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AS 37402010

AS 37402010

Australian Standard
Waterproofing of domestic wet areas

This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee BD-038, Wet Areas in Buildings. It
was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 9 September 2010.
This Standard was published on 5 November 2010.

The following are represented on Committee BD-038:

Architectural Aluminium Fabricators Association (NSW)


Australian Building Codes Board
Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Australian Consumer Association CHOICE
Australian Institute of Building Surveyors
Australian Institute of Waterproofing
Australian Tile Council
Building Research Association of New Zealand
Business New Zealand
CSIRO, Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology
Engineered Wood Products Association of Australasia
Federation of Wall and Ceiling Industries Australia and New Zealand
Housing Industry Australia
Institute of Materials Engineering Australasia
Master Builders Australia
Planning South Australia
South Australia Housing Trust
TAFE NSW
Timber Queensland

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 09057.


Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that
contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the
Committee and through the public comment period.

Keeping Standards up-to-date


Australian Standards are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and
systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions
are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued.
Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are
using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been
published since the Standard was published.
Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can
be found by visiting www.standards.org.au
Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to
notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at
mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.

AS 37402010

Australian Standard
Waterproofing of domestic wet areas

Originated as AS 37401989.
Fourth edition 2010.

COPYRIGHT
Standards Australia Limited
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher, unless otherwise permitted under the Copyright Act 1968.
Published by SAI Global Limited under licence from Standards Australia Limited, GPO Box
476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia
ISBN 978 0 7337 9703 3

AS 37402010

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee BD-038, Wet Areas in
Buildings, to supersede AS 37402004, Waterproofing of wet areas within residential
buildings.
The objective of this Standard is to set out the criteria for waterproofing wet areas within
domestic buildings. It gives minimum requirements for materials, designs and installations.
The objective of this revision is to bring this Standard in line with the current waterproofing
practices in the building industry.
Changes to the previous edition include the following:
(a)

Risk levels of different areas.

(b)

Appropriate details for various risk levels.

(c)

Clarification of usage definitions.

(d)

Increased ease of reference for varying conditions.

(e)

Revised design and installation techniques.

This Standard is not to be interpreted as preventing the use of materials, systems or methods
that meet the design and installation criteria set out in the Standard, but are not specifically
referred to herein (alternative solution).
Additional requirements may need to be considered for wet areas intended for use by people
with disabilities.
The term informative has been used in this Standard to define the application of the
appendix to which it applies. An informative appendix is only for information and
guidance.
Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables and figures are deemed to be
requirements of this Standard.
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Additional change to the previous edition is the inclusion of Appendix C, which provides
guidance on the extent of waterproofing for wet areas.

AS 37402010

CONTENTS
Page
FOREWORD.............................................................................................................................. 4
SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 5
1.2 APPLICATION ........................................................................................................... 5
1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES .................................................................................... 5
1.4 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 6
SECTION 2 MATERIALS
2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ................................................................................................. 9
2.2 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION................................................................................ 9
2.3 MOVEMENT JOINTS ................................................................................................ 9
2.4 MATERIALS .............................................................................................................. 9
2.5 PREFORMED SHOWER BASES AND ENCLOSURES.......................................... 10
2.6 SEALANTS............................................................................................................... 11
2.7 ADHESIVES ............................................................................................................. 11
2.8 SHEET FASTENINGS.............................................................................................. 11
SECTION 3 INSTALLATION
3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ............................................................................................... 12
3.2 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 12
3.3 FALLS IN FLOOR FINISHES.................................................................................. 12
3.4 SHOWER FLOORS .................................................................................................. 12
3.5 CURING OF MATERIALS....................................................................................... 12
3.6 PREFORMED SHOWER BASES............................................................................. 12
3.7 EDGE DETAIL FOR BATHS WITH SHOWERS OVER THEM............................. 13
3.8 BATHS AND SPAS .................................................................................................. 14
3.9 JUNCTIONS ............................................................................................................. 16
3.10 PENETRATIONS...................................................................................................... 18
3.11 REQUIRED FLOOR WASTES FOR WET AREA FLOORS ................................... 19
3.12 WALL SHEETING OR RENDER............................................................................. 20
3.13 GENERAL SHOWER AREA REQUIREMENTS..................................................... 20
3.14 MEMBRANE TO DRAINAGE CONNECTION....................................................... 27
3.15 INSTALLATION OF AN INTERNAL MEMBRANE .............................................. 28
3.16 INSTALLATION OF AN EXTERNAL MEMBRANE ............................................. 31
3.17 DOORJAMBS AND ARCHITRAVES...................................................................... 32
3.18 SHOWER SCREEN .................................................................................................. 32
APPENDICES
A
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN WET-AREA WATERPROOFING ..................... 34
B
FALLS IN FLOOR FINISHES.................................................................................. 37
BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................................... 38

AS 37402010

FOREWORD
Since the last edition of this Standard was published in 2004, it had become increasingly
apparent that various methods for design and installation of waterproofing systems outlined
in the document no longer represented minimum acceptable standards and a further review
was required. In this document, the Committee has attempted to address these
shortcomings.
This revision is intended to cover the treatment of wet areas within domestic buildings in a
form that makes the application of accepted methods more relevant to the various risk
levels, while presenting typical detail diagrams relevant to those applications.
Problems with waterproofing defects relate to a number of fundamentals, including the
following:
(a)

Workmanship.

(b)

Understanding of material technology/properties.

(c)

Applicator skill and competence.

(d)

Application to a variety of use situations.

(e)

Changes in design trends.

(f)

Quality control, including supervision, inspection and testing.

(g)

Maintenance of waterproofing medium when disturbed.

(h)

Fixture of fittings after waterproofing and tiling.

(i)

Professional attitude and a desire to continuously improve without compromising


quality, performance and contractual obligations (where they exceed minimum
requirements).

This Edition of the Standard differs from the 2004 edition in that the Design Section has
been removed and included in the Building Code of Australia (BCA).

AS 37402010

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA
Australian Standard
Waterproofing of domestic wet areas

SECT ION

SCOPE

AND

GENERA L

1.1 SCOPE
This Standard sets out minimum requirements for the materials, design and installation of
waterproofing for domestic wet areas.
The Standard does not cover situations where flooding of the wet areas occurs through
overflowing of vessels and showers or plumbing failures and excludes concrete admixtures
or penetrant sealers or similar and decorative coatings.
NOTE: Appendix A provides design considerations for wet area waterproofing.

1.2 APPLICATION
This Standard applies to wet areas in Class 1, Class 2 and Class 4 buildings as defined in
the BCA. It also applies to wet areas within other buildings with a similar level of use
including sole-occupancy units within a Class 3 building.
NOTE: This Standard is not intended to apply to communal or group wet areas such as shower
areas as in swimming pool complexes, sporting facilities and similar situations.

1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES


The following are the normative documents referenced in this Standard:
NOTE: Documents referenced for informative purposes are listed in the Bibliography.

AS
1566

Copper and copper alloysRolled flat products

1684
1684.2
1684.3
1684.4

Residential timber-framed construction


Part 2: Non-cyclonic areas
Part 3:
Part 4: SimplifiedNon-cyclonic areas

1860
Particleboard flooring
1860.2 Part 2: Installation
2870

Residential slabs and footingsConstruction

2924
High pressure decorative laminatesSheets made from thermosetting resins
2924.1 Part 1: Classification and specifications
3600

Concrete structures

3700

Masonry structures

AS/NZS
1170
Structural design actions
1170.1 Part 1: Permanent, imposed and other actions
1170.2 Part 2: Wind actions
1860
1860.1

Particleboard flooring
Part 1: Specifications

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AS 37402010

AS/NZS
2269
PlywoodStructural
2588

Gypsum plasterboard

2908
2908.2

Cellulose-cement products
Part 2: Flat sheets

4858

Wet area membranes

BCA

Building Code of Australia

1.4 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions below apply.
1.4.1 Backing rod
A section of closed cell foam made from flexible plastics.
1.4.2 Bond breaker
A system that prevents the membrane bonding to the substrate, bedding or lining.
1.4.3 Drainage flange
A flange connected to a waste pipe, at the point at which it passes through the floor
substrate, to prevent leakage and enable tile bed drainage into the waste pipe.
1.4.4 Drainage riser
A waste pipe between the floor waste and the drainage system.
1.4.5 Flashing
A strip or sleeve of impervious material dressed, fitted or built in, or a liquid-applied
product, to provide a barrier to moisture movement, divert the travel of moisture, or cover a
joint where water would otherwise penetrate.
1.4.6 Flashing, perimeter
A flashing used at the floor-wall junction.
1.4.7 Flashing, vertical
A flashing used at wall junctions within shower areas.
1.4.8 Floor waste
A grated inlet within a graded floor intended to drain the floor surface (see Clause 3.14.2).
1.4.9 Hob
The upstand at the perimeter a shower area.
1.4.10 Insert bath
A bath where the bath lip is installed onto a horizontal plinth or surface.
1.4.11 Maximum retained water level
The point at which surface water will start to overflow out of the shower area.
1.4.12 Membrane
A barrier that is impervious to moisture.
NOTE: A barrier may be a single or multi-part system.

