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,

Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,

Faculty of Engineering,

University of Ruhuna,

Sri Lanka.

Introduction to Mechanics, Dynamics and

Mechanisms

Class notes for ME2204, ME3305, ME4308

February 14, 2009

c D. H. S. Maithripala, Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Univeristy of Ruhuna, Hapugala, Galle, Sri Lanka.

Sep 2008.

Preface

This is a compilation of notes used by me as class notes for ME2204 Engineering Mechanics, ME3305 Dy-

namics and Vibrations and ME4308 Theory of machines at the department of Mechanical and Manufacturing

Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ruhuna during the period of 2006 to 2008. They are far from

complete and I will be frequently updating them as time permits. I am deeply indebted to all the students who

have suffered through them and have tried out the exercises and have provided me with valuable input. I am sure

there are many errata and will appreciate greatly if you can please bring them to my notice by sending an e-mail

to mugalan at yahoo.com.

Hapugala, Galle, Sri Lanka, D. H. S. Maithripala

February 14, 2009

3

Contents

1 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.1.1 Confguration Space, Co-ordinates and Degrees of Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.1.2 Holonomic Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.2 Particle Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2.1 Kinematics of a Particle Moving in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2.2 Kinetics of a Particle Moving in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.2.3 Relative Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1.3 Particle Motion in two-dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

1.4 Kinetic Energy of a Point Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

1.5 Rigid Body Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

1.5.1 Rotational Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

1.5.2 General Rigid Body Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

1.5.3 Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

1.5.4 Euler Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

1.5.5 The Axi-symmetric Heavy Top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

1.5.6 Forced Gyroscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

1.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

1.6.1 Exercises on Particle Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

1.6.2 Exercises on Rigid Body Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

1.7 Answers to Selected Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

2 Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

2.2 Linear Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

2.2.1 RC Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

2.2.2 Spring Mass Damper System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

2.3 Nonlinear Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

2.3.1 Simple Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

2.3.2 van der Pol Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

2.3.3 Double Pendulum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

2.3.4 Lorenz Weather Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

2.3.5 Rigid Body Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

2.4 Lattice Dynamics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

2.4.1 The Linear Lattice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

2.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

5

6 Contents

3 Input Output Representation of Linear Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

3.1 Graphical Description of a Input Output System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

3.2 Mathematical Description of a System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

3.2.1 First Order Linear Time Invariant System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

3.2.2 Second Order Linear Time Invariant System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

3.3 Transfer Function Model of Linear Time Invariant Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

3.3.1 Forced response of the n

th

order system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

3.4 Poles and Zeros of an Input Output System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

3.4.1 The Effect of the Poles of the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

3.5 Bounded Input Bounded Output Stability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

3.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

4 Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

4.2 Degrees of Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

4.3 Linkage Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

4.3.1 Four Bar Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

4.3.2 Instantaneous Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

4.4 Cam Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

4.5 Gear Trains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

4.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

Chapter 1

Mechanics

Fig. 1.1 Mechanics gone wrong: Tacoma Narrows bridge minutes before collapse. Figure curtesy of Wikipedia.

1.1 Introduction

Historically it is the the study of mechanics that evolved into what we call Engineering today. The following

quote by Wikipedia exemplifes this belief: “Important aspects of the felds of mechanical engineering, aerospace

engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, materials engineering, biomedical engineering and biome-

chanics were spawned from the study of mechanics”. Mechanics deals with the scientifc description of the world

as we perceive it. The language of mechanics is mathematics. There are two major branches of mechanics: classi-

cal mechanics and quantummechanics. The latter has only a history of about hundred years while the former goes

beyond the period of written history. Classical Mechanics is concerned with describing macroscopic phenomena

while quantum mechanics is mainly concerned with describing microscopic phenomena. It is widely believed

that at “large” scales quantum mechanics approximates classical mechanics. Since at this stage of undergraduate

Engineering we are mostly interested in macroscopic systems we will only consider classical mechanics.

