Satellite Communications
Satellitebased antenna(e) in stable orbit above earth.
Two or more (earth) stations communicate via one or
more satellites serving as relay(s) in space.
Uplink: earth>satellite.
Downlink: satellite>earth.
Transponder: satellite electronics converting uplink
signal to downlink.
Satellite Communications
Satellite Transponder is a microwave device
consisting of receiver, repeater and regenerator in
orbit
Satellite transmission involves sending signals to
satellite that receive, amplify, and transmit back to
earth
Pointtomultipoint transmission
Data communication
Internet
Video conference
LARGE CAPACITY
COVERAGE
WIDEBAND SERVICE
High availability
There are very few sources of disruption to the Earthsatellite propagation path that
cannot be factored into the original link budget, which means that satellite
communications have a very high availability.
Good quality
Again, since the variations in the satellite path are few and wellcharacterized, the
link budget for a particular path can be determined to guarantee a desired level of
quality of service.
1957
1960
1963
1965
1976
1982
1988
1993
1998
Sputnik 1
Launched October 14,
1957
from the Baikonur
Cosmodrome in
Kazakhstan
184 pounds
Orbital period 90 minutes
Broadcast beep beep
20 and 40 MHz
Intercontinental telephone,
data, and video relay
Initially satellite links were only:
Oneway video and data traffic
Backup to undersea telephone cables
Because:
Nominal 12 second time delay for a roundtrip voice
message.
Common uses
Muzak background music
Credit card transactions
Corporate
communications
64kbps to 2Mbps
Aircraft
Trucks
Rail locomotives.
Suitcase sized terminals
Used extensively in disaster situations and remote
exploration.
In the Future ?
Internet backbone services
Teledesic
LEO constellation
Intersatellite links
Scalable
Viability in question
Iridium debacle
Major Organisations
INTELSAT (1964), global (about 140 countries),
FSS and BSS systems
EUTELSAT (1977) 47 countries (Europe and former
USSR countries), FSS and BSS systems
Satellite Services
FSS Fixed Satellite Services (VSAT
networks,..)
MSS Mobile Satellite Services (Inmarsat
systems,...)
BSS Broadcasting Satellite Services ( TV,
DVB..)
RDSS Radiodetermination Satellite Services
(GPS)
Satellite Orbits
Satellite Orbits
GEO
advantages:
 the satellite appears to be fixed (immovable) when viewed from the Earth, no
tracking required for earth station antennas
 about. 40% of the earth`s surface is in view from the satellite
disadvantages:
 high attenuation level (power loss) (200dB) on the path
 large signal delay (238284ms)
 polar regions (latitudes > 81 deg.) are not covered
LEO
advantages:
 much smaller attenuation compare GEO satellites
 low signal delay
disadvantages:
 short period satellite visibility (through earth station), many times during the
day
 Doppler effect
 many satellites are required for establishing continuous transmission
24
velocity [ x1000 km/h]
20
16
12
8
synchronous distance
35,786 km
10
20
30
radius
40 x106 m
Orbits I
Four different types of satellite orbits can be identified
depending on the shape and diameter of the orbit:
GEO: geostationary orbit, ca. 36000 km above earth
surface
LEO (Low Earth Orbit): ca. 500  1500 km
MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) or ICO (Intermediate
Circular Orbit): ca. 6000  20000 km
HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit) elliptical orbits
Orbits II
GEO (Inmarsat)
HEO
MEO (ICO)
LEO
(Globalstar,
Irdium)
VanAllenBelts:
ionized particels
2000  6000 km and
15000  30000 km
above earth surface
35768
km
Space Weather
Geostationary satellites
Orbit 35.786 km distance to earth surface, orbit in equatorial plane
(inclination 0)
complete rotation exactly one day, satellite is synchronous to earth rotation
fix antenna positions, no adjusting necessary
satellites typically have a large footprint (up to 34% of earth surface!),
therefore difficult to reuse frequencies
bad elevations in areas with latitude above 60 due to fixed position above
the equator
high transmit power needed
high latency due to long distance (ca. 275 ms)
not useful for global coverage for small mobile phones and data
transmission, typically used for radio and TV transmission
LEO systems
Examples:
Iridium (start 1998, 66 satellites)
Globalstar (start 1999, 48 satellites)
MEO systems
Example:
ICO (Intermediate Circular Orbit, Inmarsat) start ca. 2000
GEO vs LEO
GEO
advantages:
 the satellite appears to be fixed (immovable) when viewed from the Earth, no tracking
required for earth station antennas
 about. 40% of the earth`s surface is in view from the satellite
disadvantages:
 high attenuation level (power loss) (200dB) on the path
 large signal delay (238284ms)
 polar regions (latitudes > 81 deg.) are not covered
LEO
advantages:
 much smaller attenuation compare GEO satellites
 low signal delay
disadvantages:
 short period satellite visibility (through earth station),
 many times during the day
 Doppler effect
 many satellites are required for establishing continuous transmission
Communication Satellites
Iridium
66 + 6
780
Globalstar
48 + 4
1414
ICO
10 + 2
10390
Teledesic
288
ca. 700
global
8
70 latitude
20
global
20
global
40
1.6 MS
29.2
19.5
23.3 ISL
FDMA/TDMA
1.6 MS
2.5 MS
5.1
6.9
CDMA
2 MS
2.2 MS
5.2
7
FDMA/TDMA
19
28.8
62 ISL
yes
2.4 kbit/s
no
9.6 kbit/s
no
4.8 kbit/s
4000
58
2700
7.5
4500
12
yes
64 Mbit/s
2/64 Mbit/s
2500
10
4.4 B$
2.9 B$
4.5 B$
9 B$
FDMA/TDMA
Spectrum Allocation
Frequency Spectrum concepts:
Frequency: Rate at which an electromagnetic wave reverts its polarity
(oscillates) in cycles per second or Hertz (Hz).
