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Heat Exchangers - Course Content

Section 2 - Introduction to Shell & Tube Exchangers

Design Requirements
TEMA Nomenclature
Selection of TEMA Type Layouts
Tube Pass Geometry
Minimizing Leakage Streams
Pass Partitions
Baffle Types
Baffle Selection Criteria
Flanges
Tube to Tubesheet Joints
Impingement Plates
Vapor Belts
Materials of Construction
Protective Coatings
Design Temperature & Pressure
EDS 2004/EXC 2-1

Table of Contents - Section 2 Mechanical Elements

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers


How do we turn this -

Into this -

EXC-R00-09
EDS 2004/EXC 2-2

The design process for a heat exchanger starts with the process design. The two
streams that need to be exchanged are determined.
The next biggest step is turning that concept in a physical reality with real
equipment. The physical reality of exchangers provides many of the limitations on
what is a possible/practical process design.

Data Sheet

Process Conditions
Mechanical Data

EDS 2004/EXC 2-3

The design process for a heat exchanger starts with the process design. The two
streams that need to be exchanged are determined. The data sheet shows the
process conditions.
The mechanical section list the type of exchanger, surface area, metallurgy, tube
length, number of tubes, tube diameter, tube thickness and many other important
items of information.
Every process engineer should have a copy of the exchangers in his unit. The API
Data sheet is the starting point for an exchanger evaluation.

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

EDS 2004/EXC 2-4

The exchange has many parts. It is important to learn the terminology. The AES
type shown is the most common exchanger in the refinery
The next biggest step is turning that concept in a physical reality with real
equipment. The physical reality of exchangers provides many of the limitations on
what is a possible/practical process design.

Design Requirements
What are the key parameters that are used to develop a
design for a heat exchanger?

Fluid Streams:
Flow Rate
Thermophysical Properties of Fluid
Temperature
Pressure
Pressure Drop Limitations
Phase (Liquid/Vapor/Mixture)
Boiling/Condensing
Fouling Potential
Corrosion Potential
Geometric Concerns
Space Constraints
Weight Constraints
Manufacturing Limits

EDS 2004/EXC 2-5

What is required for the physical design of an exchanger.


The two streams must be completely defined.
Any physical restraints on the design must be defined. The physical constraints
may be due to the site, equipment at the site for maintenance activities, physical
constraints due to the ability of the fabricator to build the exchanger, or to physical
limitations on being able to ship the exchanger to site.

Design Requirements
(continued)

Operational Concerns
Spare Capacity
Equipment Failure
Control

Overriding Concerns
Economics
Economics
Economics

EDS 2004/EXC 2-6

Other concerns include operational concerns in the event of failure, on-line


maintenance such as cleaning, temperature controls, etc.
However, the overriding concern is normally cost. The design of the exchanger
must be based on achieving a fully functional piece of equipment for the lowest
cost.
Cost can be defined as either initial purchase price or as the total cost of ownership.
Total cost of ownership involves determining the cost of the initial purchase,
expected maintenance costs, etc. till demolition and scrap value.
Which cost is used will vary for different users.

TEMA - Tubular Exchanger


Manufacturers Association
Heat Exchanger Nomenclature - Front Heads

D
EXC-R00-14
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TEMA produces a standard for the design of heat exchangers. This is a group of exchanger
suppliers getting together to define terminology and practices that all suppliers can agree to.
One of the most useful things in the TEMA standards is a code to describe the overall configuration
of shell & tube heat exchangers. They can come in a vast variety of designs and using this code, the
configuration is readily conveyed. The code consist of three letters covering the front head, shell,
and rear head of the exchanger.
A Type - Channel with a Removable Cover (Most Common)
Easy to open for tubeside access
Extra tube side joint
B Type - Bonnet or Channel with an Integral Cover
Must break piping connections to open exchanger
Single tube side joint
C Type - Channel Integral with the Tubesheet with a Removable Cover
Channel to tubesheet joint eliminated
Bundle integral with front head
N Type - Channel Integral with the Tubesheet with a Removable Cover (Fixed Tubesheet)
Fixed tubesheet with removable cover plate
D Type - Special High Pressure Closure
Special closures for high pressure applications

TEMA - Tubular Exchanger


Manufacturers Association

Heat Exchanger Nomenclature - Shell Types


E

H
EXC-R00-15

EDS 2004/EXC 2-8

Shell Types
E Type - One Pass Shell
Most common configuration without phase change.
F Type - Two Pass Shell with a Longitudinal Baffle
Countercurrent flow obtained. Baffle leakage problems.
G Type - Split Flow
Lower pressure drop.
H Type - Double Split Flow
Thermosyphon reboilers.
J Type - Divided Flow
Flow can enter or exit via the single nozzle.
Older reboiler designs.
K Type - Kettle Type Reboiler
Phase separation integral to exchanger.
X Type - Cross Flow
Lowest pressure drop.

