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Ibrahim Fibers Limited

Internship Report

BY
MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE
SYED IMMAD HUSSAIN SHAH
MUHAMMAD AFTAB AALAM
HAMMAS SALEEM

GIK Institute
August 11, 2014

Ibrahim Fibers Limited, 38/40 Km FSD-SKP Road, Faisalabad

Internship Report | 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, we would like to thank Almighty ALLAH who is the creator and master of this
universe and everything in it. After that we would like thank IBRAHIM FIBRES ltd. for this
learning and developmental opportunity in our career.
We are thankful to Mr. Muhammad Tahir for guidance and supervision in spinning &
fiber line. A thanks to Mr. Shahbaz and Mr. Rashid Ghafoor for helping in their department.
We are also grateful to Mr. Irfan Mirza for watching over us in polymer and utility. We would
also like to thank Mr. Usman, Mr. Ghulam Murtaza and Mr. Salman for helping us in
polymer and utility. We are thankful to Mr. Nadeem Aslam for teaching us everything he
could in PG-1. Mr. Naeem, Mr. Umair and Mr. Sakhawat also helped us learn a great deal
in PG-1. We are also grateful to the co-operative and helpful staff of IFL that helped us in our
learning.

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PREFACE

In this report we have comprehended every process and technique used in the departments
we visited during our four weeks internship at IFL. Weve divided this report into four parts.
In First part we have given information regarding the history and setup of IBRAHIM GROUP
OF COMPANIES. In the second part we have discussed utilities. Third part deals with the
Polymer and draw lines and their maintenance. The last part concerns us with the Power
Generation Department and its maintenance.

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LIST OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................................................... 1
PREFACE.............................................................................................................................................. 2
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................. 5
IBRAHIM FIBERS LIMITED ............................................................................................................ 6
IFL (PP) -1 .......................................................................................................................................... 6
IFL (PP) -2 .......................................................................................................................................... 7
IFL (PP) -3 .......................................................................................................................................... 7
Textile plants ....................................................................................................................................... 7
PG -1 (power generation plant):.......................................................................................................... 7
Orientation plan ................................................................................................................................... 8
UTILITY (UTY).................................................................................................................................... 9
PTA & MEG Handling Unit ............................................................................................................... 9
Chiller ............................................................................................................................................... 11
Water Treatment plant ...................................................................................................................... 13
Boiler ................................................................................................................................................ 13
Cooling Tower .................................................................................................................................. 15
HTM Heater ...................................................................................................................................... 15
Gas Turbine ....................................................................................................................................... 16
POLYMER ..................................................................................................................................17
Paste Tank ......................................................................................................................................... 18
Screw Pump ...................................................................................................................................... 18
ES-I reactor ....................................................................................................................................... 18
ES-II reactor ...................................................................................................................................... 18
Process Column ................................................................................................................................ 19
PP-I ....19
PP-II .................................................................................................................................................. 19
Scraper Condenser ............................................................................................................................ 20
Pre-polymer Filter ............................................................................................................................. 20
PDR. .................................................................................................................................................. 20
Product Filter .................................................................................................................................... 20
SPINNING AND DRAW LINE ...................................................................................................21
Spinning Unit: ................................................................................................................................... 21
What is Spinning: .............................................................................................................................. 21
Polymer Melt Flow: .......................................................................................................................... 22
Spin Pumps: ...................................................................................................................................... 23
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Spin Pack: ......................................................................................................................................... 24
Ring Oiler: ........................................................................................................................................ 24
Sunflower Wheel: ............................................................................................................................. 24
Draw Line/ Fiber Line: ................................................................................................................25
Crimping Mechanism: ...................................................................................................................... 27
Cutting Operation: ............................................................................................................................ 28
Bailer:... ............................................................................................................................................. 29
A/C system: ....................................................................................................................................... 29
Maintenance Work in Spinning and Draw Line: .............................................................................. 29
MECHANICAL WORKSHOP ...................................................................................................31
Machining Shop: ............................................................................................................................... 31
Insulation, Cladding & Ducting: ....................................................................................................... 33
Welding:............................................................................................................................................ 33
Rigging Shop: ................................................................................................................................... 34
Painting Shop: ................................................................................................................................... 34
Carpenter Shop: ................................................................................................................................ 35
POWER GENERATION I (PG - I) .............................................................................................36
Diesel Engine Cycle:......................................................................................................................... 36
Engine Operation Processes: ............................................................................................................. 37
Engine Specifications: ...................................................................................................................... 37
Cooling Towers:................................................................................................................................ 37
HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator): ....................................................................................... 38
Maintenance Work at PG 1 Plant:.................................................................................................. 38
500 hours........................................................................................................................................... 38
1000 hours ......................................................................................................................................... 38
2500 hours ......................................................................................................................................... 38
Major Overhauling (MOH) ............................................................................................................... 39
INTERNSHIP ASSIGNMENTS..................................................................................................39
Vibration Analysis of Draw Frame II Machine..40
Determining Torque in the roller of Draw Frame II Machine...54
CONCLUSION56

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INTRODUCTION:

The group started with a cloth trading business in the industrial city of Faisalabad. Late
Haji Sheikh Mohammad Ibrahim, founder of the Ibrahim Group. What is known in business
today as Ibrahim Group with diversified business interests from Spinning to PSF, Financial
Institutions to Banking and Energy, started off as a mere cloth trading agency just half a century
ago.
In the mid 50s the group was taken over by Sheikh Mukhtar Ahmad, It was then that he
took an initiative of adding yarn trading in the business that set a milestone for the future
progress. it did not take long before the group was widely reputed and respected in marketing
of cotton and blended yarns. Backed by this good will and experience in marketing, in 1980,
manufacturing of own blended yarn was initiated by establishment of Ibrahim Textile Mills
Limited. With long term considerations and a simple principle of no compromise on quality
two more textile spinning companies; A.A. Textiles Limited in 1982 and Zainab Textile Mills
Limited in 1987 were established. A power generation Company Ibrahim Energy Limited was
incorporated in 1991 to improve the efficiency of the existing manufacturing companies. All
these manufacturing companies have now been merged into Ibrahim Fibers Limited.
The Group established a leasing company; Ibrahim Leasing Limited. Upon declaration of
the privatization policy by Government of Pakistan, Ibrahim Group together with other leading
groups participated in the bidding to acquire controlling shares of Muslim Commercial Bank
Limited. Under the scheme of reconstruction proposed by State Bank of Pakistan, Consortium
of Ibrahim Leasing Limited, Ibrahim Group and its sponsors acquired more than 75% of the
shareholding of Allied Bank of Pakistan Limited. Management and control of the Bank was
handed over to Ibrahim Group on August 19, 2004. At present Ibrahim Group is holding more
than 80% shareholding of this bank. One of the top five banks of Pakistan, Allied Bank has
more than 742 branches across the country with 7,139 employees and financial assets of Pak
Rupees 234 billion. After the acquisition of the bank Ibrahim Leasing Limited has been merged
into Allied Bank limited. The strength of the group today stands manifold with entrepreneurial
skills and visionary leadership of Sheikh Mukhtar Ahmed added with fresh concepts and
professional skills of Mohammad Naeem Mukhtar who has done his MBA from the University
of Wales, Cardiff, UK. and Mohammad Waseem Mukhtar who has done his Bachelor in

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Computer Science and Masters in Total Quality Management (TQM) from the University of
Glam organ, Wales, UK .

Departments
Different Departments work and cooperate with each other to run Ibrahim fibers limited
smoothly and efficiently:

HR/Admin

Production(process)

Engineering-maintenance

Purchase departments

Imports departments

IT

Civil

Finance

Sales and marketing

IBRAHIM FIBERS LIMITED


Ibrahim fibers limited has three polyester plants, namely as:
1.

IFL (PP)-1

2.

IFL (PP)-2

3. IFL (PP)-3

1. IFL (PP) -1:


This plant start working in 1996, it is the first polyester plant in Ibrahim fibers

limited.

The capacity of this plant is 193 tons/day. This was the first polyester plant of Ibrahim Fibers
Limited, when the stepped in the field of polyester manufacturing.
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2. IFL (PP) -2:


After the success of first polyester plant, Ibrahim Fibers limited decided to install second
polyester plant. This plant came into action in 2006, it is the second polyester plant in Ibrahim
fibers limited. The capacity of this plant is 410 tons/day.
3. IFL (PP) -3:
This plant start working in 2012, it is the third polyester plant in Ibrahim fibers limited.
The capacity of this plant is 650 tons/day.