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AS 37402010

1.4.13 Membrane, external


A membrane that is installed behind the wall sheeting or render.
NOTE: Usually external membranes are preformed trays or sheet material systems.

1.4.14 Membrane, internal


A membrane that is installed to the face of the wall sheeting or render.
NOTE: Usually internal membranes are liquid systems applied in situ.

1.4.15 Nib wall that forms part of shower enclosure


A low height wall that supports part of a shower screen.
1.4.16 Prefinished wall panels
Predecorated sheets or thermosetting laminated sheets that are designed for use as the final
wall finish of the wet area.
1.4.17 Preformed shower base
A preformed, prefinished vessel (including integral upstands) installed as the finished floor
of a shower compartment, and provided with a connection point to a sanitary drainage
system.
NOTE: Shower bases are commonly made of plastics, composite materials, vitreous enamelled
pressed steel, or stainless steel.

1.4.18 Shower screen


The panels, doors or windows enclosing or partially enclosing a shower area
(see Clause 3.18).
1.4.19 Shower tray
An internal or external liquid or sheet membrane system used to waterproof the floor and
the wall/floor junctions of a shower area.
1.4.20 Shower area
The area affected by water from a shower, including a shower over a bath.
1.4.21 Shower area, enclosed
The area enclosed by walls or screens, including hinged or sliding doors, that control the
spread of water to within the enclosure.
1.4.22 Shower area, unenclosed
A shower area where, under normal use, water out of the shower rose is not contained
within the shower area (see Clause 3.13.5).
1.4.23 Vessel
An open, preformed, prefinished concave receptacle capable of holding water, usually for
the purpose of washing (e.g., basin, sink, bath, laundry tub).
1.4.24 Waterproof (WP)
The property of a material that does not allow moisture to penetrate through it when tested
in accordance with AS/NZS 4858.
NOTE: For the purposes of this Standard, for materials deemed to be waterproof and suitable for
including in a waterproofing system, see Clause 2.4.1.

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AS 37402010

1.4.25 Waterproofing system


A combination of elements that are required to achieve a waterproof barrier as required by
this Standard (e.g., substrate, membrane, bond breakers, sealants and finishes).
NOTE: A waterproofing system for a bathroom floor may include lining it with a material in
accordance with Clause 2.4.1, Item (a), (b) or (d) or by using a waterproof flexible sheet flooring
material in accordance with Clause 2.4.1(c).

1.4.26 Water resistant (WR)


The property of a system or material that restricts moisture movement and will not degrade
under conditions of moisture.
1.4.27 Water stop
A vertical extension of the waterproofing system forming a barrier to prevent the passage of
moisture in the floor.
1.4.28 Wet area
An area within a building supplied with water from a water supply system, which includes
bathrooms, showers, laundries and sanitary compartments and excludes kitchens, bar areas,
kitchenettes or domestic food and beverage preparation areas.
1.4.29 Wicking
The action of water rising by a capillary path.

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S E C T I ON

AS 37402010

M A T E R I A L S

2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out requirements for acceptable materials to be used in the waterproofing
of wet areas.
2.2 DESIGN AND INSTALLATION
Waterproofing systems and their installation details shall be waterproof or water resistant as
required by the BCA.
In addition, waterproofing systems and their installation details shall be compatible and
shall resist the following:
(a)

Differential movement due to


(i)

actions as defined in AS/NZS 1170.1 and AS/NZS 1170.2;

(ii)

shrinkage and expansion of substrate materials, framing and finishes;

(iii) temperature variations from 5C to +50C; and


(iv)
(b)

movement tolerances as defined in AS 2870.

Exposure to
(i)

cleaning chemicals [such as detergents, sodium hypochlorite (bleach)], as


required by AS/NZS 4858; and

(ii)

alkalis from cement mortar as required by AS/NZS 4858.

2.3 MOVEMENT JOINTS


The waterproofing system shall accommodate the expected movement at movement joints
in the substrate.
2.4 MATERIALS
2.4.1 Waterproof
For the purposes of this Standard, the following materials used in waterproofing systems
are deemed to be waterproof:
(a)

Stainless steel.

(b)

Copper, material not less than 99.9% copper, complying with the requirements for
material designation 110 or 122 given in AS 1566.

(c)

Flexible waterproof sheet flooring material with waterproof joints of the sheeting.
NOTE: There is no need for a water stop at the general room doorway when using this
material.

(d)

Membranes meeting the requirements of AS/NZS 4858.

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AS 37402010

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2.4.2 Water-resistant substrates


For the purposes of this Standard, the following materials used in waterproofing systems, in
conjunction with water-resistant surface materials in accordance with Clause 2.4.3, are
deemed to be water resistant:
(a)

Walls:
(i)

Concrete in accordance with AS 3600, treated to resist moisture movement.

(ii)

Cement render treated to resist moisture movement.


NOTE: For recommended practice, see HB 161, Guide to plastering.

(iii) Fibre cement sheeting manufactured in accordance with AS 2908.2.

(b)

(iv)

Water-resistant plasterboard sheeting manufactured in accordance with


AS/NZS 2588.

(v)

Masonry in accordance with AS 3700.

Floors:
(i)

Concrete in accordance with AS 3600 and AS 2870.

(ii)

Compressed fibre cement sheeting manufactured in accordance with AS 2908.2.

(iii) Fibre cement sheeting manufactured in accordance with AS 2908.2, and


supported on a structural floor.
(iv)

Flooring grade particleboard sheeting manufactured in accordance with


AS/NZS 1860.1, and installed in accordance with AS 1860.2.

(v)

Structural plywood manufactured in accordance with AS/NZS 2269, and


installed in accordance with AS 1684.2, AS 1684.3 and AS 1684.4.

2.4.3 Water-resistant surface materials


For the purposes of this Standard, the following surface materials are deemed to be water
resistant for the locations listed:
(a)

Walls:
(i)

Thermosetting laminated sheet manufactured in accordance with AS 2924.1.

(ii)

Predecorated fibre cement sheeting


AS 2908.2.

manufactured in accordance with

(iii) Tiles when used in conjunction with a substrate listed in Clause 2.4.2.
NOTE: Porous tiles can have discolouration caused by water absorption and migration.

(b)

(iv)

Water-resistant flexible sheet wall material with sealed joints (e.g., sheet vinyl
or linoleum) when used in conjunction with a substrate listed in Clause 2.4.2.

(v)

Sanitary grade acrylic wall linings.

Floors (when used in conjunction with a substrate listed in Clause 2.4.2):


(i)

Tiles.
NOTE: Porous tiles can have discolouration caused by water absorption and migration.

(ii)

Water-resistant flexible sheet flooring material with sealed joints (e.g., sheet
vinyl and linoleum.)

2.5 PREFORMED, PREFINISHED SHOWER BASES AND ENCLOSURES


Materials used in the manufacture of preformed, prefinished shower bases and enclosures
shall be such that the finished product is waterproof.
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11

AS 37402010

2.6 SEALANTS
For the purposes of this Standard, all sealants shall be
(a)

waterproof;

(b)

flexible;

(c)

mould-resistant; and

(d)

compatible with adjacent materials.

