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W.D. McCaln Jr., SPE, Cawley, Gillespie & Assocs. lnc.

Summary. This paper presents correlations to determine reservoir-fluid properties from field data. The best available correlations

were selected by comparison with a data base of hundreds of reservoir-fluid s~dies of sampl~s representing ~ areas o~ the free world

involved in active petroleum exploitation from 1980 to 1986. Also, correlations of formation-water propertes are given.

lntroclucUon

Values of reservoir liquid and gas properties are often needed when

laboratory PVT data are not available. This paper shows how to

use normally available field data to estimate fluid properties.

While at Texas A&M U., 1 had access to a data base of hundreds

of reservoir-fluid studies provided by Core Laboratories Inc. The

geographical and geological origins of the reservoir samples had

been carefully removed from the data but the samples were lrnown

to represent ali areas of the free world in which petroleum exploitation was active during the first 6 years of the 1980's.

Ali reservoir-fluid property correlations available in the petroleum engineering literature were compared with this data base. This

paper gives the best correlations.

ldentlflcatlon of Rrvolr-Fluld Type

Surprisingly accurate "rules of thumb" are available 1 to identify

reservoir-fluid type from field data. When the initial producing GOR

is < 3 ,300 scf/STB, the fluid is a liquid at reservoir conditions.

Possible exceptions occur if the stock-tank liquid is colorless or

has a gravity higher than about 50 API.

Reservoir liquids are either black oils or volatile oils; the general material-balance equatons- work only for black oils. The behavior of volatile oils does not fit the assumptions inherent in the

derivation of the material-balance equations. Black oils are identified as having initial producing GOR's below 2,000 scf/STB and

deeply colored stock-tank oil with gravities below 45 API.

Reservoir gases are classified as retrograde gases (often called

condensate gases or gas condensare), wet gases, and dry gases.

Retrograde gases have initial producing GOR's > 3,300 scf/STB.

The few exceptions of oils that have ratios higher than this are identified as having deeply colored stock-tank liquids with gravities <

40 API. Retrograde behavior occurs for gases with initial producing GOR's of 150,000 scf/STB or higher; however, as a practica!

matter, gases with initial producing GOR's ;.::50,000 scf/STB can

be treated as wet gases.

The term wet gas is used for a gas that does not release condensate in the reservoir but does form hydrocarbon liquid at the surface. The term dry gas is used for a gas that does not form any

hydrocarbon liquid at the surface. In this context, the terms "wet"

and "dry" do not refer to water or water vapor, which is always

present to some extent.

Propertl of Reservolr Uqulds

The physical properties discussed next apply only to black oils. Engineering a volatile-oil reservoir requires a special laboratory study

not discussed here.

Solutioli GOR at Bubblepoint, R,b The initial producing GOR

provides a good estimate of solution GOR for use at pressures equal

to and above bubblepoint pressure. This will not be true if free gas

from a gas cap or another formation is produced with the oil. Field

data often exhbit a great deal of scatter; however, a trend of constant GOR usually can be discemed before reservoir pressure drops

below the bubblepoint.

Often the reported values of producing GOR do not include stocktank vent gas. In this case, the use of initial producing GOR for

'Now wlth S.A. Holdhch & Asaocs.

Copyright 1991 Soclety of Petroleum Englneers

266

solution GOR results in values that are low by 10% or more. The

stock-tank GOR can be estimated with3

log RST=A +A2 log -y0+A3 log "Ygsp+A4 log PsP

+As log Tsp,

(1)

As= -0.7355. Eq. 1 should not be used if the separator temperature is > 140F.

Addition of the estimate of stock-tank GOR from Eq. 1 to the

separator GOR results in an estmate of solution GOR accurate to

within 3%.

Bubblepoint Pressure, p b. The bubblepoint pressure of the oil at

reservoir conditions can be estimated with4

Pb = 18.2(Cpb-1.4),

(2)

(3)

can be used for -y8; however, R5 should include stock-tank vent

gas. The equations are valid to 325F.

A more accurate estmate of bubblepoint pressure can be obtained

if reservoir pressure is measured regularly. Plot reservoir pressure

and producing GOR vs. cumulative production. For a volumetric

solution-gas-drive reservoir, pressure will decline rapidly initially, then flatten when reservoir pressure drops below the oil bubblepoint pressure (the pressure at which the line changes slope).

The producing GOR will begin to increase shortly after bubblepoint

pressure is reached.

Solution GOR, R,. Eqs. 2 and 3 can be used to estmate solution

GOR for pressures below the bubblepoint. Enter any pressure below bubblepoint in place of P in Eq. 2 and calculate the corresponding value of solution GOR with Eq. 3. The results should

be within 15% of measured values.

If a field-derived bubblepoint pressure has been obtained from

pressure measurements as described above, the accuracy of the estimates of solution GOR can be improved. s Start by creating a table of pressures and solution GOR's. Subtract the field-derived

bubblepoint pressure from the bubblepoint pressure calculated with

Eqs. 2 and 3 to obtain a "delta pressure." Subtract this "delta pressure" from ali pressures in the R5 vs. p table. This procedure

works very well for pressures near the bubblepoint. 1t is less accurate at low pressures.