= c/f
Where: c = speed of light (3x108 m/s in vacuum) f = frequency in Hertz
Frequency band: range of frequencies.
Bandwidth: Size or width (in Hertz) or a frequency band.
Electromagnetic Spectrum: full extent of all frequencies from zero to infinity.
Microwave Frequencies
Subrange of the RF frequencies approximately from
1GHz to 30GHz. Main properties:

Frequency Bands
Frequency allocation
Band
Uhf Military
S Band
L Band
C Band  Commercial
X Band  Military
Ku Band  Commercial
Ka Band  Commercial
Ka Band  Military
Q/V Geostationary
Q/V Nongeostationary
W Band
3.7  4.2
7.25  7.75
11.7  12.2
17.7  21.2
20.2  21.2
37.5  40.5
37.5  38.5
66.0  67.0
5.925  6.425
7.9  8.4
14.0  14.5
27.5  30.0
43.5  45.5
47.2  50.2
48.2  49.2
71.0  72.0
Antennas
CBand
Kuband
Atmospheric attenuation
Affected by oxygen, water, angle of elevation, and higher
frequencies
Elevation
Elevation:
angle between center of satellite beam
and surface
minimal elevation:
elevation needed at least
to communicate with the satellite
Atmospheric attenuation
Attenuation of
the signal in %
50
40
rain absorption
30
fog absorption
20
10
atmospheric
absorption
5 10
20
30
40
50
Applications
Traditionally
weather satellites
radio and TV broadcast satellites
military satellites
satellites for navigation and localization (e.g., GPS)
Telecommunication
global telephone connections
replaced by fiber optics
backbone for global networks
connections for communication in remote places or
underdeveloped areas
global mobile communication
34 kg
152 kg 1
500 circuits
1986 Intelsat VI
1,800 kg
33,000 circuits
3000 kg
8  15 kW power
1,200 kg payload
Satellite Navigation:
GPS and GLONASS
GPS is a medium earth orbit (MEO) satellite system
GPS satellites broadcast pulse trains with very
accurate time signals
A receiver able to see four GPS satellites can
calculate its position within 30 m anywhere in world
24 satellites in clusters of four, 12 hour orbital period
You never need be lost again
Every automobile and cellular phone will eventually
have a GPS location readout
Mobile User
Link (MUL)
Gateway Link
(GWL)
MUL
GWL
small cells
(spotbeams)
base station
or gateway
footprint
ISDN
PSTN: Public Switched
Telephone Network
PSTN
User data
GSM
Earth
Stations
SCC
TT&C Ground Station
Ground Segment
Coverage Region
Space Segment
Satellite Launching Phase
Transfer Orbit Phase
Deployment
Operation
TT&C  Tracking Telemetry and Command Station:
Establishes an control and monitoring link with satellite. Tracks
orbit distortions and allows correction planning. Distortions
caused by irregular gravitational forces from nonspherical
Earth and due to the influence of Sun and Moon forces.
SSC  Satellite Control Center, a.k.a.:
OCC  Operations Control Center
SCF  Satellite Control Facility
Provides link signal monitoring for Link Maintenance and
Interference monitoring.
Retirement Phase
Space segment
Satellite Transponder
Ground Segment
Collection of facilities, users and applications.
Earth Station = Satellite Communication Station (air, ground or sea, fixed or mobile).
Signals
Signals:
Separating Signals
Up and Down:
FDD: Frequency Division Duplexing.
f1 = Uplink
f2 = Downlink
TDD: Time Division Duplexing.
t1=Up, t2=Down, t3=Up, t4=Down,.