2.7 ADHESIVES
Adhesives used in a waterproofing system shall be
(a)

waterproof, where used to adhere other waterproof materials; and

(b)

compatible with the materials to which they are adhered.

2.8 SHEET FASTENINGS


Substrate sheet materials shall be fastened or fixed adequately to the supporting structure.

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AS 37402010

12

SECT ION

I NSTA L L A T I ON

3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION


This Section sets out details for the installation of waterproof and water-resistant materials
to be used in domestic wet areas of a building.
3.2 GENERAL
Where a tile bed or screed is used, the waterproof membrane shall be installed above or
below the tile bed or screed.
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2012

NOTE: For the purposes of this Standard, some figures given in this Section illustrate the
membrane below the tile bed or screed; however, where applicable, the membrane may be
installed above the tile bed or screed. Guidelines for extent of waterproofing for showers and wet areas
are given in Figures C1 and C2, Appendix C.

3.3 FALLS IN FLOOR FINISHES


Where required, falls in floor finishes shall allow all surface water to drain without ponding
except for residual water remaining due to surface tension.
For general bathroom floor area, the minimum fall to the waste shall be 1:100.
NOTES:
1

For information on falls in the floor finishes, see Appendix B.

For information on the laying of tiles to enable them to drain without retaining water, see
AS 3958.1.

3.4 SHOWER FLOORS


Falls in shower floors shall be sufficient to prevent
(a)

surface water from being retained on the shower floor (except for residual water
remaining due to surface tension); and

(b)

water from discharging outside the shower area.

For shower areas with a vertical separation between the shower area and the wet area, such
as a shower screen, hob, step-down or water stop, the fall to the waste shall be 1:100.
As a minimum for other shower areas, the fall shall be a minimum of 1:80.
3.5 CURING OF MATERIALS
Materials shall be cured adequately for their intended use.
NOTE: The membrane should be protected from physical and/or chemical damage until covered
by the finished surfaces.

3.6 PREFORMED SHOWER BASES


Preformed shower bases shall be supported to prevent distortion or cracking, and shall be
sufficiently recessed into the wall to allow the water-resistant surface materials to pass
down inside the perimeter rebate over the upstands of the shower base.
NOTE: For typical base junction, see Figures 3.1(a) and 3.1(b).

When installing preformed shower bases, the integrity of the structure shall be maintained.

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AS 37402010

3.7 EDGE DETAIL FOR BATHS WITH SHOWERS OVER THEM


3.7.1 Baths to be recessed into a wall
Baths recessed into a wall shall have an integral vertical upstand lip along the side of the
bath walls to enable a waterproof junction between the bath and walls.
3.7.2 Baths with a downturn lip

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Baths
withoutananintegral
integral
upstand
but with
a downturn
be installed
an insert
Baths without
upstand
but with
a downturn
lip shalllipbeshall
installed
as an insertasbath
bath,
as specified
Clause 3.8.
as shown
in Figure in
3.2(c).
3.7.3 Baths without an integral edge to allow for a vertical upstand for termination of
waterproofing

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2012

do not
not have
have an
anintegral
integral edge
edgedetail
detail toforallow
a vertical
termination
of the of the
For baths that do
for a vertical
termination
waterproofing,
thereshall
shall
waterproofing
theand
walls
waterproofing, there
be be
full full
waterproofing
of the of
walls
floorand
areafloor
and area and
waterproofing
underthe
thebath.
bath.
The
enclosed
space
under
the bath
be ventilated.
waterproofing under
The
enclosed
space
under
the bath
shallshall
be ventilated.
Extent
of NOTE:
waterproofing
shallisberequired
as for a to
Type
2 unenclosed
specified
in Clause
3.13.5.
Ventilation
allow
evaporationshower,
of waterasleaking
around
the edge
of the bath
into the enclosed airspace under the bath.

3.7.4 Freestanding baths with shower over


For freestanding baths with shower over, the extent of waterproofing shall be as for a
Type 2 unenclosed shower, ignoring bath, as specified in Clause 3.13.5 and as depicted in
Figure 3.1A.

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AMDT
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2012
Wa te r p r o of wa ll to wa ll j u n c ti o n,
18 0 0 f r o m f i n i s h e d f l o o r l eve l,
wi d th of 4 0 e i th e r s i d e of th e
j u n c ti o n (s e e N ote 1)

150 0
Measured from
th e s h owe r c o n n e c ti o n

WP

Fl o o r wa s te

Wate r p r o of a mi ni m u m of 150 0 f r o m
s h owe r c o n n e c ti o n at wa ll a n d g r a d e to
a f l o o r wa s te a n d te r m i n ate at a wate r s to p

(a) Pl a n vi ew

150 0

WR

40

S h owe r
rose

18 0 0
Fr e e s t a n di n g b ath
WP

A ll f l o o r u n d e r f r e e s t a n di n g b ath to b e wate r p r o ofe d

( b) El evati o n

NOTES:
1

Waterproofing of all wall junction is only required if shower rose is located within 1500 from junction.

All floor waterproofing to terminate at a waterstop.

For timber floors, entire floor to be waterproofed.


DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 3.1A FREESTANDING BATHS

AS 37402010

14

FIGURE 3.1 TYPICAL PREFORMED SHOWER BASE JUNCTIONS

3.8 BATHS AND SPAS


Baths and spas shall be supported to prevent distortion and cracking. Baths and spas that are
recessed into the wall shall be installed to allow the water-resistant surface materials of the
wall to pass down inside the rim of the bath or spa.
NOTE: For typical bath/spa wall junctions see Figures 3.2(a) and 3.2(b).

When installing baths and spas, the integrity of the structure shall be maintained.

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AMDT
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2012

Wate r- r e s i s t a nt s u r fa c e
m ate r i a l of th e wa ll
S tr u c tu r a l s u p p o r t
Wate r p r o of s e a l a nt
Wa ll r e b ate d to
a c c o m m o d ate r i m of b ath
Bath

(a) B ath /wa ll ju n c ti o nR e c e s s e d

Wate r- r e s i s t a nt
s h e eti n g
Wate r- r e s i s t a nt s u r fa c e
m ate r i a l of th e wa ll

B at te n s to s u p p o r t wa ll s h e et
to a ll ow th e r i m of th e b ath
to f i t b e h i n d th e wa ll s h e e t
( b at te n s s h ow n a r e di a g r a m m ati c
o nl y a n d a r e n ot to s c a l e)

Wate r p r o of s e a l a nt

S tr u c tu r a l s u p p o r t

Bath

( b) B ath / wa ll j u n c ti o nB at te n e d

S u p p o r t to m e m b r a n e

Mi n 10 0 m m
fo r s h e l f

Wa te r s to p

Wate r p r o of s e a l a nt
T il e

Membrane 5 mm
a b ove til e

Membrane

Bath

T il e u n d e r l ay
Bath frame
( i ) B a th wi th r i m

S u p p o r t to m e m b r a n e

Mi n 10 0 m m
fo r s h e l f

Wa te r s to p

Wate r p r o of s e a l a nt
T il e

Membrane 5 mm
a b ove til e

Membrane

Bath

T il e u n d e r l ay
Bath frame
( ii ) B a t h w i t h o u t r i m
(c) B ath /s h e l f ju n c ti o n ( i n s e r t b ath)

FIGURE 3.2 TYPICAL BATH JUNCTIONS

AS 37402010

16

3.9 JUNCTIONS
3.9.1 Perimeter flashing
3.9.1.1 General
The following list specifies the minimum requirements for the treatment for various
junctions. Junctions may be either wall to floor or wall to wall. Either the floor or wall may
be waterproof, water resistant or have no treatment specified.
The types of junctions that shall be used are as follows:
(a)

Type 1 Where waterproof to waterproof surfaces meet, the waterproofing shall be


continuous across the junctions and, where required, incorporate an appropriate bond
breaker.

(b)

Type 2 Where waterproof to water-resistant surfaces meet, a bead of sealant shall be


deemed to be a waterproof junction.

(c)

Type 3 Where water-resistant to water-resistant surfaces meet, a bead of sealant


shall be deemed to be a water-resistant junction.

(d)

Type 4 Where non-water-resistant to water-resistant surfaces meet, a bead of sealant


shall be deemed to be a water-resistant junction.