TEMA Tubular
Exchanger
Manufacturers
Association
Heat Exchanger
Nomenclature Rear Head Types

EXC-R00-16
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Rear Head Types


L Type - Same a A Type Front Head
M Type - Same a B Type Front Head
N Type - Same a N Type Front Head
P Type - Outside Packed Floating Head
Rarely used in refining
W Type - Externally Sealed Floating Tubesheet
Rarely used in refining
S Type - Floating Head with Backing Device
Very common
T Type - Pull Through Floating Head
Very common
U Type - U-Tube Bundle
Steam service and high P shell/tube

Selection of Exchanger Type


1) Feed preheater
Low pressure
Tubeside - Steam
Shellside - Light naphtha

EDS 2004/EXC 2-10

Selection Example #1

Selection of Exchanger Type


(continued)

1) Feed preheater
Low pressure
Tubeside - Steam
Shellside - Light naphtha
BEU

EDS 2004/EXC 2-11

Selection Example #1 Answer

Selection of Exchanger Type


(continued)

2) Feed preheater
Low pressure
Tubeside - Coker fractionator bottoms
Shellside - Light coker naphtha

EDS 2004/EXC 2-12

Selection Example #2

Selection of Exchanger Type


(continued)

2) Feed preheater
Low pressure
Tubeside - Coker fractionator bottoms
Shellside - Light coker naphtha
AES or AET

EDS 2004/EXC 2-13

Selection Example #2 Answer

Selection of Exchanger Type


(continued)

3) Xylene column reboiler


Low pressure
Tubeside - Steam
Shellside - Mixed aromatics

EDS 2004/EXC 2-14

Selection Example #3

Selection of Exchanger Type


(continued)

3) Xylene column reboiler


Low pressure
Tubeside - Steam
Shellside - Mixed aromatics
A or B, E or H or J or X, U
A or B, K, T or U
probably BHU

EDS 2004/EXC 2-15

Selection Example #3 Answer

Tube Pass Geometry and Pass Partitions


Separation of fluids in each pass must be maintained since
leakage would short circuit the exchanger.
The term Pass used in exchangers is not the same as the
term pass is used in fired heaters. The number of passes in
an exchanger is the number of times one fluid passes through
the other fluids compartment.

Ribbon
Inlet
In

In

Out

Out

In

In

Out

Front head

Out
Outlet

Rear head
EXC-R00-19
EDS 2004/EXC 2-16

When the tubes are divided into more than one pass, this division can be done in
three main ways.
Ribbon where the tubes are divided horizontally or vertically.
In order to divide the flow, the channel (front) and floating or rear head has to have
flow dividing baffles. These are called Pass Partition Baffles. The baffle patterns
are different in the two heads.

Tube Pass Geometry and Pass Partitions


Quadrant
Inlet
In 1
Out 4

Out 2
In 3

In 1
Out 4

Out 2
In 3

In 5

Out 6

In 5

Out 6

Out 8

In 7

Out 8

In 7

Front head

Outlet

Rear head

EXC-R00-20
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Quadrant where the division occurs in both the horizontal or vertical direction.
More readily used with larger number of tube passes.
In quadrant layouts, the nozzles are generally placed off the centerline to avoid the
vertical baffle.
Also, it is possible to use a combination of both ribbon and quadrant pass layouts.
As the ends of the front and rear heads need to have sealing gaskets, it can be seen
that the shape of the gaskets and the difficulty in getting them into position becomes
more difficult.

Shellside Flow Distribution

Fluid flows through the shell in five paths


A Stream - Through gap between tube and baffle
B Stream - Between tubes across the bundle
C Stream - Through gap between bundle and shell
E Stream - Through gap between baffle and shell
F Stream - Through pass partition lane

EDS 2004/EXC 2-18

There are 5 significant flow paths that the shell side fluid can take through the shell.
They are listed with a letter to describe them. Other than that the letter has no real
significance.

EXC-R00-21
EDS 2004/EXC 2-19

This picture shows the flow paths in a cross-sectional view.


The gap between the bundle and the shell often uses a seal strip. This strips come in
pairs. They force the fluid flowing around the edge of the bundle to flow back
toward the center of the bundle.
Notice in the gap in the tube field caused by the pass partition baffle in the channel.
If the flow is normal to the gap, there is not loss of efficiency. However, if the flow
is parallel to the gap, there will be a tendency to bypass the tubes in the bundle.
This stream is sometimes blocked with dummy tubes or maybe tie rod.

