but moreover private agents do
tion, it has to be understood, on the one hand, not have incentives to invest in their mainte-
that the strategy of disinvestment on the part nance,264 which at length also leads to private
of companies, in response to the loss of at- and social loss of profits.
traction or stagnation of the destination, can
be successful in the short term, given the de- These and other examples –such as the disregard
About this question, consult crease in private profits262 and, consequently, for innovation, training, etc.– illustrate that if
subsection 3.1.5. Efficiency and
profitability, in the third part of
of the capacity of the investor.263 On the other economic agents behave rationally and look for
the work. hand, especially in oligopsony markets, the maximum individual profit, they can arrive at
strategy of disinvestment can also be optimal socially inefficient situations, that is to say, they
The literature that adopts this for the sector which is smaller-sized and of an do not generate maximum welfare for society.
perspective identifies obsolescence
with a mature or declining state,
independent character –which does not belong The incentives to behave egoistically, or think
in accordance with the theory to big groups of companies–, while continuing that others behave in this way, make economic
of the life cycle of Butler (1980).
In essence, the characteristics of
to profit from the differentiated quality derived and social agents obtain a lower net profit than
theses phases are: reduction of from certain intangible or public goods of the they would have obtained if they had cooper-
the private and social profitability
urban or natural environment. As much in one ated. Cooperation is a necessary condition for
of tourism, high rotation of the
property of tourist businesses, case as in the other, the obsolete or de-phased achieving a socially efficient result.
changes of use from tourist to
character of some establishments or zones do
residential installations and the
modification of the segments and not impede them from continuing to have suf- One of the great challenges that the new tour-
patterns of demand towards a
ficient demand and exhibiting reasonably high ist culture faces is, precisely, that it can be indi-
lower quality differentiation and
lower price (González et al., 2006). occupation rates. All of this makes it difficult for vidually rational to not participate in it, that is
economic agents to find their own incentives to to say, not cooperate. Thus, processes of nego-
On the contrary, the deteriora- modify this behaviour, and, at length, given the tiation and discussion about how to share the
tion of the landscape and of the
urban environment lead to chang-
deterioration of the image that obsolescence profits and distribute the costs that coopera-
es from the use of tourist places to creates on the destination as a whole, induces tion impose, are necessary. Incentives must be
residential use and in an increase
other establishments, even of higher quality created for agents to cooperate in a context
in the density of population, as
much tourist as residential. and financial capacity, to follow the same path defined by: (1) the multiplicity and heterogene-
of disinvestment (Gonzalez et al, 2006) and, ity of subsystems and activities related to tour-
as a consequence the destination enters truly ism –which demand the design of strategies and
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 367

heterogenic policies–; (2) the unequal distribu- change or consider that planning includes more
tion of negotiating power; (3) the different ex- points of concordance than of disagreement or
pectations of losses and gains –there are activi- more potentialities than restrictions. The effective
ties or subsectors that require big investments involvement of all the economic and social agents
and, therefore, a long-term vision , while others is needed, and this involvement will only be pro-
require short-term actions in order to make use duced if the cooperation of everybody is guaran-
of favourable opportunities in the market–; (4) teed. If this guarantee is not given, nobody will
high negotiating costs and (5) uncertainty re- risk a cost in order to solve a problem that con-
garding costs and aggregate profits. cerns everybody. This is the paradox of the isola-
tion of Sen (1976), which impedes people from
These and other factors require leadership on the showing their preferences (altruistic) as members
part of the Government when determining tour- of a collective and leads them to act in accord-
ist policy, which must not be confused with the ance with their individual preferences (egoistic).
task of managing it. If tourist policy has demon- Unfortunately the market system cannot guaran-
strated anything during the last two decades, it is tee cooperation. It is the Government which must
the scarce utility of isolated initiatives. Progress ensure that the market permits the expression of
towards a new tourist culture requires the par- altruistic preferences, which demand the intro-
ticipation of all the sectors of Balearic society. duction of incentives, measures and regulatory
However, although society jointly recognises the and economic signs of tourist planning itself in
need to reorientate the present path of tourist the tourist market (internalise), so that it is orien-
development and take correcting measures –as tated towards the goals of competitivity and sus-
much of a global nature as of a sectorial and sub- tainability. Either of these two questions consti-
sectorial nature–; it is doubtful that transforma- tute, in themselves, a challenge. If society wants to
tion will happen simply because society is willing combine them and tackle them simultaneously,
to collaborate. It is not enough that people want the complexity appears very clearly.
Figura 5.1 368 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s
The challenge Strategic goal 1 Guideline of action
of complexity Progress in tourism knowledge Promote the integral analysis of the
as a complex combination of Balearic tourist system
interactions between elements
of a diverse nature
Lines of action
• Analyse the essential elements of the system and document the interrelations
that they maintain and the way in which they are produced (technologies).
• Identify elements and processes with capacity to significantly alter the tourist
system and their implications.
• Establish a dynamic of continuous observation.

Guideline of action Strategic goal 2 Guideline of action

Encourage the R+D+i in tourism Progress in the identification of Stimulate and communicate the
the alternatives of tourist deve- necessity for transformation with
lopment and in the consensus Government leadership
of a vision of the future
Lines of action Lines of action
• Orientate, coordinate and stimulate the regional process of R+D+i in accor- • Report on the options and their viability.
dance with the goals included in integral tourist planning. • Sensitize and diffuse.
• Select technologies in accordance with global criteria. • Encourage participation and social debate.
• Detect and correct limitations and deficiencies in the companies’ capaci- • Stimulate the contribution of ideas and initiatives.
ty for investigation and innovation. • Open processes of negotiation and discussion.
• Stimulate innovation and technological change. • Incorporate tourism in education and training programmes.
• Define lines of priority of basic and applied tourism research.
• Coordinate efforts to define and stimulate the creation of a multidisci-
plinary network of specialists.
• Influence higher university and postgraduate training in tourism subjects.

Strategic goal 3 Guideline of action

Progress in the design of Coordinate the elements of
integral tourist planning. integral planning

Lines of action
• Bank of integral data. Homogenization, filtering and maintenance.
• Development of tools of integral analysis. Information and technology
support and geographic information systems.
Guideline of action • Integral diagnostic. Potentialities and strangulations.
• Integral strategy. Tourist development orientations.
Involve all the sectors of the • Goals established in agreement with the vision of the future previously agreed
Balearic society on (competitivity and sustainability).
• Programmes of action. Activities.
• Location of programmes and activities.
• Financing.
Lines of action • Performance and control. Criteria of prioritization,timing and follow up.
• Introduce incentives orientated towards the effective participation of agents.
• Establish structures of cooperation.
• Detect and use synergies in investment material, knowledge , etc.
• Stimulate the ability to foresee and adapt. Strategic goal 4 Guideline of action
• Agree on the sharing of profits and the distribution of costs.
• Enable the coexistence of market values and altruistic positions. Progress in the institutionalisa- Integrate tourist policy into the diffe-
tion of tourism. rent levels of Government

Lines of action
• Improve the institutional conditions of the organisms directly or indi-
rectly related to tourism.
• Align tourist planning with other strategic initiatives of the Government.
• Improve and reorganise information and documentation systems.
• Homogenize the regulations.
• Apply principles of new governing.