Textile plants:
Spun Yarn Division of Ibrahim Fibers Limited consists of three projects;TP1 (Ibrahim
Textiles)TP2 (AA Textiles)TP3 (Zainab Textiles)All these projects were operating as
independent public limited companies and were listed on stock exchanges in Pakistan
till September 2000 before their merger into Ibrahim Fibers Limited .
These projects are equipped with Real Time Ring Monitoring System (RTRMS), User
Ring Expert, Spin Vision, and Corner Pilot for online monitoring and analyzing to facilitate
production and efficiency while maintaining quality parameters. Moreover, autodoffing system has been installed on the spinning and winding machines to automate
the manufacturing process. To maintain and to keep an edge we keep on adding latest
machinery and technical know-how.
PG -1 (power generation plant):
The need of energy in polyester plant and textile plant is mainly full filled by PG-1.The
full capacity of PG-1 is 58.3 MW. There are 11 engines in PG-1 with 5.3 MW capacity each.
All the engines are purchased by a Japanese company NIIGATA. There are three phase in PG
-1:
1. Phase I
2. Phase II
3. Phase III

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1.Phase I:
To meet the needs of energy, Ibrahim fibers Limited installed their first phase of PGI.There were 4 engines installed in 1993, each with 5.3 MW capacity.
2. Phase II:
With the passage of time, the need of energy increased .Then Ibrahim Fibers Limited
decided to install their second phase.2 more engines were installed in 1997, each with 5.3 MW
capacity.in 2006, six engines were shifted to bi-fuel.
3. Phase III:
Due to the energy crises in country, Ibrahim Fibers Limited decided to become selfsufficient in the field of energy to run their plant efficiently. In 2012/13, 5 more engines were
installed in phase III, each with 5.3 MW capacity.

Orientation plan:
On the day of our first visit to Ibrahim Fibers Limited, the Human Resources department
made sure that not a single moment of our visit of Ibrahim Fibers Limited goes to waste. They
took us to different departments of the plant or asked the managers of some plants to give some
of their precious time to us so that we can have an idea that how the departments are working
together in huge setup like Ibrahim Fibers Limited.
Our internship was divided into four major departments;

Polymer&
Utility
Maintenance
Human
Resources/
Admin/ CA

Mechnical
Workshop
Spinning &
Fiber Line
Maintenance

PG 1Maintenance

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UTILITY (UTY)
Utility is a general department of polyester plant which provides utilities required in process
of fiber manufacturing and plant operations. These utilities also provide operational capabilities
to other plants i.e. IFL PG-I etc. Its maintenance comes under the Polymer & Utilities
Maintenance department. The main utilities of polyester plant are:

PTA & MEG Handling unit

Chiller

Water Treatment Plant

Boiler

Cooling Tower

HTM heating unit

Gas Turbine (PG-II)

Details of these utilities are as under:


1. PTA & MEG Handling Unit
Pure Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Monoethylene Glycol (MEG) are the key ingredients to
make polyester fibre. These are the starting materials which react under specific conditions and
catalyst in polymer section to give molten polyester. Both of these reactants are handled
differently as described below:
PTA Handling Unit
PTA is brought in plant in the form of powder. It is in shipped in two form i.e. Bags and
container. Both have different charging method.

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Containers are directly offloaded on the bin silos from where it is transferred to storage tank
with the help of compressed nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas is used for transportation because it is
inert and would not react with PTA.

PTA
Conveyer

Bin Silo

Container

Storage
Tank

Compressed
Nitrogen

Fig. : PTA Container handling

Charging of PTA through bags is done by the system in which hoist carries two bags at a time
and discharge them through the vibrating screens in order to remove the oversized or
agglomerated particles. It takes 5 to 7 min to charge one bag into the bin silo. Then from Bin
silo PTA powder is carried to storage tank with the help of compressed nitrogen gas

Container

Hoist

Vibrating
Screen

Bin Silo

PTA
Conveyer

Storage
Tank

Compressed
Nitrogen

Fig. : PTA Bags handling

MEG Handling
MEG is shipped from Karachi in the form of liquid. Before shipment, a series of tests are
performed at Port Qasim IFL plant to check the quality of MEG i.e.

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1. Dip test
2. Temperature Test
3. Density Test
4. Moisture content Test etc. (less than 1%)
5. Color test
It is brought to polyester plant in tanks where it is pumped to storage tank through filters with
the aid of centrifugal pump and flexible pipe. Each storage tank has a capacity of 2000 tons,
each is provided by breathing valve (which are provided to maintain pressure on stored MEG).
It can both intake and breathe out vapors according to requirement.
2. Chiller
Chillers are used in utility to provide cold water to the plant. This cold water is used in A/C
unit to provide cold air for air conditioning of plant and quenched air for the spinning process
requirement.
There are two types of chiller based on different refrigeration cycle, which are being used in
utility of polyester plant. These are described below:
Vapor Compression Cycle
The ideal thermodynamic cycle for refrigeration is Vapor Compression Cycle. It is the simple
refrigeration cycle that is composed of 4 ideal processes i.e.
a. Isentropic Compression
b. Constant

pressure

heat

rejection
c. Throttling (constant enthalpy
process)
d. Constant

pressure

heat

addition
These processes are clearly describes
by the following schematic diagram
and T-S diagram:

Fig. : Schematic and T-S diagram of Vapor compression cycle

Vapor compression cycle operated chiller of polyester plant have the cooling capacity of 1000
ton and have mainly 4 parts (Evaporator, Compressor, Condenser and expansion valve).
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The evaporator is basically shell & tube heat exchanger in which the chilled water is on the
tube side & the refrigerant (R-134a) is on the shell side. The heat exchanger used here is a 1-2
pass heat exchanger. The WCC (chilled cooling water) stream from the process (11-12C)
enters the evaporator in the tubes & is discharged at a temperature of 6-7C. The boiling point
of refrigerant is -26C. It is present in the liquid form and when the water stream passes through
the evaporator tubes, the refrigerant gets heat from the water and evaporates.
Similarly condenser is also shell and tube type heat exchanger in which refrigerant is on tube
side and cooling water from cooling tower is on shell side. Cooling water came from cooling
tower at 34C and leave the condenser at about 39C.
For throttling purpose, an expansion device is used which is actually a perforated disc and
allow the coolant to expand from high pressure to low pressure with constant enthalpy. The
compressor of chiller is a 2 stage centrifugal type compressor. The power of compressor is 591
KW.
Vapor Absorption cycle
Thermodynamically,

vapor

absorption

cycle is similar to vapor compression


cycle. Instead of compressing a vapor
between the evaporator and the condenser,
the refrigerant of an absorption system is
absorbed by a secondary substance, called
an absorbent, to form a liquid solution.
The liquid solution is then pumped to the
higher pressure. This operation is clearly
seen in schematic diagram. Because the
average specific volume of the liquid
solution is much less than that of the
refrigerant vapor, significantly less work
is required.
Fig. : Schematic diagram of Vapor absorption cycle

The vapor absorption cycle based chiller of polyester plant have water as refrigerant and
Lithium Bromide as absorber. Its cooling capacity is 550 ton per unit.

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3. Water Treatment plant


In this plant the ground water is treated through physical & chemical processes to make it
useful in the processing. The water is pumped from the depth of 350 ft. Two pumps pump the
water to the top of the three multilayer filters, which have beds of sands, having three layers of
sand of decreasing particle size. These filters are used primarily to remove the suspended
particles from the raw water.
Then water is demineralized and passed through candle type filter which have certain mesh
size. This filter is also called Bag filter. Then water is pumped at high pressure to pass through
spiral filter of very low mesh size. It has membrane of cellulose which separate soft water from
hard water. After that water is sent to storage tank for final distribution.

