A Sµe¢I I I evs GuI de

Hot-di p Gal vani zi ng for
Corrosi on Protecti on
A Sµe ¢ I I I e v s GuI de
Hot -Di p Gal vani zi ng f or Cor r osi on Pr ot ect i on
C o n t e n t s
Cor r osi on: What & Why ………………………………………………………………. . . 1
CorrosionConcerns
Metal&AlloyCorrosion
TheCorrosionProcess
GalvanicCorrosion
CorrosionofSteel
Hot -Di p Gal vani zi ng f or Cor r osi on Pr ot ect i on . . . …………………………………. . 3
HistoryofGalvanizing
Iron&SteelProtectionMethods
GalvanizingProcess
SurfacePreparation
Galvanizing
Inspection
TheMetallurgicalBond
CoatingThickness
Desi gn of Pr oduct s f or Gal vani zi ng …………………………………………………. 7
Sizes,Shapes,&Dimensions
MechanicalProperties
OtherDesignConsiderations
Welding
Bolting
PaintingGalvanizedSteel
EnvironmentalCompliance
Economi cs of Gal vani zi ng . . . . . …………………………………………………………. 10
EconomicAnalysis
InitialCost
Life-cycleCost
Cost-Per-Square-Foot-Per-YearValueTheory
Galvanizing’sAdvantages:aCapitalizedExpenditure
CostFactorsAssociatedwithOtherCorrosionControlMethods
Galvanizingvs.Painting
Cor r osi on Resi st ance of Gal vani zed Coat i ngs . . . …………………………………. . 11
AtmosphericConditions
Chemical&LiquidEnvironments,SolutionpH
FreshWater
SeaWater
Soils
Concrete
OtherMetals
Pr act i cal Uses of Gal vani zed St eel ... . . . …………………………………. . …………. 18
Bridges&Highways
PowerGeneration
Transportation
Water&WasteWaterTreatment
Buildings
Agriculture&FoodProcessing
Petrochemical&Chemical
Pulp&Paper
OriginalEquipmentManufacturing
©2006AmericanGalvanizersAssociation.Thematerialprovidedhereinhasbeendevelopedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationaboutafter-
fabricationhot-dipgalvanizedsteel.Thismaterialprovidesinformationonlyandisnotintendedasasubstituteforcompetentprofessionalexamination
and verifcation as to suitability and applicability. The information provided herein is not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of the AGA.
Anyonemakinguseofthisinformationassumesallliabilityarisingfromsuchuse.
1
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What is corrosion? Many people give the simple
answer“corrosionisrust.”However,scientistswho
study corrosion could answer in terms of complex
chemicalandphysicalprocesses,whileeconomists
mightsumupcorrosionindollars.
Corrosi on Concerns
According to “Corrosion Costs and Preventive
Strategies in the United States,” a study conducted
by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers
(NACE) in 2001, direct corrosion costs total
approximately $276 billion a year. A break down
of the corrosion cost in fve different sectors of the
nation’seconomyaredisplayedinTable 1.Thedirect
costofcorrosionisonlyhalfofthepicture.Toreally
understandthecostofcorrosion,onemustconsiderthe
indirectcosts(e.g.lostproductivity,taxes,overhead),
which at a minimum doubles the cost. Although
corrosion is a naturally occurring phenomenon and
canneverbecompletelyeliminated,thereisacommon
misconception that nothing can be done. However,
corrosioncanbecontrolledifcorrosionmanagement
practicesareemployed.Itisestimatedthat25-30%of
annualcorrosioncostscouldbeeliminatedifcorrosion
managementpracticeswereinplace.
Metal and Al l oy Corrosi on
In order to understand how galvanizing protects
steel from corrosion, it is important to frst understand
corrosion. Metal corrosion generally is defned as
theundesirabledeteriorationofametaloranalloy.
In other words, corrosion is an interaction of the
metal with its environment that adversely affects
thepropertiesofthemetal.Throughoutthisguide,
a more complete defnition will evolve including
specifc types and causes of corrosion.
Gal vani c Corrosi on
Metals are rarely found in their pure state, but
are almost always found in chemical combination
with one or more nonmetallic elements. Signifcant
energymustbeappliedtoreducetheoretoapure
metal.Thisenergycanbeappliedviametallurgical
orchemicalmeans.Additionalenergyalsomaybe
applied in the form of cold working or casting to
transform the pure metal into a working shape.
Corrosioncanbeviewedasthetendencyforametal
produced and shaped as a result of substantial
energyinputtoreverttoitsnatural,lowerenergy
state. From a thermodynamic perspective, the
tendencytodecreaseinenergyisthemaindriving
forceforthecorrosionofmetals.
Corrosionofmetalsisanelectrochemicalprocess,
meaningitinvolvesbothchemicalreactionsandthe
fow of electrons. A basic electrochemical reaction
thatdrivesthecorrosionofmetalsisgalvanicaction.
Inagalvaniccell,currentisgeneratedinternallyby
physical and chemical reactions occurring among
thecomponentsofthecell.
The Corrosi on Process
There are two primary types of galvanic cells
thatcausecorrosion:thebimetalliccoupleandthe
concentrationcell.Abimetalliccouple(Figure 1)is
like a battery, consisting of two dissimilar metals
immersed in an electrolyte solution. An electric
current (fow of electrons) is generated when the two
electrodesareconnectedbyanexternalcontinuous
metallic path. A concentration cell consists of an
anodeandcathodeofthesamemetaloralloyand
a return current path. The electromotive force is
provided by a difference in concentration of the
solutionscontactingthemetal(s).Inagalvaniccell,
Cor r os i on : Wh a t a n d Wh y
Industvy Se¢tov
Annuu! ÐIve¢t
CovvosIon Costs
Infrastructure $22.6
Utilities $47.9
Transportation $29.7
Production&Manufacturing $17.6
Government $20.1
BI!!Ions oI Cuvvent Ðo!!uvs
Source:2001NACEStudy“CorrosionCostsandPreventative
StrategiesintheUnitedStates.”
Table 1: Annual Direct Corrosion Costs
Figure 1: Bimetallic Couple
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there are four elements necessary for corrosion to
occur:
Anode - An anode is an electrode at which
negative ions are discharged and positive ions
are formed, or other oxidizing reactions occur.
Corrosionoccursattheanode.
Cathode - A cathode is an electrode at which
positive ions are discharged, negative ions are
formed, or other reducting reactions occur. The
cathodeisprotectedfromcorrosion.
Electrolyte-Anelectrolyteisaconductingmedium
in which the fow of current is accompanied by
movementofmatter.Electrolytesincludewater
solutionsofacids,bases,andsalts.
Return Current Path -Thereturncurrentpathis
themetallicpathwayconnectingtheanodetothe
cathode.Itisoftentheunderlying,substrate.
Removing any one of these elements will stop
the current fow and corrosion will not occur.
Substituting a different metal for the anode or
cathode may cause the direction of the current
to reverse, resulting in a change of the electrode
experiencingcorrosion.
The galvanic series lists metals and alloys in
decreasing order of electrical activity (Figure 2).
Metals toward the top of the list are “less noble”
metalsandhaveagreatertendencytoloseelectrons
thanmetalsfoundloweronthelist.
Corrosi on of Steel
The actual corrosion process that takes place on
apieceofbaresteelisverycomplexduetofactors
such as variations in the composition/structure of
thesteel,presenceofimpuritiesduetothehigher
instanceofrecycledsteel,uneveninternalstress,or
exposuretoanon-uniformenvironment.
Itiseasyformicroscopicareasoftheexposedmetalto
becomerelativelyanodicorcathodic.Alargenumberof
suchareascandevelopinasmallsectionoftheexposed
metal. Further, it is highly possible several different
typesofgalvaniccorrosioncellsarepresentinthesame
smallareaoftheactivelycorrodingpieceofsteel.
Asthecorrosionprocessprogresses,theelectrolyte
may change due to materials dissolving in or
precipitatingfromthesolution.Additionally,corrosion
productsmighttendtobuilduponcertainareasofthe
metal.Astimegoesby,theremaybeachangeinthe
locationofcathodicandanodicareasandpreviously
uncorroded areas
of the metal are
attackedandcorrode
(Figure 3).
The corrosion
rate of metals is
controlledbyfactors
suchastemperature,
humidity, pH of the
electrolyte, and the
electrical potential
and resistance of
anodic and cathodic
areas.
Figure 2: Arrangement of Metals in the Galvanic Series
Figure 3: Changes in cathodic and anodic areas
Cathodic protections can
occur when two metals are
electrically connected. Any
one of these metals and
alloys will theoretically
corrode while offering
protection to any other that
is lower in the series, so
long as both are electrically
connected.
However, in actual
practice, zinc is by far the
most effective in this
respect.
CORRODED END
Anodic or less noble
(ELECTRONEGATIVE)
Magnesium
Zinc
Aluminum
Steel
Lead
Tin
Nickel
Brass
Bronzes
Copper
Stainless Steel (passive)
Silver
Gold
Platinum
PROTECTED END
Cathodic or more noble
(ELECTROPOSITIVE)
C
A
C
C
A
A
A
C
A
A
C
C
C
A
C
C
A
A
Mosaic of anodes and cathodes,
electrically connected by the
underlying steel.
Moisture in the air provides the
electrical path between anodes
and cathodes. Due to differences
in potential, electric current
begins to flow as the anodic areas
are consumed. Iron ions
produced at the anode combine
with the environment to form the
flaky iron oxide known as rust.
