Minnesota’s Lake Superior Coastal Program Real-Time Data to Estimate Sediment, Nutrient, and Hg Loading from Northshore

Lake Superior Streams

Project Coordinator:

Richard Axler
Natural Resources Research Institute1 University of Minnesota-Duluth 5013 Miller Trunk Highway, Duluth, MN 55811

Project Investigators:

Norm Will1, Elaine Ruzycki1 Jerry Henneck1, Todd Carlson3 Gerry Sjerven1
2 3

George Host1, Cindy Hagley2 Jesse Schomberg2 Marnie Lonsdale3 Chris Kleist3, David Stark4

University of Minnesota-Sea Grant, Duluth, MN 55812 Stormwater Utility, City of Duluth, MN 55802 4 Cook County Soil & Water Conservation Department, Grand Marais, MN 55

Project Collaborators:

Jesse Anderson, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Duluth, MN Tim Tuominen, Joe Mayasich, Western L. Superior Sanitary District, Duluth, MN

March 31, 2008 Project No. 306-08-08 Contract No. A92533 NRRI Technical Report: NRRI/TR-2008/09

This project was funded in part under the Coastal Zone Management Act, by NOAA’s Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, in cooperation with Minnesota’s Lake Superior Coastal Program. Additional support came from the Natural Resources Research Institute, Sea Grant College, and Facilities Management Stormwater Program at the University of Minnesota-Duluth, the City of Duluth Stormwater Utility, Minnesota Pollution Control AgencyDuluth, Western Lake Superior Sanitary District, South St. Louis SWCD, and the Cook County SWCD.

Real-Time Data to Estimate Sediment, Nutrient, and Hg Loading from Northshore Lake Superior Streams I. Background: An estimated 720 perennial and 127 intermittent streams flow into Lake Superior including 309 trout streams and their tributaries (>2100 miles) along the North Shore (NS) and St. Louis River (SLR) estuary alone. The topography includes steep bedrock escarpments creating a high density of stream corridors in relatively narrow, forested watersheds with steep gradients, thin erodible soils, and typically low productivity, high-quality trout streams sensitive to urbanization and rural development. Streams are particularly susceptible to factors raising water temperature and increasing runoff of water and sediment, such as openings in riparian cover and canopy, impervious surface within the watershed, road crossings and the potential increased frequency of severe storms predicted by climate change models and already in evidence during the past decade or so in parts of Minnesota. These streams ultimately discharge into the sensitive coastal zone of ultra-oligotrophic Lake Superior or its St. Louis River Estuary. From 1992-2001, lowintensity development increased 33% in the basin with an alarming transition from agriculture to urban/suburban sprawl (Wolter et al. 2007) as indicated by Cook County’s 24% population increase from 1990-96. Stream fish, amphibians, and the invertebrates that sustain them are being adversely impacted by increased temperature, excessive peak flows, turbidity and suspended solids, road salt, organic matter, and nutrients from increased development (MPCA 2003); 11 of the 27 major North Shore trout streams are now Listed as Impaired (303d-2008) primarily for turbidity, temperature and fish-Hg (including Miller, Amity, Lester, Talmadge, Knife, French, Poplar, and Brule). Implementing effective TMDL-based watershed improvements and making informed, sustainable land use decisions to protect these high growth watersheds requires in-depth knowledge of current status and trends in stream and watershed condition, along with habitat and their biota to develop accurate predictive models for managing them. This requires water quality data during base flow, storm and snowmelt runoff for use in developing pollutant budgets, load estimates, and accurate predictive models to link to assessments of habitat and biological communities over a wide range of conditions. To date, all of these data have been relatively sparse, discontinuous, and/or inconsistent in regard to required sampling and analytical methodologies and QA/QC. DuluthStreams.org was created in 2002 by an EPA (Environmental Monitoring for Public Access & Community Tracking) grant as a partnership among the City of Duluth, U. of MN (NRRI & Sea Grant), WLSSD and MPCA, and re-christened LakeSuperiorStreams.org in 2005. The project has a primary goal of enhancing public understanding of aquatic ecosystems and their connections to watershed land use by illustrating the nature and consequences of degraded stormwater and its real costs to society (Axler et al. 2006, 2003; Lonsdale et al. 2006). Automated water quality monitoring data from five (5) Duluth-area St. Louis River Estuary and Northshore tributary streams are fed into a website linking the data to GIS, land use, and current and historical water quality and biological databases. Interactive data visualization tools and interpretive text visually engage citizens and students and encourage the use of environmental data in local decision-making. The Regional Stormwater Protection Team (RSPT) grew out of the DuluthStreams partnership and is comprised of new MS4 stormwater permittees, agencies


and organizations (now ~26) seeking to develop a unified watershed-level approach to educating the public and businesses about their role in nonpoint source pollution, prevention, and cures (Granley and Lonsdale 2005, 2007). Minnesota streams draining into the Lake Superior coastal zone and St. Louis River Estuary are typically sensitive, low productivity, high-quality trout streams. Some (Miller, Amity, Lester, Talmadge, French, Poplar, Brule) are currently listed on the MN Clean Water Act (303d) List of Impaired Waters - most commonly for turbidity and Fish-Hg (MPCA 2008). Steep topography and thin, erodible soils make these streams particularly sensitive to development. Effective management and remediation of these streams requires an understanding of their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, which can only be obtained by monitoring, particularly during storm and snowmelt runoff events, when the most dramatic impacts occur. These data are critical for developing and assessing BMPs, particularly in the face of increased development in the high growth watersheds along the North Shore of Lake Superior (e.g. Anderson et al. 2003; MPCA 2000; IJC 1999). MPCA initiated long-term monitoring of 6 critical streams along the North Shore in 2002. However, MPCA has lacked the resources to install automated water quality sensors, which are needed to capture critical pollutant loading events during high flows – important for developing cost-effective remediation and mitigation strategies. FY 04/05 funding from the MNLSCP, MPCA, Duluth, NRRI/Sea Grant and WLSSD allowed the website to expand to include all RSPT communities, a site design toolkit, contractor training materials, new educational sections, and a northshore section (leading to renaming the website LakeSuperiorStreams.org; Axler et al. 2006).The Weber Stream Restoration Initiative funded sensors for the Amity Creek station in 2005, and in 2006 additional MNLSCP funding allowed us to install water quality sensors at the Poplar River long-term station. Preliminary analyses (Sea Grant/WLSSD funding) by NRRI-UMD for three Duluth streams indicated that nearcontinuous stream turbidity and conductivity data could be related to total suspended sediments (TSS), phosphorus and salt during differing flow regimes using regression models. Further, a relationship between TSS/turbidity and total mercury (THg) concentrations was found for Duluth streams in summer storms as previously found for the Poplar River (Anderson et al. 2003). The project has included issues associated with too much runoff such as flooding, with a key issue in the region being sanitary sewer overflows from infiltration and inflow (I&I). These events have imposed risks to public health and environmental risks to the coastal zone of Lake Superior and the Duluth-Superior Harbor, and are requiring costly programs to reduce stormwater flows from key neighborhoods and construction of large storage tanks for temporary storage of stormwater enhanced sanitary sewer flows. The consequences of excess water and peak flows have also included excess sediment and turbidity, and potentially excess nutrients, pathogens, and contaminants. High salt concentrations for significant periods in late winter and early spring runoff from winter road and parking lot de-icing can present additional stress to trout and their prey. Increasing impervious surface and direct and indirect removal of riparian vegetation increases peak temperatures, especially during base flow periods creating additional periods of stress to cold water species with the additional potential stress of lowered dissolved oxygen.