Raw
Water

Pump

Sand
Filter

Demineri
lizer

Bag
Filter

Hihg
pressure
pump

Membrane
type Filter

Storage
tank

Fig. : Water Treatment sequence

4. Boiler
The boilers are used for the production of steam, which is then used on many types of
equipment in the plant. The basic consumption of steam is in the fiber draw line, heavy furnace
oil & polymerization section.
There are basically two types of boilers and both of these are used in utility section.
a. Fire tube boiler
b. Water tube boiler
Fire tube boiler:
The name fire tube is very descriptive. The fire, or hot flue gases from the burner, is channeled
through tubes that are surrounded by the fluid to be heated. The body of the boiler is the
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pressure vessel and contains the fluid. In most cases this fluid is water that will be circulated
for heating purposes or converted to steam for process use. Every set of tubes that the flue gas
travels through, before it makes a turn, is considered a "pass". So a three-pass boiler will have
three sets of tubes with the stack outlet located on the rear of the boiler. Both natural gas and
diesel is used as fuel in this boiler.
After the completion of second pass, hot gasses are moved toward super heater where it convert
saturated steam coming from boiler to super-heated steam. In super heater hot gasses flow in
the tube sides while the steam is in shell side.

Fig. : 3-pass Fire Tube boiler with super heater

Water Tube Boiler


Water tube boiler is a shell and tube boiler in which water is in tube side while hot gasses are
in shell side. This type of boiler is used in utility which is actually a Heat Recovery Steam
Generator (HRSG). It is installed at the exhaust of Gas turbine. There is gate at the exhaust of
gas turbine which provide selection of hot gasses to use whether in boiler or waste it through
chimney. The exhaust gasses enter the boiler at the temperature of 490-520C. The cold water
came from deaerator tank with the help of pumps to the HRSG. It has heating capacity of 25
ton and provide super-heated steam at 25 bar pressure.

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5. Cooling Tower
Cooling tower is used to cool the process water. Cooling towers are designed on the basis of
wet bulb temperature. The cooling tower cools the water by direct contact of water to the air
so the water cannot be cooled below the wet bulb temperature of the area.
The cross flow cooling tower with induced draft fan is the one in which the fan is placed on
the top of the tower and air enters into the tower from side slits. So the induced draft cooling
tower is more efficient. In the utility 13 induced draft cooling towers with cross flow
arrangement are used.
The water from the process returns to the top of the tower at 39C where it is spread all over
on the tower through the distribution
nozzles onto the wood fills, where
the air coming through the louvers
cools the water to 34C due to heat
transfer. Wood fills are used to
increase the contact area of air and
water. In the utility 13 induced draft
cooling towers with cross flow
arrangement are used. The flow rate
of water in cooling tower is 775
m3/hr and it has cooling capacity of
9000 kW.

Fig. : Induced Draft cooling tower with cross flow


arrangement

6. HTM Heater
HTM is Heat Transfer Media and it is used in polymer section for retaining polymer in molten
form. Cold HTM came from polymer section and heated at about 280-300C in HTM Heater
and pumped back to polymer.
HTM Heater is basically a heat exchanger in which hot gases from a burner moved down a
vertical tower. This tower have the force draft fan at the top which force the hot gases to move
down the tower. Tower contained the tubes of HTM thus it act as shell and tube type heat
exchanger. At the bottom there is a duct which connect tower to the stack. Hot gasses leave the
heater through this stack and pumps pump the HTM to polymer section.

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7. Gas Turbine
Gas turbine is the main component of utility. This section of utility is also called PG-II. Gas
turbine operates on Bryton Cycle which is ideal thermodynamic cycle. Bryton cycle is
composed of four ideal processes:
a. Isentropic compression (Compressor)
b. Constant pressure heat addition (Combustion Chamber)
c. Isentropic expansion (Turbine)
d.

Constant pressure heat rejection (Atmosphere)

These process are clearly explained by the schematic diagram and P-V diagram.

Fig. : Schematic and P-V diagram of Ideal Bryton cycle

Gas turbine of IFL utility section has 14 stages of compressor with intercooling between the
stages to decrease the temperature of compressed air and increase the efficiency of gas turbine.
The combustion chamber is pilot type burner where natural gas at 25 bar pressure is used as
fuel. This compressed natural gas and compressed air mixed at the ratio of 1:16 (by mass) and
burned to give high pressure and high temperature gasses. These gases are expand on 3 stage
turbine. The turbine use the enthalpy of hot gasses in its reaction stages to extract useful work
out of it.
This gas turbine have 11197 rpm. A gear reducer is connected between turbine and generator
so that generator is rotated at 1500 rpm giving the power output of 15.3 MW. The hot gasses
leaved the turbine at about 490-520C and is used in HRSG as discussed above.

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POLYMER
Polymer is the department of polyester plant where the molten polyester is produced by
chemical reactions. Polyester is produced by the chemical reaction of PTA and MEG under
specific conditions and in the presence of catalyst. These reactions took place in this
department.
The simple process flow of polymer department for making polyester by chemical reaction of
PTA and MEG is as follow:

PTA

Water
Condenser

MEG

Paste
Tank

Screw
Pump

Scraper
Condenser

Process
Column

ES-I

ES-II

PP-I

Oligomer
Pump

Scraper
Condenser

PP-II

Jet
System

Scraper
Condenser

Star Valve

Product
Filter

Pre-Polymer
Filter

Gear
Pump

Fig. : Process flow of polymer plant

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Gear
Pump

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The Details of all these equipment is given below:


Paste Tank
It is the tank were paste of liquid MEG and powder PTA is formed. PTA and MEG are brought
here from storage tanks in the molar ratio of 1:1.2. This tank is equipped with a agitator which
makes the viscous paste by blending the reactants.
Screw Pump
Screw pump is positive displacement pump which provide high pressure and low flow rate and
is used specifically where viscosity of fluid is very high. Since the viscosity of past is very high
so this pump is used to

ES-I reactor

pumps it to ES-I tank.

Fig. : Screw Pump

Esterification is a process in which acid reacts with alcohol to form ester which are
basically monomers. ES-I is jacketed vessel, in jackets HTM (Dowtherm vapor heating
medium) circulates in the coils and heats the mixture. Pressure of ES-1 is maintained at 0.5
bar. At this pressure and temperature MEG reacts with PTA to form monomers. As a result
of Esterification H20 evaporates as boiling point of MEG and H20 are 197C and 100C
respectively. Here level of vessel is kept almost 60%. Almost 95% reaction is completed
here. NT is also injected t o h a v e level indication o f r e a c t o r . Residence time i s 233
min a n d reaction temperature is 258C.
ES-II reactor
From ES-I, this mixture i s taken to Esterification unit II (ES-II) by oligomer pump. Here
temperature is kept between 265-270C and at 0.15 bar. HTM is used for heating. Here
reaction is 99% completed. Similarly H20 and MEG produced as a result of esterification,
evaporates at these conditions. In the ES-II unit TDO is added to give color to paste
which is formed after the reaction. The color of the paste after reaction is bright or semi