Oil FVF, 80 The oil FVF for use at pressures equal to or below

bubblepoint can be estimated with+

Bob =0.9159+ 12(10-S)CBob 1.2,

where CBob =R,(-y gl-y0)0.s

+ 1.25T

(4)

(5)

The equations can be used for any pressure equal to or below the

bubblepoint by inserting the corresponding value of solution GOR

estimated as discussed above. The resulting FVF value will be within

5 % of laboratory-measured values if accurate values of solution

GOR are used. If solution GOR's are obtained with Eqs. 2 and 3,

the accuracy of the resulting FVF values will be sorne unlrnown

combination ofthe 15% accuracy ofEqs. 2 and 3 and the 5% accuracy of Eqs. 4 and 5. Do not use at temperatures above 325F.

SPE Reservoir Engineering, May 1991

B0=Bob

exp[c0(p,,-p)],

(6)

where FVF at the bubblepoint is estimated as discussed above. Estimation of the coefficient of isothennal compressibility of oil, eO,

is discussed later.

Oil Density at Reservoir Conditions, PoR Eq. 7 may be used to

calculare> the density of the oil in the reservoir at bubblepoint pressure (and below) from estimated values of B0 and Rs.

PoR =(psTO +0.01351R/y g)IB0,

(7)

temperature at which B0 and R, were estimated. A weighted average of separator and stock-tank-gas specific gravities should be used

for 'Yg; however, the use of separator gas gravity gives adequate

results. The accuracy of this .calculation should be sorne unlcnown

combination of the accuracy of the estimates of B0 and Rs; however, in practice, the calculated density is within 5% oflaboratorymeasured values.

Density of reservoir oil at pressures above the bubblepoint can

be calculated with

Po =p01, exp[c0(p-p1,)]

(8)

Coefflcient of lsothermal Compressibility of Oil, c0 The coefficient of isothennal compressibility of ol, often called oil compressibility, is defined for pressures above the bubblepoint as

Co = -(llV)(iW/op)r,

(9a)

c0= -(l!B0)(0B0)/op)r,

(9b)

(9c)

Or C0 =(1fp0)(op0/op)r

as

c0

=-;J(~ ) -B/;s )J

7

(10)

(11)

12.61, and A6 = 105.

Values of oil compressibility calculated with Eq. 11 are generally low, by as muchas 50% at high pressures. Accuracy is improved

at pressures near the bubblepoint. The data set used to develop this

equation included pressures as high as 9,500 psig; however, the

author did not give a temperature range. 8

At pressures below the bubblepoint, 9

ln(c0)=-7.633-l.497

+0.184 ln(Rs1,)

(12)

The results are accurate to within 10% at pressures above 500 psia.

Below 500 psia, the accuracy is within 20%. Ifthe bubblepoint pressure is known, the accuracy of estimates of oil compressibility at

pressures below bubblepoint can be improved by using?

ln(c0)= -7.573-1.450 ln(p)-0.383 ln(p1,)+ 1.402 ln(T)

+0.256 ln('YAP1)+0.449ln(Rs1,)

(13)

Oil Viscosity, p.0 Estimation of oil viscosity at pressures below

the bubblepoint is a two-step procedure. First, the viscosity of the

oil without dissolved gas (dead oil), P.oD is estimated at reservoir

temperature 10:

log log(p.oD+ 1)= 1.8653-0.025086-y API-0.5644 log T.

...................................

(14)

SPE Reservoir Engineering, May 1991

(15)

P.o =A.oDB,

where A=l0.715(Rs+lOO)-O.S!S

(16)

(17)

Oil viscosity at pressures above the bubblepoint is estimated by

first calculating viscosity at the bubblepoint with Eqs. 14 through

17 from the solution GOR at the bubblepoint and then adjusting

viscosity to higher pressures with 7

B=C

P.o =p.01,(plp1,)8,

where

1pC2

exp(C3 +C4p),

(18)

(19)

Eqs. 18 and 19 were developed from a data base with pressures

to 9 ,500 psig; the applicable temperatures were not given. 8

lt appears that the relationships of oil viscosity to other properties of the oil are too complicated to be explained by the limited

field data normally available. Thus, the values of oil viscosity calculated with Eqs. 14 through 19 should be considered to be "orderof-magnitude'' estimates only.

Propertl of Reaervolr Gasea

Properties of dry gases will be considered first. Toen, the calculations necessary for estimating properties of reservoir wet gases will

be discussed. Retrograde gases will not be considered because a

special laboratory report is required for these gases.

Compressibility Equation of State. The equation of state most

often used by petroleum engineers is

pV=znRT.

(20)

of time. Their graphical correlation may be represented by 13,14

z= 1 +(A 1 +A2/Tpr +A3/Tpr3 +A4/Tpr 4 +As!Tpr5)Ppr

+(A6 +A7/Tpr+Ag/Tpr2)Ppr2

co=(A +A2Rs+A3T+A4-yg+As'YAP1)IA6P,

interest is taken into account with 11

-A9(A7/Tpr+Ag/Tp/)Ppr5

+A1o(l +A 11Ppr2)(ppr2/Tpr3)exp(-A

and Ppr=0.21[pprl(ZTpr)J,

11Ppr2)

(21)

(22)

As= -0.05165, A6 =0.5415, A1 = -0. 7361, Ag =0.1844, A9 =

Standing-Katz correlation to within 1 % for 0.2<Ppr< 15 and

0.1<Tpr<3.0 and to within 3% for 15<Ppr<30.