Strategic goal 5 Guideline of action

Progress in the ordering of Establish the conditions of
the legal and institutional the environment
framework in favour of
tourist planning.
Lines of action
• Regulatory measures of a strategic nature.
• Instruments for planning the landscape. Environmental norms.
• Economic Instruments ( taxes, subsidies, incentives, etc ).
• Transversal measures.
• European and international norms.
• Elimination of barriers.
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 369

5 .2. T h e ch al l en g e of comp e t it ivit y

Moving towards a new tourist culture con- Temporarily, the speed of world change con-
sists of making progress in the recognition and fers a special relevance on the dynamic aspect
activation of the mechanisms (levers) of value of tourist competitivity and, consequently, on
creation in each one of the processes (interac- the ability to adapt and anticipate market ten-
tions) that take place among the different di- dencies. Likewise, the explicit adoption of an in-
mensions of the Balearic tourist system, as the tertemporal focus involves tackling short-term
only way to combine the ‘situation rents’ with goals –incorporating the premise of not over-
the ability needed for anticipation and adapta- looking the most immediate sectorial results,
tion required by the market, in order to guaran- in terms of income, profitability, and market
tee the international position of tourism and its quota–but also in the long term –ensuring the
contribution to regional prosperity. continuity of tourism266 and appealing to struc-
tural aspects such as the qualification of human
It is certain that this mission displays a mark- capital, the provision of infrastructures, etc.
edly ambitious nature, therefore it is necessary
to welcome and integrate, from a holistic vi- Spacially, the fragmentation of the chain of
sion, the multiple ways in which the activities value between places of origen and destina-
and the actors of the tourist market interact tion with respect to the generation, lending and
among themselves and with the rest of the sub- consumption of the various components of
systems (social, environmental, etc.), a motive the product leads to elements which, at least
for which it is essential to accept that the pro- a priori, are not completely controllable by the
posed challenge can only be faced by embracing destination, indeed condition the competitivity
its complexity.265 Beyond the definition of the of the regional product as much or more. With 265
For a detailed analysis of this
question, see section 5.1. The chal-
commercialised product (tourist experience), respect to this question, the development of lenge of complexity.
which not only integrates the basket of goods technologies of information and communica-
and services consumed, but also something as tion are postulated to enable the modification As defined in the third part of
the work.
complex as the satisfaction of the expectations of formulas for the management, control and
formulated by tourists at the moment of choos- commercialisation of the tourist product.
ing the destination (Bravo, 2004 ), it is essential
to assume that: Beyond complexity, taking this path does not
present an easy task, because despite being con-
Transversely, the multiplicity of subsystems, vinced that it is essential to maintain regional
activities, and agents that participate in the prosperity,267 the activation of value-creating 267
The introduction of the no-
tion of prosperity is important
supply and consumption of the tourist prod- mechanisms compels the beginning, in accord- given that it emphasises the non-
uct force the consideration of the heterogene- ance with the current situation, of a transfor- economic aspect of competitivity
and stresses the undesirable na-
ity of the attributes that define it. In fact, in mation process not exempt from tensions (in- ture of competitivity at any price.
general terms, competitivity is associated with compatibilities), especially in the short-term, (IMD, 2005).
the ability of a destination to satisfy tourists’ which must necessarily be solved within the sys-
expectations and simultaneously assure the tem itself. Thus, the need to improve competi-
satisfaction of the needs of the population tivity implies the assumption of adjustments,
and local agents. costs and improvements in productivity which,
370 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

in the first instance, may conflict with various in terms of improvement in quality, as much
aspects of economic and socio-political life. of services as of the environment and, conse-
Nevertheless, there are also complements ema- quently, of the tourist experience.
nating from the interaction of different factors
–economic, social, cultural and institutional– On the other hand, the level of economic devel-
able to neutralise conflicting aspects. opment reached by the Balearic Islands, shown
directly in the rising curve of income per capita,
Be what may, the fact is that, although the bal- reveals the attainment of a high level of welfare
ance of the last two decades emphasises the that has widened the range of rights obtained
importance of the international place of Bal- and has transformed the needs, priorities and
On this issue, consult section earic tourism268 and its contribution to region- preferences of economic and social agents.
2.1. Evolution of tourist flows, in
the second part of the work.
al accounts,269 the development registered, Having arrived at this point, the elements that
For more information, see the above all during the last decade, shows signs do not only determine, but also stimulate re-
analysis carried out in section 1.4. of weakening, which affects the annual results gional competitivity, must necessarily develop
Economic contribution of tour-
ism, in the first part of the work. and which, in a context of growing competi- from the mere use of production factors to-
tion, points to significant risks capable of to wards efficiency and, finally, towards innova-
eroding the competitive position of the desti- tion (WEF, 2005).
On this issue, see section 3.1. nation.270 Comparably, analysis of the sources
Risks and opportunities for tour-
ism, in the third part of the work.
of regional growth shows that the accumula- At this point, it is crucial to forge the founda-
tion of production factors has stopped being a tions that guarantee, in the last analysis, the
sufficient and viable alternative to sustain the transition of tourism based on the endowment
real creation of wealth, thus calling for urgent of resources to tourism based on knowledge.
attention to the structural aspects that enable This is the challenge of competitivity. It is a chal-
Productivity is the basis of the the stimulation of productivity271 and conse- lenge which, in accordance with its complexity,
return of investment, determining,
at the same time, the aggregated
quently long-term welfare. must be internalised by tourist planning and
rate of growth which enables a taken up by economic and social agents as re-
competitive economy to grow
In accordance with this situation, redirecting lating to excellence that guides decision taking.
more quickly in the medium and
long term (Tugores, 2006). For a tourist competitivity cannot stand in the way In short, it is a question of progressing in the
more detailed analysis, see subsec-
of the advanced state as much of tourist devel- same direction in which the conceptual plans of
tion 3.2.1. Regional competitivity,
in the third part of the work. opment as of regional development, because international competitivity have done: transfer
doing so would restrict the options available. part of the effort from the traditional approach
On the one hand, the phase of the destination of comparative advantage –that associate the
cycle, as is well-known, conditions the factors attainment of commercial results with the en-
that determine competitivity, the roles played dowment of resources– towards a perspective
by the driving agents of the system and the ef- based on competitive advantage –that resorts
fects tourism has on regional economy (Butler, to the addition of value by means of the con-
1980). Thus, the fact that the maturity of the sideration of elements related not only to the
Balearic destination results in an increase in the productive environment but also social, envi-
On this matter, see the intro- sensitivity of demand with respect to variations ronmental and institutional.272
duction in the fourth part: Medi-
um and long term conditioners.
in prices –in a context of growing competition–,
deterioration of the environment, massification This change of outlook does not in any way
and high dependence on Northern-European imply forgetting about the comparative ad-
tour operators, can only be compensated for vantages Balearic tourism has traditionally
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 371