Polarization
V & H linear polarization
RH & LH circular polarizations
Separating Signals
(so that many transmitters can use the same transponder
simultaneously)
Orbital Mechanics
Part 1
s = ut + (1/2)at2
v2 = u2 + 2at
v = u + at
F = ma
Newtons
Second Law
FORCE ON A SATELLITE
Force = Mass Acceleration
Unit of Force is a Newton
A Newton is the force required to accelerate
1 kg by 1 m/s2
Underlying units of a Newton are therefore
(kg) (m/s2)
ACCELERATION FORMULA
a = acceleration due to gravity = / r2 km/s2
r = radius from center of earth
= universal gravitational constant G multiplied
by the mass of the earth ME
is Keplers constant and
= 3.9861352 105 km3/s2
G = 6.672 1011 Nm2/kg2 or 6.672 1020
km3/kg s2 in the older units
FORCE ON A SATELLITE : 2
Inward (i.e. centripetal force)
Since Force = Mass
Acceleration
( / r2)
(GME / r2)
v (velocity)
F2
F1
(Gravitational
Force)
(InertialCentrifugal
Force)
Satellite
System
Orbital
Height (km)
INTELSAT
35,786.43
3.0747
23 56 4.091
ICOGlobal
10,255
4.8954
5 55 48.4
1,469
7.1272
1 55 17.8
780
7.4624
1 40 27.0
Skybridge
Iridium
Orbital
Velocity (km/s)
Orbital
Period
h min s
FORCE ON A SATELLITE
If FOUT = FIN
the object is in
FREE FALL
FREE FALL???
ORBIT LIMITS
Geographical Coordinates
Earth Centric Coordinate System
GM Emr
r
Equation (2.7)
1011 Nm2/kg2
= Keplers constant)
m = mass of satellite
r = satellite orbit radius from center of earth
r= unit vector in the r direction (positive r is away from earth)
d2 r
m
dt 2
Equation (2.8)
d2 r
dt 2
r
r3
2
d r
dt 2
r
r3
THE ORBIT
We have a second order differential equation
See text for a way to find a solution
If we redefine our coordinate system into polar
coordinates (see Fig.) we can rewrite equation
as two second order differential equations in
terms of r0 and 0
Polar Coordinates
In the plane of the
orbit
Polar coordinate system in the plane of the satellites orbit. The plane of the orbit
coincides with the plane of the paper. The axis z0 is straight out of the paper from the
center of the earth, and is normal to the plane of the satellites orbit. The satellites
position is described in terms of the radius from the center of the earth r0 and the angle
this radius makes with the x0 axis, o.
THE ORBIT
We have a second order differential equation
If we redefine our coordinate system into polar coordinates
(see Fig. 2.3) we can rewrite equation (2.5) as two second
order differential equations in terms of r0 and 0.
and
THE ORBIT
Solving the two differential equations leads to six constants
(the orbital constants) which define the orbit, and three
laws of orbits (Keplers Laws of Planetary Motion)
Johaness Kepler (1571  1630) a German Astronomer and
Scientist
V(a,0)
F(c,0)
P(x,y)
F(c,0)
x
V(a,0)
(0,b)
a2
Points (c,0) and (c,0) are the foci.
Points (a,0) and (a,0) are the vertices.
Line between vertices is the major axis.
a is the length of the semimajor axis.
Line between (0,b) and (0,b) is the minor axis.
b is the length of the semiminor axis.
b2 c2
Standard Equation:
x2
a2
y2
b2
Area of ellipse:
ab
e = ellipses eccentricity
O = center of the earth (one
focus of the ellipse)
C = center of the ellipse
a = (Apogee + Perigee)/2
r0
p
1 e * cos( 0 )
e = eccentricity
e<1
ellipse
e = 0 circle
r0 = distance of a point in the orbit to the
center of the earth
p = geometrical constant (width of the
conic section at the focus)
p=a(1e2)
0 = angle between r0 and the perigee
t2  t1 = t4  t3
T2 = (4
a 3) /
(Equation 2.21)
Numerical Example 1
The Geostationary Orbit:
Sidereal Day = 23 hrs 56 min 4.1 sec
Calculate radius and height of GEO orbit:
T2 = (4 2 a3) /
(eq. 2.21)
Rearrange to a3 = T2 /(4 2)
T = 86,164.1 sec
a3 = (86,164.1) 2 x 3.986004418 x 105 /(4 2)
a = 42,164.172 km = orbit radius
h = orbit radius earth radius = 42,164.172 6378.14
= 35,786.03 km
is the True
Anomaly
See eq. (2.22)
o
C is the
center of the
orbit ellipse
O is the
center of the
earth
NOTE: Perigee and Apogee are on opposite sides of the orbit
ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS
SemiAxis Lengths of the Orbit
p
2
1 e
where
a1 e
2 1/ 2
where
h C
See eqn.
(2.19)
ORBIT ECCENTRICITY
If a = semimajor axis,
b = semiminor axis, and
e = eccentricity of the orbit ellipse,
then
a
a
b
b
Time reference
tp Time of Perigee = Time of closest
approach to the earth, at the same time, time
the satellite is crossing the x0 axis, according to
the reference used.
t tp = time elapsed since satellite last passed
the perigee.
ORBIT DETERMINATION 1:
Procedure:
Given the time of perigee tp, the eccentricity e
and the length of the semimajor axis a: