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At

by -June StoEle

Drietv of the U.N's enterinE- into


SFTSCK Ai'iD PERSONAT, scif>W sbch an qxration a t all. Yzt the
J ' O U : ~ ~ , defer,s&ss
nntions rzailze
I+ the
death
-nT. Secretzrjr Genera! t h a t they, abovc all, need the U.N.
D a g Hammars:; &I is giving wzy to
The questmn intheir minds, whikh
' the exigzncies of carrying on business
theyhope wlll'be a t leastpartidly
as usual. Mompqtum andtradltlon,
answeredin the newperiod of, rcasfor the time being, are the motivating forces: Mongi Slrm olp Tunisia sessnlent which the world body will
s,hould be its role
was elected President of the (Six- undergo,is:what
inthclrfuture?What
lessons were
t e e q d General Assembly, andthe
learned
from
the
Congo
experience?
committee
chairmen
have
been
The
late
Secretary
General
must
chosen., Afteranafternoon
of forhave
asked
himself that question
mat eulGgies tothelateSecretary
many times. Repeatedly, in
public
General, the
Stcering
Committee
utterances
and
wntings,
he
said
that
set7 t o work, 011 the agenda. Visitors
thoughinthehistoricstage
which
see little evidence, from Eheir var,tage
gal!eries,
that the world had reached a world orpoint in t h e pI!blic
ganizationhad
become a necessity, '
the world orgar~ization,behindthe
sc,enes;' is readying itself for a new the' U N . must be recognized as an
imperfect if Indispensable answer t o
.and crucialera.
'The traglc death of Hammarskjold this need. He told the British Parliament on April 2, 1958:
bringstoahead.
a crisls thathas
The [world] forces in play imlohg been brewing. Misedwiththe
pose- limits on theextension
of
Confusion, sorro-v and apprphension
power that the world organization
felt by the majority of the delegates
cantake at each step,limits beis a certain air of relief that a t long
yond which i t cannot progress,
, l a s t .the impqnding struggle between
until the equilibrium of .foyces perEastandWest
over the reorganizamits it, thanks 'to an organic evotion 'cf,the U.N. will nowbe forSed
lution- of thesystem of, customs
. intoa decisive phase. Fewthought
and laws in force in international
, t h e -struggle could be avoided; and
Society.
, p a , n y . feared the consequences to
' themselves and to the orgamzation of
Again, on a German telqvision prombnths of pressure and in-fighting
gr?m pn May ,lo, 1959, he said:
that ' seemed ' certain to accompany
It is . . . natural for anyone
it.. Thereareno
illusions thatthis
who follows international ' affairs
stepped-up
fight
will be easy
or
closely wonder
to
' sometimes
short:dut a t least it will come now;
whether
the
present
forms, of
and, ,&e air, hopefully, w ~ l lbe cleared
world organization, limited though
that much sooner.
theymay
be, arenotsomewhat
ahead of theirtime.
The qew members will be particuSo, in a way,Hammasskjold dislarlyrshsved,thoughtheyarefar
regarded his own warnings a t h e
from decided as to howtheywant
cost of hisown
life. The-world is
the .battle to come out. The sixteen
en- perhaps, not a t the ,stage of history
hewly. independent'nationsthat
tered the U.N. in 1960 soon found to permit such a step forward as he
themselves inthe
midst
of the intended the Congo operation to be.
Con'go chaos. In the course of heated To insulate a country from the cold
war, to tutor it into responsible nadebates, f~lledwithaccusationsand
tionhood withthe
help of iptemargcriminations, the Africans
were
plunged ' into big-power politics. tiqnal U.N. experts, was a concept
t h a t demanded
among big
Thistheyhad
hope'd toavoidwith
nations
and
responsibility
among
the help of the ,U.N., and the early
mostmof all, from the Congo
days of thc organization's participa- small
tion in the
Congo
operation
had itself. Thestory is notoverinthe
Congo, but already clear is the fact
strengthened the hope. As the world
endthat it cannot have the happy
now knows, it was nQt t o be.
p W ~ y ?What
.
wentwrong?
Suspi- ing Hammarskjold hopedfor it. Belgium, of course, is theblackest vilcions and doubts arose as to the prolain, but recent news reportsfrom
J A N E STQLLE is The Nation's U.N. England indicate that Hammarskjold
himself had 'tacitly admitted to U.N.
correspondent.
United Nations

'.