(e)

Type 5 Perimeter flashing to wall/floor surfaces shall be continuously sealed to the


horizontal surface and have a vertical leg of a minimum of 25 mm above the finished
floor level, except across doorways, and the horizontal leg shall be a minimum width
of 50 mm.

3.9.1.2 Perimeter flashing at floor level openings


The following applies:
(a)

For whole wet area floor waterproofing A water stop that has a vertical leg finishing
flush with the top of the finished floor level shall be installed at floor level openings.
The floor membrane shall be terminated to create a waterproof seal to the water stop
and to the perimeter flashing.
NOTE: For typical bathroom detail for whole bathroom waterproofing, see Figures 3.3(a)
and 3.3(b).

(b)

For other than whole wet area floor waterproofing A water stop that has a vertical
leg finishing flush with the top of the finished floor level shall be installed at floor
level openings. The water stop shall be waterproofed to the perimeter flashing.

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FIGURE 3.3 TYPICAL BATHROOM DOOR DETAIL FOR WHOLE BATHROOM


WATERPROOFING

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3.9.2 Vertical flashing for shower wall junctions


Vertical flashing may be external or internal and shall terminate a minimum of 1800 mm,
above the finished floor level or to the height of the wall, whichever is the lesser.
Vertical flashing may be used as follows:
(a)

External vertical flashing may be used with external membranes systems and installed
behind the wall sheeting or render, provided they have legs of sufficient width to
allow the wall sheeting or render to overlap by a minimum of 30 mm.
(The mechanical fastening of the wall sheeting shall not penetrate the flashing.)

(b)

Internal vertical flashing may be used with both external and internal membrane
systems, provided each leg has a minimum overlap of 40 mm to the wall sheeting or
render and, where used with
(i)

internal membranes, each leg extends vertically from within the shower tray;

(ii)

external membranes, each leg overlaps the top edge of the floor waterproofing
system, by a minimum 20 mm; and

(iii) preformed shower bases or baths, each leg extends to the bottom edge of the
wall sheeting or render.
3.10 PENETRATIONS
3.10.1 Shower areas
Penetrations for taps, shower nozzles, recessed soap holders and similar fixtures shall be
waterproofed by sealing with proprietary flange systems or a sealant. When sealing the tap
body to the wall, allowance shall be made for the servicing of tap washers or ceramic disks
without damaging the seal.
NOTE: Typical detail for recessed soap holders is shown in Figure 3.4.

For mixer taps, drainage shall be allowed at the base of the cover plate.
Any penetrations of mechanical fixings or fastenings through surface materials shall be
waterproofed.

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AS 37402010

FIGURE 3.4 TYPICAL DETAIL FOR RECESSED SOAP HOLDERS

3.10.2 Tap penetrations through horizontal surfaces


Tap penetrations on horizontal surfaces surrounding baths and spas shall be waterproofed
by sealing with proprietary flange systems or the tap body to the membrane, or substrate
where a membrane is not required.
3.11 REQUIRED FLOOR WASTES FOR WET AREA FLOORS
Where a floor waste is required, the floor finish shall be constructed so that water flows to
the waste without water being retained on the finished surface with the exception of
residual water remaining due to surface tension.
NOTE: For additional information on floor gradients, see Appendix B.
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3.12 WALL SHEETING OR RENDER


Where wall sheeting or render is used with an external membrane system in a shower area,
it shall
(a)

not extend into the floor tile bed; or

(b)

be waterproofed to prevent moisture movement by capillary action or wicking.

For water-resistant plasterboard sheeting, all cut edges that have the potential to be affected
by moisture shall be waterproofed, including the bottom edge over a preformed shower
base. The water-resistant plasterboard sheeting shall be kept a minimum of 5 mm above the
preformed shower base to allow effective sealing of the cut edge of the plasterboard.
3.13 GENERAL SHOWER AREA REQUIREMENTS
3.13.1 Substrate surface preparation for application of a membrane
The area shall be cleaned and dust free. Indentations and imperfections shall be kept to a
minimum and repaired where necessary.
3.13.2 Step-down showers
The highest finished floor level of the shower area shall be stepped down lower than the
finished floor level outside the shower
NOTE: For examples, see Figure 3.5.

For set-downs less than 15 mm, details shall be in accordance with Clause 3.13.4 or
Clause 3.13.5, as appropriate.

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DEC
2012
S h owe r a r e a

B a th r o o m a r e a

S h owe r s c r e e n
(s h ow n d i a g r a m m a ti c a l l y)
S h owe r s c r e e n b a s e

H e i g ht to b e 25 a b ove th e
m a x i m u m r e t a i n e d wate r
l eve l o r 150 a b ove th e
Fl o o r til e
f i ni s h e d til e l eve l of th e
s h owe r f l o o r a r e a ,
whi c h eve r i s th e g r e ate r

S e a l a nt o n o u t s i d e
only

WP

Wa te r s to p

S e a l a nt
15 m i n.

Membrane suppor t angle adhered


a n d /o r m e c h a ni c a ll y f i xe d to f l o o r
s u b s t r a te w h e r e s c r e e d i s u s e d.

T il e b e d
Membrane

W h e r e a s c r e e d i s n ot u s e d, th e
m e m b r a n e to ex te n d a m i n i m u m of
50 a c r o s s th e f l o o r s u b s t r a te
o u t s i d e th e s h owe r a r e a i n s te a d of
u s i n g a m e m b r a n e s u p p o r t a n g l e.

S e a l a nt f ill et
( b o n d b r e a ke r )

(a) Enclosed showerMembrane below tile bed

S h owe r a r e a

B a th r o o m a r e a

S h owe r s c r e e n
(s h ow n d i a g r a m m a ti c a l l y)
S h owe r s c r e e n b a s e

H e i g ht to b e 25 a b ove th e
m a x i m u m r e t a i n e d wate r
l eve l o r 150 a b ove th e
Fl o o r til e
f i ni s h e d til e l eve l of th e
s h owe r f l o o r a r e a , w h i c h eve r
i s th e g r e ate r

WP

S e a l a nt o n o u t s i d e
only
Wa te r s to p

S e a l a nt
15 m i n.

Membrane suppor t angle adhered


a n d /o r m e c h a ni c a ll y f i xe d to f l o o r
s u b s tr ate wh e r e s c r e e d i s u s e d.

Membrane

W h e r e a s c r e e d i s n ot u s e d, th e
m e m b r a n e to ex te n d a mi ni m u m of
50 a c r o s s th e f l o o r s u b s tr ate
o u t s i d e th e s h owe r a r e a i n s te a d of
u s i n g a m e m b r a n e s u p p o r t a n g l e.

T il e b e d

(b) Enclosed showerMembrane above tile bed

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 3.5 (in part) TYPICAL STEPPED DOWN SHOWER CONSTRUCTION

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(c) Unenclosed showerMembrane below tile bed

(d) Unenclosed showerMembrane above tile bed


DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 3.5 (in part) TYPICAL STEPPED DOWN SHOWER CONSTRUCTION

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AS 37402010

3.13.3 Hob construction


Substrate for hobs shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, corrosion-resistant metal or
similar material. Autoclaved aerated concrete may be used for internal membrane systems
but shall not be used for external membrane systems. Where used, autoclaved aerated
concrete shall be primed before the application of the membrane. All gaps, joints and
intersections of the hob substrate shall be made flush before application of the membrane.
The hobs shall be adequately secured to the floor and sealed against the wall prior to
applying an internal membrane.
Timber shall not be used for hob construction.
3.13.4 Enclosed showers without hobs or set-downs
At the extremity of the shower area
(a)

where a shower screen is to be installed, a water stop shall be positioned so that its
vertical leg will finish a minimum of 5 mm above the finished floor level (see
Figure 3.6); and

(b)

where the water stop intersects with a wall or is joined, the junction shall be
waterproof.
NOTE: For a typical hobless construction, see Figure 3.6.

NOTE: Some shower screen extrusions may not permit the water stop extending into a rebate. A channel
section may be needed to be installed over the water stop angle with the shower screen placed on top of the
channel including return panels.