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dull. It can be given four different shades which are super bright, bright, semi dull and dull.
Then this esterification product (monomers) is taken to the Poly condensation section.
Process Column
Process column is use to recover EG from esterification process. The vapors of MEG and water
are brought to process column through a valve. Height of column is 14 meter with 16 bubble
cap trays. Its reflux is cool water comes from reflux vessel (1729-VO 1). Different Resistance
temperature detectors (RTD) are installed along the height to monitor the temperature. Its
conditions are controlled from DCS in IFL. Bottom temperature of column is 180C. From its
bottom recovered EG is sent to paste vessel. Water vapors are collected at the top of column
and sent to water condenser which condense it with chilled water.
PP-I
The monomers from ES-II reactor are transferred to PP-I reactor by gravity, upstream pressure
and downstream vacuum. This reactor is Pre-Poly Reactors I and it there is no agitator in it. In
this reactor monomer are combined to form polymers. One MEG molecule is released
whenever two monomer molecules are joined, and the continuous removal of these MEG
molecules pushes the reaction in the forward direction. Vacuum in these reactors plays an
important role in this process and is created through glycol vapor jets. The recovered MEG is
reused as raw material. Heating in the whole polymer process is done by HTM (Santotherm
Oil) which is re-circulated after heating in special heaters.
The vacuum created here is based on the simple principle. If we remove vapors from an isolated
vessel, it will create vacuum behind. In PP-I, vacuum is created directly by vacuum pump. It
sucks the non-condensable vapors of EG from condenser, resulting the vacuum behind in the
system. In it vacuum pressure is 120 mbar.
PP-II
This is Pre-Polymer reactor II. The oligomers from PP-I are transferred to PP-II reactor under
gravity and downstream vacuum. In PP-II, the non-condensable vapors of EG from its
condenser are sucked. This results vacuum behind. Vacuum here is 20 mbar which is more fine
than PP-I. This reactor also have the continuous supply of HTM for heating the product.
This tank is equipped with Perforated Disk Reactor (PDR) which rotates in the vessel to
increase the exposed surface area of oligomer. This results in removal of MEG by joining of
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monomer molecule to form long chain monomers. As the length of the oligomer chain
increases, the movement of the molecules becomes sluggish, resulting in the increase in
intrinsic viscosity. Before the final reactor, the average intrinsic viscosity of the oligomer is
about 0.25
Scraper Condenser
Each PP-I and PP-II is attached with a condenser. The vapors of EG created in each reactor are
transferred in the respective condenser, where cold EG is showered from the top resulting the
condensation of vapors of EG. Vacuum is created and condensate from each condenser comes
downward through barometric leg in the immersion vessel.
Pre-polymer Filter
Product from PP-II is pumped by a gear pump through candle type filter. This filter have 130
candles with mesh size of 25 micron. It filter suspended particle in oligomer and allow pure
product to pass through it.
PDR
The final polymer reactor is called the DRR (Disc Ring Reactor). This is a huge vessel and has
a horizontally rotating shaft having a number of discs mounted throughout its length. The whole
vessel is HTM heated and under approx. 1.0 mbar vacuum. Polymer flows into one end and is
picked up by the discs which increase its surface area exposed to the vacuum. Due to this, the
chain length of the polymer molecule grows up, which is required by the Spinning Process.
There is also a scraper condenser attached with DRR to condense EG vapors followed by a jet
system which is used for further condensation of EG vapors.
Product Filter
The polymer melt from the DRR is pumped by gear pump through a final polymer filter. It is
also candle type filter having 61 candles with the mesh size of 15 micron. It allows only filtered
and high quality product to move in spinning line.
A star valve is connected at the end of polymer section which provide supply of polymer melt
to spinning line. Special jacketed piping is used throughout the process with liquid HTM
circulating through the jacket keeping the polymer in molten form.

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SPINNING AND DRAW LINE


After 9 days at the Polymer and Utility department, the next one was Spinning and Draw Line
as per the internship schedule. Spinning is another important phase in the manufacturing of the
Polyester Fibers before it is drawn in the fiber line/ draw line. 9 days were dedicated to this
department. During this time period, all the important processes and the maintenance of
different machines and equipment were studied as well as practically observed.

Spinning Unit:
The spinning unit comes after the polymer. It is spread on four floor building each one having
different auxiliaries and reactors. These floors are given the names according to their height
form the ground e.g. 7 meter floor, 13 meter etc. All these floors are connected by a complex
network of pipe lines. Also there is a network of Chilled water, Steam and cooling water that
is necessary during different processes in the spinning unit. Also there is A/C unit that provides
this chilled water and the air to maintain the environment comfortable.
The spinning units of all the three plants are almost the same except a little difference. The
main different is of capacity. Due to the higher capacity of the IFL 3, the associated A/C unit
is of higher capacity than that of IFL 2 and so on. The detailed processes in this unit and the
maintenance work of the associated machines are proved below:
What is Spinning:
Spinning can be defined as the extrusion of polymer melt or solution through a spinneret. The
spinneret is a perforated disk through which the polymer melt is forced to pass with the help of
pressure developed by the pumps. Three major types of Spinning are:
i)

Melt spinning : Starting polymer is heated to molten state

ii)

Dry spinning : Starting polymer is in solution and solvent is separated by evaporation

iii)

Wet spinning : Polymer is in solution but the solvent is non-volatile

Here at Ibrahim Fibres, Melt Spinning is used. The polymer melt coming from the poly
condensation plant, through a jacketed pipe system, passes through a polymer heat exchange
on its way to the spinning manifolds. The process line is heated with HTM liquid. The polymer
heat exchanger is used to heat or cool the polymer to the required spinning temperature. This
required temperature is adjusted with the help of a liquid HTM circulation system via a HTM
circulation pump, polymer heat exchangers and HTM air cooler.
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Fig. : General Melt Spinning Process

The processes involved in Melt Spinning are given as under:


1) Polymer Melt Flow:
There are 2, 3 and 4 lines in IFL 1, 2 and 3 respectively that come from the polymer unit. The
working of each of these lines in a plant are the same. Each line that is coming from the polymer
section i.e. polymer melt, gets divided into the 16 lines. This network is shown in the figure
below. Each of these 16 lines are further divided into 2. Thus at the output we get 32 lines from
one line of polymer melt. Each line has a spinneret at the end through which the polymer is
forced to pass.
The number of end lines and thus, spinneret slightly differ in IFL 1, 2 and 3. These temperature
of these lines is maintained to avoid the solidification of Polymer melt with the help of HTM.
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Polymer melt

Spin Pump

Spin Pump
Shaft
Spinneret

Fig. : Polymer melt flow in which one line is divided into 32 lines

2) Spin Pumps:
The spin pumps are located at the upper side of the beam. Each spinning position has its
separate spin pump that feeds the polymer melt to the spin packs at a uniform metered flow
rate. All of these are Gear
Pumps because of the higher
viscosity of the polymer melt.
Gear pumps in IFL 1 has the
through put of 70 cc/ rev while
that of IFL 2, 3 have 100 cc/ rev
because of the higher capacity of this plant.
Fig. : Gear Pump Functioning
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3) Spin Pack:
In spin pack polymer melt is converted to filaments. Each one of the 32 lines as shown above
has one spin pack. The polymer melt passes through this unit and is converted into filaments.
Each spin pack consists of sand filter at the top and then a fine filter. As the polymer passes
through these filters, undesirable particles are removed and a filtered polymer gets extruded
through the Spinneret. The spinneret is at the
Polymer Melt in

bottom of the Spin Pack.


Spinneret consists of a meshed plate of
certain size and density. As the filtered

Sand Filter

polymer melt passes through this spinneret,


filaments of certain size (corresponding to the
size of the mesh) are formed. Quenched air is

Fine Filter

given to these filaments just after the


formation so that the filaments get solidified
suddenly.

Fig. Spin Pack

4) Ring Oiler:

Polymer
Filaments

There is a ring oiler that provides spin finish oil (SF Oil) to the filaments. Its purpose is to
remove any kind of static charges on these filaments. SF oil is supplied with the help of pumps.
Each pump supplies spin finish oil to the two spinneret filaments.
5) Sunflower Wheel:
After the filaments are formed in 32 spin packs, they are combined into a single tow with the
help of a series of rollers. The tow formed is passed through sunflower wheels. The sunflower
wheel is like a spur gear that has a shape like sunflower. There are two such wheels that rotate
independently with the same rotational speed. The main purpose of the sunflower wheel is to
pull the tow down into the cans as well as to do a binding action on the filaments so that they
have strong binding in the tow.
Sunflower Wheel is the last part in the Spinning unit after which the tow formed is dumped
into the cans. The cans filled are then taken to the draw line unit where the next phase of the
polymer manufacturing starts. The tow formed from each line in the IFL plant is continuously
dumped into the cans. These cans are taken to the draw line with the help of Fork Lifters.

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Draw Line/ Fiber Line:


In this unit the tow filled in cans from the spinning unit is drawn. This is the most critical
process as different parameters in this unit affect the fibers properties and thus its quality
directly. The tow form different cans is drawn off and is drawn with the help of a series of
rollers accompanied by the other necessary processes. In all the three plants, drawing process
is the same except a little difference in the machines. The processes involved in Fiber line are
shown in the figure line with Y symbol showing tag assigned to each machine.

Can Draw
Off Creel

Tow
Formation
Unit

Guiding
Unit

Dipping
Bath

Draw
Frame I

Draw
Bath

Draw
Frame II

Heating
Channel

Draw
Frame III

Thermose
tting Unit

Y01

Y02

Y03

Y04

Y05

Y06

Y07

Y08

Y09

Y10

Drawing
Unit

Spin Finish
Application
Unit

Traversing

Unit

Crimper
Machine

PreHeating

Convergant
unit

Draw
Frame IV

Tow
Cooler

Y20

Y19

Y17/18

Chamber

3 Roller
Frame

Y21

Crimper
Tension
Control
Unit

Y16

Y15

Y14

Y13

Y12

Y11

Fig. Machines and Processes in Draw Line

Each of these processes are detailed as under:


1.