EXC-R00-22
EDS 2004/EXC 2-20

This picture shows the flow paths in an elevation view.


Each of these leakage streams needs to be minimized as they result in a loss of heat
transfer efficiency.
The A stream is reduced by having a small gap (1/32" to 1/64") between the tube
OD and the Baffle ID. This clearance cannot be made too tight as it may result in
damage due to tube vibration.
The E stream is reduced by having the bundle close to the shell. This is a loss of
efficiency for floating head type bundles versus fixed tubesheet exchangers. T type
exchangers are worse than S type in the size of this stream. Making this gap too
small can make it difficult to pull and reinsert a tube bundle. Gap varies from 1/8"
to 7/16" as bundle diameter increases.

Minimizing Leakage Streams

A Stream
Tight tolerance of tube OD to baffle hole ID
TEMA RCB 4.2
y 1/32" (0.8 mm) if baffle spacing < 36" (915 mm)
y 1/64" (0.4 mm) if baffle spacing > 36" (915 mm)
E Stream
Tight tolerance of bundle to shell ID
TEMA RCB 4.3
y 1/8" (3.2 mm) for shell ID 6-17" (152-432 mm)
y 3/16" (4.8 mm) for shell ID 18-39" (457-991 mm)
y 1/4" (6.4 mm) for shell ID 40-54" (1016-1372 mm)
y 5/16" (7.9 mm) for shell ID 55-69" (1397-1753 mm)
y 3/8" (9.5 mm) for shell ID 70-84" (1778-2134 mm)
y 7/16" (11.1 mm) for shell ID 85-100" (2159-2540 mm)
EDS 2004/EXC 2-21

Each of these leakage streams needs to be minimized as they result in a loss of heat
transfer efficiency.
The A stream is reduced by having a small gap between the tube OD and the Baffle
ID. This clearance cannot be made too tight as it may result in damage due to tube
vibration.
The E stream is reduced by having the bundle close to the shell. This is a loss of
efficiency for floating head type bundles versus fixed tubesheet exchangers. T type
exchangers are worse than S type in the size of this stream. Making this gap too
small can make it difficult to pull and reinsert a tube bundle.

C Stream
Block steam with sealing strip.

only one shown

EXC-Roo-23
EDS 2004/EXC 2-22

The gap between the bundle and the shell often uses a seal strip. This strips come in
pairs. They force the fluid flowing around the edge of the bundle to flow back
toward the center of the bundle.

F Stream

Normal to flow - No bypassing problem


Parallel to flow - Install dummy tubes
Dummy tubes are tubes on the shell side only.

They physically block the flow but have no


holes in the tubesheet. No tubeside fluid
passes through them.

EDS 2004/EXC 2-23

The F stream is the flow in the gap in the tube field caused by the pass partition
baffle in the channel. If the flow is normal to the gap, there is not loss of efficiency.
However, if the flow is parallel to the gap, there will be a tendency to bypass the
tubes in the bundle. This stream is sometimes blocked with dummy tubes or maybe
tie rod.

Baffle Types

EXC-Roo-24
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The most commonly used shell side baffle is the single segmental baffle. The baffle
consists of alternating flat plates with a portion cut off. The flow is block by the
solid portion of the baffle but allows flow to pass it through the cut out window.
Tubes occupy the entire shell circle. The tubes in the center of the baffle are
supported by each baffle. However, the tubes in the window are supported by every
other baffle.
A variation is the double segmental baffle. In this case the baffle plate is cut so that
the flow is over both sides of some baffles and through a central gap in the other
baffles.
The next variation is the use of single segmental baffles but tubes are eliminated in
the windows. This is a No Tube In Windows design. It is used for exchangers with
vibration problems as each baffle doubles as a tube support.

Baffle Types
(continued)

Triple Segmental Baffles

Holtec NEST Baffles

Philips Rod Baffles

Spiral Baffles

EXC-Roo-25
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Four other types of baffles are sometimes used.


The first is another variation on the segmental type using a triple segmental baffle.
These have lower pressure drop but are difficult to set up properly due to all the
pieces.
Phillips Petroleum patented a Rod Baffle Design. Here steel rods are used instead
of plates. The rods are placed in an alternating pattern of vertical and horizontal
supports with a circular edge rod to hold the structure together. This is a very good
system for low pressure drop and high viscosity designs. However, anyone that
uses this design must pay a royalty for the privilege.
Holtec similarly developed a Nest type baffle. Similar in concept to the Rod Baffle
design, except for the use of strips of metal rather than rods, this design allows the
use of triangularly pitched tubes.
The spiral baffle is made of four quadrant pieces of flat plates that direct the shell
side flow in a more uniform spiral flow pattern. This provides better flow
properties and uses the tube surface more efficiently in some situations.