FIGURE 3.6 TYPICAL HOBLESS CONSTRUCTION

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3.13.5 Unenclosed showers


This Clause sets out requirements for two types of unenclosed showers, as follows.
NOTE: See also Clause 3.18.1.1.

(a)

Type 1 A Type 1 unenclosed shower has a device that will restrict splashing during
use (see Note 1).
A water stop shall be placed under the device and across the opening of the shower of
a Type 1 shower screen.
NOTES:

(b)

A example of a Type 1 unenclosed shower is a frameless glass shower screen.

It is advisable to have either the screed drained or a membrane placed on the top of the
screed to prevent water retention in the screed beyond the water stop.

Type 2 A Type 2 unenclosed shower does not have a device that will restrict
splashing.
NOTE: An example of a Type 2 unenclosed shower is a shower for people with disabilities.

The water stop of a Type 2 shower shall be a distance of a minimum of 1500 mm


from the wall connection of the shower rose.
For Type 1 and Type 2 unenclosed showers, the water stop shall have the vertical leg finish
flush with the finish surface of the floor and, where the water stop intersects with or joins a
wall, the junction shall be waterproof.
NOTE: If absorbent types of stone are used for flooring, they may discolour from shower water
out to 1500 mm water stop. Efflorescence may also form in tile joints outside the shower area,
and building elements such as vanity skirtings on the floor within the water stop area may
deteriorate.

3.13.6 Additional requirements for bath end walls abutting a shower


Where a bath end wall is within a shower area, it shall be treated as a shower area wall.
3.13.7 Bond breaker installation for bonded membranes
Bond breakers shall be included at all wall/floor, hob/wall junctions and at movement joints
where the membrane is bonded to the substrate. Bond breakers shall be of the type
compatible with the flexibility class of the membrane to be used.
NOTES:
1

For appropriate bond breakers, see Table 3.2.

Typical details for bond breakers are shown in Figure 3.7.

Additional information on bond breakers is given in Appendix A.

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AS 37402010

TABLE 3.2
APPROPRIATE BOND BREAKER
Elongation at break

Minimum bond breaker/tape width


to bridge joints opening up by 5 mm

<60%

75 mm with backing rod

II

60% to 300%

35 mm

III

>300%

12 mm

Membrane class

NOTES:
1

Bond breakers for Class I membranes (low extensibility) allow the membrane to
flex rather than stretch.

Bond breakers for Class II membranes (medium extensibility) allow the membrane
to stretch. If a tape is used as a bond breaker, either the membrane will not bond to
the tape or the tape will have elastic properties similar to the membrane; for
example, for a Class II membrane, a 35 mm wide bond breaker/tape should be
applied over a joint to accommodate the joint opening up by up to 5 mm.

Bond breakers for Class III membranes (high extensibility) allow the membrane to
have even thickness.

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FIGURE 3.7 TYPICAL BOND BREAKER DETAILS

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AS 37402010

3.13.8 Vertical membrane termination


The membrane shall be applied over the floor substrate and up the vertical face of the
wall
(a)

for showers with hobs and step-downs, a minimum height of 150 mm above the
finished tile level of the floor or 25 mm above the maximum retained water level,
whichever is the greater;

(b)

for hobless showers, a minimum height of 150 mm above the highest finished tile
level of the floor within the shower area; and

(c)

for vertical flashing in shower areas, as specified in Clause 3.9.2.

3.14 MEMBRANE TO DRAINAGE CONNECTION


3.14.1 Termination to a drainage flange
For membrane drainage connections in other floors, any one of the following shall apply:
(a)

A drainage flange shall be installed with the waterproofing membrane terminated


at/in the drainage flange to provide a waterproof connection.
NOTES:

(b)

For typical membrane termination at drainage outlet, see Figure 3.8.

Drainage flanges may be set into the floor or fixed to the top surface of the floor substrate
or tile bed.

Where a prefabricated shower tray is used, provision shall be made to drain the tile
bed and provide a waterproof connection to the drain.

FIGURE 3.8 TYPICAL MEMBRANE TERMINATION AT DRAINAGE FLANGE

3.14.2 Floor waste


The floor waste shall be of sufficient height to suit the thickness of the tile and tile bed at
the outlet position. The drainage flange/floor waste shall drain at the membrane level.
3.14.3 Termination to a drainage channel
The waterproof drainage shall be continuous for the membrane into the drainage outlet.
Where the drainage channel does not have an integral horizontal surface of 50 mm for
termination of the membrane, the membrane shall be continuous underneath the drainage
channel, terminating at a recessed drainage flange.
NOTE: For a typical application of a membrane termination to a drainage channel, see Figure 3.9.

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When the drainage channels are installed against a wall, they shall not compromise the
waterproofing requirements of the wall/floor junctions.

FIGURE 3.9 TYPICAL MEMBRANE TERMINATION AT DRAINAGE CHANNEL

3.15 INSTALLATION OF AN INTERNAL MEMBRANE


3.15.1 Membrane application
3.15.1.1 General
In addition to the requirements of Clauses 3.12 and 3.13, the requirements of this Clause
shall apply also for internal membranes.
3.15.1.2 Termination of membranes at showers with hobs
With the exception of metal angle hobs, the membrane shall be brought up over the top of
the hob, down the outside face and terminate a minimum 50 mm onto the floor.
NOTE: For a typical application, see Figure 3.10.

For metal angle hobs, the membrane shall be terminated within 5 mm from the top of the
angle, and any gap between the shower screen and the angle shall be filled with a sealant.
The extent of the membrane for an internal shower tray shall be as shown in Figure 3.11(a).

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AS 37402010

NOTE: Membrane shown on substrate and above the tile bed for diagrammatic purposes only.

FIGURE 3.10 TYPICAL HOB CONSTRUCTIONINTERNAL MEMBRANE

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FIGURE 3.11 SHOWER CONSTRUCTION

3.15.1.3 Termination of membranes at enclosed showers without hobs


The membrane shall be brought to the top of the floor finish, except where it is under a
shower screen where it shall terminate a minimum of 5 mm above the finished tile surface.
NOTE: For a typical application, see Figure 3.6.

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AS 37402010

3.16 INSTALLATION OF AN EXTERNAL MEMBRANE


3.16.1 Membrane application
3.16.1.1 General
Where the membrane is fabricated from a flexible material, the top edges shall be fixed to
the wall. Fixing penetrations shall be a minimum of 100 mm above the finished tile level of
the shower area. All fixings shall be compatible with the membrane and shall be
non-corrosive.
3.16.1.2 Showers with hobs
The hob shall be included within the finished size of the shower membrane and the
membrane shall finish at the underside of the tile that forms the top of the hob.
NOTE: Typical hob construction for an external membrane is shown in Figure 3.12.

The extent of the membrane for an external shower tray shall be as shown in Figure 3.11.

FIGURE 3.12 TYPICAL HOB CONSTRUCTIONEXTERNAL (PREFORMED)


MEMBRANE

3.16.2 Base termination of vertical flashing


Vertical flashings in internal corners shall extend into the external membrane by a
minimum of 25 mm.
3.16.3 Drainage riser connection
3.16.3.1 Preformed trays
The drainage riser shall be connected to the tray with a waterproof joint.
3.16.3.2 Made in situ shower trays
A drainage flange shall be installed with the waterproofing membrane terminating in the
drainage flange at not less than 20 mm.
The membrane shall be able to form a permanent seal to the drainage flange.
NOTE: For a typical membrane extension, see Figure 3.8.

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3.17 DOORJAMBS AND ARCHITRAVES


Where the bottom of doorjambs and architraves do not finish above the floor tiling, the
portion of the doorframes and architraves below the floor tiling shall be waterproofed to
provide a continuous seal between the perimeter flashing and the water stop.
NOTES:
1

For typical door detail, see Figure 3.3.

Where possible, the doorjambs and architraves should be installed above the floor tiling.

3.18 SHOWER SCREEN


3.18.1 General
3.18.1.1 Unenclosed shower screen
An unenclosed shower screen consists of
(a)

a frameless shower screen, unless the shower screen is fitted with seals and
deflectors, all of which control the spread of water from the shower area; or

(b)

a shower screen less than 900 mm long over a bath; or

(c)

a shower area where a curtain is hung on a rod.