7

8 1 Mechanics

The subject of classical mechanics is generally divided into three branches; rigid-body mechanics, deformable-

body mechanics and fuid mechanics. In this class we will concentrate on learning the basics of rigid-body

mechanics while elsewhere in the mechanical Engineering program we will learn the basics of the other two

branches. The study of rigid-body mechanics begins with describing the motion of a mathematically abstracted

point particle that does not occupy any volume in space. A general rigid body is considered to consist of a large

number of such point particles where the distance between each of the particles remain fxed. The geometric

description of the motion of these objects is what is generally known as Kinematics while the study of the cause

of motion is referred to as Kinetics.

In classical mechanics, to describe the motion of point particles we need to defne and accept three fundamen-

tal concepts; mass, time and space. The quantity called mass is a fundamental property that in a certain sense

describes the resistance to change of motion. Time is the quantity that measures the distance between two sepa-

rate events and is assumed to have an independent meaning. Finally it is also assumed that space where particle

motion occurs is a three-dimensional Euclidean space, that is a space where Euclidean geometry holds.

1.1.1 Confguration Space, Co-ordinates and Degrees of Freedom

The frst step in describing the motion of a system of point particles is the complete specifcation of each of their

positions in space. This specifcation is referred to as the confguration of the system. The set of all possible

confgurations is called the confguration space, Q. Given a certain confguration, that is a point in confguration

space, we need to describe it mathematically. The process of doing this is what we call co-ordinates. A little

more specifcally a one-to-one correspondence between portions of the confguration space and portions of R

n

for some n is called a choice of co-ordinates for the confguration space

1

. In general there can be many co-

ordinate choices for a given confguration space. The relationship between two different sets of co-ordinates is

called a co-ordinate transformation. An important fact about co-ordinates is that if the confguration space is

“smooth” then what ever the choice of co-ordinates we use, the number n in the identifcation is a constant

2

. This

number is referred to as the dimension of the confguration space. The degrees of freedom (DOF) of a system

of particles is defned to be the dimension n of the confguration space. In the following we will explore these

notions in bit more detail using several examples.

A geometrically unconstrained point particle can occupy any point in three-dimensional Euclidean space.

Thus the confguration space of a geometrically unconstrained point particle can be identifed with three-

dimensional Euclidean space. Let us frst see how we can mathematically describe points in three-dimensional

Euclidean space, or in other words how to prescribe co-ordinates for three dimensional Euclidian space. Eu-

clidean space is a space where Euclidean geometric notions such as points, lines, angles and distances have the

usual meaning. To describe a point P in this space we begin by picking a point O and setting three mutually

perpendicular unit length axis at O. Such a set of axis is called an ortho-normal frame of reference. Labelling the

axis e

1

, e

2

, e

3

to give a right handed orientation we can symbolically represent the frame as a matrix e = [e

1

e

2

e

3

]

where the e

1

, e

2

and e

3

are to be taken as symbols and nothing more. Using such a frame any point P in Euclidian

space can be uniquely described using only the three measurements (numbers) x

1

, x

2

and x

3

. These three numbers

describe respectively the distance to the point along the e

1

, e

2

, and e

3

axis. Symbolically we describe this as

OP x

1

e

1

+x

2

e

2

+x

3

e

3

=

e

1

e

2

e

3

x

1

x

2

x

3

¸

¸

= ex.

In these notes the matrix

x =

x

1

x

2

x

3

¸

¸

,

1

The precise mathematical defnition requires that these portions be open sets and that suffciently many such correspondences will

be needed to cover the entire confguration space. These details are beyond the scope of this class

2

In fact confguration spaces that satisfy this hypothesis can be called “smooth”

1.1 Introduction 9

will be referred to as the Euclidean representation matrix, or simply the representation matrix, of the position of

the point P with respect to the frame e. The components will be referred to as the position components of P with

respect to e.

If Q is another point in space and if its representation y with respect to e is given by

y =

y

1

y

2

y

3

¸

¸

,

then the distance between P and Q is assumed to be given by,

d(P, Q) [[x −y[[ =

(x

1

−y

1

)

2

+(x

2

−y

2

)

2

+(x

3

−y

3

)

2

.

