2010-11 KIPP NYC

SPIRALED REVIEW

TABLE OF CONTENTS
OVERVIEW .............................................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 3 KIPP NYC Mission ................................................................................................................................. 3 KIPP NYC Beliefs ................................................................................................................................... 3 The History........................................................................................................................................... 4 Fast Facts ............................................................................................................................................. 4 KIPP NYC Results .................................................................................................................................. 5 Frequently Asked Questions ................................................................................................................. 6 WORKING AT KIPP NYC ........................................................................................................................... 8 Character Strengths ............................................................................................................................. 8 Q14 .................................................................................................................................................... 10 Healthy School/Healthy Teacher Survey ............................................................................................. 11 Sharing............................................................................................................................................... 11 Influencer........................................................................................................................................... 11 Genuine Conversations ...................................................................................................................... 12 The Stockdale Paradox ....................................................................................................................... 14 Additional KIPPisms . ........................................................................................................................ 14 TEACHING AT KIPP NYC ......................................................................................................................... 15 The Ratio............................................................................................................................................ 15 Vegas, Baby!!! .................................................................................................................................... 16 Positive Descriptive Praise.................................................................................................................. 18 Love and Logic.................................................................................................................................... 20 Constructive/Responding ................................................................................................................... 22 Questioning ....................................................................................................................................... 23 Right is Right ...................................................................................................................................... 23 Stretch-It ............................................................................................................................................ 23 Elaborative Interrogation ................................................................................................................... 23 Close the Circuit ................................................................................................................................. 24 Dual Purpose Instruction .................................................................................................................... 24 Instruction Mapping ........................................................................................................................... 25 Video ................................................................................................................................................. 25 APPENDIX 1: Read, Baby Read: A Very Non-Comprehesive Sampling of KIPP NYC Reading .................. 26 APPENDIX 2: KIPP NYC Teacher Development Framework A Working Draft (July 2010) .................... 29 APPENDIX 3: KIPP NYC Self-Checking Guide to Teaching Excellence ..................................................... 30 APPENDIX 4: NYC Elementary Sample Lesson Plan Format ................................................................... 31 APPENDIX 5: KIPP NYC Elementary Sample 5 E Lesson Plan Format ..................................................... 32 APPENDIX 6: KIPP NYC Middle/HS Sample Lesson Plan Format ............................................................ 33 APPENDIX 7: KIPP NYC Middle/HS Annotated Lesson Plan ................................................................... 34
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OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
What follows on the subsequent pages is an overview of KIPP NYC and spiraled review of many of the concepts that we ve worked on over the last several years. In no way is this meant to be an exhaustive or comprehensive list (we re working on that too ), but rather a chance to introduce or re-introduce ourselves to some of the language and thinking that makes KIPP NYC such a special team.

KIPP NYC MISSION
KIPP NYC s mission is to teach our students to develop the character and academic skills necessary to succeed in high school and college, to be self-sufficient, successful, and happy in the competitive world, and to build a better tomorrow for themselves and us all.

KIPP NYC BELIEFS
Our Kids y All kids deserve a top-quality education that prepares them for college and for a happy, responsible, self-sufficient, and successful life. y Character is as important as academic skills for success in school and life. y What our kids experience at KIPP should both value them and their families and reflect what we want for all kids, including our own. Our Families y Our team and family includes our students, alumni, families, staff, and the communities we serve. y We actively seek to engage and include the families of our students. Our Way of Working y Because people make the difference, we must recruit, develop, retain, and reward a diverse team of outstanding people. y We do what we say, in alignment with our beliefs, mission, and priorities. y What we expect of our kids, we must ourselves embody and be committed to developing. Our Impact y By maximizing the quality of our direct impact with our students and families, we will maximize our positive indirect impact on others. y We will actively share and learn from others both inside and outside KIPP NYC.

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THE HISTORY
In 1994, two teachers, Mike Feinberg and Dave Levin, launched a fifth-grade public school program in Houston, Texas after completing their commitment to Teach For America. Their goal: do whatever it takes to help their students develop the character and academic skills for college and life. They believed that high expectations coupled with creativity, rigor and sustained student, parent and teacher commitment could generate transformational results for kids and prove what is possible in public schools. Mike and Dave named their program KIPP the Knowledge is Power Program. In 1995, they decided to expand. Mike remained in Houston to lead KIPP Academy Middle School; Dave and his colleague Frank Corcoran returned to New York City to establish KIPP Academy in the South Bronx. Fifteen years later, we have grown into a national network of free, open-enrollment, collegepreparatory public schools with a track record of preparing students for success in college and in life. There are currently 99 KIPP schools in 20 states and the District of Columbia serving approximately 25,000 students. Eighty percent of our students come from lowincome families, and 90 percent are African American or Latino.

FAST FACTS
KIPP NYC (Totals) 184 92 322 289 273 213 190 143 KIPP Infinity Elem. 92 KIPP Academy Elem. 92 92 KIPP Academy Middle KIPP STAR Middle KIPP KIPP KIPP NYC KIPP AMP Infinity College through Middle Middle Prep HS College

Grade K Grade 1 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 9 Grade 10 High School Students Served College Age Students Served Total Students 1,706 Demographics % African American 59% % Hispanic 40% % Free and Reduced 80% Student Attendance 97% Annual Student 5% Mobility

72 65 62 57

80 72 72 43

85 75 68 54

85 77 71 59 190 143 375 351

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184 62% 37% 92% 94% NA

256 44% 53% 82% 98% 4%

267 72% 27% 71% 98% 7%

282 96% 4% 73% 96% 7%

292 29% 70% 85% 97% 4%

333 49% 49% 81% 96% NA

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KIPP NYC RESULTS
We are very proud of the accomplishments of our KIPPsters. Among the many highlights: To and Through College y Over the last seven years, 93% of KIPP NYC alumni graduated from high school. By comparison, 46% of African American and Hispanic students across New York City graduated from high school during 2005-08. y 86% of KIPP NYC alumni have matriculated to college. By comparison, 21% of African American and Hispanic male high school graduates attend college in New York State; 36% of all low income New Yorkers ages 18-24 matriculated to college during 2003-08. y To date, 32% of KIPP NYC alumni have earned bachelors' degrees within six years of high school graduation. Our objective is to have 75% of our students graduate from college and 100% of our kids prepared for self-sufficient careers. We re currently on track to hit a 50% 6-year graduation rate in the next two years; nationally, the college completion rate in low income communities is 10%. By comparison, the nationwide six-year college graduation rate for low-income kids is 9.8% and the percent of the entire US population aged 25-34 with a college degree is 32%. In other words, our cumulative college graduation rate is 3.3 times the national average for low-income kids and equal to the national average for all kids. The 6-year graduation rate for the Class of 2004/08 is 40%. Student Achievement y In 2009-10, 92% of our elementary class of 2026 reached our kindergarten reading goal by reading on or beyond Fountas and Pinnell level D -- one level above the standard Kindergarten end of the year reading level. 20% of the class reached Level I or beyond, our end of first grade reading goal. y At KIPP NYC College Prep High School, in its first year, 92% of students scored above our goal of 75 on the Geometry Regents Exam. 87% of students scored above our goal of 75 on the Integrated Algebra Regents Exam.67% of students scored above our goal of 75 on the Living Environment Exam. y In 2008-09, 95% of KIPP NYC middle students scored at or above grade level in state math testing; 83% tested at or above grade level in English language arts.

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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
What is the KIPP Model?

KIPP NYC schools are part of a national network of KIPP (Knowledge Is Power Program) schools, which share a set of core operating principles known as the Five Pillars: High Expectations: KIPP NYC has clearly defined and measurable high expectations for character and academic achievement and that make no excuses based on students' backgrounds. Students, parents, teachers, and staff create and reinforce a culture of achievement and support through a range of formal and informal rewards and consequences for academic performance and behavior. Choice & Commitment: Students, their parents, and the faculty choose to participate in the program. No one is assigned or required to attend the school. Everyone must make and uphold a commitment to the school and to each other and put in the time and effort required to achieve success. More Time: We know that there are no shortcuts when it comes to success in academics and life. With an extended school day, week, and year, students have more time in the classroom both to acquire the academic knowledge and skills that will prepare them for competitive high schools and colleges and to engage in diverse extracurricular experiences. Power to Lead: At KIPP NYC, we believe that our schools need the freedom and flexibility to build high performing school teams, to allocate budgets to best meet school needs, and to shape curriculum, instruction and school culture to maximize outcomes for our students. Focus on Results: KIPP has a relentless focus on high student performance on all assessments: teacher generated test, standardized tests, and other objective measures. Just as there are no shortcuts, there are no excuses. Students are expected to achieve a level of academic performance that will enable them to succeed at the nation's best colleges. In addition to school-based assessments, KIPP NYC administers all NY State exams and the MAP assessment.
How much does it cost to run a KIPP NYC school?