Can Draw off Creel Y01:

Here the sub-tows/ bands from cans are drawn off with the help of small rolling creels above
cans.
2.

Tow Formation Unit Y02:

Here the sub tows coming from the cans are arranged in three bands.
3.

Guiding Unit Y03:

This unit consists of 7 rollers which guides the 3 bands of the tow formed above.
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4.

Dipping Bath Y04:

Here spin finish oil bath is given to the tows at a temperature of 20-22C to Pre-lubricate the
tow and maintain the temperature of all the tows coming to a constant level. It also helps to
stick the sub-tows in the bands.
5.

Draw Frame I Y05:

The draw frame is used for the drawing of the polymer along its length. It has 7 rollers, in
which first roller is also attached to a nip roller to drip off spin finish oil from the dipping bath.
The treatment of the tow starts here.
6.

Draw Bath Y06:

This is a closed tank where the spin finish oil at 75C is showered on the tow. The steam in the
plate type heat exchanger heats the spin finish oil.
7.

Draw Frame I Y07:

This is the second draw frame present in the fiber line. It has 7 rollers which are heated with
the help of hot water. It also has a nip roller at the start.
8.

Heating Channel Y08:

Live steam is injected and the temperature of the tow is raised to 180C.
9.

Draw Frame III Y09:

Heated tow is now draw between Draw frame 2 & 3. Draw frame 3 rollers move with greater
speed & forced drawing occurs. Draw frame 3 has the maximum load.
10. Thermosetting Unit Y10:
In this chamber the properties achieved by the tow are stabilized.
11. Tow Cooler Y11:
The tow from the thermosetting unit is passed through the cooler where spin finish oil is
sprinkled by 12 nozzles. The tow is cooled to 90-100oC.
12. Draw Frame IV Y12:
This unit consists of seven rollers. It also has a nip roller at the start. At the end of Draw frame
IV the tow are separated again into three bands one above the other.
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13. Convergent Unit Y13:


This unit overlaps the three tows used in the drawing & forms a single tow whose width is
comparable to the width of the crimper intake.
14. 3 Roller Frame Y14:
As the name indicates, this unit also has three roller and a nip roller as well.
15. Crimper Tension Control Unit Y15:
This unit controls the tension of the tow before the crimper machine. The speed of this roller
and that of crimper machine are interlocked in such a way that the tension of the tow remains
within the certain range.
16. Pre Heating Chamber Y16:
The tow is heated before it enters to the crimper machine.
17. Crimper Machine Y17/ 18:
There are two crimper machines: one on standby while the other running. This machine is the
most important in the process of the draw line as it forms crimpers on the tow that gives the
fiber properties like cotton.
Crimping Mechanism:
Crimper machine mechanism is shown in the figure below:
Roller
Stuffer Box
Plate

Tow into the


crimper
machine

Upwards force due to the


pressure developed by the
tow sandwiched between
the plates

Fixed Plate

Crimpers formed due


to the squeezing of tow
between plates and
thus pressure between
the plates is increasing

Fig. Crimper Machine Mechanism


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The tow coming from the tension roller enters into the crimper machine through rollers. This
machine consists of two plates- one at the top called Stuffer Box Plate and the other at the
bottom that is fixed. The upper plate is give a downwards force by the pressure applied to it
through hydraulic cylinders. As the tow enters in between these two plates, it gets squeezed
and the outlet remains closed as long as the pressure developed by the accumulation of the tows
remains less than that of applied to the upper plate. Once this pressure is achieved, the upper
plate moves up giving a way to the crimped tow to exit the machine from behind. This process
continues and the tow entering the machine is crimped and then it moves forward leaving the
machine.
18. Traversing Unit Y19:
The tow leaves via traversing unit which spreads it on the drying plate because of its
continuous sideways motion.
19. Spin Finish Application Unit Y20:
At the end of the traversing unit, spin finish oil is sprinkled over the crimped tow with the help
of a nozzle to reduce its temperature that was increased before crimping.
20. Drying Unit Y21:
In this section the tow is dried & cooled. This section consists of four zones, one of which is
cooling zone while other is heating zone. 10-bar steam is supplied for the heating zone. After
being dried the tow is transported to the cutter vertically to free roller. In this unit the tow
continuously move forward because of the perforated base motion using roller-chain system.
21. Cutting Operation:
The tow is raised at the top towards the cutter. The cutter consists of a circular plate and circular
blade. The tow is wrapped around the cutter plate and when circular plate touches the cutter
then the fiber in specific length is cut down. In order to get different cut lengths, certain number
of blades are used that are given as under:
Cut Lengths (mm)

Number of Blades

32

88

38

75

44

64

51

58

64

44

28 to get certain cut lengths


Table: Different cutters used

Internship Report | 2014

22. Bailer:
The fiber after cutting comes to the prebin chamber attached to a weigher bin. When the weight
of the fiber reaches to 50 kg, a pusher comes and pushes it to the pressure area where the fiber
is pressed with a hydraulic system. When the weight of the fiber becomes 350 kg the fiber is
rotated to the main press where hydraulic system is used to press it and form a bail.
The bails formed are transported continuously from the bailer unit with the help of fork lifers
that carry these bails to the storing place.
A/C system:
The Quench AC process consists of recovering air from the system, filtering it, washing and
humidifying it, cooling it, re-pressurizing it and finally filtering it again before supplying it to
the end users. Unlike regular air-conditioning systems, which provide cool and dry air to keep
the area cool, this is a special type of air-conditioning.
In this process, the air is not only cooled to a certain temperature, it is also humidified to 85%
relative humidity. This is achieved by passing filtered air through a washing process where soft
water is sprayed into it using special nozzles. After this, it is passed through chilled water
cooled coils that decrease the air temperature to the desired set-point. Here, some of the
moisture absorbed by the air in the washing process, is condensed, the resulting cold and
humidified air is passed into the quenching ducts after a final fine filtration.
The quench-air (19 20o C) A.C station comprises a critical part of the spinning plant. Its main
purpose is to provide conditioned and controlled quantity of air for quenching the hot extruded
filaments. For each of the three spinning lines, there is an individual quench-air system,
independent of each other.
Maintenance Work in Spinning and Draw Line:
Almost all types of maintenance work is done in this unit i.e. Preventive Maintenance,
Predictive Maintenance and Shut down Maintenance. In addition to the daily maintenance
activity i.e. (Preventive maintenance), all the machines working are also checked time to time
by testing their vibrations, sound, output etc. If any unusual fault is noticed, it is eliminated so
that the smooth operation of the plant is assured.

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During our stay in this department we observed certain maintenance activities that are given as
under:

Maintenance of the Draw Frame machines is done very often. It involves changing of
the front as well as rear Bearings. Also, the lubrication to the machine is maintained
by inspecting it on regular basis. The bearing changing process is important. It is done
by following steps as provided in the catalogue. The vibration measurement of the
machine is another important task. During our stay we worked on the vibration analysis
of the draw frame II machine which is detailed in the coming section.

Similarly the temperature of the steam, pressure of the lubricating oil, pressure of the
steam as well as hydraulic pressure in the crimper machine in Fiber line are some
important parameters that are continuously monitored.

Roller in the crimper unit are machined after certain period of time if there is some
unusual pattern of the crimped tow.

An important maintenance work in the polymer unit is of the Spinneret. The mesh size
in the spinneret is important. Also the sand filters in the spin pack are changed.

The sealing of the gear pumps used are also checked regularly.

In A/C unit, there are a number of filters used. These filter are also replaced or cleaned
if the differential pressure across them is out of range.

The continuous supply of the quenched air is also ensured.

In the bailer machine, the seals of pumps are most often damaged because of the
continuous operation of this machine. Thus it seals are changed regularly.

After each 650 tons cutting, each blade is inspected and replaced if needed.