As anodic areas corrode, new
material of different composition
and structure is exposed. This
results in a change of electrical
potentials and changes the
location of anodic and cathodic
sites. Over time, previously
uncorroded areas are attacked
and uniform surface corrosion
results. This continues until the
steel is entirely consumed.
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Hot-dip galvanizing is the process of applying a
zinccoatingtofabricatedironorsteelmaterialby
immersingthematerialinabathofliquidzinc.
The process is inherently simple, and this
simplicity is a distinct advantage over other
corrosion protection methods. The process is
describedinmoredetaillaterinthisguide.
Hi story of Gal vani zi ng
The recorded history of galvanizing dates back
to 1742 when a French chemist named Melouin,
in a presentation to the French Royal Academy,
describedamethodofcoatingironbydippingitin
liquidzinc.In1836,Sorel,anotherFrenchchemist,
obtainedapatentforameansofcoatingironwith
zinc after frst cleaning it with 9% sulfuric acid and
fuxing it with ammonium chloride. A British patent
forasimilarprocesswasgrantedin1837.By1850,
theBritishgalvanizingindustrywasusing10,000
tonsofzincayearfortheprotectionofsteel.
Galvanizing is found in almost every major
application and industry where iron or steel is
used. The utilities, chemical process, pulp and
paper, automotive, and transportation industries
historicallyhavemadeextensiveuseofgalvanizing
forcorrosioncontrol,andcontinuetodosotoday.
Forover150years,galvanizinghashadaproven
historyofcommercialsuccessasamethodofcorrosion
protectioninamyriadofapplicationsworldwide.
I ron and Steel Protecti on Methods
Barrierprotectionisperhapstheoldestandmost
widely used method of corrosion protection. The
“barrier” isolates the metal from the electrolytes
in the environment. Two important properties of
barrier protection are adhesion to the
base metal and abrasion resistance.
Paint is one example of a barrier
protectionsystem.
Cathodic protection is an equally
important method for preventing
corrosion.Cathodicprotectionrequires
changing an element of the corrosion
circuit, introducing a new corrosion
element, and ensuring the base metal
becomes the cathodic element of the
circuit. Hot-dip galvanizing provides
excellent barrier protection as well as
cathodicprotection.
There are two major variations of the cathodic
method of corrosion protection: impressed current
and sacrifcial anode. In the impressed current
method an external current source is used to
impressacathodicchargeonalltheironorsteelto
beprotected.Whilesuchsystemsgenerallydonot
use a great deal of electricity, they are often very
expensivetoinstall.
The sacrifcial anode method requires placing a
metal or alloy anodic to the metal to be protected
in the circuit, which will then become the anode.
Theprotectedmetalbecomesthecathodeanddoes
notcorrode.Theanodecorrodes,therebyproviding
the desired sacrifcial protection. In nearly all
electrolytes encountered in everyday use, zinc
is anodic to iron and steel. Thus, the galvanized
coating provides cathodic corrosion protection as
wellasbarrierprotection.
Gal vani zi ng Process
The galvanizing process consists of three basic
elements: surface preparation, galvanizing, and
inspection(Figure 4,nextpage).
Surface Preparat i on
Surface preparation is the most important step
intheapplicationofanycoating.Inmostinstances
whereacoatingfailsbeforetheendofitsexpected
servicelife,itisbecauseofincorrectorinadequate
surfacepreparation.
The surface preparation step in the galvanizing
process has its own built-in means of quality
control because zinc simply will not react with
a steel surface that is not perfectly clean. Any
failures or inadequacies in surface preparation
will be immediately apparent when the steel is
withdrawn from the liquid zinc
because the unclean areas will
remain uncoated, and thus can
becorrected.
On-site painting or other feld-
applied systems of corrosion
protection may involve the use
of different subcontractors and/
or work groups to prepare the
surface and apply the coating.
Thiscanresultinproblemswith
coordinating activities, leading
to costly and time-consuming
delays, errors, and disputes
Hot - Di p Ga l v a n i z i n g f or Cor r os i on Pr ot e c t i on
Withdrawal from Galvanizing Bath
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concerning responsibility and fnancial liability.
Onceajobhasbeendeliveredandacceptedatthe
galvanizer’splant,thereisonepointofresponsibility
forensuringthematerialleavestheplantproperly
galvanized—thegalvanizer.
Surface preparation for galvanizing typically
consists of three steps: caustic cleaning, acid
pickling, and fuxing.
Degreasing -Ahotalkalisolutionisoftenusedto
removeorganiccontaminantssuchasdirt,paint
markings,grease,andoilfromthemetalsurface.
Epoxies,vinyls,asphalt,orweldingslagmustbe
removedbeforegalvanizingbygritblasting,sand
blasting,orothermechanicalmeans.
Pickling - Scale and rust normally are removed
from the steel surface by pickling in a dilute
solutionofhotsulfuricacidorambienttemperature
hydrochloricacid.
Surface preparation also can be accomplished
using abrasive cleaning as an alternative to or
in conjunction with chemical cleaning. Abrasive
cleaningisaprocesswherebysand,metallicshot,
or grit is propelled against the steel material by
airblastsorrapidlyrotatingwheels.
Fluxing - Fluxing is the fnal surface preparation
stepinthegalvanizingprocess.Fluxingremoves
oxidesandpreventsfurtheroxidesfromforming
on the surface of the metal prior to galvanizing
and promotes bonding of the zinc to the steel or
ironsurface.
Steelorironmaterialsaredippedinanaqueous
solutionofzincammoniumchloridetoapplythe
fux layer. The material is then thoroughly dried
priortoimmersioninliquidzinc.
Gal vani zi ng
Duringthe“galvanizing”process,thematerialis
completely immersed in a bath consisting of a
minimumof98%pureliquidzinc.Thebathchemistry
is specifed by ASTM International in Specifcation
B6.Thebathtemperatureismaintainedatabout
840F(449C).
Fabricated items are immersed in the bath long
enoughtoreachbathtemperature.Thearticlesare
withdrawn slowly from the galvanizing bath and
the excess zinc is removed by draining, vibrating,
and/orcentrifuging.
The chemical reactions that result in the
formation and structure of the galvanized coating
continueafterthesteeliswithdrawnfromthebath
as long as the steel is near the bath temperature.
The articles are cooled in either water or ambient
airimmediatelyafterwithdrawalfromthebath.
I nspect i on
The two properties of the hot-dip galvanized
coating closely scrutinized after galvanizing are
coating thickness and coating appearance. A
varietyofsimplephysicalandlaboratorytestsmay
be performed to determine thickness, uniformity,
adherence,andappearance.
Products are galvanized according to long-
established,well-accepted,andapprovedstandards
of ASTM, the International Standards Organization
(ISO), the Canadian Standards Association (CSA),
and the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Offcials (AASHTO). These
standards cover everything from the minimum
requiredcoatingthicknessesforvariousgalvanized
itemstothecompositionofthezincmetalusedin
theprocess.
Testing methods and interpretation of results
are covered in the publication, The Inspection of
Products Hot-Dip Galvanized After Fabrication,
Figure 4: Batch Hot-Dip Galvanizing Process
Pickling
Rinsing
Rinsing
Flux
solution
Degreasing
Drying
Zinc
bath
Cooling and
inspection
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published by the American Galvanizers
Association (AGA). This publication, as well as
all others referenced in this guide, can be found
in the literature section of the AGA website
(www.galvanizeit.org).
The Metal l urgi cal Bond
Galvanizingformsametallurgicalbondbetween
thezincandtheunderlyingsteeloriron,creating
a barrier that is part of the metal itself. During
galvanizing,theliquidzincreactswiththesurface
ofthesteelorironarticletoformaseriesofzinc-
iron alloy layers. Figure 5 is a photomicrograph
of a galvanized steel coating’s cross-section and
shows a typical coating microstructure consisting
of three alloy layers and a layer of pure metallic
zinc. Moving from the underlying steel surface
outward,theseare:
•ThethinGammalayercomposedofanalloy
thatis75%zincand25%iron,
•TheDeltalayercomposedofanalloythatis
90%zincand10%iron,
•TheZetalayercomposedofanalloythatis
94%zincand6%iron,and
• TheouterEtalayerthatiscomposedofpure
zinc.
Below the name of each layer in Figure 5, its
respective hardness, expressed by a Diamond
Pyramid Number (DPN) appears. The DPN is a
progressive measure of hardness (i.e., the higher
the number the greater the hardness). Typically,
theGamma,Delta,andZetalayersareharderthan
theunderlyingsteel.Thehardnessoftheseinner
layers provides exceptional protection against
coating damage through abrasion. The Eta layer
ofthegalvanizedcoatingisquiteductile,providing
someresistancetoimpact.
The galvanized coating is
adherent to the underlying
steel on the order of several
thousand pounds per square
inch (psi). Other coatings
typically offer adhesion rated
atseveralhundredpsi.
Hardness, ductility, and
adherence combine to provide
the galvanized coating with
unmatched protection against
damage caused by rough
handlingduringtransportation
toand/oratthejobsite,aswell
asinservice.Thetoughnessofthegalvanizedcoating
is extremely important since barrier protection is
dependentupontheintegrityofthecoating.
Othercoatingsdamageeasilyduringshipmentor
throughroughhandlingonthejobsite.Expertswill
argueallorganicformsofbarrierprotection(such
as paint) by their nature are permeable to some
degree.Galvanizedcoatingsareimpermeable.
If the galvanized coating is physically damaged,
it will continue to provide cathodic protection to
the exposed steel. If individual areas of underlying
steel or iron become exposed as much as 1/4 inch,
the surrounding zinc will provide these areas with
cathodicprotectionforaslongasthecoatinglasts.
Figure 6 (next page) shows how corrosion will
beginandimmediatelyprogressatascratchorgap
inapaintcoating.Figure 7(nextpage)showshow
corrosionwillbepreventedatascratchorgapina
zinccoating.
The galvanizing process naturally produces
coatingsthatareatleastasthickatthecornersand
edgesasthecoatingontherestofthesubstrate.As
coatingdamageismostlikelytooccurattheedges,
this is where added protection is needed most.
Brush or spray applied coatings have a natural
tendencytothinatthecornersandedges.Figure 8
isaphotomicrographshowingacross-sectionofan
edgeofagalvanizedpieceofsteel.
Because the galvanizing process involves total
immersionofthematerial,itisacompleteprocess;
all surfaces are coated, including recesses and
hard to reach corners. Galvanizing provides both
outsideandinsideprotectionforhollowstructures.
Hollow structures that are only painted have no
corrosionprotectionontheinside.
Figure 5: Photomicrograph of a galvanized coating
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Theinspectionprocessforgalvanizeditems
issimple,fast,andrequiresminimallabor.
Conversely,theinspectionprocessrequired
to assure the quality of many coatings
applied by brush and spray is highly labor
intensiveandusesexpensive,skilledlabor.
Galvanizing continues at the factory
under any weather or humidity conditions.
Most brush and spray applied coatings are
dependent upon proper weather/humidity
conditions for correct application. This
dependence on atmospheric conditions often
translatesintocostlyconstructiondelays.
The galvanizer’s ability to work in any
type of weather allows a higher degree of
assurance of on-time delivery. Working
underthesecircumstances,galvanizingcan
be completed quickly and with short lead
times. A turnaround time of two or three
daysiscommonforgalvanizing.
Coati ng Thi ckness
ASTM, ISO, CSA, and AASHTO
specifcations establish minimum standards
for thickness of galvanized coatings on
various categories of items. These minimum
standards are routinely exceeded by galvanizers
duetothenatureofthegalvanizingprocess.Factors
infuencing the thickness and appearance of the
galvanized coating include chemical composition
ofthesteel,steelsurfacecondition,coldworkingof
steel prior to galvanizing, bath temperature, bath
immersion time, bath withdrawal rate, and steel
coolingrate.
The chemical composition of the steel being
galvanized is perhaps the most important. The
amount of silicon and phosphorus in the steel
strongly infuences the thickness and appearance
ofthegalvanizedcoating.Silicon,phosphorous,or
combinationsofthetwoelementscancausethick,
brittle galvanized coatings. The coating thickness
curve shown in Figure 9, (next page) relates the
effectofsiliconinthebasesteeltothethicknessof
thezinccoating.Thecarbon,sulfur,andmanganese
contentofthesteelalsomayhaveaminoreffecton
thegalvanizedcoatingthickness.
The combination of elements mentioned above,
known as “reactive steel” to the galvanizing
industry, tends to accelerate the growth of zinc-
iron alloy layers. This may result in a fnished
galvanized coating consisting entirely of zinc-iron
alloy.Insteadofashinyappearance,thegalvanized
coating will have a dark gray, matte fnish. This
dark gray, matte coating will provide as much
corrosionprotectionasagalvanizedcoatinghaving
abrightappearance.
It is diffcult to provide precise guidance in the
area of steel selection without qualifying all of
the grades of steel commercially available. The
guidelines discussed below usually result in the
selection of steels that provide good galvanized
coatings.
Figure 6: Rust undercuts scratched paint
Figure 7: Zinc protects base steel even when scratched
PAINT ON STEEL
This is what happens at a
scratch on painted steel.
The exposed steel corrodes
and forms a pocket of rust.
Because rust is much more
voluminous than steel, the
pocket swells. This lifts the
paint film from the metal
surface to form a blister.
Both the corrosion pit and
the blister continue to
grow.
GALVANIZED STEEL
ZINC COATING (ANODE)
STEEL BASE (CATHODE)
EXPOSED STEEL
IS PROTECTED
This is what happens
at a scratch on
galvanized steel. The
zinc coating sarifices
itself slowly by
galvanic action to
protect the base steel.
This sacrificial action
continues as long as
any zinc remains in the
immediate area.
Figure 8: Coating thickness consistent on corners
?
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•Levelsofcarbonlessthan0.25%,phosphorus
lessthan0.04%,ormanganeselessthan1.35%
are benefcial
•Siliconlevelslessthan0.04%orbetween0.15%
and0.22%aredesirable.
Siliconmaybepresentinmanysteelscommonly
galvanized even though it is not a part of the
controlled composition of the steel. This occurs
primarilybecausesiliconisusedinthedeoxidation
processforthesteel.
Thephosphoruscontentshouldneverbegreater
than 0.04% in steel intended for galvanizing.
Phosphorusactsasacatalystduringgalvanizing,
resulting in rapid growth of the zinc-iron alloy
layers.
Because the galvanizing reaction is a diffusion
process,higherzincbathtemperaturesandlonger
immersiontimesgenerallywillproducesomewhat
heavier alloy layers. Like all diffusion processes,
the reaction proceeds rapidly at frst and then slows
as layers grow and become thicker. Continued
immersion beyond a certain time will have little
effectonfurthercoatinggrowth.Whengalvanizing
reactive steels, the diffusion process signifcantly
changes.
The thickness of the outer pure zinc layer is
largelydependentupontherateofwithdrawalfrom
thezincbath.Arapidrateofwithdrawalcausesan
articletocarryoutmorezincandgenerallyresults
inathickercoating.
ASTM, CSA, and AASHTO specifcations and
inspection standards for galvanizing recognize
thatvariationsoccurinbothcoatingthicknessand
compositions. Thickness specifcations are stated in
averageterms.Further,coatingthicknessmeasures
mustbetakenatseveralpointsoneachinspected
article to comply with ASTM A 123/A 123M for
structuralsteelandA153/A153Mforhardware.
Figure 9: Effect of silicon on coating thickness
250
200
150
100
50
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
% Silicon in the Steel
Z
i
n
c

T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s


(
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
)
COATING THICKNESS CURVE
De s i gn of Pr odu c t s f or Ga l v a n i z i n g
Corrosionpreventionmustbeginonthedrawing
board.Thisistrueregardlessofthesystemselected.
Specifying galvanizing as the means of corrosion
prevention for a particular product has minimal
design limitations. Certain practices should be
followed in designing structures for effective and
safegalvanizing.Thesepracticesareeasilyapplied
and in most cases are routine methods used to
ensuremaximumcorrosionprotection.
Mostferrousmaterialsaresuitableforgalvanizing.
Theseincludecastiron,malleableiron,caststeels,
hot rolled steels, and cold rolled steels, structural
steelshapes(includingthoseofhighstrength),and
lowalloymaterials.Materialwithatensilestrength
greater than 150ksi (1034mpu) is susceptible to
hydrogenembrittlementinthestandardgalvanizing
process.Theembrittlementproblemcanbehandled
byspecialcleaningifthereispriorknowledgeofthis
property.Materialwithatensilestrengthof150ksi
orlessmaybehot-dipgalvanizedafterfabrication
toobtainthelonglastingprotectionaffordedbythe
zinccoating.
The most satisfactory way to ensure the safe,
effective, and economical galvanizing of articles
is for the designer, fabricator, and galvanizer to
worktogetherbeforetheproductismanufactured.
For more information, please refer to the AGA
publication The Design of Products to be Hot-
Dip Galvanized After Fabrication. In addition to
covering the essential considerations for proper
design and providing specifc technical specifcations
and details, illustrations demonstrate both proper
andimproperdesignpractices.Thesepracticesare
alsodescribedinASTMA143,A384,andA385.
Si zes, Shapes, and Di mensi ons
Iron and steel pieces specifed for galvanizing after
fabricationrangefromsmallpiecesofhardwareto
B
A me r i c a n G a l v a n i z e r s A s s o c i a t i o n  www. g a l v a n i z e i t . o r g
largeweldedsteelassembliesorcastingsweighing
severaltons.Galvanizingkettlesupto40-feetlong
are available in most areas, and it is common to fnd
kettles approaching 60 feet. Through progressive
dipping (sometimes called “double-dipping” – for
products too deep or too long to ft into the kettle), it
ispossibleforthegalvanizertoprocessarticlesthat
exceed kettle dimensions. If you have questions
about a product’s galvanizability, contact your
galvanizerortheAGA.
Mechani cal Properti es
AccordingtostudiesbytheBNFMetalsTechnology
CentreintheUnitedKingdom(aswellasnumerous
other national and international studies), hot-dip
galvanizing produces no signifcant changes in
the mechanical properties of the structural steels
or welds commonly used throughout the world.
The galvanized substrate steel is chemically and
metallurgicallyequivalenttotheuncoatedsteel.
Other Desi gn Consi derati ons
Galvanizingrequirescleaningsolutionsandliquid
zinc fow into, over, through, and out of fabricated
articles. Designs that promote the fow of zinc are
optimal.
Fillingandventholesmustbeprovidedtoprevent
pickling or other cleaning bath fuids from becoming
trappedinthepiece.Itisbesttoavoidnarrowgaps
betweenplates,overlappingsurfaces,andback-to-
back angles and channels. When overlapping or
contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, all edges
shouldbecompletelysealedbyweldingbutprovided
withasmallholeorashortgapintheweldingto
relievepressurebuild-upinoverlappingareasthat
exceed12squareinches.SeetheAGA’spublication
Recommended Details for Galvanized Structures
formoreinformationonthistopic.
Wel di ng
When welded items are galvanized, both the
cleanliness of the weld area after welding and
the metallic composition of the weld itself affect
galvanizingqualityandappearance.Somewelding
techniquesthatleadtogoodresultsinclude:
•Useofanuncoatedelectrodewherepossible,
• Thorough removal of all welding fux residues
ifacoatedelectrodeisused,
•Producinglittleornoslag,
•Useofasubmergedarcmethodforheavy
weldments,
•Selectionofweldingrodsprovidingadeposited
weldcomposedofthesamematerialsasthe
parentmetal,and
•Avoidingweldingrodshighinsilicon.
Galvanized materials may be welded easily and
satisfactorily by all common welding techniques.
The American Welding Society (AWS, www.aws.
org) has produced a book detailing all aspects of
weldinggalvanizeditems.Ingeneral,anythingthat
can be welded before galvanizing can be welded
with relative ease after galvanizing. A copy of the
AWS recommended welding practices is available
fromtheAGAoryourlocalgalvanizer.
Bol ti ng
Hot-dip galvanizing is a well established and
widely used process for coating mechanical
fastenersandweldedjoints.Theprimemechanical
fasteners used for making feld
connectionsinsteelareboltsthatconform
toASTMA307,A325,andA394andare
galvanized in accordance with ASTM A
153/A 153M and CSA standards. Bolted
galvanized structural joints can be
designed for both bearing- and friction-
typeconnections.Galvanizedjointsofthis
type have an outstanding performance
history.
Figure 10isarepresentativechartforbolt
tension of galvanized versus black bolts.
A lubricated galvanized bolt can develop
greater joint tension than a black bolt.
For more information, refer to the AGA
publicationBolted Galvanized Structural
Joints.Itprovidesadditionalinformation
GALVANIZED BEESWAX ON NUT
BLACK AS RECEIVED GALVANIZED AS RECEIVED
SPECIFIED MINIMUM BOLT TENSION
kN (kips)
222.5 (50)
178.0 (40)
133.5 (30)
89.0 (20)
44.5 (10)
0 1.05 2.09 3.14 4.19 5.24 6.28 7.33 8.38
(60) (120) (180) (240) (300) (380) (420) (480)
1
/
2
T
U
R
N
19 x 76mm
3/4" x 3" BOLTS
Nut Rotation From Snug, Radians (Degrees)
B
o
l
t

T
e
n
s
i
o
n
Figure 10: Bolt tension chart
9
A me r i c a n G a l v a n i z e r s A s s o c i a t i o n  www. g a l v a n i z e i t . o r g
on the characteristics and advantages of bolted
galvanizedstructuresandboltingprocedures.
Pai nti ng Gal vani zed Steel
Galvanized articles are easily and successfully
painted.Thetwofactorscriticaltosuccessareproper
post-galvanizing surface preparation and proper
paintsystemselection.Galvanizedsteelispainted
foranumberofreasons:aesthetics,safetymarking,
and the desire for even longer lasting protection.
Galvanizers must be notifed if galvanized steel
is to be subsequently painted so they can avoid
applyingapostgalvanizingtreatmentthataffects
paintadhesion.
A corrosion protection system consisting simply
of galvanizing provides long-term, cost-effective
corrosion protection. Often the expected service
life of the galvanized coating actually exceeds the
design life of the structure it protects. However,
a duplex system, (paint over galvanizing), greatly
extendstheperiodeffectivecorrosionprotectionis
provided.Ausefulruleofthumbisaduplexsystem
will provide corrosion protection for 1.5 times the
sum of the service lives of the individual systems.
For example, if the life of the galvanized coating
in a particular environment is 35 years and the
expectedservicelifeofthepaintsystemis10years,
the expected service life of the duplex system will
be67.5years[i.e.,1.5x(35+10)].Whilesuchduplex
systems often have a premium frst cost, they are
usually the lowest life-cycle cost solution. They
may be the only feasible solution for structures
in aggressive environments where later in-service
painting is extremely diffcult or impossible.
The synergy of duplex systems in
corrosion protection stems from three
knownfactors:
• The paint flm extends the life of
the galvanized coating by providing
additional barrier protection to the
zinclayers,
•An underlying layer of zinc tends to
prolong the life of a paint coating by
preventing an underlying layer of
corrosionfromdeveloping,and
•Thecorrosionproductsofzincandits
alloys further retard paint coating
damagebysealingcracksandporesin
paint flms.
Some galvanizers do have facilities to
shop-applypaintcoatingsaftergalvanizing.
The specifer should check with the galvanizer to
determineifthesefacilitiesareavailable.Whenthe
designlifeofafabricateditemexceedstheservice
life of the galvanized coating without a duplex
system, the initial galvanized coating can provide
subsequentcorrosionprotectionbyaddingabrush
orsprayappliedpaintsystem.Whenapaint-based
corrosionprotectionsystemonbaresteelreachesthe
endofitsservicelife,abrasiveblastingorgrinding
backtowhitesteelisfrequentlynecessaryinorder
to repaint. Preparation of a previously galvanized
surfaceforaproperlyselectedpaint-based system
ofcorrosionprotectionisnormallymuchsimpler.
TwoAGApublicationsgivemoreinformationon
duplex systems; Duplex Systems: Painting Over
Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel, and Practical Guide for
Preparing Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel for Painting.
In addition to providing a wealth of technical
details and a discussion of the suitability of a
numberofdifferenttypesofpaintsforapplication
after galvanizing, these publications also present
a number of specifc applications and color
photographsofduplexsystems.
Envi ronmental Compl i ance
United States Environmental Protection
Agency(EPA),inadditiontomanystateandlocal
environmentalprotectionagencies,hasestablished
restrictions governing volatile organic compounds
(VOCs). Many brush and spray applied corrosion
protection systems contain VOCs and are thus
subject to this regulation. The galvanized coating
contains no VOCs and is compliant with these
regulations.
Example of a duplex system (painting over galvanized steel)
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E c on omi c s of Ga l v a n i z i n g
Economi cal Anal ysi s
Any exposed steel must be protected to ensure
an effective service life. The cost of corrosion
protection for a structure will range from 0.5% to
5% of the cost of the project. In exceptional cases,
where a large area of lightweight steel is exposed
tocorrosiveattack,thecorrosionprotectionsystem
may represent a much more signifcant part of the
projectbudget.
Fi rst Cost
Looking at the two primary corrosion protection
systems, galvanizing and paint, it is necessary to
defne the specifcations for each so a reasonable
costcomparisoncanbeconducted.Thegalvanized
material normally would be specifed to ASTM A 123/
A123M.Thiscallsforaminimumcoatingthickness
of2.3ouncesofzincpersquarefootofsteelsurface.
Basedona2006surveyofgalvanizersnationwide,
the cost of the galvanizing component package in
the fabricated steel price is approximately $240 -
$440perton,dependinguponsize,geographicarea,
and type of project. Assuming a 20% markup by
thefabricator,thecosttoacontractorwouldrange
from$288-$528perton.
A high-performance paint system frequently
specifed in competition with galvanizing consists
of an inorganic zinc primer, a high-build epoxy
intermediate coat, and a polyurethane topcoat. To
function properly, this high-performance system
must be applied over a steel surface blasted to a
Society for Protective Coatings (SSPC) Specifcation
ofatleastSP10.Usingthe2006coatingseconomics
survey published by the National Association of
Corrosion Engineers (NACE) as a baseline for the
estimated cost for shop application, costs for this
paintsystemareapproximately$874perton.
These numbers indicate galvanizing is far
more economical than the paint system it is often
comparedto.Remarkably,evenmorecostssavings
arerealizedwhenthetotalprojectcost,orlife-cycle
costarecompared.
Li fe-Cycl e Cost
Basedonamoderateexposuretocorrosiveelements,
the galvanized system will have a projected life (to
5% surface rust) in excess of 75 years. The paint
system,basedonthesameNACEreport,willrequire
repainting in approximately 21 years. Therefore,
when designing a structure with an anticipated
lifeof40-50years,futurerepaintingcostsmustbe
addedtothetotalcorrosionprotectioncosts.
Maintenance painting consumes a signifcant and
escalating portion of operating and maintenance
budgets. As more focus is placed on controlling
maintenance costs, a reliable, low-maintenance
corrosion protection system can be estimated by
usingcommonlyacceptedeconomicformulas.
Cost-Per-Square-Foot-Per-Year Val ue Theory
The current method for evaluating any coating
systemistodetermineitscostindollarspersquare
footperyearoverthelifeofthestructure.Concern
withthecostofcorrosionprotectionpersquarefoot
of steel has attracted signifcant attention among
specifers, engineers, and corrosion consultants.
The cost-per-square-foot-per-year method seeks to
minimize costs by analyzing all cost components
including frst cost, operating costs, and maintenance
costs. An economic analysis that includes both
initial costs and future maintenance costs should
be used to select the most economical protective
coatingsystem.Whenconstructingacomparisonof
costs, each system must be examined in detail for
possibleadditionalcostsandsavings.
Galvanizing’s Advantage: a Capitalized Expenditure
Generally accepted accounting practices for
building maintenance dictate maintenance
painting be considered an operating expense. The
expensesofgalvanizingcanbecapitalizedbecause
theseexpensesgenerallyoccurduringconstruction.
Under this accounting practice, galvanizing does
notcompeteforpreciousoperatingdollars.
Cost Factor Associ ated wi th Other Corrosi on
Control Methods
A multitude of cost elements exist typically not
includedinaneconomicanalysis:
• Surface preparation in the feld when repainting,
• Environmental compliance in the feld when
repainting,
•Downtimeduringpaintingoperations,
•Containmentsystems,
•Materialsdisposal,
•Weatherdelays,and
•Insuranceandotherunknown,uncontrollable
factors.
These factors may cause the cost of repainting
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to accelerate well beyond the projected cost
as determined by the economic analysis. As a
case in point, the State of Ohio Department of
Transportation has projected a 43% increase in
maintenancepaintingcostsinoneyear.
Galvanizing requires little if any maintenance
in comparison to the maintenance demands of
paintsystems.Whenallelementsintheeconomic
analysis are included, galvanizing has the lowest
life-cyclecosts.
Gal vani zi ng vs. Pai nti ng
The Leaside Bridge, owned by Metropolitan
Toronto, extends 1300 feet over the Don Valley
ParkwayatMillwoodRoadandoriginallywasbuilt
in1927usingpaintedstructuralsteel.
In 1969, it was decided that the bridge would
be widened from four to six lanes. When bids
were tendered, three different approaches were
solicited:
Option 1:Blastcleanandpaintallstructural
steel (specifed as blast clean, zinc rich primer,
andtwo-coatvinyl).Initialcost:$294,000
Option 2:Galvanizenewsteelintheexpansion,
andblastcleanandrepaintthebridge’soriginal
steel in the feld (same paint specifcations as
above).Initialcost:$230,000
Option 3:Galvanizethenewsteelandzinc
metallizetheoriginal.Initialcost:$271,000
Option2,thelowestinitialcostoption,wasselected.
After more than 30 years in Toronto’s moderately
industrialatmosphere,thegalvanizedsteelisinexcellent
condition.Readingstakenin1995showedacoating
thicknessofatleastsevenmilsofzinc,whichensures
amaintenance-freelifeforatleast50moreyears.
The painted steel received a paint recoating in
1969 during bridge expansion. Another painting
was done in the fall of 1980 and the summer of
1981. Localized touch-up painting was done again
in1991andhadalreadystartedtofailin1997.
Figure 11 shows the cumulative estimated
futurecostsformaintainingthestructurein1969
dollars. The cost for the galvanized structure is
fxed during the 80-year span, but the costs for
thepaintoptiongrowrapidly.Galvanizingsaves
money on the frst cost and savings increase as
longasthestructureexists.
Cost in
1969 dollars
$1,120,000
$700,000
$600,000
$500,000
$400,000
$300,000
$200,000
$100,000
Galvanized Painted
1969 1981 1993 2005 2049
Figure 11: Cumulative future maintenance costs
Cor r os i on Re s i s t a n c e of Ga l v a n i z e d Coa t i n gs
Galvanizedcoatingshaveaprovencommercial
historyundernumerousenvironmentalconditions.
The corrosion resistance of zinc coatings varies
according to its surrounding environment. In
most commonly encountered environments, the
galvanized coating generally corrodes at a rate
between1/10and1/30ofungalvanizedsteel.
Thepredictabilityofthelifetimeofacoatingis
important for planning and fnancing required
maintenance. Measurements of the actual
consumption rate of the galvanized coating
during the frst few years of service provide
good data for projecting remaining life until
frst maintenance. Due to the build-up of zinc
corrosion products, which in most environments
are adherent and fairly insoluble, the corrosion
rate may slow as time progresses. Therefore,
based upon measurements taken during the frst
fewyearsofservice,estimatesofservicelifeuntil
frst maintenance of a galvanized coating will
oftenbeconservative.
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Environmentsinwhichgalvanizedsteelandiron
commonly are used include outdoor atmospheres,
indoor atmospheres, hundreds of different
chemicals, fresh water, sea water, soils, concrete,
and in contact with other metals. Because of the
manyyearsgalvanizinghasbeenusedforcorrosion
protection, a wealth of real-world, long-term
exposure data on zinc coating performance in a
widevarietyofenvironmentsisavailable.
Atmospheri c Condi ti ons
Zincoxideistheinitialcorrosionproductofzincin
relativelydryair.Itisformedbyareactionbetween
thezincandatmosphericoxygen.Inthepresenceof
moisture,itisconvertedtozinchydroxide.Thezinc
hydroxide and zinc oxide react with carbon dioxide
intheairtoformzinccarbonate.Thezinccarbonate
flm is tightly adherent and relatively insoluble. It
is primarily responsible for the excellent and long-
lastingcorrosionprotectionprovidedbythegalvanized
coatinginmostatmosphericenvironments.
Since 1926, ASTM Committees A05 (Metallic
Coated Iron and Steel Products) and G01
(Corrosion of Metals), and other organizations
have been collecting continuous records of the
behavior of zinc coatings under various categories
of atmospheric conditions. These atmospheric
exposure tests have been conducted throughout
theworldtoobtaincorrosionratedataforexposed
zinc. Precise comparison of the corrosion behavior
of the galvanized coating in various atmospheric
environments is infuenced by many factors. Such
factors include the prevailing wind direction, type
and density of corrosive fumes and pollutants,
amountofseaspray,numberofwettinganddrying
cycles, and the duration of exposure to moisture.
Although there is a range in observed corrosion
rates,actualobservedratesrarelyexceed0.3mils
per year. It is also worthwhile to note that when
exposed indoors, the life of the galvanized coating
will be at least two to three times longer than
outdoorexposureinthesameenvironment.
Figure 12 shows the estimated service life for
hot-dip galvanized coatings in fve atmospheric
environments. The chart was developed using
testcouponsofhot-dipgalvanizedsteelexposedin
thousands of locations throughout the world and
a heuristic mathematical model. A galvanized
coating’s protective life is determined primarily
by coating thickness and the severity of exposure
conditions.Theshadedareaofthechartrepresents
minimum thickness requirements found in the
hot-dip galvanized specifcation ASTM A 123.
Galvanizedcoatingthicknessescommonlyexceedthe
minimum requirement, typically ranging between
3 and 7 mils. The expected service life is defned
as the life until 5% rusting of the steel substrate.
At 5% surface rust, there is no steel integrity lost;
however,itindicatesitistimetoconsiderapplying
newcorrosionprotectionmethods.
Moderately Industrial Atmospheresaregenerally
the most corrosive. Air emissions may contain
some sulfdes and phosphates that cause the most
rapidconsumptionofthezinccoating.Automobiles,
trucks, and plant exhaust are examples of these
Figure 12: Service-life chart for hot-dip galvanized coatings
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emissions. Most city or urban areas are classifed
as“moderatelyindustrial.”
Suburban Atmospheres aregenerallylesscorrosive
thanmoderatelyindustrialareasand,astheterm
suggests, are found in the largely residential,
perimetercommunitiesofurbanorcityareas.
Temperate Marine Atmospheresvaryincorrosiveness
dependingonproximitytothecoastlineandprevailing
wind direction and intensity. In marine air,
chlorides from sea spray can react with the
normallyprotectivezinccorrosionproductstoform
soluble zinc chlorides. When these chlorides are
washed away, fresh zinc is exposed to corrosion.
Nevertheless, temperate marine atmospheres are
lesscorrosivethansuburbanatmospheres.
Tropical Marine Atmospheres are similar to
temperate marine atmospheres except they are
found in warmer climates. Possibly because many
tropical areas are removed from industrial areas,
tropicalmarineclimatestendtobesomewhatless
corrosivethantemperatemarineclimates.
Rural Atmospheresaretheleastaggressiveofthe
fve atmospheric types. This is primarily due to the
relatively low level of sulfur and other emissions
foundinsuchenvironments.
Chemi cal & Li qui d Envi ronments, Sol uti on pH
Aprimaryfactorgoverningcorrosionbehaviorofthe
galvanizedcoatinginliquidchemicalenvironmentsis
the pH of the solution. Galvanizing performs well
insolutionsofpHabove5.5andbelow12.5(Figure
13).Thisshouldnotbeconsideredahardandfast
rule, because factors such as agitation, aeration,
temperature, polarization, and the presence of
inhibitorsmaychangetherateofcorrosion.Within
the pH range of 5.5 to 12.5 a protective flm forms
on the zinc surface of the galvanized coating and
protects the steel by slowing corrosion. The exact
chemical composition of the protective flm is
somewhat dependent upon the specifc chemical
environment.
SincemanyliquidsfallwithinthepHrangeof5.5
to12.5,galvanizedsteelcontainersarewidelyused
instoringandtransportingmanychemicalsolutions.
Figure 14, (nextpage) showsanabbreviatedlistof
somecommonlyusedchemicalssuccessfullystored
ingalvanizedcontainers.
Fresh Water
Galvanizing is successfully used to protect steel
infreshwaterexposure.“Freshwater”referstoall
formsofwaterexceptseawater.Freshwatermay
be classifed according to its origin or application.
Included are hot and cold domestic, industrial,
river, lake, and canal waters. Corrosion of zinc in
fresh water is complex, controlled largely by the
impurities found in the water. Even rain water
contains oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, other
dissolvedgases,dustandsmokeparticles.
Ground water carries microorganisms, eroded
soil,decayingvegetation,dissolvedsaltsofcalcium,
magnesium, iron, manganese, and suspended
colloidalmatter.Allofthesesubstancesandother
factorssuchaspH,temperature,andmotionaffect
the structure and composition of the corrosion
products formed on the exposed zinc surface.
Relativelysmalldifferencesinfreshwatercontent
or conditions can produce substantial changes
in corrosion products and rate. Thus, there is no
simplerulegoverningthecorrosionrateofzincin
freshwater.