The ultimate success of impairment assessments and mitigation and restoration strategies depends on having accurate pollutant budgets that account for interannual variability and establish background concentrations for specific sites as well as having an understanding of how aquatic systems vary across ecoregions, climatic zones, and anthropogenic gradients (see Magner and Brooks 2008). Success also requires informed citizens and decision makers who then set appropriate management policies. Additional information is best found by examining http://lakesuperiorstreams.org. II. Objectives & Tasks Major objectives for the project were to (1) Operate the LSS stream monitoring network for 2006-7 and add low level mercury sampling to develop accurate stream discharge/pollutant budgets and models relating “surrogate” sensor values to pollutants of interest (especially Hg and turbidity); and (2) provide an easy access web portal for citizens, businesses, and decision makers to understand the environmental and public health issues and regulatory framework associated with the actual pollutant monitoring data. The sensor data will be coupled with manually collected TSS, nutrient, chloride and Hg data to estimate concentrations and seasonal/annual loadings of these pollutants from the five monitored watersheds and to provide a first assessment of event-based interannual variability (weather driven) in northshore streams. The project comprised three specific tasks:
Task 1 -Stream data acquisition and posting - Operate and maintain continuous water quality sensors in 5 northshore streams; collect and analyze water samples for additional water quality parameters from these same streams, in addition to the 5 long-term monitoring stations maintained and sampled by MPCA (MPCA match effort).

Task 2. Data Analysis - Estimate total suspended sediment (TSS), nutrients, salt and mercury loads from five Lake Superior tributaries using intensively collected data from in-stream sensors. These "surrogate" values will then be "calibrated" using concentrations determined from manually collected water samples during high and low flow events.Together with nearcontinuous stage height/flow values, these data can be used to: 1) Develop multiple regression models relating TSS, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), chloride (Cl), and low level mercury (Hg) to in-stream sensor measures of turbidity, specific conductivity (EC@25oC), temperature and flow. This approach should yield intensive and statistically sound estimates of the concentrations of these water quality variables throughout the year including base flows, spring runoff, and during storm events. These estimates will make it possible to use basic water quality sensor data as a cost-effective surrogate for direct measurements of mercury (very expensive to measure directly) and other pollutants. 2) Compute annual and seasonal loadings of TSS, TP, TN, Cl and Hg to Lake Superior. 3) Compare stream data sets with regard to: a) annual loadings; b) seasonal loadings; c) storm event and spring runoff loadings; d) watershed characteristics; e) other years of data.


Task 3. Website maintenance and new section development - Develop a new section in the lakesuperiorstreams.org website providing background material about northshore stream impairment issues. This section will be a portal for citizens, businesses, and decision-makers to access relevant information about:1) Impaired water bodies in the Lake Superior region; 2) The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process (and current status) for addressing impairments in these and other streams and/or lakes; 3) Mercury related public and environmental health issues and local, regional, state and federal efforts to mitigate the problem; 4) Maintain Lake Superior Streams website and continue to collaborate (and expand) with Regional Stormwater Protection Team member agencies to disseminate relevant new information, market the website to northshore communities, agencies, businesses and organizations, provide educational tools for teaching watershed, water quality, and habitat protection, and seek stable funding for the website and for the monitoring network. III. Approach The project has built on pre-existing partnerships – LakeSuperiorStreams and the Superior Regional Stormwater Protection Team (www.duluthstreams.org/stormwater/rspt.html ). Additional opportunities for continued relevant discussions and collaborations, as well as additional expertise, resulted from the Weber Stream Restoration Initiative (WSRI; www.duluthstreams.org/weber/index.html ) that began in 2005 with an endowment to restore and protect degraded and threatened Lake Superior Basin trout streams. The project also benefited from MPCA funding via the Lake Superior Beach Monitoring Program to maintain the www.MinnesotaBeaches.org website and from Minnesota’s Lake Superior Coastal Program that funded the continued expansion of the NRRI’s Lake Superior Coastal GIS website (www.nrri.umn.edu/coastalgis ) in addition to the LSS project. It is also noteworthy that although the monitoring network and website are operated and maintained at UMD-NRRI (directed by R.Axler & G. Host), the LakeSuperiorStreams project continues to rely on MN Sea Grant's C. Hagley and J. Schomberg (and more recently V. Brady) for outreach, education, and website content and review. Current partners are listed at www.duluthstreams.org/general/aboutus.html and www.lakesuperiorstreams.org/stormwater/rspt.html . Field & Lab Methods (unchanged from 2006; see www.duluthstreams.org/streams/QA_QC.html ) o Sample collection - Automated sensors, measuring temperature, EC25, turbidity, depth (for flow estimation) on the stream monitoring units (SMUs), are checked ~weekly for cleaning and/or re-calibration by comparison to a YSI 85, YSI 556, or Hydrolab Minisonde MS5 multi-probe water quality analyzer and as per manufacturer’s recommendations. Manual measurements include daily calibrations. The SMU control modules (CR10X and sensors) are programmed to collect temperature, EC25, turbidity, and stream elevation data at 30 minute intervals, which is relevant to the time-scale of storms. The sensor sonde used at Amity is a Hydrolab MS5 sonde with selfcleaning turbidity sensor. Stage height is measured by the MPCA via an ultrasonic distance sensor and flow calculated from USGS derived rating curve. Maual sample collections were performed largely by MPCA-Duluth staff (see below) but on occasion by NRRI-UMD or Cook County SWCD staff. o QA/QC - The primary QA/QC objective for all of these studies is to assure accurate and representative measurements of the biological, physical and chemical parameters that are monitored. The historical and current manual monitoring data, plus the intensive data


collected by the stream monitoring units (SMUs) are intended for both public education and for inclusion in the City of Duluth (City), Western Lake Superior Sanitary District (WLSSD), Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA/STORET), and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) databases. Measurements comply with EPA QA guidelines (EPA 1998) and follow previously established and documented QA/QC plans developed by NRRI, certified by the MN Dept of Health and the MPCA (Ameel et al. 1998; APHA 2003), and used for previous EMPACT projects performed by our group. EPA used our Lake Access EMPACT project as the national model for technology transfer to other aquatic EMPACT projects (Peterson et al. 2000). Details are at www.duluthstreams.org/streams/aboutdata.html . Stage height monitoring, maintenance and calibration are performed by staff at the MPCA-Duluth in cooperation with USGS (see Anderson et al. 2003 for details) IV. Task Results This section summarizes the major elements of the three work tasks that were completed over the period of the grant. Supporting screen captures from the LakeSuperiorStreams.org website are included in the Appendices.
• Task 1. Real Time Stream Monitoring:

1-1. Continuous data acquisition for flow and water quality continued throughout Fall 2007. The City of Duluth was rebuilding the “lowest” bridge over the Amity Creek on Seven Bridges Rd in summer 2007 and so the MPCA stage height sensor and NRRI-UMD water quality sensor sonde were removed on June 25, 2007. There was no satisfactory place to reinstall the stage height sensor just upstream and the next most upstream bridge was too high. Therefore, we decided an in situ flow sensor was necessary. Most of the cost of this was covered by the Large Lakes Observatory at UMD because 2 researchers at LLO are initiating a dissolved organic carbon study of North Shore streams beginning with a pilot in Amity Creek (E.Minor and J.Austin). The sensor system went back on line for all parameters on July 19, 2007. During the bridge reconstruction we manually sampled the original site and the new upstream site for turbidity on an approximately weekly basis with extra samples collected during high flow storm events in order to develop a quantitative loading relationship between the two sites. The bridge was largely completed by November 2007 but delays from heavy fall rainstorms precluded re-mounting the original stage height sensor at the original long-term MPCA monitoring site until March 2008. 1-2. Winter- All stream data, except for the Poplar River station that was removed in November for the winter continued to be delivered automatically to the www.lakesuperiorstreams.org website for display via the interactive data animation and visualization tools through January 2008 when a cold spell and the buildup of anchor ice “threatened” the data sondes. Very little continuous winter data is available, if any, prior to the DS/LSS.org project. Sondes will be reinstalled when ice (and flow) conditions permit in Spring 2008. Manual measurements of temperature and EC25 (using a field meter) and turbidity (via grab sampling and lab turbidimeter) are performed as warranted by field conditions (i.e. thaws).


1-3. Water sample collection and analyses for total suspended sediment (TSS), turbidity, nutrients, and chloride were performed for all of the streams by both NRRI and MPCA personnel following MPCA’s Guidance Manual for Assessing the Quality of Minnesota Surface Waters (www.pca.state.mn.us/water/tmdl/index.html ). Similar parameters were collected at the remaining long-term MPCA monitoring stations (Talmadge, French, Brule and Brule Rivers) by MPCA-Duluth staff. Water quality data were added to the website via updated Excel spreadsheets that can be viewed via Internet Browser or downloaded.


Task 2. Data analysis 2-1. Poplar River. NRRI continued to actively participate, on an as-needed basis, in various discussions with the Poplar River Management Board, Lutsen Ski Mountain Resort, Cook County SWCD, and the MPCA regarding the design and implementation of the TMDL for the Poplar River and potential monitoring strategies and collaborations. A summary with preliminary analyses of the 2006 in-stream turbidity sensor data and recommendations for the 2007 field season was previously developed and sent to all interested parties in February 2007 (Axler et al. 2007). It was prepared to assist the MPCA, Cook County SWCD, EPA Region V, and their subcontracted consultants in the TMDL study and is available in the Poplar River section at www.duluthstreams.org/northshore/poplar/TMDL/index.html and also via the Stream Reports section at www.duluthstreams.org/general/reports_NShore.html .


2-2. Sediment, nutrient and mercury in Western Lake Superior Streams: In-stream turbidity sensors versus grab sampling and modeling. Results of analyses were presented at two conferences in October 2007 associated with an M.S thesis funded largely through MN Sea Grant that complements the data collection funded by this Coastal program grant. It is expected that at least two manuscripts will be subnitted to refereed journals from this M.S. thesis during the latter half of 2008. Copies will be submitted to Coastal program staff and funding from this project will be acknowledged. The use of in situ continuous (15-30 minute interval sampling) turbidity values as a surrogate for total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and Hg was assessed for each stream. Currently, sediment and nutrient loading estimates are developed for North Shore streams based on an analysis that combines continuous, stage-height hydrographs (estimating discharge) with 15-30 grab sample measurements of TSS, TP and TN. Grab sampling is biased towards higher flows during snow melt runoff and rainstorm events and the modeling software FLUX is used to generate annual loading estimates (Anderson et al. 2003; Walker 1999). Regression models relating continuous turbidity data to “spot” (i.e. discrete interrval manual grab sampling) values of TSS, TP, TN and THg during differing flow regimes were developed. Strong statistical relationships between in situ turbidity and TSS were found for all four streams (Figure 1) and these regression equations were used to compute estimates of daily and annual suspended sediment loads. Similarly, daily and annual loads for nutrients and mercury were computed using additional regression analyses of total-P, total-N, and total-Hg versus TSS (Figures 2 and 3). Table 1 summarizes provisional comparisons of the two independent loading analyses (Ruzycki et al. 2007). It


appears that the FLUX modeling approach yields consistently higher estimates for annual and snowmelt suspended sediment loading in these urban streams. Additional ana;lyses of nutrients are in progress (Ruzycki, M.S. Thesis, In prep. March 2008). Total mercury values ranged from 1 to 28 ng/L throughout the 2004-2006 open water season and show a close relationship with TSS (r2 = 0.82, n = 23) for all four streams. Figure 4 summarizes these data in relation to the MPCA criterion of 1.3 ng/L for North Shore streams. Table 2 shows a comparison of the differeing mercury species measured in the 5 streams. These results combine both runoff event and base flow data.

Linear regression models have been developed relating turbidity to TSS, total phosphorus, and mercury (Table 3). Similar models are being developed for EC25 and chloride. These results indicate that the models must be stream specific. Multiple regression has also been performed for a variety of parameters but so far have not resulted in better model fit (Ruzycki, in prep M.S. theisis). We will do the same for the Poplar River after more data is collected.


Table 3. Regression model fit for each stream. Both models are based on log transformed data. Na = not available yet, there is not enough data from Amity Creek. In-stream Turbidity vs TSS TSS vs Total Hg Stream 2 (r ) (r2) Amity 0.98 0.93 n = 33 n=9 Chester 0.61 0.87 n = 85 n=9 Kingsbury 0.72 0.91 n = 85 n = 10 Tischer 0.55 0.84 n = 85 n = 10 All Streams 0.71 0.85 Annual loads of sediments and mercury were estimated using turbidity as a surrogate . Preliminary results are shown in Table 3. These preliminary estimates, will be further refined once we gain a better understanding of the errors associated with using continuous, instream turbidity as a surrogate for suspended sediments. We recently purchased a second sonde for a Sea Grant funded study of the Lester-Amity watershed in 2008 that will enable us to determine how variable instream turbidity is along each stream cross section. We have also developed annual and seasonal discharge for all of the watersheds which will allow for future analyses of how the watersheds differ seasonally and by watershed characteristics.


Task 3. Website maintenance and new features 3-1. Website maintenance is on-going, many additions to existing sections have been created and installed, and several new sections have been created and installed in 2007. Of particular note:

The northshore streams section now has pages for 14 of the streams (including Amity) including interactive maps for each watershed. Each stream section now has additional general information, and images and text on their home pages with links to DNR for fish and invertebrate data. Other sources of data, as they are discovered or contributed by agency staff, are listed in the reference reports section that links back to each stream and a hyperlink is made if the report or datafile is available on-line. In some cases, if not too large in size, the information is actually made available directly off of the LSS website . The main map with hyperlinks to the stream sections has also been redesigned for increased clarity and ease of use. Most recently, we reviewed the Flute Reed Watershed Plan and installed it on the website (Dec 2007) and added photographs of the river during spectacular Fall 2007 floods and from other times of year and years (see Flute Reed section description below). Creek News Press Releases developed by several RSPT members in 2005 and 2006 were edited and posted in the Reports section and linked to stream sections (see www.duluthstreams.org/streams/creekNotes.html )




A new publication called the Stream-Line Newsletter was created in 2007 by J. Kallestad at NRRI-UMD with help from several Superior RSPT members and funding from the Weber Stream Restoration Initiative. Editions from Spring and Fall 2007 and recently Spring 2008 have now been created, mailed to >1500 residences in the Lester-Amity watershed, and posted on the LSS website at www.duluthstreams.org/weber/StreamLine.htm . Stories are not linited to the Lester-Amity watersheds and are solicited from WSRI and RSPT partners. Considerable guidance and review has been contributed by Mindy Granley, the NPS Program Coordinator for Minnesota’s Lake Superior Coastal Program.