Apart from some above mentioned maintenance activities, there is also major maintenance
work that is done by shutting down the whole plant. The IFL II plant was shut during our whole
internship period because of some maintenance work. All these maintenance work is done to
ensure the smooth running of the plant as well as to get the highest possible level of quality in
polyester.

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MECHANICAL WORKSHOP
The workshop of IFL is almost entirely responsible for preventive as well as predictive
maintenance of entire group. Its the department that has kept the group up and running after
all these years, and they are doing a great job.
It has 5 departments which perform their respective jobs and are the best at what they do:

Machining Shop

Insulation, cladding &ducting

Welding

Rigging Shop

Painting shop

Carpenter shop

1. Machining Shop:
In this part of workshop different machine parts are repaired according to requirement
using different machines like milling machine and lathe machine:
Milling machine:
This machine is used to for profiling and fabricating spur gears. Milling is a cutting process
that uses a milling cutter to remove material from the surface of a work piece. The milling
cutter is a rotary cutting tool, often with multiple cutting points. In its operations the work piece
is fixed and the tool moves about its axis and removes unwanted material.

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Fig. : Horizontal milling machine

Internship Report | 2014

There is two types of milling process in workshop:


Face milling: Face milling is used to cut flat surfaces (faces) into the work piece, or
to cut flat-bottomed cavities.
Peripheral milling:

Peripheral milling is well suited to the cutting of deep

slots, threads, and gear teeth.


Lathe machine:
This machine is used to perform various functions such as cutting, sanding, knurling,
drilling, or deformation, facing, turning, with tools that are applied to the work piece to create
an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation such as shafts etc.
Lathe is a machine tool which rotates the work piece on its axis to perform various
operations and create an object which is symmetric about its axis of rotation. While in process
the work piece is fixed between the headstock and the tail-stock, it is said to be "between
centers", in this position it is much safer to work with the object at right angles to the axis.
When a work piece is fixed only to the spindle at the headstock end, the work is said to be
"face work". When a work piece is supported in this manner, less force may be applied to the
work piece, via tools, at a right angle to the axis of rotation, unless the work piece will rip free.

Fig. : Lathe machine


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2. Insulation, Cladding & Ducting:


This part of workshop is responsible for the installation and maintenance of all the
insulation of all the piping systems in process, HVAC and heating systems. All the insulations
are covered by aluminum cladding for protection and prevention from leaking.
This department is important because certain chemicals and steam rush through the
pipes at very high temperatures and their temperature needs to be maintained for smooth
running of the process. This department also fabricates ducts for the transportation of chilled
air in offices and throughout the plant, without which the temperature inside the plant would
be unbearable.

3. Welding:
Welding is a fabrication process that joins two metals or thermoplastics by coalescence.
This is often done by melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of
molten material called the weld pool that cools to become a strong joint. Sometimes pressure
is used in combination with heat, or sometimes the pressure alone to produce the weld.
Welding is different from soldering and brazing, which involves melting a lowermelting-point material between the work pieces to form a bond between them, without melting
the work pieces, but in welding work pieces are fused together to form a joint.
There are two basic types of welding:
Arc welding:
It is a fusion type welding in which the weld is produced by the heat of an electric arc and
metal work piece. It is done by different methods such as:
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW)
Submerged arc welding (SAW)
Electro slag welding (ESW)
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Fig. : Shielded metal arc welding


Gas welding:
In this type of welding the welding flame is produced by a combination of gases
usually acetylene and oxygen.
There are different types of gas welding:
Metal Inert Gas (MIG)
Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG)
`

4. Rigging Shop:
This part of the work shop is responsible for all the heavy lifting and transportation
of finished product from one part to another. It can be called muscle of the plant. All the loading
and unloading of the products is managed by this part.
Rigging shop has lifters of varying lifting capacities, from 2 ton to 4 ton, for
transporting the tow containers to draw line and finished product (yarn) to the warehouse and
loading that in the trucks.

5. Painting Shop:
This part of the workshop keeps the looks of plant. It also paints all the machinery
to prevent it from corrosion. Since plant site faces a lot of vapors and fumes so if not protected
properly and regularly the life of machinery and building will reduce due to corrosive wear and
tear.

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6. Carpenter Shop:
All the furniture and wood work of the plant is produced by this shop. It fulfills
the need of every wooden accessory of the plant. It also repairs faulty furniture. Ladders in the
cooling towers are also made by this shop.

All these departments make Ibrahim Fibres ltd almost self-sufficient in maintenance and
upkeep of the plant.

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POWER GENERATION I (PG - I)


Last 7 days of our internship were spent in Power Generation- I. Power in this unit is generated
by the engines operating on furnace oil. If the gas is available, both of these fuels are used at a
time in order to get more economical power. However, all of these engines are manufactured
recommending diesel to be used as a fuel. The plant specifications are listed as under:

Phase-1 (HFO 4 Engines Niigata 4* 5.3=21.3MW) installed in 1993

Phase-2 (HFO 2 Engines Niigata 2*5.3=10.6 MW) installed in 1997

Bi-fuel in 2006 of 6 Engines.

Phase-3 (HFO Engines Niigata 5*5.3=26.5MW) in 2012/13

Total Engines capacity=11*5.3=58.3MW

The total power generation of both GT and PG-1 add up to a total capacity of 58.3+15=73.3
MW. All of these engines operate on Diesel Cycle.
Diesel Engine Cycle:
The diesel engine cycle is shown in the figure. A complete cycle has four processes:
Isentropic Compression
Heat addition at constant pressure
Isentropic Expansion
Constant volume heat removal
All the engines at the PG I are also have turbocharging. All the phase III engines have HRSG
system installed that used the exhaust heat to generate steam that is further used in the PP
plants.

Fig. Diesel Cycle


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Engine Operation Processes:

Fig. Engine Operation Processes

Engine Specifications:
Engine Model: Niigata 16V32CLX
Cylinder Bore =320 mm
Clearance volume = 10.1mm
Swept Volume =463 L
Compression ratio = 13.6
Air fuel ratio = 1:31
Maximum Power = 5.3 MW
Engine rpms = 600
Turbocharged
Cooling Towers:
The principle of cooling tower have already been described in polymer section. There are total
of 11 cooling towers. Phase 1 and 2 cooling towers are of induced draft fan type counter flow
cooling towers. The phase 3 engines cooling towers are of cross flow type.
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HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator):


HRSG system is installed at the exhaust of the Phase 3 engines in which the energy at the
exhaust of the engines is utilized to convert water into steam that is used in Polyester Plant.
The technical specifications of HRSG are given as under:
Produces 2.8 ton/hr of saturated steam at 10bar and 191C.
Exhaust gas inlet temperature 345o C
Maintenance Work at PG 1 Plant:
PG-I have a huge mechanical system for power generation which required regular
maintenance for smooth operation. These engines are mostly used for providing power to the
polyester plat because it cannot afford any shut down. Thus schedule maintenance is very
necessary for the smooth operation of polyester plant. Maintenance of engines are planned
according to running hours of engines as described below:
500 hours
Following maintenance operation are performed at each 500 hour of running of engine since
last MOH.
Rocker arm nut and bolt torque is checked
Crank case and cam case is inspected
Crank case bolt tele-mark are checked
Tappet clearance are checked (0.5 mm clearance)
1000 hours
At each multiple of 1000 hour of running of engine since last MOH, following maintenance
operations are performed:
Primary and secondary filters of HFO are cleaned with air and oil
Crank case bolt tele marks are checked
Lubrication oil level are checked
Tappet clearance are checked (0.5 mm clearance)
2500 hours
At each multiple of 2500 hour of running of engine since last MOH, following maintenance
operations are performed:
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Internship Report | 2014

Lapping of injectors nozzle is done


Lapping of exhaust valve seat is done
Rocker arm nut and bolt torque is checked
Crank case and cam case is inspected
Crank case bolt tele mark are checked
Tappet clearance are checked (0.5 mm clearance)
Major Overhauling (MOH)
After the each 8000 hours of running of engine, major overhauling engine is done which
include following maintenance:
Engine is opened completely
All inlet valves, exhaust valve and injection nozzles are cleaned
All the clearance of engine are observed
Cylinder head is lapped
Piston is taken out of engine and inspected
Lubrication oil is changed
All part of engine are inspected minutely and action are taken according to situation

***************************
INTERNSHIP ASSIGNMENTS
During internship we were given assignments in Fibre Line. Our group of four people was
divided into two sub- groups. These assignments were successfully completed and submitted
to the respective advisor. The group division and assignment given are listed as under:

Assignment No. 1 Vibration Analysis of Draw Frame ii Machine


Group Members
Muhammad Shafique
Syed Immad Hussain Shah

Assignment No. 2 Determining Torque on the Roller of Draw Frame ii


Group Members
Aftab Aalim
Hammas Saleem
39

Vibration Analysis of Draw Frame II Machine:


The vibration measurements on the Draw Frame II machine of the Fiber line in IFL I has shown
higher values at the end walls. These vibrations may cause the fatigue failure in the machine if
continued for the prolonged time. Find out the causes of these vibrations, give analysis and state
how these vibrations can be removed.