The pseudoreduced properties are defined as

Tpr=T/Tpc

(23a)

and Ppr=PIPpc

(23b)

Ppc =756.8-131.0-y g -3.6-y g2

(24)

g2

(25)

experimental for temperatures to 360F, pressures to 12,500 psia,

and gas specific gravities to 1.6.

If the gas composition is known, gas specific gravity for use in

Eqs. 24 and 25 should be calculated with

'Y g=Ma/Mair =Ma/29,

(26)

(27)

This will improve accuracy over direct calculation of the pseudocritical properties with composton.P

When H2S and C02 are present, the pseudocritical properties

are adjusted by 16

r;c=Tpc-E

(28)

267

and Ppc =

PpcT/,c

Tpc +YH2s0-YH2s)E

(29)

(30)

for C02 concentrations to 55 mol% and H2S conditions to 74

mol% at temperatures to 300F and pressures to 7 ,000 psia.

z-factor values are not greatly affected by the presence of nitrogen. z-factor increases by about 1 % over the values calculated with

Eqs. 21 and 22 for each 5 mol% of nitrogen in the gas.s

Toe z-factor values calculated as described above are about as

accurate as can be measured in the laboratory. This is true even

for wet gases and retrograde gases with specific gravities as high

as 1.6.

Dry Gases. Dry gases are easy to deal with because no liquid condenses from the gas as it moves from the reservoir to the surface.

Thus, the specific gravity ofthe surface gas can be used in correlations to determine the properties of the gas in the reservoir.

When the gas is associated and produced with a black oil, it may

be assumed to be a dry gas with specific gravity equal to the specific gravity of the gas from the primary separator.

Gas FVF. The FVF of a dry gas is defined as

B8=VR!Vsc-

(31)

88 =0.0282(zT/p) =0.00502(zT/p). .

(32)

Toe equations are exact, and the calculated values of gas FVF are

directly related to the accuracy of the values of z factor used.

Coefficienl o/ lsothermal Compressibilily o/ Gas. Toe coefficient of isothermal compressibility of gas is defined as

c8 = -(llV)(iW/Jp)7

or Cg=(llBg)(JBglJp)r

(33a)

(33b)

basis>:

cp,=cgppc=-1Ppr

-~e-~)

(34)

Jpp, Tpr

Eq. 34 can be combinedt'' with the definition of pseudoreduced

gas density,

Z

Pp,=0.21[pp,l(zTp,)J,

(35)

0.27, to arrive at

1

0.27 [

(Jz/Jpp,)rp,

cp,= Ppr - z2 Tp, 1 +(JJp,lz)(Jz/Jpp,)rp,

J

(36)

(JzlJpp,)rp, =A 1 +A2/Tp, +A31Tp,3 +A4/Tp,

Tp,3

II

where the values of the constants are given with Eq. 21.

lsothenns ofthe z factor plotted vs. pseudoreduced pressure have

rather sharp minima at low temperatures. Eq. 21 follows the shape

ofthese isothenns rather well. However, the slopes ofthe isothenns

calculated with Eq. 37 are not particularly accurate near these mni

ma, where the slope changes sharply from negative to positive.

Thus, Eqs. 36 and 37 should not be used at Tp, < 1.4 for

0.4<p ,<3.0. Toe accuracy ofthese equations is unknown; however, ~ results should be suitable for engineering calculations.

268

.8=A

exp(Bp8C)(l0-4),

where A =

(38)

(9.379+0.01607Ma)Tl.5

209.2+ 19.26Ma+T

B=3.448+(986.4/T)+0.01009Ma,

and C=2.447-0.2224B

(39)

(40)

(41)

Toe results of Eqs. 38 through 41 agree with the limited published data of gas viscosity to within 2 % at low pressure and to

within 4 % at high pressure when the specific gravity of the gas

is < 1.0. Toe equations are less accurate for gases of higher specific gravities, usually giving low estimates by up to 20% for retrograde gases with specific gravities over 1.5.

Wet Gases. Toe key to the estimation of the properties of a wet

gas is that the composition of the reservoir gas is not the same as

the composition of the surface gas. Hydrocarbon liquid condenses

from the reservoir gas as it moves from reservoir conditions to surface conditions. Toe surface gas and surface liquid must be recombined by calculation to detennine the specc gravity of the reservoir

gas. Correlations given above can be used once the specific gravity. of the reservoir gas is known.

Specific Gravily o/ Wet Gas. Wet gases are processed through

two or more stages of separation at the surface. Unfortunately, the

quantity and specific gravity ofthe stock-tank gas are rarely known.

The specific gravity of a reservoir wet gas can be estimated when

only the properties of the gas from the primary separator are

known.20

'Y gR =

RspJ'YSPI+4,600-yo+Gpa

Rsp +Veq

. . .. , . , . , . . . . . . . . .. . (42)

second separator gas, ifpresent, plus the volume in standard cubic

feet that would be occupied by a barrel of stock-tank liquid if it

were gas. Toe additional gas produced, Gpa, is related to the mass

of gas produced from the stock tank and the second separator, if

present.