Water with high free oxygen or carbon dioxide
contentismorecorrosivethanwatercontainingless
ofthesegases,andhardwaterismuchlesscorrosive
than soft water. A natural scale of insoluble salts
tends to form on the galvanized surface under
conditionsofmoderateorhighwaterhardness.The
saltscombinewithzinctoformaprotectivebarrier
ofcalciumcarbonateandbasiczinccarbonate.Table
2,(nextpage)indicatestheservicelifeofgalvanized
steelinvariousfreshwaters.
Source: B. Roathali, G. Cox and W. Littreal “Metals and Alloys” 3.73 (1963)
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
pH of Contact Material
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

L
o
s
s

R
a
t
e
Figure 13: Effect of pH on corrosion of zinc
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Sea Water
Galvanized coatings provide considerable
protection to steel when immersed in sea water
and exposed to salt spray. Infuencing factors in
the corrosion of zinc in fresh water also apply to
sea water; however, the dissolved salts (primarily
sulfdes and chlorides) in sea water are the
principal determinants of
the corrosion behavior of
zinc.Giventhehighlevelof
chlorideinseawater,avery
high corrosion rate might
be expected. However, the
presenceofmagnesiumand
calcium ions have a strong
inhibiting effect on zinc
corrosion. One should be
veryskepticalofaccelerated
laboratory test results that
sometimes use a simple
sodium chloride (NaCl)
solution to simulate the
effectsofseawaterexposure
on galvanized steel. Real
world results often differ
signifcantly.
Soi l s
More than 200 different
types of soils have been identifed and are categorized
according to texture, color, and natural drainage.
Coarse and textured soils, such as gravel and sand,
permit free circulation of air, and the process of
corrosionmaycloselyresembleatmosphericcorrosion.
Clay and silt soils have a fne texture and hold water,
resulting in poor aeration and drainage. Generally
Hydvo¢uvbons
Benzene(benzole)
Toluene(toluole)
Xylene(xyole)
Cyclohexene
Petroleumethers
Heavynaphtha
SolventNaphtha
A!¢oLo!s
Methylparafynol
(methylpentynol)
Morpholinoisopropanol
Glycerol(glycerin)
Hu!Ides
Carbontetrachloride
Amylbromide
Butylbromide
Butylchloride
Byclohexylbromide
Ethylbromide
Propylbromide
Propylchloride
Trimethlyenebromide
(1,3-dibromopropane)
Bromobenzene
Chlorobenzene
Aroclors&Pyrolors
(chlorobiphenyls)
NItvI!es (¢yunIdes)
Diphenylacetonitrile
p-chlorobenzglycyanides
£stevs
Allyl butyrate
caproate
formate
propionate
Ethylbutyrate
sobutyrate
caproate
caprylate
propionate
succinate
Amylbutyrate
sobutyrate
caproate
caprylate
Methylbutyrate
caproate
propionate
succinate
Benzyl butyrate
sobutyrate
propionate
succinate
Octyl butyrate
caproate
Butylbutyrate
sobutyrate
caproate
propionate
succinate
titanate
Propylbutyrate
isobutyrate
caproate
formate
propionate
Iso-Butylbenzonate
buytrate
caproate
Iso-Propylbenzonate
caproate
formate
propionate
Cyclohexylbuytrate
PLeno!s
Phenol
Cresols(mehtylphenols)
Xylenols(dimethylphenols)
Biphenol(dihydroxybiphenyl)
2,4-dichlorophenol
p-chloro-o-cresol
Chloroxylenols
AmIne und AmIne Su!ts
Pyridine
Pyrrolidine
Methylpiperazine
Dicarbethoxypiperazine
1-benzhydryl-4-methylpiperazine
2-4-diamino-5-(4-chlorphenyl-6)
ethlpyrimidine
Hydorxyethylmopholine
(hydroxyethyldiethylenimideoxide)
paminobenzenesulphonylguanidine
Butylamineoleate
Piperazinehydrochloride
monohydrate
Carbethoxypiperazinehydrochloride
(dry)
AmIdes
Formamide
Dimethylformamide
MIs¢e!!uneous
Glucose(liquid)Benzilideneacetone
p-chlorbenzopheone
Sodiumazobenzensulphonate
Melamineresinsolutions
Crudecascaraextract
Creosote
Chlorofourocarbons
Figure 14 : Chemicals successfully stored in galvanized containers (partial list)
Io¢utIon und wutev Tyµe oI
ZIn¢
Tyµe oI
Test
AuItutIon CovvosIon vute
mI!/yeuv
GatunLake,CanalZone
Tropicalfreshwater
Intermediate Immersion Stagnant 0.52
GatunLake,CanalZone
Tropicalfreshwater
Intermediate Immersion Stagnant 0.41
PedroMiguelLocks
Panama,Freshwater
Specialhigh
grade
Immersion -- 0.71
PedroMiguelLocks
Panama,Freshwater
Highgrade Immersion -- 0.53
PedroMiguelLocks
Panama,Freshwater
Intermediate Immersion -- 0.44
PedroMiguelLocks
Panama,Freshwater
Select Immersion -- 0.55
PedroMiguelLocks
Panama,Freshwater
Prime
Western
Immersion -- 0.53
RiverWater
Hardness 7-6˚ (German)
99%zinc Immersion
Lab
Still 0.56
RiverWater
Hardness 7-6˚ (German)
99%zinc Immersion
Lab
Still 0.24
Table 2 : Corrosion of zinc coated steel in selected natural fresh waters
15
A me r i c a n G a l v a n i z e r s A s s o c i a t i o n  www. g a l v a n i z e i t . o r g
speaking, sandy, well-
aeratedsoilswithneutral
orslightlybasicpHcause
only limited corrosion,
most likely below 10 μm/
year(0.4mil/year).
TheNationalCorrugated
Steel Pipe Association
(NCSPA)incollaboration
with the American Iron
andSteelInstitute(AISI)
have produced a chart,
(Figure 15) thatestimates
galvanizedsteelinvertlife
if the pH and resistivity
of soil are known. This
chart is a good predictor
of all galvanized steel
servicelifeinsoilbecause
thecoatingdoesnotvary
byproduct.
Resistivity and pH are the most infuential soil
characteristics on the corrosion rate of galvanized
steel.Iftheresistivityisgreaterthan2,000ohm-
cmandthepHisbetween6and10,averycommon
range,galvanizedsteelwillperformwell.
Concrete
Concrete is an extremely complex material. The
use of various types of concrete in construction
has made the chemical, physical, and mechanical
propertiesofconcreteanditsrelationshiptometals
atopicofongoingstudies.Steelwireorreinforcing
bars (rebar) are often embedded in concrete to
provideaddedstrength.
Rebar can be galvanized to retard corrosion,
providing barrier and sacrifcial protection. As the
corrosionproductsofzincaremuchlessvoluminous
than those of steel, the cracking, delamination,
and spalling cycle is greatly reduced when using
galvanized rebar. Laboratory data supports, and
feld test results confrm, reinforced concrete
structures have a substantially longer service life
whengalvanizedrebarisusedasopposedtoblack
steelrebar.
Although it takes slightly longer to develop, lab
and feld tests show the bond between galvanized
rebar and concrete is stronger than the bond
betweenblackrebarandconcrete(Figure 16).
A comparison of the qualitative and quantitative
characteristics of galvanized rebar and epoxy
coated rebar is shown in Table 3 (next page).
Additional studies on the uses of galvanized
steelreinforcingbarsinconcretecanbefoundat
www.galvanizedrebar.com and in the AGA
publicationGalvanizing for Corrosion Protection: A
Specifer’s Guide to Reinforcing Steel and Rebar: A
Processing and Inspection Guide for Quality Hot-dip
Galvanized Reinforcing Steel.Table 4,(nextpage)
shows the feld performance of galvanized rebar in
fve different projects.
Other Metal s
Under atmospheric or aqueous condition, if zinc
comesincontactwithanothermetal,thepotential
for corrosion through a bimetallic couple exists.
Figure 15 : Corrosion of galvanized steel pipe in contact with a variety of soils
1 3 12 1 3 12 1 3 12
Months of Curing
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Black Galvanized
Study A Study B Study C
Bond Strength to Concrete
Black vs. Galvanized Reinforcing Steel
Source: University
of California
S
t
r
e
s
s

i
n

P
o
u
n
d
s

p
e
r

s
q
u
a
r
e

i
n
c
h

(
p
s
i
)
Figure 16 : Study of galvanized vs black reinforcing steel
AISI Chart for Estimating Average Invert Life for Galvanized CSP
Note: Over 10,000 ohm-cm, check for soft water for accuracy.
16
A me r i c a n G a l v a n i z e r s A s s o c i a t i o n  www. g a l v a n i z e i t . o r g
The extent of the corrosion
depends upon the position
of the other metal relative
tozincinthegalvanicseries
(Figure 2,page2).
Installation requiring
contactbetweengalvanized
materials and copper or
brass in a moist or humid
environment, can cause
rapid corrosion. Even run-
off water from copper or
brasssurfacescancontain
enough dissolved copper
to cause rapid corrosion.
If contact with galvanized
items is unavoidable,
precautions should be
taken to prevent electrical
contact between the two
metals.Jointfacesshouldbeinsulatedwithnon-
conducting gaskets and connections should be
made with insulating, grommet-type fasteners.
Thedesignshouldensurewaterisnotrecirculated
and fows from the galvanized surface towards the
copperorbrasssurfaceandnotthereverse.
Underatmosphericconditionsofmoderatetomild
humidity, contact between a galvanized surface
andaluminumorstainlesssteelisunlikelytocause
substantialincrementalcorrosion.However,under
veryhumidconditions,thegalvanizedsurfacemay
requireelectricalisolationthroughtheuseofpaint
or joining compounds. The galvanic behavior of
galvanizedcoatingsincontactwithvariousmetals
in atmospheric and immersion environments is
summarizedinTable 5,(nextpage).
Io¢utIon Instu!!ed
Insµe¢tIon
Ðute
CL!ovIdes ZIn¢ CoutInu TLI¢kness
(lb/yd
3
) mils µm
BocaChicaBridge,FL* 1972 1975
1991
1999
1.95
2.02
3.21
5.1
4.0
6.7
130
102
170
TiogaBridge,PA* 1974 1981
1991
2001
0.58
1.06
2.23
5.9
8.8
7.8
150
224
198
CurtisRoadBridge,MI 1976 2002 6.88 6.1 155
SpringSteelBridge,VT 1971 2002 4.17 7.5 191
EvanstonInterchange,WY 1975 2002 2.55 9.3 236
*Multipleinspectionsweremadeonthesebridges.Sinceconcretecoresaredrilledoutofthebridge,itisimpossible
toperformthisinspectioninthesamespot.Whenperformingsubsequentinspections,thecoresmustbedrilled
indifferentareaswhichdoesn’tallowforcorrosionmonitoringinoneparticulararea.Hot-dipgalvanizedcoating
thicknessesvaryslightlyoverthelengthofthebars.Thisexplainshowagreatercoatingthicknesscanberead
whenmeasuringthesamebridgeatalaterdate.
Table 4: Field performance of bridges with galvanized reinforcing steel
ComµuvIson Iu¢tov Hot-ÐIµ Gu!vunIzed £µoxy-Couted
EarliestUse Early1900’s 1974
Requirescareinhandling No Yes
Canbedraggedonground Yes No
MUSTbetouchedup No Yes
Hasbarrierprotection Yes Yes
Hascathodicprotection Yes No
Bondstrengthtoconcrete Excellent Poor
UVResistance Good Questionable
Afterfabricationapplication Simple Diffcult
Widelyused Yes Yes
Cost Comparable Comparable*
Leadtime 1-3days 3weeks
Availabilityofcoatingforother
embeddeditems
Readilyavailable Scarce
*EpoxypricesvarywidelythroughouttheUSandCanadaandwidevariations
shouldbeexpected
Table 3 : Comparison of epoxy-coated and hot-dip galvanized reinforcing steel bars
1?
A me r i c a n G a l v a n i z e r s A s s o c i a t i o n  www. g a l v a n i z e i t . o r g
Metu! In Contu¢t
£nvIvonment
AtmosµLevI¢ Immevsed
Ruvu! IndustvIu!/
\vbun
MuvIne IvesL
Wutev
Seu
Wutev
Aluminumandaluminumalloys 0 0-1 0-1 1 1-2
Aluminumbronzesandsiliconbronzes 0-1 1 1-2 1-2 2-3
Brasses-hightensile(HT)brass(manganesebronze) 0-1 1 0-2 1-2 2-3
Cadmium 0 0 0 0 0
Castirons 0-1 1 1-2 1-2 2-3
Castiron(austentic) 0-1 1 1-2 1-2 1-3
Chromium 0-1 1-2 1-2 1-2 2-3
Copper 0-1 1-2 1-2 1-2 2-3
Cupro-nickels 0-1 0-1 1-2 1-2 2-3
Gold (0-1) (1-2) (1-2) (1-2) (2-3)
Gunmetals,phosphorbronzes,andtinbronzes 0-1 1 1-2 1-2 2-3
Lead 0 0-2 0-2 0-3 (0-2)
Magnesiumanmagnesiumalloys 0 0 0 0 0
Nickel 0-1 1 1-2 1-2 2-3
Nickelcopperalloys 0-1 1 1-2 1-2 2-3
Nickel-chromium-ironalloys (0-1) (1) (1-2) (1-2) (1-3)
Nickel-chromium-molybedenumalloys (0-1) (1) (1-2) (1-2) (1-3)
Nickelsilvers 0-1 1 1-2 1-2 1-3
Platinum (0-1) (1-2) (1-2) (1-2) (2-3)
Rhodium (0-1) (1-2) (1-2) (1-2) (2-3)
Silver (0-1) (1-2) (1-2) (1-2) (2-3)
Soldershard 0-1 1 1-2 1-2 2-3
Solderssoft 0 0 0 0 0
Stainlesssteel(austeniticandothergrades
containingapproximately18%chromium)
0-1 0-1 0-1 0-2 1-2
Stainlesssteel(martensiticgradescontaining
approximately13%chromium)
0-1 0-1 0-1 0-2 1-2
Steels(carbonandlowalloy) 0-1 1 1-2 1-2 1-2
Tin 0 0-1 1 1 1-2
Titaniumandtitaniumalloys (0-1) (1) (1-2) (0-2) (1-3)

KEY0Zincandgalvanizedsteelwillsuffereithernoadditionalcorrosion,oratthemostonlyveryslightadditional
corrosion,usuallytolerableinservice.
1 Zincandgalvanizedsteelwillsufferslightormoderateadditionalcorrosionthatmaybetolerableinsome
circumstances.
2 Zincandgalvanizedsteelmaysufferfairlysevereadditionalcorrosionandprotectivemeasureswillusuallybe
necessary.
3 Zincandgalvanizedsteelmaysuffersevereadditionalcorrosionandthecontactshouldbeavoided.
()-Ratingsinbracketsarebasedonverylimitedevidenceandhencearelesscertainthanothervaluesshown.
Note:Thetableisintermsofadditionalcorrosionandthesymbol“0”shouldnotbetakentoimplythatthemetalsin
contactneednoprotectionunderallconditionsofexposure.
Source:BritishStandardsInstitution,pp.6484:1979,Table23
Table 5 : Additional corrosion of zinc and galvanized steel resulting from contact with other metals
1B
A me r i c a n G a l v a n i z e r s A s s o c i a t i o n  www. g a l v a n i z e i t . o r g
Bri dges & Hi ghways
BvIdue Suµevstvu¢tuve
AnchorBolts
Anti-suicideRail
BasePlates
BearingAssemblies
BearingPlates
Bolts
BoxRail
BridgeRail
CableConnectors
Cables
ChannelShearConnectors
Cross-bracing
CurbAngles
Diaphragms
EndDams
ExpansionDams
FingerJointExpansionDams
FloorGratings
FlooringGrid
Girders
GuardrailandPosts
InspectionCatwalks
JerseyBarrierEmbedments
LightPoles
PipeRailing
PipeSupports
Piping
PotBearings
Pour-in-placeForms
ReinforcingSpliceClips
ReinforcingSteel
ScuppersandDrains
ShearStuds
SignSupports
SignalLightPoles
SpiralShearConnectors
SplicePlates
SteelDividerBarrier
Stringers
TrenchDrains
BvIdue Substvu¢tuve
AccessDoors
Bin-typeRetainingWalls
Bolts
Catwalks
DrainageSupports
DrainageSystems
DrivenPilings
Fencing
GroundAnchors
Ladders
PierPilings
ReinforcingSpliceClips
ReinforcingSteel
RetainingWalls
SheetPiling
SignSupports
Temµovuvy BvIdues
Complete“BaileyBridge”
Structures
InsertModules
HIuLwuys
AnchorBolts
Anti-suicideRail
BasePlates
BoxRail
Break-aways
Culverts
CurbAngles
Delineators
Fencing
Gates
GuardrailandPosts
JerseyBarrierEmbedments
LightPoles
OverheadSignSupports
PedestrianOverpassBridge
PipeRailing
ReinforcingSteel
ScuppersandDrains
SignSupports
SignalLightPoles
SignalSupports
SoundBarriers
SteelDividerBarriers
TrenchDrains
Power Generati on
BuI!dInus
Beams
BrickTies
BrickLedges
Columns
DockLevelers
EquipmentSupports
Girts
HVACSupports
Lintels
OverheadCranes
Purlins
RelievingAngles
RoofHatches
StructuralSteel
Yuvd £quIµment
Bollards
Bridges
Catwalks
CoalHandlingEquipment
ConveyorSupports
CornerGuards
Cranes
Fencing
Flagpoles
Gates
GuardrailandPosts
HopperStructures
Ladders
MechanicalScreens
PipeBridges
PipeSupports
Railings
ReinforcingSteel
SheetPiling
SignSupports
SteelGrating
SteelStairs
TrenchCovers
TruckLifts
TruckScale
ValveStands
Powev TvunsmIssIon &
Pr a c t i c a l Us e s of Ga l v a n i z e d S t e e l
Corrosion of exposed steel is a major problem, but galvanizing
is an effective solution. This guide has explained the corrosion
process, how galvanized coatings are produced, and how well
the coating protects against corrosion. The remainder of this
guide is dedicated to identifying the many applications of
galvanizing in specifc, real-world projects. To see examples, visit
www.galvanizeit.org/ref/projects.
Additional detailed information on the use of galvanizing for
corrosion protection in these and other applications is available
fromtheAGAoryourlocalgalvanizer.
19
A me r i c a n G a l v a n i z e r s A s s o c i a t i o n  www. g a l v a n i z e i t . o r g
ÐIstvIbutIon
AnchorBolts
Bollards
ConcreteEmbeddedReinforcement
ElectricalBoxes
EquipmentSupports
FaradayCages
Fasteners
Fencing
Gates
Handrails
Ladders
LatticeTowers
LightPoles
LightBrackets
PoleArms
Posts
SignSupports
SteelStairways
TransmissionPoles
TubularTowers
Walkways
OtLev Powev GenevutIon
(Natural Gas, Hydroelectric, Solar, Wind)
AnchorBolts
EquipmentSupports
Fencing
FishLadders
FloodControlGates
FlowRestrictors
GasTurbineSkids
GeneratorHousings
GeneratorSupportPlatforms
LightPoles
Penstock
Platforms
Railings
ReinforcingSteel
SheetPiling
SolarPanelBacksandSupports
SolarControlBoxes
TowerLadders
TowerSupports
TrashRacksandBooms
WindmillTowers
Transportati on
(Rail, Rapid Transit, Marine, Air)
AdvertisingShelters
AnchorBolts
AnchorageClips
BaggageConveyorSupports
BallastStops
BearingPlates
Benches
BicycleRacks
Bollards
BrickLedges
BrickTies
BuildingTrim
Bulkheads
CableTrays
CanopySupports
Catenaries
Catwalks
CrashBarriers
CurbAngles
DecorativeEmblemSupports
DockBumpers
DrainPipes
Drains
EdgeAngles
ElectricalBoxes
ElectricalPanels
ElectricalSub-stationFraming
ExteriorStairwaySystems
Fencing
Flagpoles
FloorGrating
FountainAccessories
Gangplanks
GuideRail
Handrails
HandicapRail
Hangers
Ladders
LevelingPlates
LightFixtures
LightPoles
LightningRods
Lintels
ManholeCovers
Map/SignSupports
Mesh
OrnamentalFencing
OrnamentalSteel
Pilings
PipeSleeves
PostandChainFence
Pre-EngineeredBuildingExteriors
Pre-castHardware
Railings
ReinforcingSteel
RelievingAngles
RoofHatches
Scuppers
SignalBridges
SignalEquipment
SignalStructures
SoundBarriers
StairTread
StructuralSupportSteel
TieToePlates
TrashContainers
TreeGrates
TreeGuards
TunnelLiners
UtilityCoversandGrates
VehicleWashingEquipment
WalkwayStructures
WindowWallSupports
WindowWashingRails
Water & Waste Water Treatment
AerationTanks
Aerators
AnchorBolts
Angles
BasinWearPlates
Beams
Bollards
BrickLedges
BrickTies
Bridges
Catwalks
ChannelIron
Columns
CompostingEquipment
CompostingConveyors
Conduit
ConveyorSupports
DockLevelers
EmbeddedFrames
Fencing
Flagpoles
FloorGratings
FloorPlates
Gates
Girts
GritChambers
Guardrail
GuardrailPosts
GuideRail
HVACPlatforms
Ladders
LightPoles
Lintels
MechanicalScreens
MovingStructures
OverheadBridgeCranes
OverheadTrusses
PipeBridges
PipeSupports
PipingHangers
PipingRods
Pre-castVeneerHardware
Purlins
ReinforcingSteel
RelievingAngles
Scum Baffe
ScumWell
Skimmer
SteelColumnBeams
SteelDoors
SteelFrames
SteelGrating
SteelRetainingWalls
SteelStairs
StructuralSteel
TransmissionTowers
TruckScales
ValveStands
Weirs
20
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Bui l di ngs
AnchorBolts
AnchoringClips
ArchitecturalPanels
AttachmentDevices
AtriumSupports
BalconyRails
Beams
Benches
BicycleRacks
BleacherSupports
BrickTies
BrickLedges
BuildingSystemFrames
CanopySupports
Catwalks
Columns
CrashBarriers
CurbAngles
DrainPipes
Drains
Embedments
EquipmentScreens
FasciaSupportSteel
Fencing
FireEscapes
Flagpoles
FootBridges
FountainAccessories
GarageSupportSteel
Gates
Girts
Grating
HandicapRailings
Hatches
HVACSupports
IntegratedSteelAnchors
Ladders
LevelingPlates
LightFixtures
LightPoles
LightningRods
Lintels
Louvers
ManholeCovers
MetalSculptures
OrnamentalSteel
PipeBollards
PipeHangers
PlaygroundEquipment
PostandChainFence
Pre-castHardware
Purlins
Railings
RelievingAngles
RoofTrusses
Scuppers
SecurityGates
SignPosts
StadiumSeating
StairStringers
SunScreens
TrashContainers
TreeGrates
TreeGuards
Trellises
UtilityCovers
WindowWashingRails
WindowWallSupports
Agri cul ture & Food Processi ng
BuildingStructures
ConveyorCasing
ElectricalConduits
EquipmentHooks
EquipmentSupports
FarmBuildings
FarmImplements
Fasteners
FeedingEquipment
Fencing
Gates
GrainConveyors
GrainDryingEquipment
GrainElevators
GrainHoppers
GrainMixingEquipment
Grating
GrowingRacks
HighSpeedFreezingEquipment
IrrigationEquipment
LightPoles
MeatConveyors
Panels
PowerTake-offShifts
Pre-engineeredBuildings
ProcessingEquipment
Railings
RefrigerationBrackets
RefrigerationShelves
SideFrames
SiloExtractionEquipment
SlottedFloors
Stanchions
SteelBands
Sub-stationStructures
SupportingStructures
TractorParts
Trailers
TransmissionPoles
TrussPlates
VegetableWashingMachine
VeterinaryEquipment
WasteConveyorSystems
WasteHandlingEquipmentPumps
WateringTroughs
WheelTractorHubs
WindowFrames
Petrochemi cal & Chemi cal
AmbientTemperatureDucts
AnchorBolts
Beams
BeltGuards
Cathodic Protection Rectifers
Catwalks
CheckeredPlate
CogenerationEquipment
Columns
ConveyorSystems
CoolingTowerStructure
CraneSupports
Cross-bracing
Decks
DrainPipes
DrivePiling
ElectricalCableDucts
ElectricalConduits
EmbeddedItems
EquipmentGuards
EquipmentScreens
Fasteners
Fencing
FireExtinguishingEquipment
FlareTowers
FlatPlates
Girts
Gratings
Handrails
HeatExchangerTubing
Ladders
MarineTerminalStructures
Off-shoreStructures
OutsideSwitchGearFrames
PipeBridges
PipeRacks
PipeSupports
Pipeways
Platforms
PrecipitatorStructure
PrefabBuildingStructures
ProcessEquipmentSkids
ProcessPiping
ProcessVessels
Purlins
Railings
SafetyEquipment
SagRods
Scuppers
Stairways
Stringers
TransmissionPoles
Walkways
WastewaterTreatmentEquipment
Pul p and Paper
AnchorBolts
21
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Benches
BleachPlantStructures
BoilerRecoveryStructures
Bollards
Bolts
BrickLedges
BrickTies
CableTensioningClips
CableTrays
CanopySupports
Catwalks
ConduitBridges
ConveyorAssemblies
ConveyorSupports
CraneSupportSteel
Cranes
Cross-braces
CurbingAngles
DamGates
DockLevelers
DrainPipes
DrivePiling
ElectricalConduits
ElectricalPenetrationSeals
ElevatedTankPlatforms
EquipmentBridges
EquipmentScreens
Fencing
FireExtinguisherPiping
FireEscapes
FireLadders
Flagpoles
FloorSeals
FloorSupportSteel
FootBridges
GasSub-stations
Gates
Girts
Grati ngs
Guardrail
Handrails
Hangers
HatchCovers
HVACSupportSteel
Kick-plates
LevelingPlates
LightingTowers
LightningRods
LimeKilnStructuralSteel
Lintels
Louvers
ManholeCovers
MicrowaveTowers
Non-insulatedPipeBridges
PipeBridges
PipeSleeves
PipeStanchions
Plates
Platforms
PollutionControlStructures
PowerDistributionTowers
PowerLineTransmissionTowers
PowerSub-stations
Pre-engineeredStructures
Purlins
ReinforcingMesh
ReinforcingSteel
RelievingAngles
RoofHatches
SafetyCages
SafetyGuards
SafetyRailings
ScaleEquipment
ScreenRoomStructuralSteel
Scuppers
SheetPiling
SignSupports
StackSupports
StairStringers
Stairways
SteelPipe
StructuralSteel
TankSupports
TrashContainers
TrashRacks
TrenchEdging
TunnelLiners
UtilityCovers
VehicleWashingEquipment
WasteWaterDigestersSupportSteel
WindowWashingRails
WoodYardConveyorStructures
Original Equipment Manufacturing
AmusementRides
Antennas
BicycleRacks
BoatAnchors
BoatStabilizers
BoatTrailers
Bolts
Buckets
CableDrums
CableTrays
CarParts
CellarDoors
Conduit
CoolingTowerParts
DockHardware
DockLevelers
Dumpsters
ElectricalEnclosures
Fencing
Flagpoles
Frames
GarbageCans
Grating
Guardrail
Handrails
HardwareItems
IndustrialTrolleyCasterFrames
LightBrackets
LightDutyVehicleRamps
LightPoles
MicrowaveMounts
Nails
NetReels
ParkBenches
PicnicTableFrames
PipeHangars
PortableBuildingFrames
RefrigerationBrackets
RefrigerationShelves
Scaffolding
Scales
SecurityCageFrames
SecurityGates
SpiralStaircases
StormShelters
Towers
TrailerDoorHardware
TrashReceptacles
TruckParts
UtilityTrailers
Wheelbarrows
www. u u ! v u n I z e I t . o v u
Ame r i c a n Ga l v a n i z e r s As s oc i a t i on
6881S.HollyCircle,Ste.108
Centennial,CO80112
1-800-HOT-SPEC
aga@galvanizeit.org
www.galvanizeit.org

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