Solution:
The solution to this problem included the detailed study of the Draw Frame machine and measuring
the certain parameters that were necessary for vibration analysis. For that purpose, the natural
frequency and gear train specifications were obtained from the machine drawings. The detailed
solution of this problem involved certain steps that are given as under:

Vibration Data
The first step was to obtain the vibration data using vibrometer. This data was obtained after
identifying the critical points on the machine wall where maximum vibrations were observed. This
data was obtained in already measured form. This data at the tow outlet is presented as under:
Line Speed (m/min) Position No. 1*

Position No. 2*

Position No. 3*

Position No. 4*

250

34

245

54

10

13

15

240

24

235

14

4.5

2.7

4.9

230

10

3.5

2.8

3.8

* In mm/sec
From the above data it is clear that the maximum vibrations occur at the position no. 1 at line speed
of 245.

Possible Reasons for Vibrations


Draw frame machine involves no damping with rotating parts that includes motor shaft,
intermediate shaft, meshing of gears with certain frequency and rotating rollers. The possible
reasons for the vibrations noted above might be:
40

i)

Rotating unbalance in any of the shafts because of the non-uniform distribution of the
mass or axial non-symmetry.

ii)

Base excitation that involves the vibration of the machine because of the vibration of
the factory floor.

iii)

Vibrations may be because of the resonance caused by the frequency of any rotating
part i.e. roller, gear meshing frequency, motor rotation or the rotation of intermediate
shaft. That rotating part will cause maximum vibrations whose frequency will be closer
to the natural frequency of the machine frame.

If we observe the vibration data, we see that the vibration value reaches to maximum at certain
line speed and then it again starts reducing. This type of behavior is a clear indication of the
resonance phenomenon. The shafts of the rotating rollers are well machined and thus have
precisely uniform mass distribution. Thus vibrations are not caused by rotating unbalance. Also
there are extremely small excitations of the base which cannot cause such vibrations as noted.
Thus the only reason that is causing these vibrations is Resonance. Some part among the rotating
ones in draw frame machine has rotational frequency that is much closer to the natural frequency
of the machine frame.

Resonance Analysis:
The resonance analysis involves the vibration response calculations at nominal line speed and for
the current line speed. For that purpose we have to calculate the rotating frequencies of each of
the rotating part i.e. Roller, Intermediate Shaft, and Driving Shaft. These calculations were
performed using gear train data and the speed of the line.
Gear Train of Draw Frame II machine:
Gear train analysis in required to calculate the speed of rotation of each of the shaft and teeth
meshing frequency so that it can be determined that which of these rotating component has the
frequency closest to the natural frequency which causes the maximum vibration. The rotation of
the roller is driven by the motor. This motor is attached to shaft which has a Gear A (as shown in
the diagram below). This gear drives intermediate shaft which again rotates the roller shaft due to
the gear meshing. Following diagram shows how the roller rotation occurs because of motor
through a gear train.
41

No. of Teeth
Gear A .. 23
Gear B .. 27
Gear C .. 65
Gear D ...... 65
Nominal VL = 180 m/min
Current VL = 230 m/min

i)

At Nominal Line Speed:

First the analysis was done using nominal line speed of 180 m/min:
VL= 180 m/min = 3 m/s
The corresponding roller rotational frequency is given by:
r = VL / Rroller
where Rroller is the roller radius which is 205 mm
r = 3 / 0.205 = 14.63 rad / s = 14.632 . = 2.328 Hz
r = 2.328 Hz
Teeth Frequency B = 2.328

x 65

= 151.32 Hz

Teeth Frequency B = 151.32 Hz


42

Intermediate shaft rotation frequency = shaft = 65 / 27 x 14.63 = 35.22 rad / s


shaft =

35.22
2.

= 5.605 Hz
shaft = 5.605 Hz

Teeth Frequency A = 5.605

x 65

= 364.37 Hz

Teeth Frequency A = 364.37 Hz


Motor Rotational speed = motor = 65 / 23 x 35.22 = 99.534 rad / s = 950.487 rpm
motor =

99.534
2.

= 15.84 Hz
motor = 15.84 Hz

The result of the above analysis has been summarized here:


Frequency*

Value (Hz)

Roller

2.328

Intermediate shaft

5.605

Motor Rotation

15.84

Teeth Frequency B

151.4

Teeth Frequency A

364.37

* for nominal line speed

The natural frequency of the Draw Frame


II is 149.3 Hz as given in the FEM
Calculation report of FLEISSNER. We
see that the closest to the this frequency

Resonance is caused by
meshing frequency of these
two gears which approaches
the natural frequency of the
system

is 151.4 Hz which is because of the teeth


frequency B. It means that the resonance
occurs because of the teeth meshing of
the gears B with C as indicated below at
nominal speed. This is indicated below in
the fig.
43

ii)

At Current Operating Line Speed:

The current line speed of the Draw Frame II is about 230 m / min. The same calculations are
performed for this line speed. The result is summarized directly in the table form as under:
Frequency*

*at line speed 230 m /min

Value (Hz)

Roller

2.976

Intermediate shaft

7.165

Motor Rotation

20.25

Teeth Frequency B

193.44

Teeth Frequency A

465.69

The natural frequency of the system must not match or very near to any of these frequency
otherwise the resonance will occur and if prolonged for longer time, failure of the machine will
occur. From this data again we see that it is the teeth frequency B that is closer to the natural
frequency of the system i.e. 149.3 Hz. Thus in subsequent analysis the teeth frequency B will be
analyzed and the response of this driving frequency will be calculated at both nominal speed and
current line speed.

How to Minimize these Vibrations:


There are different ways to reduce vibrations in any system. However some practical approaches
that can be used to minimize these vibrations in Draw Frame II machine are discussed here:
i)

Change the driving Frequency:

This is the simplest approach to reduce vibrations in any system. The meshing frequency of the
teeth that causes the frequency which is closer to the natural frequency of the system, is set in such
a way that its deviation from the systems natural frequency is increased. However, in changing
the driving frequency it should be noted that the new driving frequency must not be such that it
causes the frequency of the other rotating parts (e.g. of intermediate shaft) to approach towards the
systems natural frequency. It will again cause the vibrations but now because of some other
rotating part than teeth frequency B.

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However, it is very difficult to practically apply this approach to the Draw Frame Machine. It is
because for that purpose the line speed will have to be change because the roller and line speeds
must be synchronized. Thus if we change the line speed, all the parameters of the Fiber line would
have to be adjusted accordingly. This approach can be used but for that purpose there would be
shut down of the plant and it is also possible that the new line speed does not match the process
requirements.
ii)

Put Damping Media at the Machine Base:

This is the other approach that can be used to minimize the vibration. Different damping media
are available that can be used between the contact point of the machine base and the ground.
However the application of this approach well again require plant shut down to put the media at
the base.
iii)

Change the mass of the machine body:

This is the most practical and easily applicable approach that require no or very little machine shut
down. In this approach we increase the deviation between the systems natural frequency and the
driving frequency by not changing the driving (and thus line frequency as discussed above)
frequency, rather the systems natural frequency.
The systems natural frequency can be changed by either changing the systems stiffness (k) which
requires changing the geometry or material property or by changing the mass (m) because the
natural frequency of undamped system is given by:

Natural Frequency =

1
2.

The mass of the system can be easily changed by just adding / removing certain mass to/from the
machine wall at appropriate location. In this way the system natural frequency moves away from
that driving frequency which causes the vibration and thus natural frequency will not be activated.
As it is easy for us to add mass rather than remove it from machine, so we will use this approach.
The current system response and the response after the mass has been added is given in detail as
under for both the cases of the line speed i.e. nominal speed and current speed.