For three stages of separation,

Veq =Ao +A 1 (p5p)A2 (-y5p)A3 (-yAP1)A4 (Tsp1)A5(Tsn)A6'

...................................

(43)

A4 = 1.20940, As= -0.849115, and A6 =0.269869, and

Gpa=A 1 (Psp1 -14.65)A2('Ysp1)A3(-y

AP1)A4 (Tsp1)As(Tsn)A6,

...................................

(44)

As= -1.19605, and A6 =0.553669.

For two stages of separation,

Veq=Ao+.A (p5p)A2('Y5p)A3(-y

API)A4(Tsp)As,

(45)

A4=1.58124, A5=-0.791301, and

Gpa =A(Psp -14.65)A2('Ysp)A3(-yAPI)A4(Tsp)As, .....

-5pp, 4A9(A7/Tp,+A8/Tp,2)

+ 2A JOPpr (1 + A 11Ppr 2 -A

(46)

and A5=-0.934460.

Values of specific gravity of reservoir gas calculated with Eq.

42 and the appropriate pair of Eqs. 43 and 44 or Eqs. 45 and 46

will be within 2 % of laboratory-detennined values. This accuracy

degenerates to about 6% when the total nonhydrocarbon content

of the gas is between 5 and 25 mol% . Toe equations are not recommended when total nonhydrocarbon content of the gas exceeds

25 mol%. Toe results are independent of reservoir temperature and

pressure. Reservoir gases with specific gravities between 0.8 and

1.55 were used in the development of the equation.

FVF o/ Wet Gas. Eqs. 31 and 32 apply only to a dry gas. Toe

FVF of a wet gas is usually defined as the volume of reservoir gas

SPE Reservoir Engineering, May 1991

CONCENTRATION OF OISSOLVEO SOLIOS IN FORMATION WATERS *

Term

--

Equations

Symbol Definition

g mol solid

Cm

1,000 g pure water

molarity

g mol solid

CM

1,000 ml brine

eq wt solid

normality

CN

1,000 ml brine

meq solid

milliequivalents per litar Cmeq/l

1,000 ml brine

weight percent solids

g solid

Cw

100 g brine

parts per million

g solid

CppmCwx104

Cppm

106 g brine

milligrams per liter

g solid

Cmg11.

106 ml brine

grains per gallon

grains solid

Cgr/gal = 17.1 X Cmg/l 17.1 XPw X Cppm,

Cgr1ga1

where p w is in g/cm 3 at standard

gal brine

conditions.

molality

'Adapted from Jordan. J.R. and Campball, F.L.: We// Logg/ng /-Rock Proparties, Borehole Envlronmant, Mud, and

Temperatura Lor,g/ng, Monograph Serias, SPE, Richardson, TX (1985) 9, 38.

standard cubic feet of reservoir gas per stock-tank barrel or barreis of reservoir gas at reservoir conditions per stock-tank barrel.

The sum of the primary separator gas and Veq is the standard

cubic feet of reservoir gas required to produce 1 bbl of stock-tank

liquid:

Vw8=Rsp1 +Veq

This can be converted to reservoir conditions,

(47)

5

resulting in

Bwg=0.00502(Rsp + Veq)7/p,

(48)

Values from this correlation agree with the lirnited published experimental data to within 2 % . The correlation is valid throughout

the full range of solids contents, temperatures to 260F, and pressures to 5,000 psia. An increase in solids content causes a slight

increase in '1VwT and a slight decrease in '1Vwp that are offsetting

to within l % .

at standard conditions may be calculated with5

Pw=62.368+0.438603S+

l.60074x 10-3S2.

(52)

Eq. 48 will give results within about 6% of laboratory measurement for gases with nonhydrocarbon content < 5 % . The accuracy

degenerates badly for higher nonhydrocarbon content.

The results are as accurate as laboratory measurement throughout the full range of solids contents. Density at reservoir conditions is calculated by dividing density at standard conditions by FVF

for the pressure and temperature of interest.

Most of the water correlations presented here require a knowledge

of the solids content of the brine of interest. Solids content can be

easily measured in the laboratory, or it can be determined-! from

measurement of the resistivity of the brine.

Solution Gas/Water Ratio ofFonnation Water, Rsw The solution gas/water ratio of pure water may be calculated with 5

primarily NaCl. The quantity and distribution ofthe ions are different in every formation water. Solids contents have been reported

from as little as 200 ppm to saturation, whichjust exceeds 300,000

ppm.

Solids contents are reported in various sets of units. Table 1 gives

the relationships between these units.

Bubblepoint Pressure of Formation Water, Pb The bubblepoint

pressure of formation water is the same as the bubblepoint pressure of the coexisting oil. If the water is in contact with gas, its

bubblepoint pressure is equal to initial reservoir pressure. Both of

the above are the result of thermodynamic equilibrium in the reservoir at discovery.