3-2. TMDLs. An Understanding page was created previously with internal and external links to impaired waters information in the region. There are now three TMDL studies underway in the region (Poplar, Knife, Miller) and all now have websections on LSS. The Cook County SWCD is the lead local agency for the Lower Poplar River study and Minnesota Sea Grant at the U. of Minnesota-Duluth is conducting the outreach and education effort using the LakeSuperiorStreams website as a bulletin board for posting TMDL information and notices (www.lakesuperiorstreams.org/northshore/poplar/TMDL/ index.html). Additional links to state and federal websites were added to help educate the public about the technical details as well as the process. The Miller Creek and Knife River TMDL studies are hyperlinked from the South St. Louis County SWCD website which is the lead agency for these stream restorations. Additional biological information from NRRI surveys in the Knife River have been added.


3-3. The Major Section on LAKEAKE SUPERIOR COMMUNITIES continues to be improved http://www.lakesuperiorstreams.org/communities/regional/regional.html with new links to north shore and south shore counties and townships for information on contacting decision makers, stormwater expertise, wastewater and solid waste information, planning and zoning information and many other useful sources of information for citizens and businesses. Additional website modifications since 2007 include:


A Duluth Stormwater Infrastructure tour slide presentation was added with links from the COMMUNITIES section (Duluth Stormwater Information) and the UNDERSTANDING section (Urban Hydrology); see caption in Chester Creek image at http://duluthstreams.org/stormwater/duluth/stormwater_plan. The 2007 Duluth MS4 Annual Public Meeting Presentation slideshow is now downloadable at http://duluthstreams.org/stormwater/duluth/stormwater_plan.html

A Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG) section based on a slideshow developed by Duluth Stormwater was created (http://duluthstreams.org/citizen/fatsOilGrease.html in the CITIZENS & SCHOOLS / Home & Garden / Waste disposal section) The south shore section was greatly expanded during the previous three quarters and now includes extensive information regarding the Nemadji River, the City of Superior stream monitoring efforts, a Lake Superior Clay brochure, trout streams of WI links, and incorportation of WI DNR information on stormwater and the Lake Superior Basin throughout. We are awaiting additional information from RSPT Wisconsin Partners and are seeking collaborative grant opportunties to further develop the South Shore section. We have begun to develop a subsection for information from Fortin Consulting Company’s Parking Lot Maintenance training workshops (MPCA 319 funded with NRRI and RSPT agreeing to collaborate) this past winter and will be incorporating them into the STORMWATER and CITIZEN sections of the website over the next 2 months. This effort has been delayed by lack of funding for the overall LakeSuperiorStreams.org project.



3-4. Water Quality Impacts of Mercury A new websection within the UNDERSTANDING/WaterQualityImpacts section was created to provide information on mercury pollution sources and effects (www.lakesuperiorstreams.org/understanding/impa ct_mercury.html ). The section includes general information on the nature of the issue, on mercury cycling in the environment, and in particular – on things individuals and businesses can do to reduce the discharge of Hg into the environment. A subsection entitled Mercury in North Shore Streams provides summary data from the 2005-2007 Hg surveys of North Shore streams by NRRI, and links to other studies of mercury in the Superior Basin. It is intended that this section be dynamic since this continues to be a “hot” research topic throughout the world, and particularly in the Upper Midwest. Since, it is unclear if funding will exist in the future for comprehensive LSS website


maintenance, we have linked to a number of agency websites that are likely to continue to be current (although sudden external website changes in navigation (i.e. URLs) remains a frustrating challenge. The new Hg website sections are inserted below.



3-5. The Flute Reed River Watershed Partnership The Flute Reed River has an active citizen watershed partnership and volunteer monitoring program and the Cook County Water Plan Coordinator requested that we develop a websection for this stream. Over the past six months we have expanded this section to include a weblog for Partnership meeting minutes , photographs and reports. We are currently in the process of adding photographs of the stream taken during different times of year.

3-6. A SPOT A PROBLEM option (HOME PAGE Spot a problem? ; www.duluthstreams.org/citizen/involvement.html ) was created earlier in the grant period to refer citizens to a section to help them to know who to contact if they see or suspect a pollution problem. We are continuing to seek additional help regarding who to contact if inappropriate OHV (Off Highway Vehicle) use is seen. Considerable discussion about this topic was heard at a MN DNR Trails Division public meeting during summer 2007 concerning OHV rules for the Cloquet Valley State Forest and the issue clearly remains confusing to the general public. 3-7. GIS and Other Information GIS data and maps created by this project, the MN LSCP funded CoastalGIS project and state and federal agencies are made available in the GIS/Maps section of the individual stream sections including the ability to query across data layers (e.g., calculate the area of forested


wetlands within a 100 m riparian buffer of 2nd and higher order streams) and to create tabular and mapped summaries of the results. Spatial data analyses performed for this project in cooperation with other projects in the region included hydrography, transportation, landuse/landcover, geology and soils, ownership and administrative boundaries (see www.nrri.umn.edu/coastalgis ). The DATA INDEX link opens a main index for water quality and other information about all of the streams covered by the LakeSuperiorStreams project. It provides a map divided in Duluth, North Shore and South Shore subregions that allows the user to link to a particular stream section via mouse-rollover and or via a comprehensive table that summarizes all information available for each stream, with appropriate links

3-8. Website navigation & structure improvements: The LakeSuperiorStreams website has also continued to be revised and upgraded for technical improvements in user navigation as well as internal navigation and data processing during the past six months. An organizational redesign provides greater ease in managing individual webpages, and each stream now has its own page with common links on each page. An example can viewed at www.duluthstreams.org/northshore/maps/poplarMaps.html . There are now more than 2000 HTML files in the website, of which more than 75% have been modified since September 2006 (this is somewhat misleading since a large number of these file changes are simply updates to the navigational structure on the borders of the web pages). As web browsers and computer hardware evolve, these sorts of upgrades are an essential, but significant hidden cost, to the LakeSuperiorStreams project that contributes to website maintenance costs. 3-9. Summary of additional “new” informational and educational materials: (among the new or heavily edited pages or sections since January 2007):

LAKE SUPERIOR COMMUNITIES - Greatly improved and expanded information for citizens from Twin Ports area, north and south shore communities (www.duluthstreams.org/communities/index.html ) - Lake Superior information – from MPCA and WDNR. Future plans include creating a comprehensive new section on the Lake itself with links to appropriate research and management agencies and initiatives. - Climate – We have collected information for a regional climate section with extensive discussion of climate change issues pertinent to the region should future funding be acquired.