Unenclosed shower areas are not suitable for use directly adjacent to doorways unless the
doorway is protected against water exiting through the doorway.
3.18.1.2 Enclosed shower screen
For an enclosed shower, the shower screen shall be designed and installed to prevent the
spread of water from the shower enclosure.
An enclosed shower screen consists of
(a)

a fully framed (including sill) shower screen where the water from the shower rose is
controlled to within the shower area; or

(b)

a partly or semi frameless shower screen where the vertical edges of the unframed
panels are fitted with suitable seals or where panels overlap one another (and where a
sill is included); or

(c)

a frameless shower screen that is fitted with seals and deflectors, to control the spread
of water within the shower area.

NOTE: Where a shower screen is classified as unenclosed, the water stop and the positioning of
the waterproofing of the floor should be as specified in Clause 3.13.5.

3.18.2 Enclosed shower screen placement


3.18.2.1 Showers with hobs
The shower screen shall be installed so as to ensure it is
(a)

flush with the shower area side of the hob;

(b)

overhanging in to the shower area; or

(c)

inside the hob.

NOTE: A self-draining sub-sill is considered to be part of the shower screen.

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AS 37402010

3.18.2.2 Showers with step-downs


The shower screen shall be installed so as to ensure it is
(a)

flush with the finished vertical surface of the step-down

(b)

overhanging into the shower area; or

(c)

inside the step-down of the shower area.

3.18.2.3 Showers without hobs or step-downs


The shower screen shall incorporate or be mounted on an inverted channel, and positioned
over the top of the water stop that defines the shower area.
NOTE: For a typical hobless construction, see Figure 3.6.

3.18.2.4 Bath end walls and nib walls abutting a shower


The shower screen shall be positioned so that the bottom edge within the shower area is
either flush with the outside edge of the bath or overhanging into the shower area.
NOTE: A self-draining sub-sill is considered to be part of the shower screen.

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APPENDIX A

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN WET-AREA WATERPROOFING


(Informative)
A1 SCOPE
This Appendix provides information that should be considered when designing
waterproofing systems for wet areas in domestic buildings and includes guidelines for
dealing with the degree of risk, and the types of materials used and their locations in the
construction.
A2 LEAKAGE THROUGH FINISHES
Water may penetrate wall and floor finishes in wet areas, depending on the frequency, the
intensity and the length of time these surfaces are exposed to water; if not intercepted,
water may damage the moisture-sensitive materials lying beneath, and sometimes reach
adjoining rooms and their finishes. Consequently, careful attention should be paid to the
design and installation of all materials, components and systems to prevent damage by
water.
Water penetration mainly occurs at joints. Grouted joints will often shrink, producing
cracks that allow water to pass through. At floor and wall junctions, these cracks can be
caused or enlarged by movement of the structure, substrate or finishes.
A3 MOVEMENT AND WATERPROOFING
A3.1 General
Movement in the wall and floor structure is often caused by contraction, expansion or
settlement. Users of this Standard should be aware of the need for waterproofing materials
or systems to accommodate the expected movement of the structure.
A3.2 Structure movement
A3.2.1 Frame movement
Potential movement of corner studs is restricted if the studs are fastened to intermediate
blocking pieces. Where the framing is constructed of metal or seasoned timber, blocking is
generally a provision to restrict structural deflection.
Unseasoned timber requires additional consideration for movement and its subsequent
effects upon the waterproofing system.
A3.2.2 Masonry movement
Masonry products such as clay-based materials, cement-based materials and autoclaved
aerated materials may be subject to specific movement characteristics depending on the
material used. These products also require consideration of movement and its subsequent
effects upon the waterproofing system.
A3.2.3 Panel movement
Panel products are also subject to movement, particularly at joints. Such products also
require consideration of movement and its subsequent effects upon the waterproofing
system.

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AS 37402010

A3.3 Wall linings under tiles in shower areas


While it is considered that the faces of the nominated linings are impervious enough to
shield wall framing against damage from water that penetrates tiled finishes in wet areas,
the joints between lining sheets and their junctions with other materials may require special
attention to intercept or stop the natural path of water through them.
Of major concern are the vertical corner joints and the perimeter joints where the potential
for shrinkage and structural movement of the framing is greatest. Therefore, vertical corner
joints should be provided with flashing angles and sealant for surface finishes.
A3.4 Prefinished wall panels
Vertical joints between panels and their horizontal junctions with other materials should be
carefully considered, as the panels are the only barrier between the water and the framing
beneath. All joints between panels should be either flashed or waterproofed with a sealant,
and the bottoms of panels installed to overlap adjoining materials.
A3.5 Floors
A3.5.1 General
Waterproof barriers are required to prevent downward or sideways movement of water into
adjoining construction or rooms.
Water naturally penetrates tiled floor finishes more readily than wall finishes. Where a tile
bed is used, a waterproof membrane may be installed above or below the tile bed. Where a
membrane is installed above a tile bed, it is essential that the tile adhesive be compatible
with the membrane.
Where the membrane is under the tile bed, the tile bed tends to become a reservoir of
moisture. A drainage system should be provided within the tile bed, over an in situ
membrane. This allows the reservoir of moisture to discharge into the waste fitting or pipe
(see Figure 3.8).
A3.5.2 General requirements of barriers
In order to maintain waterproofing integrity, trays or flashing angles should be installed in a
manner that allows for the expected movements of the supporting structure. In situ
membranes and flashings should be able to cover floor-to-wall and wall-to-wall joints
without tearing or breaking under the forces exerted on them when movement occurs in the
adjacent elements to which they are fixed.
For framed construction, prefabricated flashing angles should be adhered only to the floor,
allowing the sides of the vertical legs to accommodate the differential movement between
walls and floors.
A3.5.3 In situ barriersProperties and installation
Some of the materials specified for in situ membranes or flashings are not considered
sufficiently elastic to stretch without tearing, or flexible enough to bend without breaking
when subjected to joint movement. Therefore, such barriers should not be applied directly
across the joint, and should be completely bonded to both adjacent surfaces. The correct
approach is to first install a bond-breaker at the wall/floor junction. This bond-breaker
may consist of any of the following depending on the class of the membrane:
(a)

A flexible closed cell foam-backing rod combined with a suitable bond-breaker tape.

(b)

A suitable sealant.

(c)

Bond-breaker tape.

The method used should be directly related to the type of membrane installed. More rigid
membrane and flashing materials, which bend rather than stretch, are better suited for use
with a backing rod and bond-breaker tape (see Figure 3.7).
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A3.5.4 Set-downs
Vertical edges of the set-downs should align flush with the wall substrate to avoid creating
voids, cavities or protrusions. They should be repaired prior to installation of a
waterproofing system, as they are the cause of many waterproofing problems.
A3.5.5 Tiles within shower area
Small dimension tiles used in shower areas enable the tiler to achieve the necessary fall to
the waste as the size of the tiles increase adequate falls become more difficult to achieve.

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AS 37402010

APPENDIX B

FALLS IN FLOOR FINISHES


(Informative)
B1 GENERAL
The primary consideration for falls in floor finishes is to ensure water does not remain on
the finished floor in a manner that can adversely affect the health or amenity of the
occupants or deteriorate building elements.
Falls in floor finishes should ensure water exits the area at the floor waste or doorway if
that is the designed exit point (e.g., laundry door to exterior). Water should not pond on the
floor, with the exception of residual water remaining due to surface tension.
B2 FACTORS AFFECTING FALLS
The ratio of fall achieved in a floor may vary depending upon the
(a)

finished height requirements at doorways;

(b)

height of fixtures or fittings;

(c)

dimensions of the tiles used, adequate falls become more difficult to achieve as the
size of the tiles used increases;

(d)

area of the floor to be drained; and

(e)

requirements of persons with disabilities.

B3 FALL RATIOS
Clause 3.4 specifies a fall ratio of 1:100 in shower areas.
Where falls flatter than 1:100 are proposed, the effectiveness of the floor drainage should
be confirmed to ensure the primary consideration given in Paragraph B1 has been met.
B4 DIAGONAL CUTTING OF TILES
Tiles may require diagonal cutting in the area around the waste to achieve the required falls,
sufficient drainage and to ensure lipping is kept within the guidelines of AS 3958.1.

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DEC
2012

Appendix C (new)
Add new Appendix C, as follows:
APPENDIX C

EXTENT OF WATERPROOFING
(Informative)
This Appendix is based on Table F1.7 (BCA, Volume 1) and Table 3.8.1.1 (BCA,
Volume 2) of the National Construction Code (NCCA).
Table C1 is reproduced from Table F1.7, which lists the NCC requirements for
waterproofing and water resistance for building elements in wet areas. Figures C1 and C4
provide a diagrammatic representation of the extent of waterproofing stipulated in
Tables F1.7 and 3.8.1.1 of the NCC.
Where the shower shown in the Figures is not enclosed, the wet area is to be taken as
1500 mm from the shower connection.
NOTE: User of this Standard should refer to the current edition of the NCC for any changes to the
Tables.

Wate r p r o of ve s s e l / wa ll
junction
150 m m

WR

(a) Ve s s e l a b u t ti n g wa ll

Wate r p r o of b ath / wa ll
junction

150 m m

WR

( b) Wa ll / b a th j u n c ti o n s wi th o u t s h owe r

FIGURE C4 BATH AND VESSEL ABUTTING WALLAREAS TO BE PROTECTED

Wate r p r o of c o r n e r to 18 0 0
hi g h f r o m f i ni s h e d f l o o r
l eve l, m i ni m u m wi d th of 4 0
e i th e r s i d e of th e j u n c ti o n

40
Shower rose

Ed g e of
s h owe r s c r e e n
WP

18 0 0

S h owe r
screen
WR

H e i g ht a s p e r
Ta b l e C1
( i ) Pl a n vi ew

Wate r p r o of
( ii ) S i d e vi ew
(a) En c l o s e d s h owe r
40

150 0
150 0
18 0 0

WP

Minimum ex te nt of
wate r p r o of i n g

H e i g ht a s p e r
Ta b l e C1

WR

( i ) Pl a n vi ew
Wate r p r o of
( ii ) S i d e vi ew

( b) U n e n c l o s e d s h owe r sC o n c r e te a n d c o m p r e s s e d f ib r e c e m e nt s h e e t f l o o r s

NOTE: All floor waterproofing to terminate at a waterstop.


DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE C1 EXTENT OF THE TREATMENT FOR SHOWER AREASCONCRETE AND


COMPRESSED FIBRE-CEMENT SHEET FLOORS

Wa te r p r o of c o r n e r to 18 0 0
f r o m f i n i s h e d f l o o r l eve l,
wi d th of 4 0 e i th e r s i d e
of th e j u n c ti o n

O pt i o n a l s h owe r p a n e l

( i ) Pl a n vi ew

40
150 0
9 0 0 m i n.

Wa te r p r o of c o r n e r to 18 0 0
f r o m f i n i s h e d f l o o r l eve l,
wi d th of 4 0 e i th e r s i d e of
the junction
S h owe r p a n e l s e a l e d
a t a ll j u n c ti o n s

S h owe r s c r e e n

Wate r- r e s i s t a nt
wa ll s to 18 0 0 f r o m
f i ni s h e d f l o o r l eve l

WR

WR

S e a l t a p o r m i xe r,
s h owe r r o s e a n d b a
ath
th
s p o u t p e n e t r a ti o n s .
Wate
Wa
te r p r o of j u n c ti o n wi d th
of 4 0 e i th e r s i d e of th e
j u n c ttii o n

Wate r p r o of
b a t h / wa ll j u n c t i o n

Wate r p ro of jun c tio n

WR
WR 150

Wate r p r o of
junction
WP
Wate r p r o of
bath lip/tile joint
( ii ) I s o m e t r i c vi ew

(a) 900 mm shower panel

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE C2 (in part) UNENCLOSED SHOWERS ABOVE BATHSAREA PROTECTED


FOR CONCRETE AND COMPRESSED FIBRE-CEMENT SHEET FLOORING

150 0

Wa te r p r o of c o r n e r to 18 0 0
f r o m f i n i s h e d f l o o r l eve l,
wi d th of 4 0 e i th e r s i d e
of th e j u n c ti o n
200 min.
150 0
M e a s u r e d f r o m th e
s h owe r c o n n e c ti o n at
th e wa ll a n d te r m i n ati n g
a t a wa te r s to p

S h owe r p a n e l

R e q u i r e d f l o o r wa s te
( i ) Pl a n vi ew

40

200 min.

150 0

Wa te r p r o of c o r n e r to 18 0 0
f r o m f i n i s h e d f l o o r l eve l,
wi d th of 4 0 e i th e r s i d e of
the junction
S h owe r p a n e l s e a l e d
a t a ll j u n c ti o n s

S h owe r s c r e e n

150 0 m e a s u r e d f r o m th e
s h owe r c o n n e c ti o n at
the wa ll

Wate r- r e s i s t a nt
wa ll s to 18 0 0 f r o m
f i ni s h e d f l o o r l eve l

WR

WR

S e a l t a p o r m i xe r,
s h owe r r o s e a n d b a
ath
th
s p o u t p e n e t r a ti o n s
Wate
Wa
te r p r o of j u n c ti o n wi d th
of 4 0 e i th e r s i d e of th e j u n c ti o n

Wate r p r o of
b a t h / wa ll j u n c t i o n

Wate r p ro of junc tio n to 150 0


ffro
ro m the s howe r c o nne c tio n at
the wa ll a nd
n d 25 a b ove f ini s he d
f llo
o o r lleve
eve l

WR
WR 150
WP

Wate r p r o of
junction

R e q u i r e d f l o o r wa s te
WP
Wate r p r o of
bath lip/tile joint
( ii ) I s o m e t r i c vi ew

Wa te r p r o of to 150 0 f r o m
s h owe r c o n n e c ti o n at wa ll a n d
g r a d e to a f l o o r wa s te a n d
te r m i n ate wi th a wate r s to p.

NOTE: All floor waterproofing to terminate at a waterstop.


(b) Shower panel less than 900 mm

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE C2 (in part) UNENCLOSED SHOWERS ABOVE BATHSAREA PROTECTED


FOR CONCRETE AND COMPRESSED FIBRE-CEMENT SHEET FLOORING

Waterproof cor ner to 1800


from finished floor level,
width of 40 either side
of the junction

Measured from the


shower connection
at the wall

1500

Required floor waste

(i) Plan view

Waterproof cor ner to 1800


from finished floor level,
width of 40 either side
of the junction

40

1500

1500 measured from the


shower connection at
the wall

Water-resistant
walls to 1800 from
finished floor level

S h owe r c o n n e c ti o n
WR

Seal tap or mixer,


shower rose and bath
spout penetrations

WR

Waterproof junction
width of 40 either
side of the junction

Wate r p r o of
b a t h / wa ll j u n c t i o n

Waterproof junction
to 1500 from the
shower connection
at the wall and mm
above finished floor
level

WR
WR 150
WP

Waterproof
junction

Required floor waste

WP
Waterproof
bath lip/tile joint
(ii) Isometric view

Waterproof to a minimum of 1500 from


shower connection at wall and grade
to a floor waste and terminate with a
waterstop.

NOTE: All floor waterproofing to terminate at a waterstop.


(c) No shower panel

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE C2 (in part) UNENCLOSED SHOWERS ABOVE BATHSAREA PROTECTED


FOR CONCRETE AND COMPRESSED FIBRE-CEMENT SHEET FLOORING

Waterproof cor ner to 1800


from finished floor level,
width of 40 either
side of the junction

Shower panel

Waterproof entire floor


(i) Plan view
40
1500

Waterproof cor ner to 1800 from


finished floor level, width
of 40 either side of the junction

900 min.

Shower panel sealed


at all junctions

S h owe r s c r e e n

Wate r- r e s i s t a nt
wa ll s to 18 0 0 f r o m
f i ni s h e d f l o o r l eve l

WR

Seal tap or mixer, shower


rose and bath spout
penetrations

WR

Waterproof junction width


of 40 either side of the junction

Wate r p r o of
b a t h / wa ll j u n c t i o n

Waterproof junction to
the wall and 25 above
finished floor level
WR 150
Waterproof
junction

Waterproof
bath lip/tile joint

WP

Waterproof entire floor

(ii) Isometric view

(a) 900 mm shower panel

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE C3 (in part) UNENCLOSED SHOWERS ABOVE BATHSAREA PROTECTED


FOR TIMBER FLOORS INCLUDING PARTICLEBOARD, PLYWOOD AND OTHER FLOOR
MATERIALS

Wate r p r o of c o r n e r to 18 0 0 f r o m
f i n i s h e d f l o o r l eve l, wi d th of
4 0 e i th e r s i d e of th e j u n c ti o n
S h owe r c o n n e c ti o n

S h owe r s c r e e n
200 min.

150 0
Extent of
waterstop
where
applicable

R e qui r e d f l o o r wa s te
Wate r p r o of e nti r e f l o o r
( i ) Pl a n vi ew

200 min.

40
150 0

Wate r p r o of c o r n e r to 18 0 0 f r o m
f i n i s h e d f l o o r l eve l, wi d th
of 4 0 e i th e r s i d e of th e j u n c ti o n
S h owe r p a n e l s e a l e d
at a ll ju n c ti o n s

Wate r- r e s i s t a nt wa ll s to
18 0 0 f r o m f i ni s h e d
f l o o r l eve l

S h owe r c o n n e c ti o n
S h owe r s c r e e n

WR

S e a l t a p o r mi xe r, s h owe r
rose and bath spout
p e n e t r a ti o n s

WR

Wa te r p r o of j u n c ti o n wi d th of
4 0 e i th e r s i d e of th e j u n c ti o n

Wate r p r o of
b a t h / wa ll j u n c t i o n

Wate r p r o of j u n c ti o n to
th e wa ll a n d 25 a b ove
f i ni s h e d f l o o r l eve l
WR 150

Wate r p r o of
junction

WR
R e q u i r e d f l o o r wa s te
WP
E x te nt of wa te r s to p
where applicable

Wate r p r o of
bath lip/tile joint

Wate r p r o of e nti r e f l o o r

( ii ) I s o m e t r i c vi ew

NOTE: All floor waterproofing to terminate at a waterstop.


(b) Shower panel less than 900 mm

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE C3 (in part) UNENCLOSED SHOWERS ABOVE BATHSAREA PROTECTED


FOR TIMBER FLOORS INCLUDING PARTICLEBOARD, PLYWOOD AND OTHER FLOOR
MATERIALS

Wate r p r o of c o r n e r to 18 0 0
f r o m f i ni s h e d f l o o r l eve l,
wi dth of 40 e i the r
s i d e of th e j u n c ti o n

150 0

S h owe r c o n n e c ti o n
Extent of
waterstop
where
applicable

150 0

150 0
R e qui r e d f l o o r wa s te
Wate r p r o of e nti r e f l o o r
( i ) Pl a n vi ew

150 0

Waterproof cor ner to 1800


from finished floor level,
width of 40 either side
of the junction

40

1500 measured from the


shower connection at
the wall

Wa te r- r e s i s t a nt wa ll s to
18 0 0 f r o m f i ni s h e d
f l o o r l eve l

S h owe r c o n n e c ti o n
WR

Seal tap or mixer,


shower rose and bath
spout penetrations

WR

Waterproof junction
width of 40 either side
of the junction

Wate r p r o of
b a t h / wa ll j u n c t i o n

Waterproof junction
to the wall and 25 above
finished floor level

WR
WR 150

Required floor waste


Waterproof
junction

WP

150
E x te nt of wa te r s to p
where applicable

150
Waterproof
bath lip/tile joint

Waterproof entire floor


(ii) Isometric view

NOTE: All floor waterproofing to terminate at a waterstop.


(c) No shower panel

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE C3 (in part) UNENCLOSED SHOWERS ABOVE BATHSAREA PROTECTED


FOR TIMBER FLOORS INCLUDING PARTICLEBOARD, PLYWOOD AND OTHER FLOOR
MATERIALS

TABLE C1
WATERPROOFING AND WATER RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING ELEMENTS IN WET AREAS
Vessels or area where
the fixture is installed

Floors and horizontal


surfaces

Walls

Wall junctions and


joints

Wall/floor
junctions

Penetrations

Shower area (enclosed and unenclosed)


With hob

(a)

Waterproof all walls in shower area to a


height the greater of
(i)

With step-down

Waterproof floor in
shower area (including
any hob or step-down)

Without hob or stepdown

With preformed shower


base

(ii)
(b)

N/A

not less than 150 mm above floor


substrate; or
not less than 25 mm above
maximum retained water level; and

Waterproof wall
junctions within
shower area

Waterproof
wall/floor
junctions within
shower area

Waterproof penetrations
in shower area

Waterproof wall
junctions within
shower area

Waterproof
wall/floor
junctions within
shower area

Waterproof penetrations
in shower area

Water resistant walls in shower area to


not less than 1800 mm above finished
floor level of the shower

Water-resistant walls in shower area to not


less than 1800 mm above finished floor level
of the shower

Area outside shower area


For concrete and
compressed fibre-cement
sheet flooring
For timber floors,
including particleboard,
plywood and other
timber-based flooring
materials

Water-resistant floor of
the room
N/A
Waterproof floor of the
room

N/A

Waterproof
wall/floor
junctions

N/A

(continued)

TABLE C1 (continued)
Vessels or area where
the fixture is installed

Floors and horizontal


surfaces

Walls

Wall junctions and


joints

Wall/floor
junctions

Penetrations

Water-resistant
wall/floor
junctions for the
extent of the vessel

Waterproof tap and spout


penetrations where they
occur in horizontal
surfaces

N/A

Waterproof tap and spout


penetrations where they
occur in horiziontal
surfaces

N/A

Waterproof tap and spout


penetrations where they
occur in surfaces required
to be waterproof or water
resistant

Area adjacent to baths and spas (see Note 1)


For concrete and
compressed fibre-cement
sheet flooring

Water-resistant floor of
the room

(a)

Water-resistant to a height of not less


than 150 mm above the vessel, for the
extent of the vessel, where the vessel is
within 75 mm of a wall

For timber floors,


including particleboard,
plywood and other
timber-based flooring
materials

Waterproof floor of the


room

(b)

Water-resistant all exposed surfaces


below vessel lip

Inserted baths and spas

(a)

(a)

Waterproof to not less than 150 mm


above lip of bath or spa

Waterproof shelf
area,
incorporating
waterstop under
the bath lip

Water-resistant
junctions within
150 mm above a
vessel for the extent
of the vessel

(a)

and

Waterproof
junctions within
150 mm above
bath or spa
and

(b)

Walls adjoining other


vessel (e.g. sink, basin
or laundry tub)

Laundries and WCs

No requirement
under bath

N/A

Water-resistant floor of
the room

(b)

No requirement under bath

Water-resistant to a height of not less than


150 mm above the vessel, for the extent of the
vessel, where the vessel is within 75 mm of a
wall

N/A

(b)

No requirement
under bath

Waterproof wall
junctions where a
vessel is fixed to a
wall

N/A

Waterproof
wall/floor
junctions

Waterproof penetrations
where they occur in
surfaces required to be
waterproof
(continued)

TABLE C1 (continued)
Vessels or area where
the fixture is installed

Floors and horizontal


surfaces

Walls

Wall junctions and


joints

Bathrooms and laundries


required to provide a
floor waste

Waterproof floor of the


room

N/A

N/A

Wall/floor
junctions
Waterproof
wall/floor
junctions

Penetrations
Waterproof penetrations
where they occur through
the floor

LEGEND:
N/A = not applicable
NOTES:
1

Where a shower is above a bath or spa, use requirements for shower.

This Table has been reproduced from the National Construction Code (NCC), (BCA, Volume One2012, Table F1.7), with the permission of the Australian Building
Codes Board (ABCB).

Users of the Standard should check that the NCC Table has not changed before using its reproduction.

Where a penetration passes through waterproof or water-resistant construction, the penetration should be made waterproof.

AS 37402010

38

BIBLIOGRAPHY
AS 3958
Ceramic tiles
AS 3958.1 Part 1: Guide to the installation of ceramic tiles
HB 161

Guide to Plastering

39

NOTES

AS 37402010

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