FVF of Formation Water, Bw. The FVF of brine may be calculated withS

Bw=(l +'1Vwp)(l +.,ffwr),

1.91663(10-4)72

-2.1654(10-7)73,

(54)

B= 1.01021(10-2)-7.44241(10-5)7+3.05553(10-7)72

-2.94883(10-10)73,

(55)

and C= -(l0-7)[9.02505-0.1302377+8.53425(10-4)72

-2.34122(10-6)73 +2.37049(10-9)74].

(56)

5% at pressures from 1,000 to 10,000 psia and temperatures from

100 to 340F. Do not use at pressures below 1,000 psia.

Eq. 57 gives a salinity adjustment factorS that is multiplied by

the result of Eq. 53 to give the solution gas/water ratio of formation water.

log[

(Rsw)brine

(Rsw)pure water

J = -0.0840655S7-0.285854.

(57)

salinities up to 30% and temperature from 70 to 250F.

(50)

cw. At pressures above the bubblepoint, water compressibility is

defined as

-3.58922(10-7)p-2.25341(10-IO)p2

where A=8.15839-6.12265(10-2)T+

(53)

(49)

5.50654(10-7)T2

Rsw=A+Bp+cp2,

(51)

Cw

= (1/V w)(}Vwf}p)r,

(58a)

269

cw= -(llBw)(JBwlop)r,

(58b)

or Cw=(llpw)(Opwlop)r

(58c)

Cw=l/(7.033p+0.5415S-537.0T+403,300),

(59)

Eq. 59 is valid only for temperatures between 200 and 270F,

pressures of 1,000 to 20,000 psia, and salinitiesup to 200,000 mg/L.

Osif24 gave no estmate of accuracy. A graphic correlation-t is

available for use at lower temperatures and pressures.

At pressures below the bubblepoint, water compressibility is

calculated 26 as

c;w)/ ::

Cw = :w

c:;w

(60)

Toe first term on the right side of Eq. 60 is related to water compressibility at pressures above the bubblepoint and can be estimated with Eq. 59. Toe derivative in the second term on the right side

of Eq. 60 can be estimated with5

(JRswlop)r=B+2Cp,

(61)

whereB and Care from Eqs. 55 and 56. Toe result ofEq. 61 should

be multiplied by the salinity adjustment factor of Eq. 57. Values

of FVF of formation water for use in the second term are estimated as described above, and FVF of gas is estimated with a gas specific gravity of 0.63.

Toe resulting estmate of water compressibility is of unknown

accuracy. It should be considered to be 'order of magnitude'' only.

wl =AT-B,

(62)

...................................

(63)

+5.47119(1Q-5)S3 - l.55586(I0-6)S4

(64)

Eq. 62 fits the existing graphical correlaton-? to within 5% at temperatures between 100 and 400F and salinities to 26%.

Water viscosity at 1 atm can be adjusted to reservoir pressure

wth>

wlwl =0.9994+4.0295X lQ-5p+3.1062X 1Q-9p2 .... (65)

Eq. 65 fits data28 at 86 to 167F and pressures below 10,000 psia

to within 4%. At pressures between 10,000 and 15,000 psia, the

fit is to within 7 % .

MoistureContent ofNatural Gas. Toe dewpoint water-vapor content of natural gas in equilibrium with liquid water may be calculated with 29

W=Alp+B,

(66)

18(I06)psc

where A =pv

'

8 20

l0.13(459.6+Tsc)Zsc

(67)

(68)

content can be measured (about 5%) at pressures to 10,000 psia

and temperatures to 460F.

Dissolved solids in the water reduce the partial pressure of the

water, thereby reducing the water content of the gas. Moisture content from Eq. 66 should be multiplied by the salinity-adjustment

factor- given in Eq. 69:

wbrine

---=l-4.920(1Q-3)S-l.7672(10-4)S2, .....

wpure water

270

(69)

correlation-? to within 1 % .

Toe above correlations were developed for dry-gas systems containing no nonhydrocarbon components. The presence of heavier

hydrocarbons in wet gases or retrograde gases will increase the water

content by as muchas 10% at 1,000 psia and 20% at 10,000 psia.

Natural gas that contains substantial amounts of C02 and/or H2S

will contain more water vapor. 30 Although no data are available,

the increase is probably on the order of 5 % . Substantial amounts

of nitrogen or helium will lower the moisture content. 31 Limited

data are available; the decrease is probably 5 to 10%.

Hydrate Formation. Hydrocarbon gas and liquid water will combine to form solids called gas hydrates at temperatures above the

temperature at which water freezes. Eq. 70 can be used to estmate

the temperature at which hydrates will form32:

Th = 1/[2.77077(10-3)-2. 78224(10-3)(ln 'Y 8)-5.64929(10-4)

(In p)- l.29859(10-3)(ln 'Y 8)2 + I.40712(10-3)(ln 'Y 8)(ln p)

+ I.78574(10-4)(ln p)2 + 1.13028(10-3)(ln 'Y 8)3

+5.97282(1Q-4)(ln -y8)2(Jn p)-2.32792(10-4)(ln -y8)(ln p)2

-2.68408(lQ-5)(ln p)3 +4.66106(10-3)(ln 'Y 8)4

+5.55424(1Q-4)(In -y8)3(ln p)- l.47278(I0-5)(ln -y8)2(ln p)2

+ l.39381(10-5)(ln 'Y 8)(ln p)3 + I.48850(10-6)(ln p)4].

