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Sugar - Deoxyribose Nitrogenous bases We picture it like this:
phosphate sugar nitrogenous base
This group of the parts of DNA is called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA. There are four nitrogenous bases Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine One molecule of DNA contains about 3 billion of these bases. These nitrogenous bases follow certain rules about how to pair up Adenine always pairs up with Thymine Guanine always pairs up with Cytosine Genes are segments of a chromosome that contain the recipe for a speciﬁc trait. Genes are found on all 46 human chromosomes. These recipes are for the proteins that cause that speciﬁc trait.
Genetics Study Guide, Page 1 of 4
DNA Replication Right before cell division, the chromosomes in the cell make copies of themselves. This is called DNA Replication. This process follows the following steps:
The goal of this project is to make a perfect copy of the cellʼs DNA. DNA Versus RNA DNA 3 basic parts: Sugar - Deoxyribose Phosphate Nitrogenous Bases 4 nitrogenous bases: adenine thymine guanine cytosine Double Stranded One type 3 basic parts: Sugar - Ribose Phosphate Nitrogenous Bases 4 nitrogenous bases: adenine uracil guanine cytosine Single Stranded Two types: mRNA - carries the DNA message to the ribosome tRNA mRNA - Many bases long tRNA - 3 bases long RNA
3 Billion bases long
Genetics Study Guide, Page 2 of 4
Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis is the process where the genetic code is translated in order to make the proteins necessary for a speciﬁc trait or function. The process follows the following steps:
Genetics Study Guide, Page 3 of 4
Mutations Mutations are any change to the genetic code. The change in the genetic code will lead to a different protein being made. There are three types of mutations we have learned about: Insertions - a base gets added to the genetic code Deletions - a base gets removed from the genetic code Substitutions - one base gets swapped for another base Mutations can be helpful or harmful. Mutations can be caused by a few things. These are called mutagenic agents. The most common one is radiation. Radiation changes the structure of the DNA. And this change in structure changes the genetic code. Mutations can also happen spontaneously. Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineering is the process by which the genetic code can be intentionally changed. It is accomplished by taking the section of desired DNA and adding it to the DNA of a bacterium. Then, the modiﬁed bacteria are let loose in the person, which would result in the new DNA being incorporated into the old DNA.
Genetics Study Guide, Page 4 of 4