45

Vibration Response Analysis and Effect of adding mass:


Draw Frame II machine is an undamped, harmonic forced driven system whose equation of
mathematical model can be developed by applying the newtons second law to the system having
a mass m, stiffness k and acceleration

m + kx = Fo.cosdt

(1)

where Fo.sindt represent the harmonic behavior of the driving frequency whose maximum value
i.e. Fo is determined by the torque of the motor that is transmitted to the gear teeth in the form of
the force and d being the frequency of the harmonic force.
Our objective is to find out the response x as a function of time i.e. x(t). Above differential has
both general solution and a particular one. Its general solution of

m + kx =0
has the form:
X(t) = A sin( nt + )

n =

Where

(A)

The values of the constants A and are determined using zero initial conditions i.e. X(0) = xo
and (0) = vo. The Final form of the general solution that we get is:

x (t) =

. sin nt + xo cos nt

and the particular solution assumed is:


xp(t) = X cos dt
solving for the constant X we get the final form of the particular solution as:
xp(t) =

46

. cos dt

Where =

Fo

Adding general and particular solution we get:

x (t) =

. sin nt + (xo -

) cos nt+

cos dt

(2)

This is the final form that gives us the solution in the form of displacement x as a function of time.
As is evident from this equation the response depends upon the driving frequency as well as the
natural frequency of the system.
In our solution we will use zero initial condition for the sake of simplicity. Using = 0 and xo = 0
and using trigonometric identity cos u cos v = 2 sin (

) . sin (

+
2

) , the above equation

gives us:

x(t) =

. sin (

. t) . sin (

. t)

(3)

as is clear from the equation that the maximum value i.e. peak value of the displacement is give as
xpeak =

(4)

Equation 3 and 4 will be used for determining the response of the system for both the nominal
speed and the current operating speed. Thus both the System Response and the effect of adding
mass are given below at:
1) At Nominal Speed:
For the nominal speed the parameters that are used in the equation 3 are listed here:

n = 149.3 Hz = 938.08 rad /s


d = 151.4 Hz = 951.27 rad /s
= 0.997 N / kg (calculated from 4)
These values are used in the equation 3. The solution and the graph of the vibration response was
calculated and plotted using MATLAB software the code of which is given below.

47

MATLAB Code
f0=
wn=
wd=
t =

-0.997;
149.3*2*pi; %145.70 for 5 percent increase in the mass
151.3*2*pi;
0:0.00005:1.5;

A=2*f0/((wn^2)-(wd^2));
B=sin(((wn-wd)/2)*t);
C=sin(((wn+wd)/2)*t);

for i=1:30001
Response(i) = A*B(i)*C(i)*1000;
end
plot (t,Response);
xlabel 'Time (sec)';
ylabel 'Displacement mm';

Response Graph:
MATLAB generated following result for the vibration response:

Response without adding mass

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This graph shows that the maximum value of the displacement comes out to be 0.08 mm which is
verified by the vibration measurements. Beats are formed which is a clear indication of the
resonance phenomenon.
Effect of Adding Mass:
If we add the mass to the system, its natural frequency will be reduced and thus resonance
phenomenon can be avoided. Now we will verify this fact. Assume that the mass of the system has
been increased by 5% of the total body mass. The change in the natural frequency is given from
1

the equation A will be

1.05

. Thus the new systems natural frequency is given by:


1

Changed natural frequency=

1.05

x 149.3 = 145.70 Hz = 915.5 rad /s

Putting this new value of n in 3 in the same MATLAB Code and getting the response as above
yields:
Response after adding 5 %
mass

We see that the peak value of then displacement has been reduced significantly and it is just 0.03
mm as compared to the 0.08 mm without adding mass.
49

Similarly if we increase the system mass by 10 % the resulting effect is:


f0=
wn=
wd=
t =

-0.997;
142.3*2*pi;
151.3*2*pi;
0:0.00001:1;

A=2*f0/((wn^2)-(wd^2));
B=sin(((wn-wd)/2)*t);
C=sin(((wn+wd)/2)*t);

for i=1:100001
Response(i) = A*B(i)*C(i)*1000;
end
plot (t,Response);
xlabel 'Time (sec)';
ylabel 'Displacement mm';

Response after adding 10% mass

Thus peak value of displacement in this case is only about 0.018 mm. As we keep on increasing
the mass to the system, vibrations are reduced much significantly even at the nominal speed.
However we cannot increase the mass from certain safe limit otherwise the systems natural
frequency will be reduced to 15.84 Hz as was given in the table.
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2) At Current Line Speed:


Similar calculations can be performed for the line speed of 230 m / min. For the this line speed
the parameters that are used in the equation 3 are listed here:

n = 149.3 Hz = 938.08 rad /s (same)


d = 193.4 Hz = 1215.17 rad /s
= 2.084 N / kg (calculated from 4)
Using these parameters, the equation 3 has been solved and plotted in the MATLAB. The code of
which is given as:

MATLAB Code:
f0=
wn=
wd=
t =

-2.084;
149.3*2*pi;
193.4*2*pi;
0:0.000005:0.5;

A=2*f0/((wn^2)-(wd^2));
B=sin(((wn-wd)/2)*t);
C=sin(((wn+wd)/2)*t);

for i=1:100001
Response(i) = A*B(i)*C(i)*1000;
end

plot (t,Response);
xlabel 'Time (sec)';
ylabel 'Displacement mm';

Response Graph:
The vibration response that comes out of MATLAB is given below. As can be seen that at this line
speed of 230 m/min, the teeth frequency B is much away from the natural frequency of the system
as compared to the nominal line speed of 180 m /min.
This is the reason that the peak displacement in this case is much smaller i.e about 0.008 mm.
However still the vibrations are in the critical range that needs to be reduced.

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Response without adding mass

Effect of Adding Mass:


Exactly similar calculations were performed to determine the effect of adding mass to the system.
The same phenomenon of the reduction in the natural frequency of the system takes place. The
results are presented here generated in the MATLAB software.
After adding a mass of 10% of the Draw Frame II machine body to it, the result is:
Response after adding 10% mass

Response after adding 10% mass

52

Conclusion:
Vibration analysis of the Draw Frame Machine was comprehensively studied and analyzed. The
results presented here suggest that the most efficient way to reduce vibrations is to change the
natural frequency of the system i.e. of the draw frame machine body. This can be done by
increasing the mass of the machine body. This mass may be added in the form of rectangular plate
or a circular disk the effect of which has been presented in the details in this report. By adding the
mass the vibrations of the machine will be significantly reduced. Moreover the FEM vibration
report on this machine also suggest that the machine will not fail as a result of these vibrations.
However it is necessary to eliminate them so that the possibility of the fatigue failure as a result of
the prolonged vibrations may become vanished.

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Internship Report | 2014

Torque on rollers of Draw frame Machine


Objective:
Our objective is to find the torque on the rollers of Draw frame machine. We
were given the following data to carry out this work:
Gear specifications:
Input gear (n1): 23 no. of teeth
Intermediate shaft (n2): 65 no. of teeth & n3= 27 no. of teeth
Roller shaft (n4): 65 no. of teeth
Following data was gathered from online resources:
Input motor torque: 19.12 kN
Diagram:

Calculations:
1 = 1 1

2 = 2 2

F1=F2

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Internship Report | 2014


1

So;

Since;

1
2

2 =

2
2

1
2

1 2
65

2 =19.12( )
23

2 =54.03kN
65

3 = 54.03( )
27

3 =130.08kN

Torque on roller=130KN

55

Internship Report | 2014

Conclusion:
This internship has been a great experience for us seeing the theoretical knowledge getting
into practical form. We learnt a lot by working under the professionally experienced
personnel in one of the big organization of the country in Polyester Business. The
assignments given to us during internship were one of the best experience that would guide
us throughout our professional career. Different activities that we performed in Polyester
Plant and Power Generation will help us in future in sound understanding of the structure of
any organization. This internship will also help us in our future projects as we have observed
quite a lot how things get into physical form from theoretical drawing and catalogues through
different processes and how to manage to get this done more efficiently.

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