...................................

(70)

The estmate of hydrate-forming temperature could be in error by

5F or more. Do not use Eq. 70 at temperatures above 62F, pressures above 1,500 psia, or gas specific gravities above O. 9.

Toe presence of H2S and/or C02 in the gas will cause an increase in hydrate-forming temperatures, but data are too limited

to quantify this.

Toe presence of dissolved solids in the water will decrease the

temperature at which hydrates form. Toe decrease can be calculated with5

ATh=AS+BS2+CS3,

(71)

(72)

B= -0.106056+0.722692-y8-0.85093-y/,

(73)

and C=0.00347221-0.0165564-y

+0.019764-yg2

(74)

Eq. 71 agrees with the existing data30 exactly when the results are

rounded to the nearest whole degree Fahrenheit. Eqs. 71 through

74 are based on gas specific gravities < O. 68 and salinities < 20%.

Inhibitor is often added to the water in contact with gas to reduce

the hydrate-forming temperature. Toe temperature reduction can

be calculated wifu33,34

ATh =2,335w/100M-Mw.

(75)

Toe results ofEq. 75 are well within the scatter ofthe experimental data.

Toe presence of liquid hydrocarbons with the gas and liquid water

will decrease hydrate-forming temperature. 34 Data are limited, and

the temperature decrease has not been quantified.

Nomenclature

A,B,C = coefficients

B8 = FVF of dry gas, res ft3/scf or RB/scf

B0 = ol FVF, RB/STB

Bw = water FVF, RB/STB

Bwg = FVF of wet gas, RB/STB

c8 = coefficient of isothermal compressibility of gas,

psi-1

c0 = coefficient of isothermal compressibility of ol,

psi "!

cp, = pseudoreduced coefficient of isothermal

compressiblity

cw = coefficient of isothermal compressibility of

water, psi 1

SPE Reservoir Engineering, May 1991

30

fH2s = mole fraction of H2S in Eq. 30

Gpa = additional gas produced, Eqs. 42 through 44,

scf/STB times specific gravity

m = mass, lbm mol

M = molecular weight of solute in Eq. 75, lbm/lbm

mol

M0 = apparent molecular weight, lbm/lbm mol

Mm = apparent molecular weight of air, lbm/lbm mol

p = pressure, psia

Pb = bubblepoint pressure, psia

Ppc = pseudocritical pressure, psia

P,C = pseudocritical pressure adjusted for acid-gas

content, psia

ppr = pseudoreduced pressure

Pv,HzO = vapor pressure of pure water at temperature of

interest, psia

R = universal gas constant, 10.732 (psia-ft3)/(lbm

mol- R), or producing GOR

R, = solution GOR, scf/STB

Rsp = producing GOR from prmary separator,

scf/STB

RsT = producing GOR from stock tank, scf/STB

Rsw = solublity of gas in water, scf/STB

S = salinty, wt% solids or mg/L in Eq. 59

T = temperature, F or R in Eqs. 12, 13, 20, 23,

32, 39, 40, 48, and 68

Th = hydrate-formation temperature, F

llTh = decrease in hydrate-formation temperature, F

T. e = pseudocritical temperature, R

T

= pseudocritical temperature adjusted for acid-gas

content, R

Tpr = pseudoreduced temperature

V= volume, ft3

Veq = equivalent volurne, scf/STB

Vw = volume of water, ft3

Vwg = volume of reservoir wet gas, ft3

ll V "P = change in liquid volume during pressure

reduction in Bw correlation

ll V wT = change in liquid volume during temperature

reduction in Bw correlation

w = weight percent solute in Eq. 75

W = moisture content of gas, lbm/MMscf

Wbrine = moisture content of gas in contact with brine,

lbm/MMscf

Wpure water = moisture content of gas in contact with pure

water, lbm/MMscf

y = composition of gas, mole fraction

z = gas compressibility factor, pV!mRT

'Y API = stock-tank ol gravity, API

'Y 8 = gas specific gravity

'Y O = stock-tank ol specific gravity

'YSPI = specific gravity of gas from primary separator

E = pseudocritical adjustment factor for acid-gas

content, R

8 = gas viscosity, cp

0 = ol viscosity, cp

P.oD = ol viscosity at 1-atm pressure and reservoir

temperature, cp

P.w = water viscosity, cp

P.wl = water viscosity at 1-atm pressure and reservoir

temperature, cp

p = density, g/cm3 in Eq. 38 or lbm/ft3

Po = ol density, lbmfft3

PoR = reservoir ol density at reservoir conditions,

lbmfft3

Ppr = pseudoreduced density

lbmfft3

Pw = water density, lbmfft3

facid

/c

Subscripts

acid

air

b

H2S

j

R

se

SP

SPl

SP2

ST

STO

+ H2S

= air

= at bubblepoint pressure at reservoir temperature

= hydrogen sulfide

= component j

= reservoir conditions

= standard conditions

= separator

= primary separator

= second-stage separator

= stock tank

= stock-tank ol

= C02

Acknowledgmenta

I am grateful to Core Laboratories Inc. and, in particular, to Phl

Moses for providing the data used to evaluate these correlations.