depended on, but, very much to the contrary, confers on it the category of first lever of value
suggests managing them from the criteria of and which, therefore, totally eludes the con-
efficiency as the only way to (1) strengthen cept that assimilates it to a model of low-value
them with the aim of building competitive ad- massified development and of significant nega-
vantages over them and, at the same time, (2) tive impacts. The biggest challenge for a tour-
free the resources needed to stimulate levers ist economy is to know how to use natural and
of value, the source of competitive advantag- cultural capital in a rational way and make its
es. This transfer is necessary as much from a use compatible with conservation.
microeconomic point of view –in as much as it
contributes to the improvement of short-term On the other hand, the challenge of competi-
company profitability–,273 as macroeconomic tivity cannot be faced without establishing 273
About this issue, consult the
conceptual framework developed
–given that it increases productivity, guaran- measures that pursue the capitalisation of the in subsection 3.1.5. Efficiency and
tees long-term regional prosperity and, at the baggage (material and non-material) acquired profitability, in the third part of
the work.
same time, strengthens the trinomial tourist- and propitiate a continuous dynamic of reno-
society-environment, advocated by the new vation and enrichment in response to changes
tourist culture. and tendencies. For this reason, reactivating
investment, considering the enterprising nature
On this stage, the strategic goals that sustain that has historically characterised the Balearic
the challenge of competitivity are centred, from tourist business class, is key to the ability of
the start, on maintaining and strengthening the the main segments of supply to continue the
Balearic Islands’ own comparative advantages process of adaptating their structure, business
with respect as much to their own attributes as model and commercial products. It is a ques-
to inherited resources –natural (climate, land- tion not only of stimulating individual profit-
scape, etc.), geographical (locality, proximity ability and guaranteeing long-term survival, but
to main markets, etc.) and cultural (historic also of contributing positively to safeguarding
heritage, regional customs, etc.)– over those international recognition of the destination,
acquired –material (facilities and tourist equip- maintaining the decision centres of big interna-
ment) and non-material (tourist tradition, in- tional groups and attracting more productive
ternational recognition and accumulated expe- foreign investment.
rience)– which, together, have created an image
of high renown in international markets. In this way, with respect to material capital, it
must not be forgotten that tourist development
Therefore, on the one hand the importance has led to the accumulation of a considerable
of designing and putting into effect guidelines stock of productive capital with the passage of
of action able to value, from a tourist point time, with regard to facilities, equipment and
of view, the wide range of inherited resources infrastructure, which sustains the lending of the
and at the same time advocate a guideline of most basic dimensions of the tourist product.
efficient use compatible with the creation of Taking into account the degree of consolida-
value in a continued way, can be highlighted. It tion of the Balearic tourist sector, and also its
must be pointed out that this approach consid- degree of maturity, the guidelines of action are
ers, in the first analysis, the use of the climate- forced to divert the biggest part of their effort
landscape combination of sun and beach as a from the management of quantity to the man-
basic dimension of the tourist product, which agement of quality. Only with this premise will
372 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

the creation and modernisation of facilities be- requires making technical resources available
come coherent with changing requirements of (infrastructures and information and commu-
demand and the environmental requirements nication technologies), human resources (train-
in which the service is given. In any case, it is ing and attraction of talent) and institutional
necessary to adopt, once more, an integral ap- resources (learning platforms, meeting points
proach that tackles the different ages of tourist and interaction between agents).
establishments and avoids the inertia which, in
great measure motivated by the maintenance On this path, to forge real competitive advan-
of mass tourism, has been based more on the tages it is necessary to identify, stimulate and
contention of costs than on the attainment of combine, in a adequate and coordinated way,
higher levels of quality. In addition, although at those levers of value that guarantee not only
an individual level profitability and obsolence the efficient use of inherited and acquired re-
continue to be compatible, at an aggregated sources, but also largely aggregate, to the ba-
level they condition not only the attainment of sis of these resources, multiple layers of value.
the competitive position desired, but also the In accordance with this issue, the Balearic Is-
erosion of the present position. lands, in a context in which destinations and
companies compete globally on the basis of
Comparably, with respect to non-material competitive advantages locally consolidated,
capital, the accumulation of a wide range of has to act decisively on structural factors of
knowledge acquired by experience, although the region which are key for the development of
informally, has shaped a tourist tradition that the business sector –in so far as they promise a
has impregnated the local agents’ way of do- wide range of business opportunities– and for
ing things (companies, citizens and public ad- regional prosperity –given that they lead to an
ministration ) and has consolidated the sector. improved quality of life, social cohesion, etc.
It is understood that the ability of the agents
to respond to the climate and produce wealth Moreover, if the traditional approach –which
depends in great measure on the selection, or- bases competitive advantage on prices–con-
ganisation and analysis of experience accumu- tinues to sustain part of Balearic competitiv-
lated over a length of time, without forgetting ity, the subjection of sectorial results and, by
the need to combine it with new knowledge, implication, of foreign standing, to the supply
generated within the system or outside it. Pre- of a product of acceptable quality at relatively
A reference to this is the proc- cisely, the management of this knowledge as a reduced prices is over. To begin with, in region-
ess of the internationalisation of way of converting it into information applicable al terms, the level of Balearic development can
the main Balearic hotel chains,
succinctly described in epigraph to solving problems and taking decisions, con- no longer continue to be based on a low-cost Lodging, in the second stitutes one of the bastions of Balearic tourist structure, as much from an economic as from a
part of the work.
development, as much from an internal point social point of view.275
In this sense, there is nothing of view –given that it is set up as a perpetuat-
more to be done than to check
the deterioration of competitivity-
ing element of the generation of value–, as ex- At the same time, in tourist terms, the advan-
price that the islands have accu- ternal –given that it constitutes an exportable tages of the supply of a low-priced product
mulated during the last decade,
service (know how) to other destinations–.274 In of relatively superior quality to that provided
compared to the main European
markets and competitor destina- this framework, it is essential to bring together by emerging Mediterranean destinations, is
tions, as explained in subsection
generated knowledge and ensure that it will progressively reduced as these destinations
3.2.2. Tourist competitivity, in the
third part of the work. be shared and constantly transmitted, which gain knowledge, capital and tourist tradition.
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 373

For this reason it is necessary to abandon the and functioning of the labour market in general
mistaken strategies of short-term profitability and the conditions of the tourist sector labour
centred on determining prices in an isolated market in particular (seasonality, rotation, etc.),
way, which do not take supply factors into ac- must be taken into account; all these issues,
count (that is to say, sequence and location inside a framework of improvement of labour
of the generation of value) and demand (this relations, are key aspects in the stimulation of
is segmentation), at the time that they jeop- competitivity through the relationship between
ardize the progress of other structural dimen- productivity, employment and salaries.
sions of tourist competitivity.276 It is therefore 276
For a more detailed analysis, see
subsection 3.2.2. Tourist competi-
necessary to integrate price policy into a short Infrastructures, such as the provision of
tivity, in the third part of the work.
and long-term planning design that works in public services, constitute a lever of value with
the service of efficiency and quality, as a way a clear effect on productivity, given their strate-
of differentiating the product, in these mature gic role in the development of their own tour-
and very homogenized times, from the nearest ist activity and others with which this activity
competitor destinations. is related. Nevertheless, the multiplying effects
that arise from this do not depend as much on
In a accordance with this premise, the challenge the volume of investment in new infrastructures
of competitivity necessarily involves stimulating as on adequately selecting them and improving
the following levers: the management of existing ones, such as the
services that sustain them.
Innovation,277 since it forces new forms of 277
On this matter, consult sec-
tion 4.4. Innovative ability, in the
production to emerge, modifies the possibili- The legal and institutional framework, given 280
fourth part of the work.
ties for the use of natural resources, favours that it does not only link the manifestation of
the extension and diversification of produc- tourist activity (such as regulation of supply,
tive activities and influences productivity, and protection of the tourist, etc.) and the pro-
enables, in an advanced stadium of develop- motion of the destination, but also includes a
ment, not only more efficient production, but multitiude of dimensions which interact with
also the efficient production of new products the market (such as the arranging of territory,
of greater value added. Innovation in tour- tax, urbanisation, transport, security, innova-
ism involves, therefore, the proposal of new tion, training, health, foreign relations, etc.),
ideas, processes and services that correspond becomes, as the idea of competitivity grows
to demand preferences, improve management more sophisticated, an essential ally in the
efficiency, are viable in accordance with costs definition of the conditions of the environment,
and guarantee, in the last analysis, priorities to the point of conditioning efficiency and the
in terms of quality, diversification and the dif- efficiency of the rest of the levers. Thus, beyond
ferentiation of the product. the necessary coherence of the promulgated Consult the analysis in section
4.1. Labour and training market, in
norms in the different legislative spheres, (na- the fourth part of the work.
Human capital,278 as the main input of tour- tional, regional and local) and for each of the 279
For a more specific analysis,
ist service, plays an essential role, given that the fields (tourist, territorial, labour, etc.), it is cru- consult section 4.3. Infrastructures
and public services, in the fourth
innovative process only has repercussions on cial that the legal and institutional network an- part of the work.
an improvement in production if its returns are ticipates resident and tourist needs and adapts 280
For a more detailed analysis,
see section 4.5. Legal and institu-
properly used. It can be observed that, beyond easily to the transformations faced by the tour- tional framework, in the fourth
qualification, aspects referring to the structure ist system as a whole. part of the work.
3 74 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