"

ono or

mismanagement
in
the
Congo the
past
- 7 avzeks. For
whatever
the
reasons, the Cmp;o operationwould
S&IX tr, Le ,omethinp less than SLICc c s ~ ~ u lYet
. there
are
pluses, too,
which must be added to Hnmmarskjold's greatvictories forpeace
in
other areas. The greatest is that neocolonialism is discredited for all time
i n theentire world; andtheformer
celonial powers have been p u t on
noticetothis effect.

THERE ARE those in the, U.N. who

think that the late Secretary


General-exce,ptional- mqn thoughhewas
"tried to carry the
world. ahead on
hlsshoulders too fast, and too single- '
Ilandedly. Even if it were possible
t o .fmd a ' m a n of his' caliber to
succeedhim, there would be,hesitationin
n a n y camps t o accord:: his
succcssor the same' liberal , interpretation of his office.. The U.N., they
remind one, is nota sovereign gover'nment and qust 'abtain- majority
support from its'members in ordef to
function. For that reason, responsibdity for the taking,of action must
be shared by
the
majority.
This
does notobviatethe
need for ' t h e
Haid:
"quiet diplomacy" forwhich
marskjold beca&e so widely known
and general19 praised.' But, slower
thoughtheprocess may be, open
and full 'debate of steps td be taken
mag ili 'the
in a crucialsituation
longrunhave
less dqngerous Consequences or the U.N.
Proponents of this view also distr-ust a hurried solution of the probof , t h e
lem caused bythedeath
or who, is
SecretaryGeneral:what,
t o repIace him. The USSR is not
alone in favoring a full airing of the
froika question. There are those who
pointoutthatthereis
an abIe under-secretariat that has -already, in '
the past few days, negotiated a *successful cease-fire ia the' Congo war;.
This could functionjointly,in
all
interim capacity,Las a Secretary ~ + j era1 while the three-headed Russian
plan is either esppsed fcx the monster
some claim i t t o be, or a comprolnise
is reached and an able man is found,
acceptabIe t o all, to become the 'new
Secretary General, or troika is found
the
majority
wants.
to be what
These obsevers arecertainthatthe
t r o i k a plan as itstandswould
fail
in full debate.Theyhavefaith
in
(Colztimred o n page 216) '

e of hisgreatfort,theboydreams

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CHelsea 2-8400

216

(Continued f r o m p g e 193)
the
deslre
of themijorlty
of the
member nntvpns tokeepthe
U N.
strong,and,
glven enoughtimefor
d i s c ~ ~ s s ~ o n , t hbelleve
ey
that the majorlty w~llrejecta
rigld t l o i k n as
wenkenlng But untd the idea is aired,
It will hangas
a threatoverthe
head of the organization
B u t even I f the USSR abandons
the t m i k a , i t wlll not be easy to find
The
first
General
the right man.
AssemblyonJanuary
24, 1946, declded that the terms of hppointrnent
should be suchastoenablea
man
of eminenceand
h ~ g hattal~iment
to acceptandmaintaintheposltlon.
It was dlfficulr, even 111 those halcyon
clays of East-West Friendship, to find
amutuallyacceptablemanwhonot
only
complied
wlth the above requirements,but who would be will~ n gtoleavewhateverjobhehad
forone so friught with potential internationalobloquy. In addltion,the
GeneralAssemblynarrowedthe
field
,

interest. AddrossM1SS V A N U m % , P. 0.
B O X 2242. PHXLADELFHIA 3. PA.

envelope t o . Box 509, c/o The Nathion.

thinking
up
things
for his
adults t o do, andthecast
( I assume
amateur) is nogood a t all a t pretendIng theywouldbehave
so of then own
accord
Genre
documentaries
requlre
patience - the
long
waits
for the
superbaccrdents - b u t Mr Hillseems
of manwhoidlesaround
notthesort
I n thishopefulway.Hehaspad
for
hls ~estlessness
by
producmg
fllm
a
which, for all Its central charm, is often
busy,
self-consc~ous
and
stra,ined.

