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Chris Johnson

1. Show that a linear functional is bounded if and only if it is continuous at x = 0. Suppose f is bounded and let {xn } be a sequence such that xn → 0. Then |f (xn )| ≤ C ||xn || → C ||0|| = 0, so |f (xn )| → 0 ⇒ f (xn ) → 0 and so f is continuous. Suppose f is continuous at 0, so xn → 0 ⇒ f (xn ) → 0. Then there exists a δ such w that |f (x)| ≤ 1 for all x such that ||x|| ≤ δ. Let w ∈ X, w = 0, and x = δ ||w|| . Note that ||x|| = δ.

|f (x)| = =

f (δ

w ) ||w||

δ |f (w)| ||w|| ≤ 1 ||w|| ⇒ |f (x)| ≤ δ Since this holds for all w ∈ X, f is bounded. 2. Given a normed space X = (E, ||·||), take f ∈ E # and recall that ker f = {x ∈ E : f (x) = 0}. Show that f is bounded, and therefore continuous, if and only if ker f is closed. Suppose f is continuous and let {yn } be a convergent sequence lying entirely in ker f . Then yn → y and f (yn ) → f (y). However, f (yn ) = 0 for every n, thus {f (yn )} is a sequence of all zeroes, and since f (yn ) → f (y), f (y) = 0 ⇒ y ∈ ker f and therefore ker f is closed. Suppose ker f is closed. If f is the zero functional, then f must be continuous, so assume that f is not the zero functional. Let {xn } be a convergent sequence in X, so xn → x. Note that we can decompose x into αe + y where y ∈ ker f and f (e) = 1. We can do this because we can always pick a y ∈ ker f then calculate v = x − y (since X is a linear space, it must be closed under addition). We can then let f (e) = 1 by picking e such that βe = v, since if f (v) = β, f (v) = f (βe) = βf (e) = β ⇒ f (e) = 1. We can also decompose the xn values in our sequence this way, so xn = αn e + yn . Note then that xn = αn e + yn → x = αe + y. 1

We wish to show that αn → α. We will begin by assuming {αn } is unbounded. Since {αn } is unbounded, there must exist a subsequence αnj such that αnj → ∞. Consider the corresponding subsequence xnj and solve for e.

**xn = αn e + yn yn xnj − j ⇒e = αnj αnj Since xn → x, xnj → x ⇒
**

x nj α nj

**→ 0, which leaves us with the following. e=− ynj αnj
**

yn

j

But notice each ynj ∈ ker f , and so e = − αnj → 0 implies e ∈ ker f which is a contradiction as we assumed f (e) = 1. Therefore {αn } must be bounded. Since {αn } is a bounded sequence in R, it must have a convergent subsequence, αnk → α1 . Consider the corresponding subsequence {xnk } of {xn } and solve for ynk .

xnk = αnk e + ynk ⇒ ynk = xnk − αnk e Note xnk → x and αnk → α1 implies ynk = xnk − αnk e → x − α1 e = y1 However, ker f is closed, so y1 ∈ ker f . This gives us αe + y = α1 e + y1 which can be written as (α − α1 )e = y1 − y. Since ker f is a linear space, y1 − y ∈ ker f and so (α − α1 )e ∈ ker f . However we know e ∈ ker f since f (e) = 1, and therefore α = α1 . / Thus αn → α and yn → y.

f (xn ) = = = → = = = So f (xn ) → x and f is continuous. 2

f (αn e + yn ) αn f (e) + f (yn ) αn α αf (e) + f (y) f (αe + y) f (x)

3. Recall the properties of an inner product ·, · . Prove the equality | a, b | = ||a|| ||b|| holds on an inner product space (H, ·, · ) (over R) if and only if a = λb, where λ ∈ R, a, b ∈ H. Here ||a|| ≡ | a, a |. Assume a = λb. | a, b | = | λb, b | = = = = = |λ| | b, b | |λ| ||b||2 |λ| ||b|| ||b|| ||λb|| ||b|| ||a|| ||b||

2

Assume | a, b | = ||a|| ||b|| and let ρ = ||a|| =

| a, a |, and δ = a, b .

| a, b | = ||a|| ||b|| = = = ⇒ | a, b |2 ⇒ a, b a, b ⇒ δ a, b ⇒ δa, b ⇒ δa | a, a | | b, b | |ρ b, b | | ρb, b |

2

= | ρb, b | = ρb, b = ρb, b = ρb, b = ρb ρ b ⇒a = δ

Thus a = λb, and so | a, b | = ||a|| ||b|| ⇔ a = λb. 4. Is the following true: on a ﬁnite dimensional normed space every linear functional is continuous? Give a proof of your answer. Yes, every linear functional on a ﬁnite dimensional normed space is continuous. Proof Suppose {xn } is a sequence in a ﬁnite dimensional normed space X = (E, ||·||) where xn → x ∈ X and {x1 , ..., xn } is a basis of X. Note that each x =

n i=1

ai xi and each xn =

(n) n i=1 bi xi .

As xn → x, bi

(n)

→ ai .

3

n

f (xn ) = f

i=1 n

bi x i bi f (xi )

(n)

(n)

=

i=1 n

→

i=1

ai f (xi )

n

= f

i=1

ai x i

= f (x) Thus f (xn ) → f (x) and f is continuous. 5. Give an example of a normed space (E, ||·||) and a linear functional f ∈ E ∗ which is not continuous. 6. (Given in class.) Let f, g ∈ X # , λ, µ ∈ R. Show that λf + µg is linear. Let α, β ∈ R, x, y ∈ X.

(λf + µg)(αx + βy) = = = = = And so (λf + µg) ∈ X # is linear.

(λf )(αx + βy) + (µg)(αx + βy) (λf )(αx) + (λf )(βy) + (µg)(αx) + (µg)(βy) αλf (x) + βλf (y) + αµg(x) + βµg(y) α(λf (x) + µg(x) + β(λf (y) + µg(y)) α(λf + µg)(x) + β(λf + µg)(y)

4

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