As important as influencing these levers is aspect requires special attention, given that
developing the ability to communicate, with the degree of atomisation of the tourist sec-
consistency and persistence, everything that tor, and therefore regional283 affects negotiat-
has been worked on in order to create a chain ing ability and the degree of internationalisa-
of competitive value; not in vain does the im- tion. Therefore, the challenge of competitivity,
age determine the attitude and predisposition along with the rest of the inherent challenges
of the tourist when choosing a destination. when adopting a new tourist culture, cannot
With respect to this, it is not necessary to con- be undertaken without the cooperation of the
tinue stressing the importance of creating an agents involved.
image based on a previously made decision
This position has been recog-
nised by European governments, of dynamic positioning able to anticipate the Everything considered, the search for prosper-
so that the Treaty of Lisbon es- tendencies of the market, projected homog- ity by means of tourism, as the ultimate goal
tablishes that the EU adopts the
goals of promoting the creation enously and coherently, directed not only to of the challenge of competitivity, involves the
of a favourable environment for real and potential markets, but also to the re- internalisation of profits and costs channelled
the development of tourist compa-
nies and of propitiating the coop- gional agents involved. by the system on the rest of the economic
eration between member states by structure, the physical medium and the social
means of, above all, the exchange
of good practices ( see title XX1, Moreover, it must not be forgotten that the dynamic. The justification for this need does
art.176B). On this issue, see sub- competitivity of tourism is based on the strong not stem only from the incentives for continu-
section 3.1.6. Public sector and
Private sector, in the third part of and constant link of standards of coordina- ing tourist activity, but also from its ability to
the work. tion between the public sector and the private accumulate the necessary economic resources
For more information, see sub- sector,281 the participation of the local popula- to make use of the complementaries of the tri-
section 3.1.7. Resident and tour-
ism population, in the third part tion282 and, especially, on the competitivity of nomial tourism-society-environment and, in
of the work. companies –as a way of improving procedures the last analysis, to ensure the adoption of the
On this matter, see subsection
and activate valuable creative ability–. It can challenge of sustainability with guarantees for
2.2.4. Company structure, in the
second part of the work. be observed that, in the Balearic Islands, this the future.
Figura 5.2 F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 375
The challenge
of competitivity Strategic goal 1 Guideline of action
Progress in the adoption of an Internalise the challenge of
holistic vision of competitivity complexity
in the tourist planning frame-
Lines of action
• Satisfy the expectations of tourists and the needs of the population and local
Guideline of action Strategic goal 2 • Adopt a dynamic focus that ensures short-term results and long-term continuity.
• Confront geographic fragmentation of the chain of value and the degree of
Develop dynamic instruments of Progress in the ability to atomization of companies.
analysis and prospective combine the current ‘situation
rents’ with the tendencies Guideline of action
Lines of action Value inherited resources (natural,
• Internalise at public and private level the permanent study of the external and geographic, and cultural)
internal determinants of the tourist sector.
• Follow the tendencies of demand and the strategies of competitor
• Diagnose the state and availability of base resources (inherited and acquired). Lines of action
• Identify and categorize the levers of value. • Secure the dimension of sun and beach as first lever of value.
• Identify inherited elements with tourist projection and promote their range as
Guideline of action Strategic goal 3 a factor of attraction.
• Work for the international recognition of the Balearic Islands as a land of
Manage quality compared Progress in the maintenance natural and cultural interest.
• Recuperate tourist zones in an advanced state of degradation.
with quantity and strengthening of compara- • Use the geographic location in favour of the segmentation and diversification
tive advantages source markets.

Lines of action Guideline of action

• Introduce criteria of efficiency to improve productivity.
• Integrate price policy into medium and long-term planning design. Capitalize acquired material resources
• Attend to the structural dimensions of tourist competitivity.
• Propitiate the use of resources (inherited and acquired) instead of mere ac-

Lines of action
• Adapt tourist supply planning to the strategic definition of the tourist product.
Guideline of action • Fight against the obsolescence of basic equipment.
• Reactivate the investment of local agents and attract foreign establishment
Activate the lever of innovation investment.
• Formulate integral plans of reconversion and requalification.

Guideline of action
Lines of action Formalise accumulated knowledge and
• Increase the efficiency of the system R+D+i and the training of researches.
• Stimulate the role of units of transference.
Strategic goal 4 integrate it into the process of genera-
• Favour business innovation in terms of products and processes.
Progress in the attainment of tion and adoption of new knowledge
• Encourage entrepreneurial spirit and the embryo of new ideas and forms of
production. competitive advantages Lines of action
• Establish business strategies in favour of technological cooperation.
• Create platforms of interaction for the main stakeholders of the tourist system.
• Promote the creation of information managers who put new technologies to
Guideline of action the service of the classification, analysis,and diffusion of knowledge.
• Establish efficient and multidirectional channels of transference of knowledge
Activate the lever of human capital (university-administration-business).
• Incorporate the knowledge generated into training programmes.

Lines of action
• Establish policies of attraction of skilled labour. Attracting talent.
• Align all the levels of training with the requirements of the tourist sector.
• Stimulate the demand of qualified skilled labour.
• Encourage permanent training.
• Support the recognition and accreditation of informal learning (learning by
doing). Strategic goal 5 Guideline of action
Guideline of action Progress towards a planned Construct a new corporative image of the
Activate the lever of infrastructures image based on a dynamic destination that highlights the values that
position tourist strategy establishes