KIPP NYC schools offer students an extended-day, extended-week, and extended-year program with a wide range of enrichment experiences. When our schools are fully grown, the per-pupil cost of these programs is lower than that of a traditional New York City public school. For example, in 2009-10, KIPP NYC middle schools spent an average of $15,057 per student, $3,001 less than the NYC DOE middle school average.
How are KIPP NYC schools funded?

In 2009-10, approximately 70% of KIPP NYC's overall operating budgets came from government sources. We rely on the generosity of our donors to cover the balance of our operating expenses.

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How do students enroll at a KIPP NYC school?

Enrollment in a KIPP NYC school is open to all students who reside in New York State, with preferences given to students eligible for free or reduced lunch, those residing in the school's home district and the siblings of current KIPP NYC students. Each year, KIPP NYC schools establish a list of students who are interested in attending for the following school year. Each school then conducts an admissions lottery in the spring. Students are admitted without consideration to prior academic or behavioral record, home language, or Special Education status. At KIPP NYC, approximately 80 percent of our students are eligible for the federal free and reduced price meals program, more than 99 percent are African American or Latino, and 12% have Individual Educational Plans (IEPs)
What does the KIPP Foundation do and how does it relate to KIPP NYC?

The KIPP Foundation focuses its efforts on recruiting, training, and supporting outstanding leaders to open new, locally-run KIPP schools in high-need communities. In addition, the KIPP Foundation helps develop leaders to step into leadership roles in existing KIPP schools. Beyond recruiting and training new school leaders, the KIPP Foundation provides a variety of supports and services to KIPP schools and regions in areas such as legal services, real estate, technology, finance, corporate governance, operations, communications, marketing, and development. The KIPP Foundation does not manage KIPP schools. Each KIPP school is run independently by a KIPP-trained school leader and governed by a local board of directors. Each spring, the KIPP Foundation releases our annual Report Card, which contains school-level information and test results for all KIPP schools with measurable student achievement results.
What is Teacher U?

UKA Teacher U is a collaboration between KIPP NYC, Uncommon Schools, Achievement First, and Hunter College. It is a subsidized masters program that our teachers take part in to become certified. The program focuses on combining the best of research with the best of practice to help teachers develop the skills they need to drive outstanding results with their students.. To be in the Teacher U program you must be a full-time teacher. Part of how teachers earn their Master s Degree in Teacher U is based on the growth and achievement of their students. Several KIPP NYC teachers are enrolled in the program and many other teachers and leaders serve as Teacher U instructors.

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WORKING AT KIPP NYC
CHARACTER STRENGTHS
The children are always ours, every single one of them . Children have never been very good at listening to their elders, but they have never failed to imitate them. James Baldwin Pick up the mirror before you pick up the magnifying glass. Susan Winston Character education depends on our relationship with our children and that character traits cannot be transmitted by words but must be conveyed by actions. -- Haim Ginott The hardest thing about teaching is recognizing the fact that your classroom is a reflection of you. Its successes largely reflect your strengths and its failures largely reflect your weaknesses. -- Dr. Carter G. Woodson

As we all know well, and have probably said countless times, actions speak louder than words. That being said, there do seem to be three critically important factors to consider when thinking about words: a) Speaking is a type of action b) Words have a tremendous power c) It is so much easier to talk the talk than walk the walk. As Anthony Anderson s character says in Hustle and Flow:
There are two types of people: those that talk the talk and those that walk the walk. People who walk the walk sometimes talk the talk but most times they don't talk at all, 'cause they walkin'. Now, people who talk the talk, when it comes time for them to walk the walk, you know what they do? They talk people like me into walkin' for them.

All of this begs the Gandhian question, how are we (and all of the adults in our buildings) truly going to be the change we want to see in the world? In their landmark work, Character Strengths and Virtues, Martin Seligman and Christopher Peterson provided the research behind the six virtues and twenty-four character traits that led to happy, engaged, and meaningful lives for people across gender, race, geography, time, and culture. In general they used ten Criteria to generate this list: Criteria 1 Contributes to making a good life for oneself and others. Criteria 2 Morally valuable in its own right, even in the absence of obvious (external) beneficial outcomes Criteria 3 The display of a strength by one person does not diminish other people Criteria 4 The opposite of the strength is generally negative Criteria 5 Should show up in a variety of ways in the individual s behavior
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Criteria 6 Distinctiveness from other positive traits Criteria 7 There are cultural role models, both real and fictional, that demonstrate the character strength (paragons) Criteria 8 Young people who achieve greatness demonstrate the character strength (prodigies) Criteria 9 -- There are role models, both real and fictional, that demonstrate the problems that result from the absence of the character trait Criteria 10 Society has developed institutions and rituals for cultivating character strengths The research that went into this work, along with Seligman s work on Learned Optimism and Authentic Happiness became the pillars of what has become known as positive psychology, or the study or what is pleasing, engaged, and meaningful. In A Primer in Positive Psychology Peterson argues that a positive life is created by the intersection of positive subjective experiences, positive individual traits, and positive institutions. At its most basic, Positive institutions facilitate the development and display of positive traits, which in turn facilitate positive subjective experiences. In other words, if we can ensure that our schools become and remain positive institutions we can have an extremely profound impact on the lives of our kids. The positive virtues and strengths that Seligman and Peterson identified are as follows:
Virtue: Wisdom and knowledge Creativity Curiosity Open-mindedness Love of learning Perspective Virtue: Justice Citizenship Fairness Leadership

Virtue: Courage Bravery Grit (persistence + resiliency)* Integrity Zest (Energy + Enthusiasm)*

Virtue: Temperance Forgiveness and mercy Humility/modesty Prudence/discretion Self-control* Virtue: Transcendence Appreciation of beauty and excellence Gratitude* Hope(optimism)* Humor* Spirituality

Virtue: Humanity Love* Kindness Social Intelligence*

* Represent 8 of the strengths that are key to maximizing the full potential of our own individual signature strengths. The basic idea is that people need to be aware of their individual signature strengths and then to use these 8 strengths to maximize their potential.

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Over the last four years we ve developed several guiding principles around building character: 1. General understanding that character matters and matters a lot 2. The importance of using a shared common language around character a. In Character Strengths and Virtues there is a detailed explanation of how the language was chosen. For example, empathy which is obviously so important in life is not one of the 24 because it is actually a sub-component of kindness, love, open-mindedness, social intelligence, fairness, citizenship, and several others. 3. Understand and feel how developing and using character strengths is beneficial 4. See peer and adult examples and make the connection to how their character strengths are helping them (the key here is to understand how every individual uses their unique strengths and uses the 8 to maximize their signature strengths) 5. Maximize the number and depth of dual purpose experiences 6. Deliberate and descriptive growth mindset praise when being, knowing, and doing character strengths (using the character strength and growth mindset language in a genuine and authentic way)
Character Report Card

This past spring, we piloted a character report card that will allow us to engage in even richer conversations with our kids and their families around character growth and development, as well as give us a powerful way to measure character growth. The current version of the report card has 27 questions designed to measure self-control, grit, gratitude, zest, optimism, social intelligence and curiosity.

Q14
The Q14 is a survey given to all KIPP NYC staff quarterly based on a Gallup survey of over one million employees and 80,000 managers. Discussed in the book First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently by Marcus Buckingham and Curt Cuffman, the survey feature the following 12 statements that were identified as the core elements needed to attract, focus, and keep the most talented employees: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) I know what is expected of me at work I have the materials and equipment I need to do my work right At KIPP, I have the opportunity to do what I do best every day In the last seven days, I have received recognition or praise for doing good work My manager, or someone else at work, seems to care about me as a person Someone at work encourages my development My opinions seem to count The mission of KIPP makes me feel my job is important My co-workers are committed to doing quality work
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10) I have a best friend at work 11) In the last six months, someone has talked to me about my progress 12) This last year, I have had opportunities at work to learn and grow And then we added two : 13) I would recommend my KIPP school/program to a friend as a place of employment. 14) I have a bright, long-term future at KIPP.

HEALTHY SCHOOL/HEALTHY TEACHER SURVEY
Over the past two years, we have launched Healthy School and Healthy Teacher surveys that allow us to get timely feedback from all of the KIPP NYC team and family. The Healthy Schools Surveys are given to all KIPP staff, parents, and students every January at all KIPP schools nationwide. The Healthy Teacher Surveys were piloted this spring with a small group of KIPP NYC teachers and allow our kids to give feedback directly to us as individual teachers. In 201011, all KIPP NYC middle school and high school teachers will be able to receive student feedback via our Healthy Teacher Surveys.

SHARING
If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants. --Sir Isaac Newton

Each year, the key to our ability to improve on what we ve done previously is driven by our willingness to share with and to learn from others, both across KIPP NYC, across the entire KIPP Network, and beyond. To help facilitate this, we created KIPP Share, our online resource that houses all of our documents from curriculum to HR documents to data. It is also where teachers house their instruction maps (see p. 25). Yet no technology will ever replace the value of reaching out directly to others doing similar work as you this is the spirit of sharing we hope to breathe life into in KIPP NYC.

INFLUENCER
Ever wonder about how to change someone s behavior, including perhaps your own? In search of this answer many of us have read the book Influencer: The Power to Change Anything by Patterson, Grenny, Maxfield, et. al. The book uses the chart below as the framework for influencing people s behavior:
MOTIVATION PERSONAL SOCIAL STRUCTURAL Make the Undesirable, Desirable Harness Peer Pressure Design Rewards and Demand Accountability ABILITY Surpass Your Limits Find Strength in Numbers Change the Environment

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Try walking through this table next time you find yourself confronted with a situation or problem that requires you or others to change their behavior.

GENUINE CONVERSATIONS
Seek first to understand, then be understood. - Stephen Covey in 7 Habits of Highly Effective People Every organization wants to think of itself as a learning organization. But organizations where people avoid engaging with tough communication issues can t learn Remember, when it comes to the way we re coming across, we all live on the wrong side of our eyeballs. Douglas Stone, co-author of Difficult Conversations Be impeccable with your word. - Don Miguel Ruiz, The Four Agreements

There is probably no skill more essential to our success than our ability to genuinely talk with each other both when things are going well and when conflict and disagreements arise. While there is no one right way to engage in these genuine conversations, there is one way that is definitely wrong, avoidance. The key is for each of us to find a way that empowers us to feel safe sharing our thoughts and feelings and allows others the safety to hear and respond. One book that has helped many of us feel more comfortable approaching these conversations is the book Crucial Conversations: Tools for Talking When Stakes are High by Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, and Switzer., . The book outlines strategies people can use to find a safe and shared way to talk about difficult issues as opposed to the two main approaches people use to avoid such conversations -- silence or violence (verbal agression). Some key teasers from the book are the following:
1) The basics Start with the Heart (p.42-43 Crucial Conversations): a) Work on Me First: the only person you can directly control is yourself.

b) Focus on What You Really Want: y When you find yourself moving toward silence or violence, stop and pay attention to your motives. o Ask yourself: What does my behavior tell me about what my motives are? o Then, clarify what you really want. Ask yourself: What do I want for myself? For others? For the relationship? o And finally, ask: How would I behave if this were what I really wanted? c) Refuse the Sucker s Choice y Watch to see if you re telling yourself that you must choose between peace and honesty, between winning and losing, and so on. y Break free of these Sucker s Choices by searching for the and. y Clarify what you don t want, add it to what you do want, and ask your brain to start searching for healthy options to bring you to dialogue.
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2) For sharing tough messages (p.140 Crucial Conversations): STATE your path: Share your facts: Start with the least controversial, most persuasive elements from your Path to Action Tell your story: Explain what you re beginning to conclude Ask for others paths: Encourage others to share both their facts and their stories Talk tentatively: State your story as a story don t disguise it as a fact. Encourage testing: Make it safe for others to express differing or even opposing views. 3) Avoid Three Clever Stories (p. 106-108): Victim Stories: It s Not My Fault. Villain Stories: It s All Your Fault. Helpless Stories: There s Nothing Else I Can Do. 4) Overall Crucial Conversation Model:

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THE STOCKDALE PARADOX
The greatest injury that can be inflicted on a person is administered by her/himself when s/he destroys the good wo/man within -- Jim Stockdale

The Stockdale Paradox, named after Vice Admiral Jim Stockdale, argues that success in any endeavor, particularly extremely challenging ones, results from the ability to confront simultaneously the brutal facts of the current situation AND maintain absolute faith that you will succeed.

ADDITIONAL KIPPISMS .
Be nice. Work Hard. The basics for all KIPPsters.

SSLANT acronym standing for (Smile, Sit/Stand Up Straight, Listen, Ask and Answer Questions, Nod Your Head, and Track the Speaker (turn your body and make eye contact with whoever is speaking). Assign Yourself An idea Marian Wright Edelman talks about in Measure of Our Success: A Letter to My Children and Yours. The basic idea is that one should not wait to be told what the right thing to do is before we do it we should figure out the right thing to do and assign ourselves to doing it. Laws of Success 15 ideas from a book by Napoleon Hill. The Laws of Success include: A Definite Chief Aim; Self-confidence; Habit of Saving; Initiative and Leadership; Imagination; Enthusiasm; Self-control; The Habit of Doing More Than Paid For; Pleasing Personality; Accurate Thinking; Concentration; Co-operation; Profiting by Failure; Tolerance; and The Golden Rule. J-Factor The J in J-Factor refers to JOY, i.e. the palpable sense that a person loves what he or she is doing and the people she or he is with. KIPPsters leave a place cleaner than we found it nuff said.

Smartcut While there are no shortcuts on the road to success, there are occasions when we do come up with smartcuts smart ways of making things simpler. The term is most often used to refer to strategies a student uses in their academic work. PETSY s Acronym for manners (Please, Excuse me, Thank You, Sorry, You re welcome). Beyond Z: In the classic Dr. Seuss book On Beyond Zebra, the main character says: In the places I go there are things that I see that I never could spell if I stopped with the Z. I m telling you this, cuz you re one of my friends, my alphabet starts where your alphabet ends. It has come to represent effort that is truly above and beyond.
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TEACHING AT KIPP NYC
THE RATIO
Motivational Quote #1: Countless unseen details often separate the mediocre from the magnificent. -- Anonymous Motivational Quote #2: Sometimes when I consider what tremendous consequences come from little things I am tempted to think there are no little things. -- Bruce Barton quoted in Stephen Covey s Seven Habits of Highly Effective People

Motivational Quote #3: It works if you work it so work it it s worth it. -- Motto of Alcoholics Anonymous Motivational Quote #4: If it s worth it, let me work it! -- Missy Elliott

The central idea behind the ratio is to ensure that our students are doing as much of the heavy cognitive lifting as possible and having the most engaging experience as possible in our classes. There isn t one right ratio. Ratios vary by age of student as well as our individual strengths as teachers. That being said, the goal of maximizing the effectiveness of every moment we spend with our kiddoes remains constant across our K-16 and beyond continuum. Some key aspects of the ratio include: y Ratio of our positive interactions to our negative ones o Research on constructive responding has concluded that the quality of human relationships can be determined by whether or not there is at least a 3 to 1 ratio of positive interactions (which includes non-verbal communication, tone, as well as what is actually said) between individuals to negative interactions. BTW, this ratio climbs to 5 to 1 for intimate personal relationships. Ratio of time we spend talking/thinking to the students talking/thinking Ratio of work we do as teachers in a class period to the work done by students Ratio of guided practice to independent practice o Are we having enough sustained, structured, and rigorous independent practice so that our students have sufficient at-bats to develop and demonstrate mastery of what they are learning? Toward that end, independent practice allows us to have time in class to really work with individual/small groups of students on their level those who are struggling, those on level, and those ahead.

y y y

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y

Ratio of work completed that receives structured, deliberate, and rigorous feedback to work completed with no feedback given? Ratio of higher level questioning to lower level questioning? Ratio of varied questioning techniques (playing basketball or soccer) to static questioning (playing catch)? o Think of static questioning as a game of catch between the teacher and one student at a time and varied questioning as techniques that have students talking in a variety of different formats (to the teacher, to each other, whole-group oral response, raise your hand if , in writing to each other, etc ) Some varied questioning techniques include:

y y

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m)

call and response pre-call cold call half-statements fill in the blank what s next/what comes before unbundling elaborating or building on why/how testing the logic playing dumb steering cues asking students whether they agree or disagree with another student s answer

y

Ratio of independence to guided? (Note: this is separate from the lesson plan this is in regards to decision making, ownership, movement, supervision, etc It should also be noted that independence does not equate to absolute freedom or lack of supervision)

VEGAS, BABY!!!
Every action reveals us. Good is the enemy of great. -- Michel de Montaigne - Jim Collins in Good to Great

The idea is that when you visit a Las Vegas Casino, from the moment you step through the front door, everything you see is designed to one simple end: to get people to spend their hardearned money. In other words, Casino operators have become incredibly effective at creating a culture that achieves their goals. The Hard Rock manager put it this way, We re constantly asking ourselves this question from the minute a guest pulls up to the Rock is everything about our hotel helping our guests have the best possible experience?
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How at KIPP NYC are we doing the same in everything we do to help the KIPPsters develop the character and academic skills they are going to need in their lives? This applies to every detail of what we do the way we interact with each other and the kids to the way our physical space looks. In regards to our physical space, have we thought through the following questions: y Are we maximizing the ways in which our physical space (classrooms, bulletin boards, hallways, etc ) is helping us teach academics and character? y Do our walls reinforce what we re teaching in terms of content as well as character? y Are our walls ever-evolving and neat? y Is every part of classroom really neat and organized (student desks, our desk, the bookcases, the floor, the areas around the garbage, etc )? y Are our bulletin boards neat, organized, colorful and fun? y Are we using our bulletin boards to appreciate the beauty and excellence of student achievement, effort, and growth? y Is the work up-to-date? i.e., within the last two weeks? o If you re not sure about why it s worth keeping up with the bulletin boards, just ask the kids if they like seeing their work on the bulletin boards when they do well. Plus, for those kids who try to act too cool when you ask, watch their faces light up when they see their work on the bulletin board. Furthermore, our physical space sends a powerful non-verbal message to kids and their parents. What is it saying right now? Could it say more? Could it say it differently? Better? o Don t be shy reward great work with big, bright colorful grades written in markers that can be easily seen. It s a little 1/12 that makes a huge positive difference in the way kids and their parents view bulletin boards and posted work. It makes it more fun. The elementary schools have it right with their emphasis on some of this stuff. o Bulletin boards can also be great places to highlight student writing as it evolves through various stages of the writing process. The possibilities are endless. o BTW, kids love to help put up the work. Once we show a crew of kids how to put the work up neatly, they re set. It s an easy place for students to feel ownership and investment. (BTW, if you feel that you don t have work to put up on the board this would be a good warning sign to think about the assignments and assessments that we are giving.) Our physical space sends a powerful non-verbal message to kids and their parents. What is it saying right now? Could it say more? Could it say it differently? Better? It is the relentlessness and single-minded focus -- a series of one-twelfths that make tremendous positive differences in the quality of the experience and the results. A couple of other reflections from my meeting with the manager of the Hard Rock Hotel and Casino these were questions he fired at me:

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Did you notice how they changed their table covers for Halloween? Did you notice how the high roller tables were covered with gold felt instead of the black or royal blue felt used everywhere else (which is different than the green felt used at almost every casino although the others are now changing to try to keep up with the Hard Rock)? Did you notice how clean the carpet, halls, and rooms are? (They clean their casino twice as often as the rest. He kept telling me, I d eat our sushi (they have Nobu in the hotel and room service) off these floors ) Did you notice that everywhere you looked, you knew you were at the Hard Rock (guitars and music memorabilia were everywhere the casino cashier wasn t labeled cashier like the rest of the casinos but rather the Bank of Hard Rock, In Rock we Trust) Did you notice we re always playing awesome music (most casinos don t) and vary the loudness of the music (he explained that changes in volume get noticed more than a constant tone interestingly enough a point also made in Stumbling on Happiness )? Did you notice how our dealers smiled when you played? Did you notice the way in which everyone was greeted? ( Welcome to the Hard Rock, please let me know if there is anything we can do to help you have the best stay you ve ever had? ) That s the difference he said, we want every stay to be better than the last even for our repeat customers let alone our newbies. Did you notice the huge sign that reads Take the time to be kind. Our goal is to have this spirit of Vegas permeate our day to day lives at KIPP NYC. Plus, it should be a lot of fun.

POSITIVE DESCRIPTIVE PRAISE
Never underestimate the power of a few, well-chosen kind words. -- Unknown

What does positive descriptive praise (PDP) sound like, look like, and feel like in our classrooms, in our hallways, in our programs, in our offices, etc? KIPP is hard. Our expectations are high and are often very different from what the kids are used to and experiencing elsewhere in their lives. One of our longest standing mottos is Good things happen when you do the right thing and bad things happen when you do the wrong thing. What does this mean to our kids? Good things should not merely be the absence of bad. For example, if you ask a kid, What happens when you do the right thing in class or in school? and they respond I don t get in trouble, that s not really a positive incentive. One of the mainstays of the research on positive psychology is that specific positive descriptive praise helps all of us develop the tools to decide right and wrong for ourselves and become intrinsically motivated. Carol Dweck s research focuses on the power of a what she calls a growth mindset which views effort and grit as bigger drivers of success than inate talent.
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Dweck argues that growth mindset praise is one of the keys to helping people of all ages develop true self-confidence in their own abilities (For more on Dweck s research please see her great book Mindset. The single most important part of PDP and Growth Mindset Praise is that focus on kids efforts and accomplishments not on their personalities. Some specifics a) Are we enthusiastically and genuinely highlighting when kids are doing the right thing in regards to both their behavior as well as their academics? This doesn t have to be something big just a simple That was a great question, Thanks for answering her question, Leah just explained that perfectly, Wow, that was a really interesting comment. No one (including us in our interactions with each other), ever outgrows the value of positive descriptive praise genuinely delivered. Please pay particular attention to how we are enthusiastically and genuinely doing this in terms of academics as well as character. We re all pretty good at saying Good job lining up, it s the academic praise (at all levels on the rigor continuum) as well as the more nuanced, substantive and important character praise that we should be pushing ourselves on as kids demonstrate effort and accomplishment in these areas. b) We also need to be thinking through what are the other positive incentives that are helping the KIPPsters grow specifically in our classes. A historic KIPP problems is that we often rely too heavily (and sometimes exclusively) on school-wide incentives and dis-incentives to push the growth of the KIPPsters in our classes. Do we have regular classroom routines and celebrations that recognize effort and accomplishment? c) How does outstanding student work and growth get recognized and highlighted? a. Too often we view the posting of graded student work as a chore or a compliance issue, rather than what it is a powerful opportunity to provide positive descriptive praise of what achievement and growth looks like. When graded student work is posted it celebrates both the achievement of those individuals and also sends a powerful message to other kids, to parents, to the Big KIPPsters of what greatness looks like and what it takes to achieve. This is why, particularly with writing, it is so important to recognize the process as well. This is also why it is so important to be constantly updating the graded work that gets posted. It allows multiple opportunities for kids to experience this and

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also sends the message that success and achievement is an on-going dynamic process. b. This is another reason we also have to carve out enough time to provide structured and rigorous feedback to ALL of our students on their work. We need to let them know specifically what they re doing well and equally specifically (always with love) let them know how they can improve. And since this changes constantly, we need to be providing on-going updated positive and negative academic feedback as frequently as we can.

LOVE AND LOGIC
Love and Logic skills are designed to help teachers and students get results and create an environment where teaching and learning are collaborative; the distinction of student or teacher is secondary to the awareness of shared humanity. SKILL #1) Neutralize Student Arguing: Go into brain-dead mode to prevent student arguing with one of these one-liners: y I like (respect) you too much to y I hadn t really thought of that. argue. y Probably so. y I listen to students who speak y Nice try. assertively. y You may be right. y I listen when your voice is calm. y I know. SKILL #2) Delayed Consequences: We ve learned that NONE of our consequences need to be handed out in the moment of student resistance because our goal is to keep them in the thinking head as much as possible. Deliver the consequence when it is CLEAR the student is back in the thinking-head when it makes sense and has maximum impact. SKILL #3) Empathy: The most successful teachers and parents deliver a strong dose of empathy, or sadness for the child before they described the consequence. By delivering a strong dose of caring, parents and teachers help kids feel safe. When kids feel safe, the flight-or-fight response is avoided, and they are actually able to think and learn from the consequences of their mistakes. SKILL #4) Recovery: Allowing an upset/resistant child to cool-down and recover in the classroom both builds up the authority of the teacher while simultaneously strengthens the trust between teacher and student. SKILL #5) Developing positive teacher/student relationships: There are a few very specific ways to build relationships with students who are suspicious of adults in authority. 1) Use I NOTICE Statements: For this to be effective, it needs to be short, sweet, and real.
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2) ENCOURAGEMENT: Be very specific and descriptive and describe the student s effort. 3) Possible prompts when debriefing a student about their defiant behavior: Have these meetings when it is convenient for you, but inconvenient for the students. Without giving the student any time to answer, wonder out loud about why he or she did not comply when you asked. This wondering must come across as caring and sincere NOT SARCASTIC. For example: I m trying to understand why you didn t stop when I asked you nicely? SKILL #6) Setting limits with ENFORCEABLE STATEMENTS: Love & Logic teachers never tell tough kids what to do. Instead, they describe what they (the teacher) will do or allow. Every time we tell a tough kid what to do, we risk losing power. SKILL #7) Using choices to prevent power struggles: To prevent student resistance (especially around completing class work) teachers can offer choices to help students regain a sense of control. 1. Choices should not be threats in disguise. 2. Only give choices that won t make a problem for you. 3. Give options that will make you happy, regardless of what your students decide. 4. Give your students small choices. Save the big ones for yourself. 5. If your students don t make a choice within 10 seconds, choose for them. 6. Offer choices before your students become resistant not after. SKILL #8) Quick and Easy PREVENTATIVE interventions: In addition to relationship building skills, here are additional interventions: 1. Increase number of adult eyes and adult smiles. 2. Greet students with smiles, eye contact, hand-shake, high-five, etc. 3. Ask student to stop a behavior, just for me? thereby building the relationship. 4. Give the evil eye (or a smile and wink from across the room.) 5. Walk toward the student while teaching. 6. Stand close to the student and continue to teach. Nonverbal attention moves! 7. Establish eye contact and slightly shake your head, indicating No. 8. While teaching, gently place your hand on the student s shoulder. 9. Stop briefly and whisper something like, Can you save that for later? 10. Change the student s location within the classroom. 11. Whisper something like, That behavior is fine for after school. (if, of course, it is fine) 12. Use an I-message (e.g. I find it hard to teach when you do that. Thanks for stopping. 13. Use an enforceable statement (e.g. I allow students to go to lunch when the line is ready. ) 14. Provide choices. 15. Ask the student for a brief recovery or time-out.
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16. Give the student an appointment to talk to you about the problem. 17. Restrict the student from the area until you feel another try is in order. SKILL #9) Guiding students to solve their own problems: When we do this, we are telling the student: You are strong. You can think for yourself. You can solve the problems you encounter. When we give the gift of problem solving, we also give the gift of pride.

CONSTRUCTIVE/RESPONDING
Shelly Gable, professor of psychology at UCLA, noticed that couples with strong relationships had a particular way of responding to each other when good things happen; in fact the way in which good events were discussed was found to be more predictive of strong relations than how you fight. Gable called this productive and positive response an active and constructive response. An active and constructive response is part of the magic ratio that has a positive impact on our relationships with our children and ultimately their success in our classrooms.

Active
y y y Passive Nodding Mild smile Little to no active emotional expression

Passive
y Maintains eye contact y Displays of positive emotions (i.e. genuine smiling, touching, eye twinkling, laughing, positive gestures such points, high fives, clapping, active nodding, etc«)

y

y

Constructive

y

Simple/Short Acknowledgement o ³Good job´ o ³Thanks´ What if a kid gives an incorrect answer? Simple/Short acknowledgement of effort and then correcting of answer What if you don¶t agree with someone¶s idea ± simple short acknowledgement of effort/respect and statement of disagreement

y Enthusiastic tone with clear positive acknowledgement and extension/engagement of answer/thought by you/others/that person y What if kid gives an incorrect answer? -- Enthusiastic tone with clear positive acknowledgement of effort and then extension/engagement of others, that particular kid, and teacher to get correct answer and finally returning to original student to ensure understanding y What if you don¶t agree with someone¶s idea -Enthusiastic tone with clear positive acknowledgement of effort and then engagement with that person and others around that idea.

Destructive

y y y

Neutral to no acknowledgement Neutral body language little to no eye contact, turning away, leaving the room

y y y

Displays of negative emotions, such as furrowed brow, frowning Back turned Rolling Eyes

y y y

Silence Little to no acknowledgement of effort, accuracy or inaccuracy, etc moving to another kid/topic without acknowledgment, correction (if needed), etc«

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y y y y

Sarcasm Negativity ³No, it¶s wrong´ ³You¶ve got to be kidding me´

QUESTIONING
As we adjust our questioning strategies to move kids BACK and FORTH along the continuum of academic rigor, it is critical that we at every step we spiral and scaffold the learning of our kids. We must remember that does not happen without day-in-day-out deliberate practice. How are we ensuring that this happens in each of our classrooms? As Jon Saphier in Skillful Teacher challenges us, how are we letting kids get smart? Some key questioning ideas include: RIGHT IS RIGHT Right is Right is about the difference between partially right and all the way right, between pretty good and 100% (Be encouraging but hold out for 100%*). Positive transitions include: o I like what you ve done. Can you get us the rest of the way? o I like what XX has started o Good but don t stop there o We re almost there. Can you find the last piece? o Keep going with that 4 Keys to Right-is-Right include: a) Hold out for all the way b) Answer the question asked

c) Right answer, right time d) Use technical vocabulary

STRETCH-IT Reminds us not to stop with simple, correct answers but rather to push students to answer follow-up questions that extend knowledge or test for reliability/correctness (both of their own answers and those of their classmates). Some Stretch-It strategies include: a) Ask How or Why b) Ask for Another Way to Answer c) Ask for a Better Word d) Ask for Evidence ELABORATIVE INTERROGATION Elaborative interrogation forces students to prove, and those of their classmates in a positive manner.

e) Ask Students to Integrate a Related Skill f) Ask Students to Apply the Same Skill in a New Setting

justify, or defend their answers

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What are some typical characteristics you would expect of _________________ What would you expect to happen if__________________________ Why would that be true? Tell me why you think that is so? It seems to me that you are saying _______________

CLOSE THE CIRCUIT This idea asks us to ensure that we loop back (i.e. close the circuit) with a child who doesn t know the answer to one of our questions, refuses to answer a question, or answers a question either partially or fully incorrectly. This is closely related to Doug Lemov s No Opt Out technique (See below for additional details on this strategy). Some No Opt Out formats include: Format 1: You provide the answer; your student repeats the answer. Format 2: Another student provides the answer; the initial student repeats answer. Format 3: You provide a cue; your student uses it to find the answer. Format 4: Another student provides a cue; the initial student uses it to find the answer.

DUAL PURPOSE INSTRUCTION
Our mission is to teach our students to develop the character and academic skills needed to enter and succeed in top-quality high schools and colleges, to be self-sufficient in the competitive world beyond, and to build a better tomorrow for themselves and us all. We like to think of character and academics as yin and yang. Character without academics is hollowstudents will have the motivation but not the ability to use it. Academics without character is useless- students will have the skills but lack the motivation to use them. Together, however, they have the power to transform lives. Weaving life lessons and character into our instruction helps our KIPPsters develop their hearts and brains. Some key ways to accomplishing this include: y Being ULTRA-clear about our the dual purposes we are trying to accomplish at any particular moment. These could include: Academics + Academics Academics + Character Academics + Routines Character + Routines Academics + Character + Routines Ensuring that character infuses every aspect of our school and classroom? Explaining the character why as often as possible during routines and lessons.

y y

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INSTRUCTION MAPPING
As the name implies, instruction maps are designed to help us develop a day-by-day road map of where we are going with our students and to make adjustments along the way both, for the current year as well as those to come. I-maps as they are commonly known can help with the following: Allows you to PLAN, PLAN, PLAN (and makes future year planning that much easier) Allows you to see what you focus on more or less Provides an e-forum for sharing within content, across content, across grades and across schools as well as broaden your idea of what you can do differently Allows us to assess the quality of our instruction throughout the year o Is it paced correctly? In sequence? o In hindsight what would you have changed?

VIDEO
As teachers, one of the best tools we have for putting ourselves in the shoes of our students is the use of video. Video is also a fantastic way to look at ourselves in the mirror as well as powerful tool to share with and learn from others. As a result, we ask all KIPP NYC staff to committed to using video as often as possible as a means of improving what we do.

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APPENDIX 1: READ, BABY READ: A VERY NON-COMPREHESIVE SAMPLING OF KIPP NYC READING
You ve got to read, baby read. You ve got to read, baby read. The more you read, the more you know. Knowledge is power Power is freedom And I want it. You ve got to read, baby read. You ve got to read, baby read. by: Harriett Ball Some of the Essentials: Learned Optimism, Martin Seligman Between Parent and Child, Haim Ginott The Mis-Education of the Negro, Carter G. Woodson A Primer on Positive Psychology, Chris Peterson Faces at the Bottom of the Well, Derrick Bell Crucial Conversations, Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, Switzler The Skillful Teacher, Jon Saphier Influencer: The Power to Change Anything, Patterson, Grenny, Maxfield, McMillan, Switzler The Alchemist, Paulo Cohello The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, Stephen Covey If Life is a Game, These are the Rules, Cherie Carter-Scott Good to Great, James C. Collins How to Talk So Kids Will Listen and Listen So Kids Will Talk, Adele Faber and Elaine Mazlish Crucial Confrontations, Patterson, Grenny, McMillan, Switzler The Art of Happiness, Dalai Lama Presentation Zen, Garr Reynolds Understanding By Design, Grant Wiggens and Jay McTighe Teach Like a Champion, Doug Lemov Driven By Data, Paul Bambrick-Santoyo Made to Stick, Dan and Chip Heath Educational History/Theory Left Back, Diane Ravitch Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Pablo Freire The Courage to Teach, Parker Palmer Souls of Black Folk, W.E.B. DuBois Up From Slavery¸ Booker T. Washington Young, Gifted and Black , Perry, Steele, Hilliard III Countering the Conspiracy to Destroy Black Boys, Jawanza Kunjufu History of American Education, Lawrence Cremin (All three volumes) Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher, Stephen Brookfield Asking the Right Questions, M. Neil Browne nd Understanding By Design (Expanded 2 Ed.) Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe Integrating Differentiated Instruction +Understanding by Design Carol Ann Tomlinson and Jay McTighe Little Big Minds, Marietta McCarty Other People s Children, Lisa Delpit
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Organizational Theory/Philosophy The Effective Executive, Peter Drucker Difficult Conversations, Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton, Sheila Heen The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of a Learning Organization, Peter Senge Built to Last, James C. Collins and Jerry Porras Hiring Smart, Dr. Pierre Morrell Tony Soprano on Management, Anthony Schneider The One Minute Manager, Kenneth Blanchard and Spencer Johnson 1001 Ways to Reward Your Employees About Teaching Math, Marilyn Burns (Any of her Books) Public School Law: Teachers and Students Rights (3rd Edition) by McCarthy, Cambron-McCabe Three Signs of a Miserable Job, Patrick Lencioni Never Eat Alone, Keith Ferrazzi,Tahl Raz Leadership Pipeline, Ram Charan, Stephen Drotter First, Break All The Rules, Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman The Carrot Principle, Adrian Gostick and Chester Elton Who, Geoff Smart and Randy Street General The Spook Who Sat by the Door, Sam Greenlee Progress Traps, Ronald Wright th My Bondage and My Freedom -- What to the Slave is the 4 of July? Frederick Douglass Cesar s Way, Cesar Milan The Fountainhead, Ayn Rand The Blind Side, Michael Lewis Marley and Me, John Grogan The Complete Maus, Art Spiegelman Authentic Happiness, Martin Seligman Character Strengths and Virtues, Martin Seligman and Chris Peterson Who Moved My Cheese, Spencer Johnson Freakonomics, Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Nassim Nicholas Taleb Forty Million Dollar Slaves, William Rhoden Stumbling on Happiness, Daniel Gilbert Conscious Business, Fred Kofman Stargirl, Jerry Spinelli Respect, Sara Lawrence Lightfoot Headmaster, John McPhee 48 Laws of Power, Robert Greene More Than You Know: Finding Financial Wisdom in Unconventional Places, Michael J. Mauboussin A People s History of the United States, Howard Zinn Yardsticks, Chip Wood Night, Elie Wiesel Abraham and Under the Big Top, Bruce Feiler Native Son, Richard Wright Evidence of Things Not Seen, James Baldwin Tao Teh Ching, Lao Tzu The Art of War, Sun Tzu The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun, Geoffrey Canada Surely You re Joking Mr. Feynman, Richard Feynman Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Roald Dahl House on Mango Street, Sandra Cisneros Finding Fish, Antwone Quenton Fisher
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The Book of Job, The Bible How to Stop Worrying and Start Living, Dale Carnegie The Story of Sisyphus, Greek Myth Thoughts of a Philosophical Fighter Pilot, Admiral Stockdale The Kamasutra (Classically Illustrated Version) Letters to a Young Poet, Rainer Mari a Rilke Don t Sweat the Small Stuff, Dr. Richard Carlson Malcolm X Speaks, Malcolm X, edited by George Breitman A Right to Be Hostile, Boondocks, Aaron McGruder Absolute American, David Lipsky The Dancing Wu Li Master, Gary Zukav Black Like Me, John Howard Griffin Collected Poems, Nikki Giovanni A Hope in the Unseen, Ron Suskind Sneetches, Horton Hears a Who, The Zax, Dr. Seuss Life is Hell, Matt Groenig Instead of Three Wishes, Megan Whaler ( The Nightmare ) Collected Poems, Robert Service Giving Birth to Thunder, Sleeping with his Daughter, Barry Lopez For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide ., Ntozake Shange Rock This, Chris Rock Soul on Ice, Eldridge Cleaver Tar Baby, Jazz and Beloved, Toni Morrison Collected Poems of Langston Hughes The Way, Michael Berg Down These Mean Streets, Peri Thomas Illusions, Richard Bach Crime and Punishment, Dostoevsky 25 Lessons for Life , Marian Wright Edelman Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison Collected Works, Maya Angelou Creative Visualization, Shakti Gawain Chicken Soup for the Soul #1, Jack Canfield/Mark Hansen The Fire Next Time, James Baldwin The Count of Monte Cristo, Alexander Dumas The Reluctant Fundamentalist, Moshin Hamid

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APPENDIX 2: KIPP NYC TEACHER DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK A WORKING DRAFT (JULY 2010) Self and Other People
Definition of Self and Other People 100% of other people feel: a) respected/valued b) included c) connected to the others around them d) constantly motivated to improve You feel: a) true to yourself b) connected to the other people around you c) ownership for the success of all KIPPsters d) constantly motivated to improve Area of Focus Overview of how self/other people plays out in classroom Personal Relationship Building with Students, Parents, and Colleagues Definition of Teaching Cycle 100% of lessons are: a) planned b) within a scope/sequence (mapped to assessed standards) c) rigorous d) engaging e) assessed for mastery f) use data as driver

The Teaching Cycle
Area of Focus Overview of the teaching cycle Standards Based Unit Plan (scope and sequence) Objective Driven Basic Lesson Plan Objectives Pacing/Timing Questioning Rigor Ratio Checking for Understanding (during lessons, exit tickets, etc) Daily/Weekly/bi-weekly teacher generated assessments and creating quality homework assignments Tracking and Using Data to drive teaching (spiraling, remediation, enrichment)

James Baldwin (Modeling) and Character Constructive Responding Tone (Genuine, Warm and Demanding)

Classroom Culture
Definition of Classroom Culture 100% of students are: a) on-task (SSLANT) b) engaged in learning c) joyful d) rigorously prepared for college and life Area of Focus Overview of Classroom Culture Management vs. Discipline 100% Directions: Clear, Narrate, Correct (include what makes directions clear - SOCS) Closing the Circuit Attention Moves + SSLANT Opening Routine Routines/Systems Incentives/Disincentives Definition of Content 100% of content is: a) rigorous b) differentiated c) mapped to state standards (both stated and assessed standards)

Knowledge & Content
Area of Focus Overview of Content Scope/Sequence Assessments: · Teacher Generated · State Assessments · MAP Tracking and Using Data to drive teaching (spiraling, remediation, enrichment) Differentiation Anticipating/planning for student misconceptions Child Development

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APPENDIX 3: KIPP NYC SELF-CHECKING GUIDE TO TEACHING EXCELLENCE
Self Modeling of character (by both students and teachers) The 8 (Zest, Grit, Self-control, Hope, Social Intelligence, Love, Gratitude, Humor) 4 R s (ratio, rigor, responsiveness, and relationships) J-Factor Students on-task, SSLANTing, and a wide range/variety of students participating Tone Eye contact between teacher and students and students and each other Deliberate descriptive praise around both academics and character Deliberate, descriptive, and measured criticism (remember the 3 P s of explanatory style personalization, permanence, and pervasiveness) Use of routines Students feel safe, respected and valued Organization, readiness, and neatness of materials Lesson Board Configuration ˜ agenda, aim, do now, neatness, size, etc EUALP Pacing, Timing, and Transitions between activities/closure Factual correctness Variety of activities/differentiation Quality of student classwork, homework, posted work, notebooks Range and variety of questioning eliciting answers from students closing the circuit and ensuring student mastery Spiraling Importance and relevance of skill being taught ˜ aligned with standards, curriculum, scope/sequence, aim, teacher generated tests, standardized tests Structure Neatness of room, desks, walls, bulletin boards, etc Appropriate student seating arrangement
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APPENDIX 4: NYC ELEMENTARY SAMPLE LESSON PLAN FORMAT
Teacher: Date: Aims: What is my standards-based, bite-sized aim for this lesson? Make sure this aim fits in a logical sequence with other aims from this unit. Subject/Block/Unit: Assessment of Mastery of the Aim:

Vocabulary: What words do students need to know to be successful with this material? What other vocab words (Tier 2) could be tied in? Quick Questions/Do now: Generally focused on cumulative review (based on IA data, yesterday s lesson, prerequisite skills or preview for today) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Agenda:

Review: What essential content from previous lessons do students need to practice to maintain fluency? Quick fire. Hook/Motivation: How will you convey the importance of today s objective and/or make it interesting? Mini-Lesson / Modeling (the I or I/We ): How will I first model this for student? What example(s) will I use? What steps or thought process do I need to make sure to think aloud ? (Note: This can be heavily guided practice instead of direct modeling) Guided Practice (the We ): Key questions to ask during Guided Practice: What Qs should I ask my students to get them to that goal?

Key questions/strategy to check for understanding before Independent Practice: How ill I know if students are ready to move into independent practice? Independent Practice (the You ): What will be the product? What will students do? Students need lots of AT BATS, and they need to be able to do these successfully and independently. Final Check for Understanding:

Homework: Am I totally confidently that all students can do the homework independently and successfully?

Post-Lesson Reflection: What do you want to change about this lesson for next year?

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APPENDIX 5: KIPP NYC ELEMENTARY SAMPLE 5 E LESSON PLAN FORMAT
Engagement
Time: Questions posed by me: Questions posed by the students to explore: Hook:

Connections to the real world: Materials needed for exploration:

Exploration
Time:

Activity to seek understanding and connections: (hands on and driven by the standard being addressed) How will this be implemented (step by step)? Grouping? Passing out of materials? Clean up? ROUTINES! How will it reach the end goal?

Questions that I do not want to forget to ask groups:

Explanation
Time:

What do I expect students to be able to say at the end of the exploration? What do I want to add and give feedback on if they do not say it? What might they believe after this activity that I need to redirect?

Extension/ Elaborate
Time:

Extension activity to allow further/deepening of understanding. Grouping? Small group with me? How do we take it to the next level?

Evaluation
Time:

What output do I want my students to have:

After the lesson, based on this output: next steps (reflection for next lesson and next year ):

y y y

y y

Engage - students encounter the material, define their questions, lay the groundwork for their tasks, make connections from new to known, identify relevance Explore - students directly involved with material, inquiry drives the process, teamwork is used to share and build knowledge base Explain - learner explains the discoveries, processes, and concepts, that have been learned through written, verbal or creative projects. Instructor supplies resources, feedback, vocabulary, and clarifies misconceptions Elaborate - learners expand on their knowledge, connect it to similar concepts, apply it to other situations - can lead to new inquiry Evaluate - on-going process by both instructor and learner to check for understanding. Rubrics, checklists, teacher interviews, portfolios, problem-based learning outputs, and embedded assessments. Results are used to evaluate and modify further instructional needs.

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APPENDIX 6: KIPP NYC MIDDLE/HS SAMPLE LESSON PLAN FORMAT
Aim: Do Now (as part of Opening Routine) (?): Motivation/Purpose/Hook/Catalyst: Guided Practice: Activity 1: Key Vocabulary

QTIDWTFTA Rules/Facts/Key Ideas:

Checking for understanding Activity 2(?):

QTIDWTFTA

Checking for understanding Sustained, Structured, and Rigorous Independent Practice: Activity 1:

Activity 2(?):

Structured, Deliberate and Rigorous Feedback: Who is receiving feedback, why, when and exactly on what?

Evaluation/Final Checking for Understanding (How do we know that 90% or more of the KIPPsters learned what we just taught) CLOSURE: Homework:
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APPENDIX 7: KIPP NYC MIDDLE/HS ANNOTATED LESSON PLAN
The KIPP NYC Annotated Lesson Plan is a guide that KIPP NYC has developed over the years. It is intended to provide guidance and structure, while providing teachers with ample room for the intuitiveness, creativity, and freedom necessary to maximize student learning.
Aim: y

Are we beginning with the end (aim) in mind? Are we being extremely clear what we want our students to know/be able to do by the end of the lesson and then designing activities and selecting materials to help us accomplish this goal? Potential pitfall to avoid is starting with the activities and materials and then just attaching an aim to it.

y

Are our aims specific and doable in the allocated time? Is it bite-sized enough to ensure student success? Have I broken up complex skills into bit-sized, do-able aims? Along the lines of the above, are our lessons focused on the essential content items/facts/ideas and skills that are essential to accomplishing the aim? Are we avoiding unproductive tangents ? Are we overloading the students with unessential information in which the critical ideas are being lost (the less-is-more line)? Are we checking (throughout the lesson as well as at the end) to see if the kids are learning what we want them to be learning (accomplishing the aim)? What are the ways that we are going to check for understanding? What products will our students have at the end of class to demonstrate that they are mastering the aim? How will our students show us that they are mastering the aim? Are we using student data from tests, homework and independent practice to guide the development of our aims? Are our aims aligned with the state standards, scopes/sequences, state exams, teacher generated tests? Are we utilizing a variety of HOTS verbs in our aims as a way of pushing ourselves to push the KIPPsters to higher levels of thought, questioning and understanding? Potential Pitfall: a) starting at too high of a level b) never reaching a high enough level Are we picking the most effective and efficient way to teach the standard? Do we have just 1 aim per lesson? This would mean that we would have 2-3 aims in a 90 minute block and perhaps even 2 aims in a 45 minute class? Are we at least occasionally formatting our aims differently, including the use of a question as an aim? Do we have our aims written clearly on the board? Do we spend time during class going over the aim with students? Do we cycle back to the aim during closure/summary to ensure that all students have mastered the aim? How do we measure the students mastery of the aim everyday? In other words, how do we determine who needs review and who is ready to move on?

y

y

y

y y

y y

y y

y

Agenda: y Do we have a consistent and engaging agenda?
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y y y

Do the KIPPsters know how to transition from each part of the agenda? Do we write the agenda on the board before class starts? Can the KIPPsters explain what each part of the agenda means, why the class is doing that agenda item, and what the expectations for that agenda item are? Do we spend time going over the agenda with our classes? Do we do that in a way that builds enthusiasm/excitement for the class?

y

Opening Routine (Everything before the actual lesson begins) = Entrance + Do Now + HW check + ??? y Is our Do Now motivational, short (less than 5 minutes), related to the aim or spiraled to previous aims, self-explanatory, organized/neat/consistent? Potential pitfall here is having an opening routine (including checking homework) that takes too long. A best guess on this is an opening routine (Completing the do now, checking the do now, reviewing homework, etc of around 5-8 minutes in a 45 minute class and 14-18 minutes in a 90 minute class. Potential pitfall II Kids not knowing what to expect when they walk into class. The opening routine should have a large measure of consistency and must set the tone for the entire period and must immediately move the kids into their academics. y Does our "Do Now" provide strategic, cumulative review? Are we using student data to ensure that all students can be successful on the "Do Now"? Does our "Do Now" require all students to have the necessary materials for class? Does it start the class in a way that sets a positive, rigorous feel to the class? Do we have a mechanism for quickly grading/checking our "Do Now" activities?

y

y

Cumulative Review (which should be integrated daily into the various elements of the lesson) y Does our cumulative review systematically cover all the skills/standards that we have previously taught? y y y y y Are we using student data to pick the right standards for cumulative review? Are our students consistently successful on cumulative review activities? Are we using a different mode for review than we have for our lesson? Are we varying the ways in which we do cumulative review from lesson to lesson? Do we use cumulative review both in stand alone sections as well as spiraled throughout our lessons? This includes reviewing material from earlier in the lesson as well as previous lessons. Have we prepared our vocabulary, algorithms, questions, homework, to review in advance? Are we able to fire them off in a rapid pace, developing quick recall and memorization? Have we created a technique for ensuring that every student is participating? (such as earn your seat, ticket rewards, mandatory answering etc.)

y y y

Motivation/Purpose/Hook/Catalyst:
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y

If we consider each lesson as its own universe then this is the primordial force that gets everything going. If we consider each lesson as a firecracker then this is lighting the fuse. If we consider each lesson a giant snowball rolling down a hill then this is the initial push. This should be the hook that contextualizes what the kids are about to learn and focuses the students attention either by linking the aim to the real-world, the kids lives, a prior lesson, some made-up mnemonic anchor, etc . Is our motivation directly connected to the aim, interactive, interesting, and varied in style/tone/etc from lesson-to-lesson and day-to-day? Is my motivation/purpose/hook/catalyst in a different modality than my Do Now, Cumulative Review, and Guided/Independent Practice? Is my motivation SHORT and QUICK

y

y

y

y

GUIDED and INDEPENDENT practice Madeline Hunter basically described Guided Practice and Independent Practice as a four-step instructional process. 1) Watch how I do it (modeling/guided practice) 2) Doing it together (guided practice) 3) I ll watch you do it and praise and correct immediately (guided practice) 4) You ll do it alone (independent practice) Guided Practice (I-We and We): y Are we overtly modeling our thinking for the KIPPsters in a step-by-step manner? y Do students have the opportunity to watch us do(model)/think through the skill/problem/activity/ concept/examples enough times so that they have enough confidence to do some together (we) and then by themselves (you)? y y Do we have a mechanism for knowing when to go from Guided(I-We) to Guided(We)? Are we providing opportunities for clear, directed, and organized student note taking. This is a critical part of each lesson. Students need effective notes so that they can review and study the material on their own. The KIPPsters should be able to flip through their notebooks and have an accurate and thorough guide to everything that we have taught. Do our students note-pages reflect the spiral, sequence, and variety of what is happening in our classes? Are we effectively using the black board to model, organize, demonstrate concepts as well as reach our visual learners? Are we planning/scripting activities/questions that differentiate by level of difficulty, depth, spiraling, and learning style? Are we deliberately planning key questions that move students across the various levels of critical thinking during GP? Are we scripting these questions as needed? Are we actually asking these questions? Are we aware of our Ratio during all parts of Guided Practice, Mini-Lessons, etc..?

y y

y

y

y

Guided Practice (We): y Are our Guided(we) problems/activities at the same level of difficulty as our Guided (I-we) activities?
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y