This notion of distance is essentially what it means to be a Euclidean space. It allows us to mathematically defne

what a right angle is and also when two straight lines are parallel. Convince yourself that this statement is true.

Fig. 1.2 Representation of a point P in two differen Euclidean frames e and b. The two frames are parallel to each other.

Observe that the introduction of the ortho-normal frame has allowed us to make a one-to-one correspondence

between points of three dimensional Euclidean space and the set of ordered triple of numbers, R

3

. Namely by

identifying each point P with the uniquely corresponding ordered triple (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

). It has to be kept in mind

that this identifcation depends entirely on the choice of the ortho-normal frame e. For instance consider fgure

1.2. The position of the particle P is described by the two different ordered triple of real numbers (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

)

and (X

1

, X

2

, X

3

). Orhto-normal frames are also not the only means of identifying Euclidean space with R

3

.

Curvilinear frames can also be used for this identifcation. For example, as shown in fgure 1.3, we may use

the quantities (r, θ, φ) to describe a point

3

. All three sets of ordered triples (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

), (X

1

, X

2

, X

3

) and (r, θ, φ)

describe the same point but note that they are in general different. Thus the three descriptions provide three

different identifcations with R

3

. A particular identifcation of Euclidian space with R

3

is what we refer to as a

set of co-ordinates for the Euclidian space. Therefore all three sets of ordered triples (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

), (X

1

, X

2

, X

3

) and

(r, θ, φ) provide three different choices of co-ordinates for Euclidian space. However all identifcations are with

3

Observe that not every point in three dimensional Euclidian space can be uniquely represented using these co-ordinates. For

instance none of the points on the e

3

axis has a unique representation. Such points are called co-ordinate singularities of the co-

ordinate system.

10 1 Mechanics

R

3

(have three numbers or components) and thus we say that the dimension of the confguration space of the

unconstrained particle is three.

When the co-ordinates are expressed using an ortho-normal frame they are called rectangular co-ordinates.

The relationship between two different co-ordinates are called a co-ordinate transformations. The rectangular

co-ordinates of the point P, (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) are related to the spherical polar co-ordinates (r, θ, φ) by

Fig. 1.3 Description of the point P using Spherical-Polar Co-ordinates. Figure copied from [11].

x

1

= r sinφ cosθ,

x

2

= r sinφ sinθ,

x

3

= r cosφ.

Thus using spherical polar co-ordinates we can express the Euclidean representation matrix x as,

x =

x

1

x

2

x

3

¸

¸

=

r sinφ cosθ

r sinφ sinθ

r cosφ

¸

¸

.

One important thing that we have to keep in mind is that what ever the co-ordinates we use to identify Euclidean

space with R

3

we will always use the Euclidean representation matrix to represent a point in space.

When a particle is geometrically constrained the confguration space of the particle will no longer be the

three-dimensional Euclidean space. For instance if the particle is constrained to move such that its distance to

the origin is always fxed then the confguration space can be identifed with the sphere and if it is additionally

constrained to move in a plane then the confguration space can be identifed with the circle. A little less obvious

example is the planar double pendulum discussed in the following example.

Example 1.1. Consider the planar double pendulum shown in fgure 1.4. The confguration space of mass m

1

can

clearly be identifed with the circle with origin at the fxed point and radius L

1

. With respect to m

1

the possible

confgurations of m

2

lie on the circle with origin at m

1

and radius L

2

. Thus if the confguration of m

1

(that is

the location of m

1

on the circle of radius L

1

and origin at the fxed point) is known then the confguration of m

2

can be uniquely specifed if we specify the position of m

2

on the circle with origin at m

1

and radius L

2

. Thus the

confguration space of the two particle system is the torus SS.