Lines of action
• Create the construction and management of an image from a dual perspec-
Lines of action tive, permanently adjusted to the preferences of the public goal, but also to
• Identify priorities and select projects in terms of gains in productivity and the values and identity of the local population.
adaptation to the needs of residents and tourists. • Coordinate the design and introduction of the promotion strategy among the
• Improve the management of existing infrastructures and the services in ac- different agents involved.
cordance with the real demographic pressure. • Establish a permanent system of quantitative and qualitative indicators of the
• Generate alternatives of mobility and platforms of interconnexion between efficiency and efficacy of the promotional actions carried out.
different means of transport. • Ensure the projection, recognition and fame of the brand as much at global as
• Use telecommunication networks to channel contents with tourist value. at local level.
• Correct the unequal introduction of the ‘Balearic Islands’ brand and of the
brands of the insular territories.
Guideline of action • Use the image and brand strategy as a tool of differentiation
Activate the lever of the legal and Strategic goal 6 Guideline of action
institutional system
Progress in the internalisation Neutralise negative impacts and use
of tourism costs and benefits positive impacts
Lines of action
• Establish environmental conditions in favour of competitivity.
• Integrate tourist classification in a transversal way. Lines of action
• Guarantee normative coherence between different institutional levels and • Connect tourism with the economic, social and environmental network.
different branches of classification. • Avoid sectorial disequilibrium.
• Extend normative cover to all aspects of tourism. • Manage the population relation resident-tourism.
• Drive forward the ability of anticipation as a guarantee of development. • Minimize environmental impacts.
• Respond quickly to changes in the sector and new forms of management. • Establish value sensor mechanisms that encourage the reinvestment of the
returns obtained and their redistribution over all the region.
376 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

5. 3. 5. The cha l l en g e of s u s ta in a b il i ty

In general, the term conserva- Moving towards a new tourist culture con- contribution in terms of growth and monopoly
tion evokes present non-utilisa-
tion of resources in order to be
sists of adopting formulas that make tourist de- a substantial part of production resources are
able to use them in the future. velopment compatible with the conservation284 pertinent and maybe even compelled –given
Nevertheless, from environmental
economics, which is the approach
of the environment, controlling and internal- the relation of bidirectional dependence that it
followed here, conservation is ising285 the interactions established inside the maintains with the environment– to lay down
defined as the appropriate use of
Balearic tourist system in order to guarantee, a path of sustainable tourist growth,287 under-
resources in each moment.
finally, the ability to satisfy resident and tour- stood as that pattern of production and serv-
Internalisation refers to the
ist population needs without jeopardizing the ices –and of consumption of resources– that
process through which economic
and social agents become aware of welfare of future generations. does not diminish the ability of either the resi-
the impacts on the environment
dent nor the tourist population to satisfy their
caused by their activity and incor-
porate them into their decision- This statement, which fundamentally proposes needs, whatever time period is considered.
making. the attainment of a social goal, has been ana-
lysed, during the last two decades by different However, behind the possibility of maintaining
The majority of the goals have disciplines (economics, sociology, anthropol- continued tourist growth hides an important
been expressed in quantitative
terms –in accordance with anthro- ogy, ecology, etc.) in accordance with the proper restriction: the limits imposed by the physical-
pocentric orientation (eg. number definition of the environment which admits the natural environment. Thus, according to the
of tourists)– or in qualitative
terms –in accordance with ecocen- physical-natural, cultural, economic and social opinion of some authors, as much inside as
tric orientations (eg. carrying ca- circumstances surrounding people and other liv- outside economics (Boulding, 1966; Georges-
pacity )–. With respect to this, see
Coppock(1982), O’Reilly(1991), ing beings. Thus, at international level, a large cu-Roegen, 1971; Daly, 1987, 1993), lasting
Tisdell and Wen (1997) and Seild number of articles and reports have been pub- economic growth is not possible given the finite
and Tisdell (1999).
lished, referring to the possibilities of maintain- supply of material and energy and the entropic
An habitual dilemma in the ing tourist expansion as an engine of economic nature288 of the processes of realignment and
framework of sustainability is
between growth and sustainable growth as opposed to the natural, cultural, transformation, facts that, in the long run, im-
development (Pezzy,1989). Nev- economic and social impacts it exerts, which pose physical limitations on economic growth
ertheless, following Bretschger
(1998), in future both concepts has helped to sensitize public opinion and has by the law of diminishing returns.
will be used indiscriminately. provoked growing attention towards ‘sustain-
Technically, entropy is a non- able tourism’ (Archer, 1996; UNWTO, 1999b). Nevertheless, this vision omits the fact that
decreasing function that measures Nevertheless, it has to be recognised that, today, economic activity in general and tourist in par-
the distance of a system with re-
spect to its equilibrium in relation the polysemic nature of the term has caused it to ticular, more than a process of transformation
to adjacent systems. The processes be associated with numerous goals286 and, at the is a process of the creation of value (Smulders,
of transformation of material and
energy increase the entropy of the same time, to be used to adorn discourses and 1998). In fact, economic growth is no more
system and, consequently, de- declarations or to formulate synonyms, referring than an increase in the flow of generated eco-
crease the work which, in physical
terms, the system can undertake to tourist developments as balanced, integrated, nomic value. Therefore, although tourist growth
(Ayres, 1999). harmonious, compatible, alternative, green, etc. is certainly limited from a quantitative view-
289 The result is that, at the present time, ‘tourist point, growth measured in terms of value does
Utility, understood here as a
synonym of satisfaction or wel- sustainability’ is an ambiguous concept, confus- not have to be so; whenever feasible, through
fare, is the final goal of any of ing and difficult to apply in practice. transformation, it can create more value, more
the branches of economic theory.
Thermodynamic utility is called utility,289 from the same available quantity of
available energy or ‘exergia’. Nevertheless, in economies in which, like that of material and energy. Thus, even though it is ac-
the Balearic Islands, tourism has an important cepted that material and energy are essential for
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 377

the generation of value, there is no minimum etc.), human capital (education, training, la-
requirement to attain a certain level of produc- bour experience), technological capital (tangible
tion or aggregated welfare. Moreover, tourist and intangible knowledge) and social and insti-
activity is nourished essentially by two basic tutional,292 such as its development in time and
inputs, material and energy and knowledge the possibilities of substitution between some
(technological290), which combined flexibly, components of capital and others, in a context
give rise to other factors of production –natural characterised by important physical-natural, 290
A wide concept of technology is
adopted, as shown also in section
resources with different degrees of processing, technological, cultural etc. restrictions.293 5.1.The challenge of complexity.
work, capital, etc.– or to directly consumable
goods and services (Smulders, 2000). Unfortunately, this information is not gener-
ally available, however. It is as difficult to for-
In accordance with this perspective, if the Bal- mulate plausible assumptions about techno-
earic Islands can, through the tourist system, logical alternatives as about the environmen-
gradually substitute the utilisation of mate- tal consequences of human activities, facts
rial and energy for knowledge as much appli- which, together with the consideration of the
cable to production processes and factors as irreversibility of harm to the environment and
to consumption, it is possible that a path of the uncertainty about the possibilities of sub-
sustainable development will be achieved and, stitution between various forms of capital,
in accordance with the processes of the accu- make the definition and choice of a path of
mulation of capital, intergenerational equity efficiency difficult.
be guaranteed.
Nevertheless, if it is accepted that this course
The concern for intergenerational equity lies of development is socially desirable and it is
behind the concept of sustainability. The Brut- known for certain that it exists and is possible The principle of utility is a phil-
osophical principle created by util-
land report itself (WCED,1987) requires that to reach, it is pertinent to direct effort to iden- itarianism, which considers that
human welfare, understood as the ability to tifying it, sharing it among all the economic the greatest good for the greatest
number of people should be the
satisfy present and future human needs, does and social agents and propitiating that society, guiding principle of conduct. It
not decline in time, or in the words of New- through an adequate institutional framework, deals, therefore, with a principle
of teleological ethics, which bases
mayer (1999), the ability to provide utility per chooses this course from among all the possi- moral judgment on the conse-
capita (for a representative member of society) bilities. This is the challenge of sustainability. It quences of actions. Some of the
fundamental authors of utilitari-
does not decline ad infinitum.291 It is, in short, is a challenge that does not hide the difficulty anism are Jeremy Bentham, James
a question of guaranteeing future generations of determining the desirable properties of this Mill or John Stuart Mill. In fact, as
Rawls remembers (1971), the idea
the same set of welfare opportunities that the course of action, nor its vulnerability in the face that utility and justice are linked
present generation has enjoyed or, in other of whatever changes may occur (demand, level already appears in the social con-
tract of Rousseau..
words, to bequeath them a stock of capital of reserves, state of technology, etc.), nor the
–providing direct welfare (goods or services)– effects that the search for this type of develop- 292
Social and institutional capital
with which their needs can be met. ment can have on the present standard of living, are produced by individual accu-
mulation and the social contrast
nor the low probability of the market reaching of patterns of behaviour, which
On this path, as the theory of economic growth it spontaneously. condition the appearance and ap-
plication of productive capital
shows, a wide vision of capital that considers 293
It is therefore important to bear
the present stock of natural capital (natural On this point, it must be remembered that the in mind that in the evaluation of
sustainability natural restrictions
and environmental resources of the biosphere), working of the economy depends largely on
are not the only ones that must be
productive capital (equipment, infrastructures, the institutional mechanisms that society de- considered.
378 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