Do we have enough Guided(We) problems/activities so that the KIPPsters can confidently tackle problems/activities on their own? Does our Guided(I-We and We) do the following: -- Use all of the learning styles (Having the students write notes and complete written activities are one of the best/only ways to ensure that we are reaching our visual and tactile learners.) -- Consistently asking students how they are getting their answers and why their answers are correct -- Consistently asking other why and higher order thinking questions. Potential Pitfall: Losing focus on the aim and falling into the so-called interesting tangent phenomenon. -- Spiral to prior learning -- Introduce concepts in a step-by-step and easiest-to-hardest fashion

y

Are we constantly checking for student understanding and correcting any misconceptions? Some possible ways of checking for understanding include: -- Individual oral response -- Whole class oral response -- Visual answers, i.e. raise you hands if -- Written work -- Completing a task/experiment/etc -- Conferencing (Individual or Small Group) -- Group sampling (a portion of the class/cooperative group/etc..) y y Is our guided practice helping the students achieve understanding as well as mastery of the aim? Do we know when to move from GP to IP? Potential Pitfall -- Holding the entire class up when a really small number of kids are confused and will be better helped in a smaller group during IP. Similarly, moving ahead when the vast majority of the class is still confused. y Are we planning/scripting activities/questions that differentiate by level of difficulty, depth, spiraling, and learning style? Are we deliberately planning key questions that move students across the various levels of critical thinking during GP? Are we scripting these questions as needed? Are we actually asking these questions? Are we aware of our Ratio ?

y

y

Sustained, Structured, and Rigorous Independent Practice (You): y Does our independent practice logically follow and build upon the guided practice? (Spiraled) Are our students asked to do problems/tasks/etc at the same level as in the GP? y Are there very few hands in the air during Independent Practice? Is almost every student in the class able to do the work by him/herself? Does our independent practice help the students achieve understanding/mastery of the aim? Are students given enough at-bats to ensure mastery? Are we deliberately planning key questions that move students across the various levels of critical thinking during IP? Are we actually asking these questions?

y y y

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y

Are we quiet during this time and not talking to the entire class but working on an as needed basis with individual students or a small group? Are we circulating among the KIPPsters during this time to check for understanding and so that we can help any students who are struggling with the independent work? Are we planning/scripting activities/questions that differentiate by level of difficulty, depth, spiraling, and learning style? Are we using this time effectively to differentiate instruction? (ie working with a small group or an individual) Are we deliberately planning key questions that move students across the various levels of critical thinking during IP? Are we actually asking these questions? Are we providing sufficient sustained, structured, and rigorous time (at least 12-15 min. in a 45 minute class and at least 25+ minutes in an 75+ minute class) for independent work so that students are able to complete more than just 1 or 2 questions/examples/etc Are we actively measuring student mastery during IP?

y

y y

y

y

y

Structured, Deliberate and Rigorous Feedback y How are we ensuring that we are providing each student structured, deliberate and rigorous feedback on their academic progress on a regular basis (both during class time and equally importantly during nonclass time)? y Are we planning exactly who is receiving (and why they are receiving) feedback during the course of every lesson, every week, and every unit? Are we providing structured, deliberate and rigorous feedback in a variety of differentiated ways throughout every part of the lesson, every part of the week and throughout the course of a unit? -- Whole group -- Small group (Heterogeneous and Homogeneous) -- Individual -- peer to peer (are we teaching the kids how to give feedback to each other?) -- orally -- written Are we keeping track of the type of structured, deliberate, and rigorous feedback we provide? What data are we using to ensure that the feedback we are providing is helping the kids?

y

y y

Evaluation/Final Checking for Understanding/CLOSURE/summary (How do we know that 90% or more of our students learned what we just taught): y Are we directly referencing the aim and asking students to show (one more time) that they have mastered the aim? y y y Are we completing this portion of the lesson as an intentional whole class activity? Do we make sure to do a summary DAILY before my closing routine? Are we re-enforcing the major points learned, reviewing the thought patterns we just created, and reviewing cues for remembering the information? (This can take the form of accountable talk)
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y y y

Do we need to create a subsequent re-teaching activity? Do we need to create a subsequent enrichment activity? Are we varying our evaluation technique from lesson to lesson?

Note: A technical definition of closure reads as follows: Closure is the act of reviewing and clarifying the key points of a lesson, tying them together into a coherent whole, and ensuring their utility in application by securing them in the student s conceptual network. Just in case you were interested Homework: y Are we totally confident that all students can do the homework INDEPENDENTLY and SUCCESSFULLY? y y y y Are we providing additional independent work to help our students master the aim? Is our homework tied to the lesson or a springboard for future lessons Is it clear, self-explanatory, and doable in time? Are we using student data to strategically assign homework that systematically reviews all the skills students have mastered to this point in the year? Did we write the homework on the board? Did we give students the chance to write the homework down and/or put it away properly? Have we created an efficient system for checking, collecting, monitoring, holding students accountable for HW?

y

y

Note: Homework should never be used as a punishment or a reward. Differentiation: Questions to Consider While Planning y Do we know our own preferred learning styles? Do we know our own preferred teaching strategies, styles and activities? Are we regularly and effectively varying our teaching strategies, styles and activities? y Do we know the learning styles of all of our students? Do we know the academic strengths and weaknesses of all of our students? Are we assessing during and after each lesson, and in such a way, that we know the level of each of our students? How do we know each student s level of mastery of the day s aim? Are we using student data from tests, homework and independent practice to guide the development of our subsequent aims, activities, and assessments? Are we providing enough time for our independent practice so that we can effectively use this time to work with a group of students (low, middle, high, mixed, etc )? Are we effectively using peer tutors/groups to maximize the time we can spend with a group of students during class? Are we planning activities/assignments (in class and hw) that sufficiently spiral and differentiate by level of difficulty, depth, and learning style?

y

y

y

y

y

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y

Are we planning and structuring our class/week/unit time to allow us to sufficiently spiral and differentiate by level of difficulty, depth, and learning style to ensure that all students master the necessary material? Are we planning/scripting questions that differentiate by level of difficulty, depth, spiraling, and learning style? Are we creating weekly/unit assessments that are appropriately spiraled, scaffolded, and differentiated? How are we using our time during our weekly/unit assessments? Are we appropriately re-teaching our lowest-skilled students? Are we effectively structuring/changing our student seating and grouping so that all of our students have the opportunity of being helped/challenged by their peers? Are our students aware of their academic strengths, weaknesses, and learning styles? Are our students able to monitoring their own progress? Are our students learning how to learn effectively both in their preferred learning style and in other learning styles? Are our students getting enough feedback and in multiple ways? Are we providing enough structured, sustained and rigorous independent practice? Are we scheduling time for pre-teaching skills to our lowest-skilled students as often as possible? Are we effectively using peer tutors/groups to maximize the effectiveness of our out-of class remediation and enrichment? Are we providing our lowest skilled students with the time they need both in class and out of class (morning, lunch, electives, after 5:00 p.m., Saturdays, etc) to be successful? Are we finding help from other teachers, students, outside tutors, parents, etc to provide this help whenever possible/appropriate? Are we making at least some time on a daily basis to push-in to other classrooms and assist lower-skilled students, challenge the higher-skilled students, etc ? Are we explicitly rewarding/displaying examples of student growth? Are we effectively differentiating for behavior? What are we doing for the kids who are not responding to what is working for the majority of the kids? On a basic level, Tammi Sutton asked the following summary question when it comes to differentiation, Would you be excited to be a student in your class? Tammi then challenged us to add the following to this question Would I be excited to be a student in this class if I could not read if I was the highest skilled student in the school .if I had ADHD?... Tammi raised an interesting second challenge as well are we effectively differentiating for academics and behavior without lowering our expectations? In other words, are we acting in the spirit of the Stockdale Paradox this kid may be struggling with X and Y but with the right support from people A, B, C, etc they will be successful? Of course, part of our jobs then becomes enlisting/organizing the help of peoples A-Z (and beyond )?

y y y y

y

y

y

y y

y

y

y y

y

y

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Final Thoughts y Are we teaching and living with the James Baldwin Quote in mind? The children are always ours, every single one of them ..Children have never been very good at listening to their elders, but they have never failed to imitate them. How effective are our transitions between the individual parts of each lesson and from lesson to lesson? Are our routines from transitions and opening routines working? Are we combining our enthusiasm with a Persistent, Insistent, and Consistent emphasis on SSLANTing (Smile, Sit-up, Listen, Ask/Answer Questions, Nod, Track the Speaker), quality of work/effort/behavior/being nice that will lead to future success in and after school? Are we varying questioning techniques and questions throughout each lesson as well as lesson to lesson? How aware are we of our own pacing and timing? Are we reading our students for signs of confusion, frustration, and boredom and adjusting accordingly both in-class and in our future planning? Are we isolating whether these reactions are a result of planning, delivery, level, or organization issues on our parts or behavior issues on the part of the individual student/s? Are we combining our enthusiasm with a Persistent, Insistent, and Consistent emphasis on quality of work/effort/behavior/being nice that will lead to future success in and after school? How s our balance of addressing student behavior issues individually-on-the-side vs. stopping lessons to discuss issues as a whole class? Are we doing BOTH effectively? Are we using a variety of approaches and techniques? Are we explaining and having students explain why both the academic and character standards matter?

y y

y y

y y

y

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