1.1 Introduction 11

Fig. 1.4 The Double Planar Pendulum

The idea of co-ordinates for a general confguration space, such as a sphere, a circle or a torus, is developed

in a fashion similar to what we have done so far for Euclidean space. Roughly, we try to associate points

of the confguration space with an ordered n-tuple of numbers in an essentially unique way. That is we

identify either the entire confguration space, or a signifcant portion of it with with some portion of R

n

.

Such an identifcation is called a choice of co-ordinates for the confguration space

4

. If a particular co-

ordinate choice is incapable of covering all the points of a confguration space we may require several

other choices to represent these points as well. Then by “patching” them together we can “cover” all the

points in the confguration space.

Example 1.2. If the confguration space is a circle, as is the case for a simple blob pendulum, then the single

quantity θ is suffcient to uniquely describe every point except one point on the circle

5

. Thus prescribing θ

allows us to uniquely identify almost all points on the circle with R and provides a choice of co-ordinates for the

circle. Since the identifcation has only one component or in other words is with R the circle is one dimensional.

To account for the problematic point we can start from a different point on the circle to get a different angle

correspondence. That gives us another choice of co-ordinates for the circle. Collectively both these co-ordinates

will cover all the points on the circle.

Example 1.3. Let us consider the sphere. Referring to fgure 1.3 we can see that the two independent quantities

θ and φ uniquely describe every a point on the sphere except the North and South poles of the sphere

6

. Thus

(θ, φ) provide us with a choice of co-ordinates for the sphere and covers almost all points on the sphere. That is

we have prescribed a way of uniquely identifying any point, except the poles, on the sphere with a point in R

2

.

Since the identifcation is with R

2

the dimension of the sphere is two.

1.1.2 Holonomic Constraints

In general when a point particle is geometrically constrained to move in three-dimensional Euclidean space

the three quantities x

1

, x

2

, x

3

, comprising the components of the Euclidean representation matrix x, will not be

independent. If the motion of the particle is geometrically constrained so that the quantities (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) have

to satisfy some scalar expression h(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) = 0 then the particle is said to be Holonomically constrained.

Holonomic constraints reduce the degrees of freedom. A single constraint of the form h(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) = 0 reduces

the DOF by one, from three to two. If the number of such constraints are two then the DOF of the particle

reduces to one. For instance when the particle is constrained to move on a sphere of radius equal to one then

the constraint equation in the spherical-polar co-ordinates is h(r, θ, φ) = r −1 = 0 and the position matrix x will

become [sinφ cosθ sinφ sinθ cosφ]

T

. Notice that the two independent measurements (θ, φ) are suffcient to

5

The points described by θ = 0 and θ = 2π is the same point hence the uniqueness fails at this point.

6

Try to reason why this is so.

12 1 Mechanics

describe the Euclidean position uniquely when φ =0, π. If the particle is constrained to move in a circle of radius

one that lies in the e

1

, e

2

plane then there are two constraints, h

1

(r, θ, φ) = r −1 = 0, h

2

(r, θ, φ) = φ −π/2 = 0

and the position matrix x will become [cosθ sinθ 0]

T

. Once again notice that the single measurement θ is

suffcient to describe the Euclidean position uniquely. The general expression

n = 3− f , (1.1)

relates the DOF, n, of a particle moving in three dimensional space to the number of holonomic constraints, f ,

imposed on that particle. Also recall that this is equal to the dimension of the confguration space of the particle.

If N points are moving in space then the total degrees of freedom of the system of points (or the dimension of

the confguration space) is

n = 3N− f , (1.2)

where now f is the total number of holonomic constraints of the system of points. In this class what ever the

co-ordinates we use to describe the confguration of a particle we will always use a Euclidean representation

matrix to represent the point in space and analyze its motion in the underlying Euclidean space. The components

of the representation matrix will be functions of the co-ordinates.

1.2 Particle Motion

1.2.1 Kinematics of a Particle Moving in Space

Fig. 1.5 The Velocity of a Particle described with respect to a frame e.

Consider a point particle moving in space. The position P(t) of the particle at a given time t is expressed by

the representation matrix x(t) with respect to some frame e. Since the position of the particle is changing with

1.2 Particle Motion 13

time x(t) is a function of time and describes a curve in e that is parameterized by time t. The velocity of the point

P with respect to the e frame is defned to be the infnitesimal change of position with respect to e. That is

v(t) lim

δt→0

x(t +δt) −x(t)

δt

= ˙ x(t) =

˙ x

1

˙ x

2

˙ x

3

¸

¸

.

Thus by defnition v(t) gives the tangent to the curve at P(t) (Refer tofgure 1.5). The components

v

i

(t) = lim

δt→0

x

i

(t +δt) −x

i

(t)

δt

i = 1, 2, 3

represent the infnitesimal change of position in the e

i

direction. Thus the correct way to visualize v(t) is to

consider it as the description of a point in a frame that is parallel to e but with origin at P(t) (Refer tofgure 1.5).

The magnitude of the velocity in the e frame is defned to be

v [[v[[ =

v

2

1

+v

2

2

+v

2

3

.

The acceleration measured in the e frame is defned to be the infnitesimal change of velocity in the e frame,

a(t) lim

δt→0

v(t +δt) −v(t)

δt

= ˙ v(t) = ¨ x(t) =

¨ x

1

¨ x

2

¨ x

3

¸

¸

.

In general, since the position representation are different from frame to frame the velocities and accelerations

expressed in one frame will be different form those expressed with respect to another. Thus it is important to

always specify the frame with which they are expressed.

Example 1.4. Consider a particle constrained to move on a sphere of radius r (refer to fgure 1.3). The repre-

sentation of P using an ortho-normal frame e fxed at the center of the sphere can be expressed using the polar

co-ordinates (θ, φ) as

x = r

sinφ cosθ

sinφ sinθ

cosφ

¸

¸

.

Then the velocity in the e frame expressed using the polar co-ordinates is

v = ˙ x = r

˙

φ cosφ cosθ −

˙

θ sinφ sinθ

˙

φ cosφ sinθ +

˙

θ sinφ cosθ

−

˙

φ sinφ

¸

¸

.

and the acceleration in the e frame expressed using the polar co-ordinates is

a = ˙ v = r

a

¨

φ cosφ cosθ −

˙

φ

2

sinφ cosθ −2

˙

φ

˙

θ cosφ sinθ −

˙

θ

2

sinφ cosθ −

¨

θ sinφ sinθ

¨

φ cosφ sinθ −

˙

φ

2

sinφ sinθ +2

˙

φ

˙

θ cosφ cosθ −

˙

θ

2

sinφ sinθ +

¨

θ sinφ cosθ

−

¨

φ sinφ −

˙

φ

2

cosφ

¸

¸

.

1.2.2 Kinetics of a Particle Moving in Space

Kinetics deal with the apparent causes of motion. In this section we investigate the cause of motion in classical

mechanics. Given the present “state” of a particle, the primary interest in mechanics is to be able to completely

predict the future “state” of it. More precisely we need to know what measurements are required at the present

14 1 Mechanics

time in order to be able to uniquely describe the position of a point of mass m for all future times. For macro-

scopic motions, the answer to this deep and profound question was provided by Newton. He postulated that for

macroscopic motions the acceleration a(t) of a given particle was not an independent (arbitrary) quantity but that

it was completely specifed. More precisely in his second law he stated that in a given frame e

m¨ x = ma(t) = f (t), (1.3)

where f (t) was completely known. For macroscopic motion this notion has been verifed experimentally. In this

expression the mass of the point is taken to be a fundamental property of the point and is further assumed to be

a constant. From a mathematical perspective equation (1.3) describes a second order differential equation and

solving it for x(t) will enable us to predict the position for all future time. To solve this equation we need to know

the right hand side at every time instant t as well as know the initial conditions x(t

0

) = x

0

and v(t

0

) = v

0

. Thus

knowing the right hand side turned out to be a crucial step in describing the position and as such was termed

to be the cause of motion. Newton termed this constraint on mass times acceleration, the Force acting on the

particle in the ortho-normal frame e. Thus the force “felt” in a frame e is nothing but mass times the acceleration

in that frame. The force can not be directly measured and can only be inferred indirectly by resorting to other

physical reasoning and justifcations.

Example 1.5. Consider the problem of a horizontal spring with one end fxed to a support and the other end fxed

to point mass P, of mass m. If we give an initial horizontal displacement to the point mass we know empirically

that the point mass will exhibit a simple harmonic motion if the air and other resistances on the particle is

negligible and the motion is small. That is if x(t) is the displacement of the mass from the unstretched position

and if the air resistance on the particle is negligible and the motion is small the position x(t) of the particle P at

a given time t is described by the second order differential equation

m¨ x(t) =−kx(t).

Observing this expression it is evident that the mass times the acceleration of the particle is constrained and is

equal to −kx(t). Thus we would call −kx(t) the force exerted by the spring on the particle. Observe that we can

not directly measure this instead we can only infer it by measuring the defection of the spring.

1.2.3 Relative Motion

In the previous sections it was pointed out that the position, velocity and acceleration of a point particle are

expressed with respect to a given reference frame. Choosing different frames of reference result in different

representations. Recalling that the force felt in a frame is nothing but mass times acceleration in that frame we

see that the forces felt in the two frames will also be different. In this section we will see how these different

descriptions with respect to different frames are related to each other.

1.2.3.1 Parallely Translating Frames

Let e be an ortho-normal frame of reference and b(t) be another ortho-normal frame of reference that is parallely

translating with respect to e. We will also refer to b(t) as a moving frame. Let the origin O

/

(t) of the translating

frame have the representation o(t) with respect to the frame e. Consider a point P(t) moving in Euclidian space.

This point can be expressed in two different ways using the two different frames. Let x(t) and X(t) be the

representations of the point P(t) in the e and b(t) frames respectively (refer to fgure 1.6). In Euclidian space the

meaning of b(t) being parallel to e is that the two representations x(t) and X(t) of P are related by,

x(t) = o(t) +X(t). (1.4)

Observing that symbolically this means

OP(t) = ex(t) = eo(t) +b(t)X(t)

1.2 Particle Motion 15

Fig. 1.6 Frame b(t) is parallely translating with respect to frame e.

you will notice that this is what you traditionally wrote down as

OP(t) = OO

/

(t) +O

/

P(t),

for addition of “vectors”.

The velocity of the point P(t) measured in frame e is

v(t) = ˙ x(t),

and measured in the moving frame is

V(t) =

˙

X(t).

Differentiating (1.4) we see that the two measured velocities are related by

v(t) = ˙ x(t) = ˙ o(t) +

˙

X(t) = ˙ o(t) +V(t). (1.5)

The acceleration of the point P(t) measured in the e frame is

a(t) = ˙ v(t) = ¨ x(t),

and measured in the moving frame is

A(t) =

˙

V(t) =

¨

X(t).

Differentiating (1.5) we see that the two measured accelerations are related by

a(t) = ˙ v(t) = ¨ o(t) +

˙

V(t) = ¨ o(t) +A(t). (1.6)

From (1.6) and (1.3) we have

f (t) = ma(t) = m( ¨ o(t) +A(t)),

and hence that the total force experienced in the moving frame is

16 1 Mechanics

F

b

(t) = mA(t) =−m ¨ o(t) + f (t). (1.7)

That is an observer moving with the translating frame will, in addition to the force f (t) felt in the e frame, also

experience another apparent force

F

app

=−m ¨ o(t). (1.8)

Recall that force felt in a frame is simply the mass times the acceleration of the particle in that frame. This

particular type of apparent forces that arise as a consequence of the translational accelerating motion of the

reference frame are called Einstein forces. If either b(t) is fxed with respect to e or is moving at a constant

velocity with respect to e then ¨ o = 0 and therefore the forces felt in both frames are the same. Such frames are

said to be inertial with respect to e.

Do exercise 1.6 at this moment. In exercise 1.6 you are asked to explain why a person standing on a scale

inside an elevator sees his or her weight doubled as the elevator accelerates up at a rate of g and sees the weight

reduced to zero if the elevator decelerates at a rate of g where g is the gravitational acceleration. You are also

asked to show that if, for some reason, the gravitational force feld vanished and that the elevator was moving up

at an acceleration of g then the scale would show the correct weight of the person. This last observation shows

that a person inside the elevator can not distinguish between the following two cases:

a.) Gravity is present and the elevator is standing still (or moving at constant velocity).

b.) Gravity is absent and the elevator is accelerating upwards at a rate of g.

It is this observation that led Einstein to the conclusions of General Relativity and in particular that gravity is an

apparent force !!!

1.2.3.2 Rotating Frames

Fig. 1.7 Frame b(t) is rotating with respect to frame e about the coinciding origin O.

Let e be an ortho-normal frame of reference and b(t) be an ortho-normal frame of reference that is rotating

with respect to e. We will consider the case where both origins coincide at the point O in space (rotating frames).

Then the two frames are related by

b(t) = eR(t), (1.9)

1.2 Particle Motion 17

where R(t) is a special orthogonal matrix (ie R

T

R = I and det(R) = 1). For 3-dimensional Euclidian motions

e = [e

1

e

2

e

3

], b(t) = [b

1

(t) b

2

(t) b

3

(t)] and R(t) is a 33 matrix (refer to fgure 1.7).

The point P(t) can be expressed in both fames as

OP(t) = ex(t) = b(t)X(t) = eR(t)X(t), (1.10)

where x(t) is the representation of the point P(t) with respect to the frame e and X(t) is the representation of the

point P(t) with respect to the moving frame b(t). Thus the two representations are related by

x(t) = R(t)X(t). (1.11)

The velocity of the point P(t) measured in the e frame is v(t) = ˙ x(t), and measured in the moving frame b(t) is

V(t) =

˙

X(t).

Now differentiating (1.11) we have that

v(t) = ˙ x(t) =

˙

R(t)X(t) +R(t)

˙

X(t) = R(t)

R

T

(t)

˙

R(t)X(t) +V(t)

= R(t)V

b

(t). (1.12)

The quantity V

b

(t) is given by

V

b

(t) = R

T

(t)

˙

R(t)X(t) +V(t). (1.13)

Observe that V

b

is the velocity v(t) expressed using the moving frame b(t). This is only a derived quantity as

compared to the other measured quantities. Since R

T

(t)R(t) = I, it follows that

˙

R

T

R+R

T

˙

R = 0,

and hence that

R

T

˙

R =−(R

T

˙

R)

T

=

ˆ

Ω,

where

ˆ

Ω is a skew symmetric matrix.

In exercise 1.8 you are asked to show that the space of 33 skew-symmetric matrices can be identifed with,

the set of ordered triple of real numbers, R

3

, using the identifcation Ω →

ˆ

Ω where

ˆ

Ω =

0 −Ω

3

Ω

2

Ω

3

0 −Ω

1

−Ω

2

Ω

1

0

¸

¸

, (1.14)

and Ω = (Ω

1

, Ω

2

, Ω

3

). In exercise 1.10 you are also asked to show that for 3 3 skew symmetric matrices

ˆ

ΩX = Ω X.

It can be shown that in the case of 3-dimensional Euclidian motion the quantity Ω corresponds to an instan-

taneous rotation of the b(t) frame about the axis Ω through O by an amount equal to the magnitude [[Ω[[. Thus

Ω is defned to be the angular velocity of points that appear to be fxed in the b(t) frame.