cides to use, in the form of policies, to encour- Some of the mechanisms that favour the at-
age and coordinate the sharing of resources in tainment of the challenge of sustainability have
the economy: the rights of property to retain begun to appear in the heart of the Balearic
(conserve) or spend (consume) a fixed wealth tourist sector in the form of programmes for
(capital, in the wide sense); the rights of indi- saving energy, water and other resources, given
viduals to commercialise; the laws that define the reduction of costs associated with them.
the role of public and private companies; the Moreover, this type of practice usually gives
tax systems and price-fixing systems. Beyond rise to some kind of certification that gives the
the physical limits is the institutional frame- consumer information about the environmen-
work, understood as the combination of mar- tal behaviour of tourist agents and thus offers
ket structures, assignation of properties rights a visible response to a demand characterised
and instruments of public intervention, which by growing ecological awareness (Kotler et al.,
make it possible, together with social preferenc- 2003). In this sense, the search for private prof-
es (system of values), for the economy to move its through lower costs, such as the improve-
to a path of sustainable growth. ment of the company image, leads in a prac-
tically voluntary and decentralised way to an
For a more detailed analysis, The challenge of sustainability requires, there- increase in environmental quality. Since the
see subsection 4.2.3.Environmen-
tal impacts, in the fouth part of fore, changes in the institutional framework pioneer proposition of quality certification of
the work. which can only be carried out if this goal is ac- beaches and yachting harbours, represented
295 cepted by each and every one of the economic by the blue flag (Font and Buckley, 2001),
Certification systems encom-
pass diverse mechanisms, such as and social agents, from their respective posi- the instruments of autoregulation developed
the prizes and recognition estab- tions, attending to, evidently, the correspond- by the tourist sector have proliferated to the
lished by the tourist industry, the
environmental labelling systems ing capacity for action and to their responsi- point, at the present moment, of more than
for companies and tourist spaces bility. A change of scene is as necessary in the one hundred relevant initiatives identified by
and environmental managment
and auditing systems established internal dynamics of the public sector when the UNWTO (2002), including systems of
by tourist companies that enable meeting the challenge of tourist sustainability voluntary certification295 and environmental
the accreditation of sustainable
administration through interna- as in the private field –citizens and companies–. codes of conduct.296 Among these systems
tional norm ISO14001 and Eu- Questions cannot continue to be rhetorical ecolabels, which have been mainly applied to
ropean regulation EMAS (Chang
and Wong, 2006). statements, theoretical or partisan exercises, regional tourist accommodation.297
but must be based on a realistic involvement
The codes of conduct are guides and introduction with the help of coordinated Nevertheless, although these voluntary respons-
of behaviour or recommendations
for the agents of the sector whose public action that gives an integral and stable es are highly representative of the direction of
goal is to reduce the environmen- framework, grouping all the political sectori- change, they are insufficient to meet the chal-
tal impacts of the activity. Among
this type of behaviour Agenda 21 als affected and enabling the development of lenge of sustainability. In reality, it is a matter
for the travel and tourism industry guidelines and interdepartmental and inter- of individual actions through which each tour-
(UNWTO, 1998) is emphasised;
The Sustainable World Tourism sectorial lines of action, favouring new eco- ist agent establishes their performance maxim-
Chart (UNWTO, 1995), etc. nomic plans that study ecoefficiency in depth, ising their own operation goal. As has already
297 enable the unlinking of the production of been shown, one of the great problems of pro-
There are examples of ecolabel-
ling of a superior range, such as tourist goods and services from the growing gressing towards a new tourist culture is that it
European ecolabelling for tourist
consumption of material and energy and fa- can be individually rational not to participate
accommodation services (Decision
2003/287/CE) or Green globe 21 vour the application of new, environmentally in it, that is to say, act in an uncooperative way;
–the only ecolabelling applicable
advanced technologies and the reduction of thus, while some agents progress and lead the
to tourist agents and destinations
worldwide (Synergy, 2999). impacts in numerous fields.294 introduction of systems of environmental man-
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 379

agement and of environmental auditing that go antee a level of quality of bathing water, etc.)
with them or opt for ecolabelling and participa- and only in the best of cases are they related to
tion in investment funds, others consider these the goal of attaining sustainability, that is to
elements as a distortion that make their opera- say, in terms of guaranteeing intragenerational
tions difficult and jeopardize their results, with and intergenerational equity.
which they contribute indirectly to deteriora-
tion, or, in other words, to an inefficient result The challenge of sustainability therefore finds
from a social point of view itself with an added difficulty. In effect, the
packet of available measures is generally di-
The challenge of sustainability therefore estab- rected to achieving a specific goal that in itself
lishes, as a necessary condition, cooperation, constitutes a challenge, for how much one or
sufficient condition if each and every one of more of the alternatives to maximise social wel-
the economic and social agents –public and fare are considered from those affected by one
private– are capable of choosing a function situation or another. Nevertheless, in reality,
goal so that sustainability appears among the from a perspective of sustainability, although
variables of the choice. In the contrary case, these measures –especially ecoeconomic in-
the Government will be forced to influence, struments– are conceptually very powerful for
through compulsory regulations or economic reaching environmental goals and developing
instruments, the behaviour of the economic a crucial role in the internalisation of envi-
and social agents. ronmental impacts,299 they are crippled at the
moment of guaranteeing the viability of all the
The listing of regulations (quality or quantity process and ensuring that the alternative finally
standards of resources, products or processes; chosen respects the principle intragenerational
norms of accessibility, captation, utilisation and intergenerational equity.
and emission; planning norms and ordering
of territory, etc.) and economic instruments In short, sustainable development is possi-
(taxes, levies and taxes on utilisation, con- ble, but it is not the solution that the market
sumption, contamination, services rendered; opts for in a spontaneous way (Solow, 1974;
financing in the form of subsidies, soft credits Stiglitz, 1974; Hartwick, 1977), nor even in
or tax relief; charges of non-fulfilment and pay- ideal conditions in which the Government, via
ments of fulfilment; market creation through economic regulations or instruments, man-
the negotiable designated permits, etc.) could ages to correct market failures. The challenge
be extended even more and speed up, here of sustainability requires something more
a discussion on the advantages of some and than economic efficiency. Thus, the only re-
others on terms of efficiency,298 efficiency, flex- ally pragmatic solution to guarantee sustain- 298
It can be remembered, at this
point, that the concept of efficacy
ibility, equity, and eligibility of agreement with able development consists in maintaining refers to the measure to which a
the problem in question. Nevertheless, this aggregated stock of natural capital constant specific goal is achieved, while effi-
ciency relates the degree of attain-
discussion, although important, is out of place (Pearce and Turner, 1990), letting them, of
ment of said goal with the cost it
in these pages. What is relevant to specify is course, produce changes in their composi- has occasioned.
that all these measures are intended to resolve tion. In the end, it is not a question of main- In fact, Buckley (2002), among
others, sustains that economic ef-
specific problems or conflicts (such as improve taining the stock of natural capital constant, ficiency can be achieved by means
the management of waste, conserve biological but the flow of goods and services that the of an adequate combination of
these instruments.
diversity, reduce levels of contamination, guar- biosphere provides.
380 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