UNDERSTANDING - Bacteria – new information via USGS research and demonstration projects in Ohio - Watersheds- section revised to include Wisconsin DNR information as well as new MPCA materials - Impairments & TMDLs (see above discussions and descriptions of TMDL and Mercury websections) - Fish section - more fishing organization material; articles posted about Weber Initiative and NRRI Great Lakes Environmental Indicators Project (GLEI) from Angler magazine. - UM volunteer oriented aquatic bug ID website - link added plus a link to an on-line interactive taxonomic key for Minnesota aquatic invertebrates. - Data Vignettes- A variety of data sequences (vignettes) using real-time data collected from Tischer, Chester, Kingsbury, Amity and Poplar Creeks from 2002 - 2007 have formed a unique part of the LSS project to illustrate how regional streams “behave” and in particular, how watershed activities and land uses can affect the transport of dissolved and particulate pollutants into these streams. These vignettes have been developed and formatted similarly to those developed as part of the Water on the Web (WOW) water science curriculum (www.waterontheweb.org ) and will be available for viewing on the website or as downloadable slide shows for teachers or agency staff to use or modify as needed. Modules or website sections of this kind have been developed for: flow, temperature, suspended solids/turbidity and conductivity (salt). Not all have yet been installed in a website library but we hope to have this completed by September 30, 2008 if funding permits. This is an ongoing process dependent upon staff funding as we develop materials for presentations at conferences and workshops CITIZENS & SCHOOLS - Wisconsin citizen scientist information – this includes a continuing effort to help develop a “unified” citizen volunteer stream monitoring program for the western Lake Superior basin (both MN and WI) - Home and Garden – this section has been greatly expanded to include information about pharmaceutical, waste fertilizer, waste electronics disposal/recycling, and fats-oils-greases (FOG) information. STORMWATER - Urban Hydrology section www.lakesuperiorstreams.org/understanding/stormwater_hydrology.html - Stream-deicing Creek Note added to Housekeeping subsection - Site Design Toolkit - www.lakesuperiorstreams.org/stormwater/toolkit/index.html; Assessment of Stormwater Best Management Practices link added to inform users of progress made by the U. of Minnesota campus study (2005-2007). - Winter snow removal contractor training information from Fortin Consulting Co. workshops from 2006-2008 are linked from the MPCA stormwater website. We have plans to install some of these educational materials and a certification test on LSS (contingent upon funding).




- WHAT’S NEW section that is linked at the bottom of every page in the website provides a steady stream of new information gleaned from various state and federal agencies. The most relevant are added to appropriate major sections of the website.

STREAMS - The most notable additions involve TMDL materials for the Poplar R., Knife R. and Miller Creek TMDL studies and the expansion of the Flute Reed River websection. In addition: - Work has continued on an updated version of the Data-Visualization Tools, with new features that will ultimately include: ° Data-smoothing (3-point moving average); ° More time-scale options – the current version was expanded to cover a full year. ° More startup parameters – allowing complete control over the original plot when the applets are launched – making it easier to use the DVTs to illustrate specific events. This will facilitate developing data vignettes to easily make use of the most recent data as well as having the potential to instruct outreach and education professionals and agency to develop their own materials that are best suited to their specific needs. - The “left-side” navigational links on the web pages for each stream were standardized in 2007 and now we need information to “flesh out” the Photographs, Issues, and History sections. This will apparently take longer than anticipated and will require a commitment by the County Water Plan Coordinators and other local or state agencies. - A new Internet Map Server (IMS) was also created for the Weber Stream Restoration Initiative (WSRI: www.duluthstreams.org/streams/maps/weberMaps.html ) along with a number of other static maps of the area. - Additional project detail for the Amity stream bank and channel erosion survey and road crossing surveys were finalized in 2007 for inclusion in the WSRI section that lists more than a dozen projects (www.duluthstreams.org/weber/projects.html ). In particular, we revised and updated: - WSRI Project #4 Photo walk of Amity Creek (2005 and 2006) which describes the results of several dates when NRRI, Sea Grant and City Staff walked large sections of Amity Creek and photographed potential problem areas that appeared likely to generate excessive suspended sediments and turbidity. - WSRI Project #5 Survey of road crossings for Amity Creek (2005): Maps have been generated showing all the road-stream intersections in the watershed. These are sites where roadway water carrying sediment and other pollutants is often dumped directly into streams. There are enough of these that non-conventional techniques to disperse the runoff might yield significant improvement. Since it is recognized that forest roads stream crossing are potentially major sources of sediment, turbidity and nutrients, it is important to generate similar maps for all impaired or threatened North Shore trout streams. - Data index tables for North and South Shore streams continue to be updated with data reports and links as they are discovered. MPCA water chemistry spreadsheets since 2002 now installed for all MPCA long-term monitored northshore streams except the Brule River (data from MPCA is currently being reformatted- Mar 2008).


Monitoring “impacts” (in terms of drainage area and stream miles): Summary of total watershed areas and associated total stream lengths per watershed for sites with automated water quality monitoring stations. Data from Fitzpatrick et al. 2006, Anderson et al. 2003) and www.LakeSuperiorStreams.org. Note that the watershed areas upstream of the in stream sensors represented 97-99% of total area for each monitored watershed.
Kingsbury Area (km2) Area (acres) Stream Length (km) Stream Length (mi) 23.3 5755 18.8 Chester 17.4 4298 18.4 Tischer 18.9 4668 18.1 Amity 43.3 10,695 53.1 Poplar 83.1 20,545 40.6 Total 186.0 km2 45,961 acres 149.0 km






92.6 miles

Awards: The project won a number of awards in the past three years that it has received funding from Minnesota’s Lake Superior Coastal program including:
o o o

o o o o o


2004 APEX Award of Excellence - Communications Concepts, Inc - award to the related DuluthStreams website - special purpose video and electronic publications category 2005 Environmental Leadership Award at the 4th Annual Road Salt Symposium in St. Cloud Minnesota for the feature “How much salt is a problem”. 2005 Technical Excellence Award in recognition of "Outstanding Research in Stream and Lake Restoration, Protection and Management" from the North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) Website of the month in December 2005 by the Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN) 2005 Media award from the St. Louis River Citizens Action Committee Nominated: 2006 Great Lakes State of the Lakes (SOLEC) Success Story Award Nominated: 2006 National Association of Flood and Stormwater Management Agencies (NAFSMA) “Excellence in Communication” Award 2007 Environmental Stewardship Award to LakeSuperiorStreams.org in the Community/Organization category for the United States from the Lake Superior Binational Forum. (award was presented on July 15, 2007 — Lake Superior Day and then more formally at the Making a Great Lake Superior Conference in Duluth, MN on October 29, 2007. LakeSuperiorStreams.org and the RSPT were jointly a Finalist for the Minnesota Environmental Initiative 2007 Education Award awarded May 17, 2007.


V. Evaluation Website usage: Web activity is tracked automatically and summarized at ~6 month intervals. As of December 31, 2007 the site had achieved more than 458,000 “hits”/month as a monthly high in May 2007(~247,000 when the current MN LSCP grant proposal was written) and >85,000 “page requests”/mo (May/June 2007; ~ 57,000 when the current proposal was written) with a regional and national target audience that includes: the general public; students and teachers; contractors, consultants and developers; decision makers; and agencies (local, state, and federal). There are some additional useful measures from new website tracking software that we acquired in 2007 that suggest that ~40% of the requests are from computers or Internet Service Providers in MN with perhaps another 5% in WI- but these estimates are preliminary. Website requests have come from more than 120 countries to date; it is likely that this wide range is due in part to the wide poularity of our parent project WaterontheWeb.org which continues to receive more than 4 times the activity of LakeSuperiorStreams.org despite minimal changes in the WOW website over the past three years (except for the data feed and links from LSS). It is also of interest that although website usage continues to grow steadily from year to year, there is a pronounce increase in Spring and Fall and a large decrease every summer. This strongly suggests use by students and teachers. Surveys- Our effort to obtain direct survey evaluation by an on-line survey and by interviewing targeted user groups has languished for lack of funding to pursue the data more fervently. We have also worked closely with the Regional Social Indicators Initiative (SI) funded by the USEPA and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) over the past year (see www.uwex.edu/ces/regionalwaterquality/Flagships/Indicators.htm ). The social indicators project is intended to improve and protect water quality through the design and implementation a system for integrating social indicators into nonpoint source (NPS) planning, implementation, and evaluation. Social indicators for NPS management will provide information about awareness, attitudes, constraints, capacity, and behaviors that are expected to lead to water quality improvement and protection.


By measuring these indicators over time, water quality managers can target their project activities and assess whether their projects are accomplishing changes expected to improve and protect water quality. Monitoring social indicators, like monitoring environmental indicators, will provide valuable information about how well management strategies are working. As part of a collaboration with a City of Duluth/NRRI/MN Sea Grant EPA 319 NPS project involving retrofits of a residential neighborhood to reduce runoff that has just begun (March 2008), the Minnesota SI team is also developing practical, informal evaluation tools that will applied in the proposed project and will make use of the LSS website in addition to providing valuable evaluation of it.

Presentations A running list of presentations, reports, journal manuscripts, articles, and awards is maintained on the LakeSuperiorStreams.org website in the ABOUT US section linked from the bottom of every page. VI. Conclusions and Summary Evaluation LSS relies heavily on information provided by members of the Superior Regional Stormwater Protection Team (RSPT) which evolved from the original DuluthStreams.org project, with a mission of developing a common set of educational materials for the region and promoting joint activities to achieve its goals. This group now includes 26 member organizations including Minnesota and Wisconsin agencies, local governments, and organizations (including NEMO, Sea Grant-UMD, NRRI-UMD, UW-Superior Extension, townships, cities, transportation, nonprofits, Soil and Water Conservation Districts, and others) which serve a continued role in the evolution of the website and its materials. The RSPT uses the website as a vehicle for disseminating information to its wide audience, makes use of presentation materials using realtime water quality and GIS data developed by the academic team, and in turn provides technical expertise on stormwater engineering and construction, regulatory, and planning issues. RSPT partners in turn provide information for i) developing local case studies, ii) estimating realistic costs for BMPs, and restoration projects, iii) collaborating to offer training workshops for contractors, consultants,


and agency staff and iv) providing a critical link between academic scientists and educators and decision makers. Enhancing this synergy was a continuing goal of this proposal. The project has generated water quality data needed to assess, model and manage threatened trout streams as well as the coastal zone of Lake Superior. It provides the data needed to allow resource agencies to better estimate seasonal, year-to-year and stream-to-stream variability in water quality and contribute to regulatory work plans for addressing impairments. The project built on pre-existing partnerships - LakeSuperiorStreams, the RSPT, and the Weber Stream Restoration Initiative with significant in-kind effort and funding from MPCA, WLSSD, City of Duluth Stormwater Utility, and the University of Minnesota-Duluth. Additional collaborators included Lutsen Mountain Ski Area, South St Louis/Cook/Lake County SWCDs, and the Poplar River Management Board. Objectives evolved from discussions between LSS, RSPT and WSRI partners, and between NRRI, Sea Grant, MPCA, MDNR and EPA-MED (Duluth) aquatic scientists studying Superior Basin watersheds, surface waters, and biological communities and collaborating on numerous applied research and water science education projects for >15 yrs. Effective monitoring of seasonal pollutant levels and loading rates are also important elements of the Superior Basin Plan and are essential to track trends, estimate background, and evaluate the efficacy of BMPs for mitigation and restoration projects (Magner and Brooks 2008). LakeSuperiorStreams staff also created MPCA’s MNBeaches.org website and interactive data visualization tools, a websection for St. Louis River Watch, and have discussed with various agencies how to make complex data sets interesting and interpretable to the public. The use of real-time, intensive stream data allows for more accurate measurements of water quality changes across entire annual and event stream hydrographs- prohibitively expensive using manually collected data. This real-time monitoring will provide a better understanding of how landuse changes and potentially, restoration efforts, affect stream water quality and habitat. The LakeSuperiorStreams website has received regional, state and national awards for its science-based, creative linking of environmental education to real-time data to inform citizens, teachers, students, contractors, development interests, agencies and scientists about the connections between land activities and the condition of surface waters. It has strived to provide positive messages about personal actions to mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Future innovative elements will involve applying our data visualization utilities to additional agency bacteria, water quality, thermal, and climate data and piloting QA’ed citizen monitoring data for assessment and trend evaluation. VI. Acknowledgements This project was funded under the Coastal Zone Management Act, by NOAA’s Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, in cooperation with Minnesota’s Lake Superior Coastal Program (MLSCP Project No. 306-08-08 and Contract Number: A92533 to RPA). Development of the project was conducted by the Natural Resources Research Institute at the University of Minnesota-Duluth (NRRI-UMD and Sea Grant–UMD) in close collaboration with City of Duluth Stormwater Utility staff. More than 50% of the total cost of the project was provided in the form of: (1) in-kind salary match by NRRI-UMD’s Center for Water & the Environment and Sea Grant – UMD salary match (43%); MPCA-Duluth salary match (J. Anderson) for field sampling and data analysis, and water quality analyses (24%); (3) water quality analyses by the


Western Lake Superior Sanitary District (10%); (4) field sampling, sensor maintenance, web materials development, RSPT coordination and website operation funding by City of Duluth stormwater staff (~23%). Dave Stark of the Cook County SWCD helped with field work and sensor maintenance and calibration at the Poplar River site and by providing Poplar River TMDL materials and relevant reports. Jerry Walker of the Duluth Stormwater Utility helped with field maintenance of water quality sensors. Mindy Granley, now with the MN Lake Superior Coastal Program, provided review and materials from workshops and also continued to help with the site design toolkit section and with web section review. We also thank the entire Superior Regional Stormwater Protection Team (RSPT) for its ideas and dedication to minimizing the impacts of stormwater on regional water resources.


VII. References Ameel, J., E. Ruzycki and R.P. Axler. 1998. Analytical chemistry and quality assurance procedures for natural water samples. 6th edition. NRRI Tech. Rep. NRRI/TR98/03. Anderson, J., M. Evenson, T. Estabrooks, and B. Wilson. 2003. An assessment of representative L. Superior Basin tributaries. MN Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul 55155. APHA. 2003. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Amer. Publ. Health Assoc. Washington, D.C. Axler, R., J.Henneck, E.Ruzycki and N.Will. 2007. Poplar River, MN (Cook County), 2006 Automated, in situ, Water Quality Data: Preliminary Analysis. January 31, 2007. Unpubl. Report submitted to MPCA’s Poplar River TMDL Study. Axler, R., C.Hagley, G.Host and J.Schomberg. 2006. LakeSuperiorStreams.org: Making stormwater and stream data come alive for citizens, students, teachers, contractors, resource agencies, decision-makers and scientists. Proceedings U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey 5th National Water Quality Monitoring Conference, San Jose, CA May 7-11, 2006. Axler, R. and M. Lonsdale. 2003. Duluth Streams: Community Partnerships For Understanding Water Quality and Stormwater Impacts at the Head of the Great Lakes (www.duluthstreams.org) . Coastline Issue 13.1: 10-15. www.epa.gov/owow/estuaries/coastlines), February 2003. Duluth. 2000. Duluth Vision 2000 – Duluth in the 21st Century. City of Duluth Planning Department, December 2000. EPA. 1999a. National pollution discharge elimination system – regulations for revision of the water pollution control program addressing storm water discharges. Federal Register 64(235): 68722-68735. EPA. 1999b. Report to Congress on the phase II storm water regulations. EPA 833-R-99-001. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. EPA. 1998. EPA Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans EPA QA/G-5. EPA/600/R98/018, February 1998. (http://www.epa.gov/quality1/qs-docs/g5-final.pdf) /600/9-89/087. Fitzpatrick, F.A., Peppler,M.C., DePhilip, M.M. and Lee, K.E. 2006. Geomorphic characteristics and classification of Duluth-Area streams, Minnesota. USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5029. Granley, M. and M.Lonnsdale. 2007. Innovative water quality protection strategies in the Lake Superior watershed. Proceedings of Coastal Zone 2007 Conference, Portland, Oregon, July 22 to 26, 2007 Granley, M. and M.Lonsdale. 2005. Meeting the Challenge: A Protection Message in a Restoration World. Regional Stormwater Protection Team Presentation, 4th National Conference, Nonpoint Sources and Stormwater Pollution Education Programs, October 1720, 2005. Host, G. E., N. R. Will, R. P. Axler, C.J. Owen, and B. H. Munson. 2000. Interactive technologies for collecting and visualizing water quality data. Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association 12:39-45. Host, G.E. , B. H. Munson, R. P. Axler, C. A. Hagley, G. Merrick and C. J. Owen. 1999. Water on the Web: Students monitoring Minnesota rivers and lakes over the Internet. AWRA Spec. Symp. Water Resources and World Wide Web. Seattle, WA, Dec. 1999.


IJC. 1999. Lake Superior Binational Program. Final. 1999. Protecting Lake Superior–Lakewide Management Plan, Stage 2. Load Reduction Targets for Critical Pollutants. Prepared by the Superior Work Group: Chemical Committee. 162 pages. Thunder Bay and Chicago. Lonsdale, M., T.Carlson, R.Axler, J.Walker, C.Hagley, J.Schomberg, M.Granley and G.Host, Linking data, public outreach and education: The City of Duluth Stream Outreach Program - www.lakesuperiorstreams.org. Water Environment Federation Proceedings of Annual Meeting: WEFTEC.06 - The Water Quality Event, 79th Annual Conference and Exhibition, Oct 21-25, 2006, Dallas, Texas USA. INVITED. Magner, J. A. and K. N. Brooks. 2008. Integrating sentinel watershed-systems into the monitoring and assessment of Minnesota’s (USA) waters quality. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 138: 149-158. MPCA.2006. Minnesota's Impaired Waters and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL):2006 Final List of Impaired Waters (approved by the U.S. EPA on May 13, 2006). www.pca.state.mn.us/water/tmdl/index.html#tmdl MPCA. 2000. North Shore land use issues: The real costs of growth. Publication WQ/Lake Superior Basin #2.03. Munson, B., R. Huber, R. Axler, G. Host, C. Hagley, C. Moore and G. Merrick. 2003. Investigating water quality through the Internet. The Science Teacher 70(1): 44-49. Peterson, D. (EPA ed). 2000. Delivering timely water quality information to your community: The Lake Access-Minneapolis project. EPA/625/R-00/012, September 2000, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH, 45268, USA (contributing authors: R. Axler, J. Barten, J. Goin, C.Hagley, G.Host, B. Liukkonen, B.Munson, B.Peichel, C.Owen, B.Vlach, N.Will). EPA-625/R-00/012, 104 p. Richardson, D.C. 2007. Preserving the legacy of glaciers: Six minimum measures in the Great Lakes region [Centerpiece of the Region is an interview with Marnie Lonsdale, City of Duluth Stormwater Utility Education Coordinator]. Stormwater 8(2), Mar/Apr. 2007 or via http://distributedenergy.com/sw_0703_preserving.html Ruzycki, E., R. Axler, J.Henneck, N.Will, and G.Host. 2007. Sediment and nutrient load measurements in western Lake Superior streams: In-stream turbidity sensors versus grab sampling and modeling. MN water Resources Conference, Minneapolis, MN, October 24, 2007. Will, N., R.Axler, G.Host and H.Bauman. 2006. Interactive Animation and Visualization Tool for Exploring Lake Superior Beach Monitoring Program Bacteria Data. Final Report to Minnesota's Lake Superior Coastal Program, Project No. 306-STAR07-05, MN Department of Natural Resources, Two Harbors, MN 55616. FINAL REPORT to the Minnesota’s Lake Superior Coastal Program – 2006 Walker, W.W., 1999. Simplified Procedures for Eutrophication Assessment and Prediction: User Manual. US Army Corps of Engineers Instruction Report W-96-2, 235 p.). Wolter, P. 2007 (In press). Wolter, P.T., C.A. Johnston, and G. J. Niemi, Land use land cover change in the U.S. Great Lakes basin 1992 to 2001, Int. Journal for Great Lakes Res.


2001- 2007 N. Shore Stream Monitoring Program FLUX Model loading estimates Jesse Anderson, MPCA, 3/08

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
Total Flow Volume (HM3; Open Water Season) 12.32 6.37 11.07 10.16 6.58 Flow Weighted Mean Conc. (mg/L) Yield (lbs/mi2) 72.6 120,092 29.0 24,695 85.3 126,840 24.8 33,808 25.5 22,563

Total Phosphorus
Flow Weighted Mean Conc. (ug/L) 122 89 74 64 65

Total Nitrogen (TKN + NO2 + NO3)
Flow Weighted Mean Conc. (mg/L) 1.0 1.2

Total Chloride
Flow Weighted Mean Conc. (mg/L) 16.0 24.2 23.3 18.2 16.8

Stream Amity

Drainage Area (sq. miles) Year 16.39 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 5.45 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Generalized Climate Note Mass load (pounds) Big Snow Year 1,969,457 Dry Summer 404,993 slightly wetter than average 2,080,111 Dry Summer 554,435 Significant Summer Drought 370,026 no load calculations - missing flow data; bridge reconstruction 118,583 343,089 89,623 134,211 78,245 104,889 104,889 1,296,064 221,667 258,990 761,750 410,086 no load calculations- missing 5 weeks of spring flow data

Mass (tons) 984 202 1,040 277 185

Coefficient of Variation 0.37 0.10 0.03 0.24 0.16

Mass (pounds) 3,306 1,260 1,810 1,438 932

Mass (tons) 1.60 0.63 0.90 0.71 0.46

Yield (lbs/mi ) 201.0 76.8 110.0 87.7 56.8


Coefficient of Variation Mass (pounds) 0.37 28,730 0.27 17,162 0.35 0.15 0.16

Mass (tons) 14.3 8.5

Yield (lbs/mi2) 1,751 1,046

Coefficient of Variation Mass (pounds) 0.4 434,477 0.2 340,340 567,670 406,885 243,170

Mass (tons) 217.0 170.0 283.8 203.4 121.5

Yield (lbs/mi2) 26,493 20,753 34,615 24,810 14,827

Coefficient of Variation 0.37 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.05


2.96 3.62 2.47 5.87 5.35 4.3 5.45 14.02 6.76 13.37 14.2 16.3

extreme midsummer drought; big rains in Oct.

59 171 45 67 39 52 52 648 111 129 381 205

18.2 43.0 16.0 10.3 6.6 10.8 19.0 42.0 14.8 8.8 24.2 11.4

21,758 62,952 16,444 24,625 14,356 19,245 19,246 66,125 11,309 13,213 38,864 20,922

0.33 0.37 0.11 0.40 0.23 0.40 0.42 0.33 0.37 0.23 0.28 0.17

400 759 455 591 558 380 605 1,912 704 939 1,447 1,163

0.20 0.37 0.22 0.29 0.27 0.19 0.30 0.95 0.35 0.46 0.72 0.58

62 95 83 45 47 39 64 62 47 31 46 32

73.5 139.0 83.5 108.0 102.5 69.8 111.0 97.5 35.9 47.9 73.8 59.4

0.18 0.22 0.09 0.18 0.09 0.08 0.18 0.14 0.18 0.11 0.13 0.06

8,521 7,528

4.2 3.7

1.0 1.3

1,563 1,381

0.4 0.1

52,403 64,314 129,364 113,995 82,979 68,490 113,197 81,171 148,401 146,784 159,040

26.2 32.1 64.6 56.9 41.4 34.2 56.5 40.5 74.2 73.3 79.5

6.6 11.8 10.0 9.6 8.5 7.3 3.6 5.4 5.0 4.6 4.4

9,615 11,800 23,736 20,916 15,225 12,567 5,775 4,141 7,571 7,488 8,114

0.37 0.13 0.10 0.15 0.04 0.13 0.33 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.04



24,366 12,740

12.1 6.3

0.8 0.9

1,243 650

0.3 0.1



30.64 28.38 17.46 23.9 25.23 23.5 26.99 42.88 45.61 69.1 56.12 59.9 47.1 43.51 47.02 71.3 57.85 61.7 48.6 82.83 102.2 309 194.9 165.6 315

significant summer drought, big fall rains

3,362,311 955,270 683,388 624,179 1,446,203 1,338,984 791,837 503,754 442,547 807,659 678,315 1,038,785 1,121,956 2,949,769 1,976,112 3,364,596 1,351,326 1,769,726 1,513,415 1,201,416 1,077,443 2,749,331 2,410,162 2,247,465 12,408,818

1,681 477 342 312 723 669 871 251 221 404 339 519 561 1,474 988 1,682 676 885 757 600 539 1,375 1,205 1,123 6,204

49.8 15.3 17.7 11.8 26.0 25.9 29.3 5.3 4.4 5.3 5.4 7.8 10.8 30.8 19.1 21.4 10.6 13.0 14.1 6.5 4.7 6.3 5.6 6.1 17.8

86,213 24,494 17,522 16,004 37,082 34,332 44,668 4,482 3,937 7,186 6,035 9,243 9,984 25,872 17,332 29,511 11,852 15,522 13,274 4,447 3,988 10,178 8,923 8,320 45,941

0.23 0.25 0.37 0.23 0.34 0.60 0.39 0.11 0.17 0.21 0.19 0.25 0.12 0.29 0.39 0.26 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.37 0.26 0.23 0.13 0.19 0.30

6,403 3,309 2,175 1,848 3,579 2,646 3,553 2,289 2,501 4,639 3,069 3,335 3,546 5,214 4,019 5,918 4,285 4,129 3,876 3,826 6,166 9,944 9,264 9,319 26,024

3.20 1.65 1.00 0.92 1.70 1.30 1.78 1.14 1.25 2.30 1.50 1.66 1.77 2.60 2.00 2.90 2.10 2.06 1.94 1.91 3.00 4.90 4.60 4.65 13.0

95 53 56 35 64 51 60 24 25 30 25 25 34 54 39 37 34 30 36 21 27 22 22 26.0 37.5

164.2 84.8 55.7 47.3 91.7 67.9 91.1 20.4 22.2 41.2 27.3 29.7 31.6 45.7 35.2 51.9 37.5 36.2 34.0 14.1 22.8 36.8 34.3 34.5 96.3

0.11 0.15 0.19 0.16 0.17 0.26 0.20 0.08 0.10 0.25 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.22 0.33 0.22 0.14 0.13 0.18 0.18 0.20 0.09 0.13 0.11 0.16

55,568 37,939

27.7 18.9

0.9 1.0

1,424 972

0.3 0.1

127,369 86,977 142,846 135,236 85,087 111,012 145,277 173,082 199,047 150,099 166,524 194,601 193,358 212,168 236,858 195,252 195,192 266,922 260,583 345,710 469,486 503,811 392,482 1,034,620

63.6 43.4 71.4 67.6 42.5 55.5 72.6 86.5 99.5 75.0 83.2 97.3 96.6 106.0 118.4 97.6 97.5 133.5 130.0 172.8 234.7 251.9 196.2 517.3

2.0 2.2 2.7 2.4 1.6 7.3 1.5 1.7 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.5 1.4 2.4 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.5

3,265 2,230 3,662 3,467 2,181 2,846 1,292 1,540 1,771 1,335 1,481 1,732 1,695 1,860 2,077 1,712 1,712 2,341 964 1,279 1,738 1,865 1,453 3,830

0.25 0.09 0.34 0.13 0.08 0.13 0.11 0.07 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.29 0.10 0.08 0.12 0.04 0.15 0.37 0.04 0.02 0.11 0.02 0.04

Poplar- Up


74,525 88,946

37.2 44.4

0.8 0.9

663 791

0.1 0.1

~ 25 yr. rain event in May

significant summer drought, big fall rains

Poplar- Down


80,406 100,102

40.2 50.0

0.8 1.0

705 878

0.3 0.1

~ 25 yr. rain event in May

significant summer drought, big fall rains



123,913 170,656

61.9 85.3

0.7 0.8

458 631

0.4 0.1

~ 25 yr. rain event in May

very high flow in Oct. ~ 60 % of TSS load from one event


2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

503,754 442,547 807,659 678,315 1,038,785 1,121,956

Poplar_Down TSS Load (pounds)
2,949,769 1,976,112 3,364,596 1,351,326 1,769,726 1,513,415 2,446,015 1,533,565 2,556,937 673,011 730,941 391,459

TSS Load (tons)
1,223.01 766.78 1,278.47 336.51 365.47 195.73