Also, 1 thank Cawley, Gillespie & Assocs. lnc. for permission to

publish this paper.

Reterencea

l. Moses, P.L.: "Enginccring Applications of Phase Behavior of Crude

Oil and Condensate Systems," JPT (July 1986) 715-23.

2. Schilthuis, R.J.: "Active Oil and Reservoir Energy," Trans., AIME

(1936) 118, 33-52.

3. Rollins, J.B., McCain, W.D. Jr., and Creeger, J.T.: "Estimation of

Solution GOR ofBlack Oils," JPT(Jan. 1990) 92-94; Trans., AIME,

289.

4. Standing, M.B.: Volumetricami Phase Behavior of Oil Fietd Hydrocarbon Systems, SPE, Richardson, TX (1977) 124.

5. McCain, W.D. Jr.: The Properties of Petroleum Fluids, second edition, PennWell Books, Tulsa (1989) 120, 175, 214, 318, 322, 513,

525-28.

6. Martin, J.C.: "Simplified Equations of Flow in Gas Orive Reservoirs

and the Theoretical Foundation of Multiphase Pressure Buildup Analyses," Trans., AIME (1959) 216, 309-11.

7. Vazquez, M. and Beggs, H.D.: "Correlations for Fluid Physical Property Prediction," JPT(June 1980) 968-70.

8. Vazquez, A.M.E.: "Correlation for Fluid Physical Prediction," MS

thesis, U. of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (1976).

9. McCain, W.D. Jr., Rollins, J.a:, and Villena, A.J.: "The Coefficient

oflsothermal Compressibility ofBlack Oils at Pressures Below the Bubblepoint," SPEFE (Sept. 1988) 659-62; Trans., AIME, 285.

10. Ng, J.T.H. and Egbogah, E.O.: "On Improved Temperature-Viscosity

Correlation for Crode Oil Systems," paper CIM 83-34-32 presented

at the 1983 Petroleum Soc. of CIM Annual Technical Meeting, Banff,

May 10-13.

11. Beggs, H.D. and Robinson, J.R.: "Estimating the Viscosity of Crode

Oil Systems," JPT (Sept. 1975) 1140-41.

12. Standing, M.B. and Katz, D.L.: "Density of Natural Gases," Trans.,

AIME (1942) 146, 140-49.

13. Takas, G.: "Comparisons Made for Computer z-Factor Calculations,"

Oil &: Gas J. (Dec. 20, 1976) 64-66.

14. Dranchuk, P.M. and Abou-Kassem, J .H.: "Calculations of z-Factors

for Natural Gases Using Equations of State," J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. (JulySept. 1975) 34-36.

15. Sutton, R.P.: "Compressibility Factors for High-Molecular-Weight

Reservoir Gases," paper SPE 14265 presented at the 1985 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Sept. 22-25.

16. Wichert, E. and Aziz, K.: "Calculate z's for Sour Gases," Hydrocarbon Processing (May 1972) 119-22.

17. Wichert, E. and Aziz, K.: "Compressibility Factor of Sour Natural

Gases," Cdn. J. Chem. Eng. (April 1971) 267-73.

18. Mattar, L., Brar, G.S., and Aziz, K.: "Compressibility of Natural

Gases," J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. (Oct.-Dec. 1975) 14, 77-80.

19. Lee, A.L., Gonzales, M.H., and Eakin, B.E.: "The Viscosity ofNatural

Gases," JPT (Aug. 1966) 997-1000; Trans., AIME (1966) 234.

20. Gold, D.K., McCain, W.D .. Jr., and Jennings, J.W.: "An Improved

Method for the Determination of the Reservoir-Gas Specific Gravity

for Retrograde Gases," JPT(July 1989) 747-52; Trans., AIME, 287.

21. Log Imerpretation Charts, Schlumberger Well Services, Houston ( 1986)

5.

271

Author

Wllllam D. McCaln Jr. Is an executlve

consultant wlth S.A. Holdltch & Assocs.

In College Statlon, TIC. He prevlouslywas

a petroleum englneer wlth Cawley,

Glllesple & Assocs. lnc. In Fort Worth

and taught petroleum englneerlng at

Texas A&M U. and Mlsslsslppl State U.

He holds a es degree from Mlsslsslppl

State U. and MS and PhD degrees from

Georgia lnst. of Technology. McCaln was

a member of the 1986-89 Career

Guldance Commlttee and the 1972-75

Textbook Commlttee. He was 1972 Mlsslsslppl Sectlon chalr

man and a member of the Educatlon and Accredltatloneom

mlttee from 1967 to 1971, chalrlng lt In 1970.

API

141.5/(131.5+API)

aun x 1.013 250* E+05

bbl X 1.589 873

E-01

F

(F-32)/1.8

psi X 6.894 757

E+OO

scf/bbl x 1.801 175

E-01

Converslon factor is exact.

g/cm '

Pa

m3

C

kPa

std m3/m3

SPERE

Original SPE manuscript received for review June 15, 1988. Paper (SPE 18571) accepted

for publlcation Feb. 22, 1989. Revised manuscript received March 17, 1989.

272

Hydrocarbon-WaterSystemsm-Solubility of Methane in Water at Pressures to 10,000 psia," Trans., AIME (1951) 192, 223-26.