In this sense, it is necessary to take into account services remain constant, it is necessary, on the
that the biosphere fulfils at least four functions one hand, to ensure an adequate rate of substi-
that are valued positively by society in general tution between renewable and non-renewable
and by tourism in particular. Thus, the bio- resources and, on the other hand, guarantee
sphere: (1) provides resources (ground, water, that the reduction of stock does not result in a
energy, air, etc.) that form part of the produc- reduction of welfare through an increase in pro-
tion of tourist goods and services and that, duction and, therefore, of the economic value
therefore, contribute to the creation of value; of the resource in the long term (Gómez, 1994).
(2) provides natural goods (landscape, nature An example of the first case is the substitution
reserves, etc.), required by tourists and which, of fossil fuel energy for alternative energies (so-
as such, are integral to utility or welfare; (3) lar, wind, etc.). An example of the second case
Consult epigraph En- works, thanks to its capacity of assimilation, as is an improvement in energy efficiency300 that
ergy resources, in the fourth part
of the work.
a rubbish tip for much of the refuse generated is to say, the obtaining of the same quantity of
by tourist activity and which society wants to output at a lower cost.
eliminate; (4) it is, for the human species, what
sustains life and its diversity. Thus, whatever the present circumstances sur-
rounding the different elements that constitute
In this way, the challenge of sustainability forc- the Balearic Islands’ aggregated stock of natu-
es the Balearic Islands to take into account the ral capital (mineral reserves, quality of air and
present stock of natural resources and the flow subterranean water, recycling and absorption
For more information, see sub- of environmental goods and services derived of waste capacity, biodiversity, etc.),301 the in-
section 4.2.1. Limited base resourc-
es, in the fourth part of the work.
from it and introduce it as a restriction when troduction of the stated restriction forces us to
taking any decision on consumption or invest- widen the goal of economic efficiency so that
ment-public or private-that directly or indirectly from now on , projects of public and private in-
affects the capacity of the biosphere to develop vestment that are stimulated in tourism, are only
its functions. In the case of renewable resourc- implemented if (1) they respond individually to
es, this criteria is relatively easy to translate the challenge of competitivity stated in the previ-
into practical rules. For example, hydrological ous box and, at the same time, (2) jointly, they
resources must be used in such a way that the do not misappropiate the flow of goods and
It is important to observe that rate of extraction is not superior to the rate of services derived from the stock of natural capi-
this rule is applied to the combi-
nation of investment projects and
generation or, in the case of the flow of waste, tal.302 In accordance with this last question, the
not individually. In fact, if it is ap- it must not exceed the capacity of the environ- combination of investment projects must neces-
plied to each project it would be
ment to assimilate it. sarily be complemented with one or more ‘shad-
unnecessarily restrictive.
ow projects’ (in the terminology of Pearce), with
However, the application of this restriction is the one purpose of correcting or compensating
not as evident in the case of non-renewable the environmental harm occasioned by the rest
resources (like ground, fossil fuels, etc.), re- and thus form a programme of sustainable in-
sources that have lost renewability because of vestment. It could be affirmed, therefore, that
a continued pattern of overexploitation and ‘shadow projects’ should not be judged from the
those that develop functions difficult to sub- criteria of efficiency but from economic efficacy,
stitute (like those that support life, climate that is to say, according to the capacity to cor-
regulation, biochemical cycles, etc.). In these rect or compensate the negative effects of the
circumstances, so that the flow of goods and portfolio of investment projects.
F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 381

In this sense, the shadow projects must be ori- In this way, given that tourism-environment
entated to: relations cannot be considered without soci-
ety’s principles, rights, preferences and values
Constituting homogenous environmental with respect to the utilisation, exploitation,
units,303 in accordance with aptitudes –retroali- conservation, and respect of the environment, 303
That is to say, spaces in which
there is a certain degree of homo-
mentation, autoregulation, adaptation, stabil- the challenge of sustainability forces a deep geneity as much in structure as in
ity, etc.–, compatible and incompatible of use, change in the behaviour and attitudes of the functioning.
as the only way to guarantee the efficiency or consumption and production of economic and
productivity of the physical-natural medium social agents and points to the importance of
and, consequently, the satisfaction of the needs the participation of all the local agents in the
of goods and services that the development of management of accumulated capital (natural,
tourism requires. It is this ability to produce ma- productive, human and technological) and,
terial and energy permanently that sustains the therefore, in the coordination of the different
productivity of the tourist system and, hence, tourist strategies. Moreover, the formulation
the importance of conserving it. of any sustainable tourism strategy must inte-
grate, as well as the constants of the physical-
Enriching biological diversity, 304 in as much as natural environment, the special features of 304
Following the recommenda-
tions of Margalef, the term bio-
it is found to be the main support of the pro- the economic, social and cultural environment logical diversity is preferred to the
ductivity of the ecosystem and, consequently, in which they must develop. In the contrary more commonly used biodiversity,
although both are used indiscrim-
of the productive continuity of the tourist sys- case, the social individuals or groups that take
inately throughout the work. In
tem. This is why the creation of cushioning part in the processes of accumulation will con- this sense, three types of biodi-
versity can be distinguished –ge-
zones and natural spaces must be propitiated, tinue to opt rationally for the intensive use of
netic, of species, of ecosystems–, to
so that fauna can migrate and move from one all types of capital in the short term and, con- which functional diversity should
be added, which recognises sinergy
environmental unit to another. It is not suffi- sequently, for an increase in the entropy (ten-
but also redundance among eco-
cient to protect specific spaces, but the devel- dency to deterioration) of each dimension of logical services that emanate from
different species that live as part of
opment of agricultural activities must be stimu- the tourist system. This last question acquires
the same biocenocis.
lated around the perimeters, connected with special relevance when dealing with resources
the same productivity of the space. of shared use that, like climate, the urban and
natural environment, landscape and historic-
Nevertheless, the connection between sustain- cultural heritage, sustain the basic dimension
ability and the physical-natural environment is of the tourist product.
no more than a consequence of the fact that the
first is born with the purpose of demonstrating Everything considered, it is necessary to modify
the limits imposed by the second when main- the legal and institutional framework in order
taining a non-decreasing path of welfare, but it to strengthen tourism-society-environment re-
is certain that, as has already been seen, natural lations, which recommends the introduction of
restrictions are not the only ones that must be changes in the social appropiation of resources
considered in the evaluation of the challenge of of shared use (i.e. property rights) and, conse-
sustainability. Moreover, if the conditions that quently, direct ‘shadow projects’ to compen-
arise from the social dimension in which tourist sating also for the economic and social impli-
activity is developed are evaded, it will be dif- cations (costs and benefits) derived from said
ficult to answer the basic questions: what, how changes. In this case, ‘shadow projects’ tackle
and for who is it produced. questions relating as much to the improve-
382 Whi t e b o o k on to u r i s m i n B a le a r i c I s la n d s

ment of efficiency, through the stimulation of quires the ability (talent) to develop new prod-
the R+D+i, investment and resource manage- ucts and processes (technologies) that value the
ment training, as to the promotion of their own different links in the chain of value (transport,
knowledge and conservation. accommodation, etc.) and, at the same time,
contributes to the most efficient utilisation of
To ignore the fact that the challenge of sustaina- heritage and natural resources.
bility has costs for Balearic tourism, given that it
conditions at least three aspects: (1) the attain- In this sense, it is necessary to stimulate the po-
ment of the challenge of competitivity in so far sitioning in the international tourist market of
as the main orientators of sustainability sustain ‘new’ high value-added products and of ‘new’
the dimension of tourist competitivity in the long tourist zones based on their own cultural and
term; (2) the development of more advanced ac- environmental values, where the quality of serv-
tivities which, like quartenary and quinary serv- ices and the high levels of environmental effi-
ices, arise from the adaptation of a pattern of ciency are established in the main ‘attraction
sustainable growth, are easily connectable to factor’ of new segments of clients who respond
tourist specialisation, stimulate productivity and to a more balanced time distribution of tour-
report a greater added value; and (3) the fulfil- ist flows. This is the only way for the tourist
ment of international commitments in the mat- sector to accept the value of sustainability as
ter of sustainability and, consequently, the trans- part of its business strategy. Additionally, it is
position of corresponding economic, social, and necessary to put into effect a campaign of sen-
environmental measures to the regional field. sitization and training directed towards tourist
agents, towards the tourists themselves and to-
At this point, sustainability is a key strategic wards the resident population, given that all of
factor for increasing the competitivity of the them integrate the chain of value. It is a ques-
Balearic destination in the framework of long- tion, finally, of orientating and creating strong
term integral planninng, which considers the mirror images, good practices and incentives
complexity of the tourist system and the inter- for economic and social agents in favour of the
ests of all the agents involved and, vice versa, need to strengthen the processes (technologies)
competitivity becomes an indispensable condi- that condition the long-term development of
tion for attaining sustainability, given that it re- Balearic tourism.
Figura 5.3 F i f t h pa r t. C h a lle n ge s fo r t h e fu tu r e 383
Strategic goal 1 Guideline of action
The challenge of sustainability
Progress in favour economic Internalise the challenge of competi-
efficiency tivity

Lines of action
• Propitiate the use of all the types of capital as against mere accumulation.
• Activate the mechanisms (levers) of creation of value in each one of the
processes (interactions) that take place between the different dimen-
sions of the tourist system.
• Stimulate productivity appealing to the structural dimensions of tourist
• Ensure a high rate of accumulation, savings and investment that also
make development sustainable from their economic point of view and
that make the generation of financial and economic resources needed to
potentiate the knowledge, protection and reproduction of natural and
cultural heritage, available.

Guideline of action Strategic goal 2 Guideline of action

Progressively substitute the utilisation Progress in the attainment of
Reduce negative impacts on base
of material and energy for applicable integral efficiency of the system

Lines of action
• Identify processes that can assume significant alterations of the integral
efficiency of the system, with a special emphasis on the technology used
and its repercussions. Lines of action
• Encourage the application of scientific knowledge to the solving of prob- • Improve the understanding of products, processes and technologies in
lems that arise in relation to the satisfaction of residents and tourists accordance with savings and efficiency criteria.
needs (technologies) • Stimulate the introduction of clean technologies in order to prevent and
• Direct the R+D+i towards the generation of technologies designed to re- reduce contamination in all fields (energy, hydrology, waste, etc.)
duce environmental costs and increase the productivity of the ecosystem. • Encourage the adoption of voluntary measures (ecolabels, environmen-
• Select technologies in accordance with global criteria of development tal code of conduct, voluntary certification systems, etc.).
(producers of energy from renewable resources, conservers of material • Introduce plans to minimize waste, dumps and emissions.
and energy, producers of susceptible goos to be reutilised and recycled, • Develop norms of regulation and control and economic instruments.
minimizers of contamination and waste, etc.). • Transpose international commitments to sustainability to the regional
• Use the price system to reflect the real cost of resources.
• Reduce impacts of seasonality and of the concentration of tourist space.
• Optimize environmental energy for the needs of tourist mobility.
• Improve air quality in urban zones.
• Encourage reuse and recycling.

Strategic goal 3 Guideline of action

Progress in the adoption of a Introduir modificacions en
path of sustainable growth el marc jurídic i institucional

Lines of action
• Integrate the environmental dimension into tourist policies and, con-
Guideline of action sequently, into planning, with the aim of enabling the adequate spacial
localisation of investment.
Sustain the productivity of the • Provide incentives for the progressive integration of sustainable princi-
ples in the objective function of tourist agents.
ecosystem • Give priority to strategies of anticipation and prevention, since it is
essential to improve and reorganise information systems (pressure-state-
reponse model).
• Influence the establishment of forms of appropriation and control of
Lines of action shared-use resources.
• Design and put into effect ‘shadow projects’. • Systematically apply the principle of ‘who contaminates pays’ and the
• Study in depth knowledge of aptitudes, compatibilities and incompat- increasing use of economic instruments.
ibilities of the use of the physical-natural environment. • Identify and evaluate environmental risks caused by tourist activity.
• Enrich biological diversity. • Encourage the use of methods of the economic evaluation of the
• Create and protect homogenous environmental units. environment in the framework of cost-benefit analysis and the taking of
• Propitiate the creation of cushioning zones and natural spaces between decisions.
the different environmental units. • Establish incentives for the introduction of resource saving systems .
• Stimulate the development of agricultural activities around the exterior • Favour the development of more advanced economic activities.
perimeters of the environmental units.

Strategic goal 4 Guideline of action

Progress in favour of intergen- Guarantee the flow of goods and
erational equity services that the stock of natural
Guideline of action capital proportions ad infinitum
Sustain the sociocultural dimension
Lines of action
• Compute the losses of value of use associated with the processes of
• Respect the regenerative ability of renewable resources.
• Fit the dumping of waste to the ability of assimilation of the receptor.
Lines of action • Encourage the substitution of non-renewable for renewable resources.
• Encourage access to quality employment. • Improve the productivity of non-renewable resources.
• Support social integration. • Propitiate the securing of production factors, goods and services by
• Guarantee public health. means of flexible combinations of material and energy and knowledge,
• Conserve the social and cultural environment. in accordance with criteria that surpass the traditional vision of econo-
• Favour change in the patterns of behaviour and attitudes of the con- mic efficiency.
sumption and production of economic and social agents.
• Encourage the participation of local agents in the management of ac-
cumulated capital and the coordination of tourist strategies.
• Establish compensatory mechanisms in view of the social and economic
implications derived from the changes in property rights.
• Develop training programmes with respect to the management and
conservation of resources.
• Guarantee equality of results and opportunities.
• Influence social corporative responsibility.