FLOW PATTERNS

max
unsupported
max unsupported
tube
span
tube span

FULL
FULL
TUBEFIELD

TUBEFIELD

Flow
Patterns

max
unsupported
max
unsupported
tube
span
tube
span

FULL
FULL
TUBEFIELD

TUBEFIELD

max
maxunsupported
unsupported
tube
tubespan
span
empty space

empty space
PARTIAL
PARTIAL
TUBEFIELD
TUBEFIELD

empty space

empty space

EXC-Roo-26
EDS 2004/EXC 2-26

The side view of the flow patterns for single and double segmental baffles as well as
NTIW designs.
The double segmental pattern allows for a more axial flow with fewer sharp turns
resulting in a lower pressure drop.
The No Tube In Windows design is also shown to be a more truly cross flow pattern
with space in the window for the fluid to remix.

Baffle Selection Criteria

Single Segmental Baffles


Standard Arrangement
Inexpensive
Used if neither P nor tube vibration is a problem

Double Segmental
Used if P must be limited and tube vibration is not a
problem

NTIW

Used if P must be limited and tube vibration is a


problem

Triple Segmental
Provides lower P than Single or Double Segmental
Has a large unsupported tube span

EDS 2004/EXC 2-27

Summary of reasons to use the various baffle types.

Baffle Selection Criteria


(continued)

Phillips Rod Baffles


Provides very low P
More expensive than plate baffles
Only used on square pitch
Good for high liquids on shellside
Provides good tube support

EDS 2004/EXC 2-28

Continued summary of reasons for using the various baffle types.

Baffle Selection Criteria


(continued)

Holtec NEST Baffles


Very low P
More expensive than plate baffles
Any pitch down to TEMA minimum
Good for revamps (low P)
Good for high liquids on shellside
Good tube support

EDS 2004/EXC 2-29

Continued summary of reasons for using the various baffle types.

Baffle Selection Criteria


(continued)

Spiral Baffles
Provides lower P
More expensive than plate baffles
Improves heat transfer
Good for high liquids on shellside
Reduces shellside dead spaces

EDS 2004/EXC 2-30

Continued summary of reasons for using the various baffle types.

Flanges

Flanges are bolted joints to allow inspection and


maintenance
Significant potential for leakage to surroundings
Gaskets used to minimize leak potential

EDS 2004/EXC 2-31

Flanges are more important and difficult to design in exchangers than in vessels or
piping due to the thermal variations that can occur in the flange.
Further flanges can be as large as the diameter of the exchanger.
Three types of flanges are described.

Flange Facing Types


Nubbin

1/64

1/64

1/64

EXC-R00-28
EDS 2004/EXC 2-32

The portion of the flange that the gasket comes in contact with is called the facing.
The facing area is usually machined with extra care to get a good surface for the
gasket to seal against.
The surface may be extra smooth or have a specified amount of roughness.
Sometimes a bump is left on the surface. This is called a nubbin. The nubbin
pushes against the gasket concentrating the force applied to the gasket.
The joint in the bottom right is a ring type joint. These were popular years ago as
giving a tight seal however, they are difficult to install and remove since the flange
has to be spread more than a standard type joint. UOP does not normally use ring
type joints.

Tube to Tubesheet Designs

Most difficult mechanical


design component
Large potential for
internal leakage
3 main types
Expanded
Seal Welded
Strength Welded

EXC-R00-29
EDS 2004/EXC 2-33

The weakest part of the heat exchanger design is typically the tube to tubesheet
joint. This is the place where most leaks occur inside an exchanger. This is due to
the high stresses present in a typical joint and typical fabrication requirements.
There are 3 types of joints.
Expanded - Tubes are placed inside the hole of the tubesheet and expanded
(increase in diameter) till a tight bond occurs. This is done typically by hydraulic
rollers pushing against the tube ID. Hydraulic balloons have been used as well as
explosives to accomplish the same goal.
Seal Weld - After the tubes are expanded, a small weld is made on the portion of the
tube projecting beyond the tubesheet. This provides a supposed second line of
defense against leakage. However, the heat of the welding can loose the expansion.
Rerolling the tube after welding can crack the weld. This often creates a
maintenance nightmare in that all tubes may have to be worked on for a small
number of leaks. UOP does not recommend this practice.
Strength Weld - Here the weld joint is substantial enough to contain the pressure
between the two sides. The tubes are usually expanded enough to minimize the
crevice between the OD of the tube and the ID of the tubesheet hole.