For his dreamsequence


(In color),
the dlrector employed cardboard- figures,
which he animated by stop-photography
andmampulatedthroughthecorridors
and
chambers
of a VictorIan :aper
cutout castlc. Agam, the managerla1 ingenulty is Apressive - and .much I n
ev~dence.I found this (Ifortuna,tely b m f )
sect1011of the ih1 humorl~ssxnd dull.
All thls means th;lt The Sand Castle
is not,
in
my
op~nlon,
a very good
I hatetosay
so, for
picture.Andyet
It does,capturethemodestabsorptlon
of thetalentedboy,andthe
sandpiper
d~ligence ofA his little slster-, trottlng the
beach on her
,helpful
errands.
,

At the U B .

PERSONALS

INDEPENDEXT TIINTfEBS - ihvestignte


HUMANISM! WTrte Amerlcm Hwmmlst
A@soelmttlon,D e g t . N2, Yellow Springs, Ohio.

forever

falry-Tale version of the


afternoon.
e IS awakened b,y his mother. In time
I watch 111 rueful
acceptanceasthe
smg watersweepshiscreatlonaway.
Amateurs of photographyaredrawn
I thebeachagamaddagam
- they
tnnotappeasetheuappetrteforthe
cturesque,tr;lshwashed 111 by the sea
- thehumaneccentl-~cs,attractedby
. t t and
sun
So The Salad Castle, If
I t exactlyrepetitlous,ismadeup
of
noothly fam111ar mgredlents:starflsh
~d sportive
nuns;
Infatuated
flsherLen andhysterIca1 gulls; a fatman, a
:innydame,
some youngmen
build-'
g muscle,
lovers,
gossipers gettmg
leir feetwet,anamateurpainter,
a
~ s s ylady with a11 understandtng he;u-t.
: a11 photographs most excellently; but
thlnk
beaches
should
be closed to
nematiclyliclsts for a year or so.
The real fault I flnd, though,in
a
Icture I spasmodicallyenjoyed,
IS Its
ver-management.Thechildrenareleft
retty
much
alone,
and
they
photo-nph with the
sweet,
commonplace
12g1c of their
age
But
Mr. E1111 IS

by statlngthat,becausethe
SecretaryGeneral
was theconfidant
of
so m a n y governments, it wils d e w able t h a t no memberstateshould
offer him,lmrnedratelyuponhis
retirement from the UN., any governmentalpositionandthathe,
on hls

part,shouldrefrainfromaccepting
any. There are not many selfless men
of Trygve Ties and Dag Hamrnarskjolds emmence
and
high
attain-
mcnt.
However, if t h e decision is made
to
seek
him,
there
1s llttle
doubt
he wlll eventually be found Though
both of the previous Secretaries General were found outside the
or.ganizatlon,
there
is strong
a feellng
in
some
quarters
that
this
tlme
he
should come from within it - and
notjusttheinterimSecretaryGeneral; butthepermanentone,The
problemsfacedbytheorganlzatlon
have become so complex and numero m t h a t a, man who has grown up
wlththem,
so tospeak, would be
best
equipped
to
deaI withthem.
Too, having seen thepitfalls
of an
over-concentration of power from the
Inside, hewould
be morelikelyto
shareresponslbiiity.
Meanwhile,
committee
chairmen
a n d anarereadymgtheiragendas
ticipatlng battles over such
old items
as t h e adrnlsslon of m a d a n d C h i n a
and new-old ones,such as dlsarmamentandthecessation
of nuclear
testing.
. Thls will be alongandtroubled
sesslon.
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.-

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