23. McKetta, J.J. and Wehe, A.H.: "Hydrocarbon-Water and Formation

Water Correlations," Petroleum Production Handbook, T.C. Frick and,

R.W. Taylor (eds.), SPE, Richardson, TX (1962) n, 22-1-22-26.

24. Osif, T .L.: "The Effects of Salt, Gas, Temperature, and Pressure on

the Compressibility of Water," SPERE (Feb. 1988) 175-81.

25. Dodson, C.R. and Standing, M.B.: "Pressure, Volume, Temperature

and Solubility Relations for Natural Gas-Water Mixtures," Drill. &

Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (1944) 173-79.

26. Ramey, H.J. Jr.: "Rapid Methods for Estimating Reservoir Compressibilities," JPT (April 1964) 447-54; Trans., AIME, 231.

27. Matthews, C.S. and Russell, D.G.: Pressure Buildup and Flow Tests

in Wells, Monograph Series, SPE, Richardson, TX (1967) l.

28. Collins, A.G.: "Properties of Produced Waters," Petroleum Engineering Handbook, H.B. Bradley (ed.), SPE, Richardson, TX (1987) 24-17.

29. Bukacek, R.F.: "Equilibrium Moisture Contact ofNatural Gases," research bull. IGT, Chicago (1955) 8, 2,11.

30. Katz, D.L. et al.: Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering, McGrawHill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1959) 198-200.

31. Deaton, W .M. and Frost, E.M. Jr.: Gas Hydrates and Their Relation

to the Operation ofNatural Gas Pipelines, Monograph Series, USBM,

Washington, DC (1946) 8.

32. Kobayashi, R., Kyoo, Y.S., and Sloan, E.D.: "Phase Behavior of

Water/Hydrocarbon Systems," Petroleum Engineering Handbook, H.B.

Bradley (ed.), SPE, Richardson, TX (1987) 25-1-25-28.

33. Hammerschmidt, E.G.: "Formation of Gas Hydrates in Natural Gas

Transmission Lines," lnd. & Eng. Chem. (1934) 26, 851-55.

34. Scauzillo, F.R.: "Inhibiting Hydrate Formations in Hydrocarbon

Gases," Chem. Eng. Prog. (Aug. 1956) 52, 324-28.

Correlations-State of the Art

W.R. Hayworth, SPE, Divrsified Operating Corp.

In ''Reservoir-Fluid Property Correlations-State of the Art" (May

1991 SPERE, Pages 266-72), McCain states that "Black oils are

identified as having initial producing GOR's below 2,000 scf/STB

and deeply colored stock-tank oil with gravities below 45 API."

Unfortunately, defining reservoir fluid type by these parameters

alone can result in misinterpretation of the reservoir-tluid behavior.

For example, Field X, a Cretaceous "D" sand reservoir in the

Denver basin, has an initial stock-tank gravity of 40 API, an initial producing GOR of 600 scf/STB, and a reservoir temperature

of 230F. According to the author's classification of black oils,

this field would fall well within the black-oil designation. Reservoir performance, however, has shown that the fluid does not behave as a black oil.

During primary depletion, the producing GOR increased to more

than 13,000 scf/STB. Stock-tank oil gravity coincidentallyincreased

from 40 to 60 API.

Evidently, this reservoir does not fit black-oil assumptions. Blackoil material-balance calculations have proved unrealistic.

temperature or composition. For the example cited, reservoir temperature and a high concentration of intermediate components have

undoubtedly had a significant impact on reservoir-tluid behavior.

Earlier authors t ,2 considered reservoir temperature and compositions as important parameters in classifying reservoir fluid types.

Referenc

l. Craft, B.C. andHawkins, M.F.:AppliedPetroleumReservoirEngineering, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1959) 186.

2. Moses, P.L.: "Engineering Applications of Pbase Behavior of Crude

Oil and Condensate Systems," JPT (July 1986) 715-23.

API 141.5/(131.5+ API)

F (F ~32)/1.8

scf/bbl X 1.801 175

E-01

= g/cm3

C

std m3/m3

SPERE

(SPE 23583)

Property Correlations-State of the Art

Wllllam D. McCaln Jr., SPE, S.A. Holditch & Assocs. lnc.

Hayworth may have found an example reservoir fluid that does not

fit the "rules of thumb" for determining reservoir fluid type.1,2

However, he does not give the color of the stock-tank liquid. Stocktank oil color is the third rule of thumb and is useful in confirming

fluid type.

Composition was not considered because the paper- was written

to show how to usefield data to estimate reservoir-fluid properties

(see the first sentence of the Summary or the second sentence of

the Introduction). Extensive information in the use of field and

laboratory data to distinguish between black and volatile oils is

available elsewhere. 3

510

Referencea

l. Moses, P.L.: "Engineering Applications of Phase Behavior of Crude

Oil and Condensate Systems," JPT (July 1986) 715-23.

2. McCain, W.D. Jr.: "Reservoir-Fluid Property Correlations-State of

the Art," SPERE (May 1991) 266-72.

3. McCain, W .D. Jr.: Te Properties of Petroleum Fluids, second edition,

PennWell Books, Tulsa (1989) 149-53.

(SPE 23594)

SPERE

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