Impingement Plates

Used to avoid damage to tubes from incoming fluids on shell side


TEMA Guidelines
Based on V2 on inlet nozzle, provide impingement protection
when For non-corrosive, non abrasive, single phase fluids if V2 >
1500 lb/ft-sec2
For all other liquids (including liquids at its boiling point) if
V2 > 500 lb/ft-sec2
For all gases and vapors (including saturated vapors)
For all liquid and vapor mixtures

EXC-R00-30
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Impingement baffles are used to deflect a high energy stream from damaging the
tubes upon entry to the shell side of an exchanger.
TEMA rules are listed here.

Vapor Distribution Belts

For distribution of large vapor flows


Slotted holes in shell plate to provide even lower
velocity flow of vapor into the bundle
Reduces chance for vibration, erosion or tube damage
Changes flow and heat transfer characteristics in first
baffle space

EXC-R00-31
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An alternate approach for shell side entry with large vapor flows is to use a
distribution belt. This allows for entry areas into the bundle that are bigger than a
single nozzle can provide.

Materials of Construction

Materials must suit temperature and fluids


Example of selection criteria
High H2 partial pressure
Killed carbon steel
High temperature, high H2 partial pressure
410 or Cr-Mo
Sea-water cooling
Admiralty brass or 70-30 Cu-Ni
Wet H2S service
Killed carbon steel (Special heat treatment)
Hot HF service
Monel
Hot acids
Alloy 20, 904L, 316 SS, Titanium
EDS 2004/EXC 2-36

Typical materials of construction for various service applications.


Exchangers use a wide variety of materials and the designer needs to be aware of
the ramifications of their decision on material selection both on fabrication and
maintenance costs.

Protective Coatings

Lower alloy requirements can be used if protected from process


with a coating. Coatings can take various forms.
Cladding: Cladding is welding a high alloy material on a
lower alloy material. The low alloy provides the mechanical
strength while the cladding provides corrosion protection.
Refractory: Refractory is a high temperature insulating
material. By attaching it to a low alloy material, the
temperature the material is exposed to is reduced allowing
the use of a lower alloy.
Paints: Besides external painting for environmental
protection, paint and similar coatings are used occasionally.
Cooling water is a common use of this process.

EDS 2004/EXC 2-37

Cost reduction techniques such as cladding, refractory linings, and paints can reduce
the amount of alloy being used in the exchanger.

Design Temperature and Pressure

Dictated by worst case conditions for hot and cold use.


Worst case conditions of both temperature and pressure. This
may not be the highest temperature but a combination of high
temperature and higher pressure.
Minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) is also required.
High pressure at low temperatures may result in failure of
brittle materials. Lowest ambient or auto-refrigeration
temperatures normally used.
Typical Safety Margins:
Temperature
50F (28C) margin on maximum operating temperature.
Pressure
25 psi (170 kPa) or 10% margin on maximum operating
pressure (whichever is greater).

EDS 2004/EXC 2-38

The design temperature and pressure reflect the mechanical design conditions used
to set the thickness of the heat exchanger components.
The temperatures reflect both high and low temperature conditions that the
equipment must deal with. Exchangers have failed in cold climates due to the
brittleness of the steel at low temperatures was not considered.

Protection of Low Pressure Side

Tube Rupture causes high pressure fluid to


flow into low pressure side
Hot high pressure fluid mixing with cold low
pressure fluid may result in vaporization
API 521 provides guidance
10/13 rule based on ASME BPVC
Alternative is relief device on low pressure side
Consider surrounding equipment & piping

EDS 2004/EXC 2-39

The low pressure side of heat exchangers has to be protected from being
overpressured and failing due to a failure of the tubes or leakage at the tubesheet.
The engineering design criteria for evaluating this case is found in API 521 on
pressure protections systems. This situation is typically addressed by adding a relief
device on the low pressure side or by adjusting the design pressure of the low
pressure side.
Based on the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the hydrostatic test pressure
is 130% of the design pressure. Therefore, by setting the design pressure of the low
pressure side to 100/130 of the high pressure side, the low pressure side is
hydrostatically tested at the design pressure of the high pressure side. A leak will
therefore not introduce a pressure greater than the low pressure side cannot
withstand.
A tube failure will create a dynamic situation as the fluid pressurizes the low
pressure side, including vaporizing an all liquid stream. This pressure surge must
be dealt with not only in the exchanger but in upstream and downstream equipment
and piping. Failures are known to have occurred outside of the exchanger.