Substituting R

T

˙

R =−(R

T

˙

R)

T

=

ˆ

Ω in (1.13) the velocity v expressed using the moving frame b(t) is given by

R

T

(t)v(t) =V

b

(t) =

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +V(t). (1.15)

Therefore the two velocities, v(t) and V(t) are explicitly related by

v(t) = R(t)

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +V(t)

. (1.16)

The acceleration of the point P(t) measured in the e frame is a(t) = ˙ v(t) = ¨ x(t), and measured in the moving

frame is A(t) =

˙

V(t) =

¨

X(t). Differentiating (1.12) we have that

a(t) =

˙

R(t)V

b

(t) +R(t)

˙

V

b

(t) = R(t)

R

T

(t)

˙

R(t)V

b

(t) +

˙

V

b

(t)

,

= R(t)

ˆ

Ω(t)V

b

(t) +

˙

V

b

(t)

= R(t)A

b

(t), (1.17)

18 1 Mechanics

where

A

b

(t) =

ˆ

Ω(t)V

b

(t) +

˙

V

b

(t),

=

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) +2

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +A(t). (1.18)

Observe that A

b

is the acceleration of the particle in the e frame expressed in the moving frame b(t). This too is

only a derived quantity as compared to the other measured quantities.

From (1.17) and (1.18) the two accelerations, a(t) and A(t) are explicitly related by

a(t) = R(t)

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) +2

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +A(t)

. (1.19)

From (1.18) and (1.3) we have that

f (t) = ma(t) = m(R(t)A

b

(t)) = mR(t)

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) +2

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +A(t)

, (1.20)

and hence in the rotating moving frame we have that

F

b

(t) = mA(t) =−m

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) −2m

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) −m

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +R

T

f (t). (1.21)

The quantity R

T

f (t) is the force felt in the e frame but expressed using the b(t) frame. Thus an observer moving

with the rotating frame will, in addition to the rotating frame version of the force felt in the e frame, feel the

effect of the apparent force:

F

app

= −m

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) −2m

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) −m

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t). (1.22)

The frst term −m

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) is known as the Centrifugal force, the second term −2m

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) is known as the

Coriolis force and the third term −m

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) is known as the Euler force.

Using these expression we can explain many physical effects. In the following we also use these equations to

show the effects of Earths rotation on gravity as well as on the formation of hurricanes and the motion of a long

pendulum known as the Foucault’s pendulum.

Effects of Earth’s Rotation about its Axis

Let us consider the effect that the Earth’s rotation about its axis has on the motion of a particle as observed in an

Earth fxed frame at a point O

/

(with latitude α) on the surface of the Earth. Consider fgure 1.8. Let c(t) be an

ortho-normal frame fxed on Earth with center at O

/

. The frame is oriented such that c

2

is aligned perpendicular

to the Earth (vertical direction), c

3

is aligned in the South - North direction (along the latitude), and c

1

is aligned

in the East - West direction (along the longitude). Let b be a frame that is parallel to c and fxed on Earth with

origin at the center of the Earth O. Let a be a frame with origin at O and a

3

aligns along the axis of rotation of

the Earth, a

1

≡b

1

and O

/

lies in the a

2

−a

3

plane. Thus if b(t) = a(t)R

1

R

1

=

1 0 0

0 cosα −sinα

0 sinα cosα

¸

¸

,

where α is the latitude angle and is a constant. Let e be a frame with origin, O, at the center of Earth and parallel

to a frame fxed on the sun. The frame is oriented such that the e

3

direction coincides with the axis of rotation of

the Earth, ie a

3

≡e

3

and a(t) = eR

2

(t)

R

2

=

cosθ −sinθ 0

sinθ cosθ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

,

1.2 Particle Motion 19

Fig. 1.8 Effects of Earth’s Rotation about its Axis: Frame c is fxed on the surface of the Earth with origin coinciding at O

/

. Frame

b is paralle to c with center O coinciding with the center of the earth. Frame a is fxed on the earth with origin at O and a

3

aligned

along the axis of rotation of the earth. The origin of frame e coincides with O and e

3

is always aligned along a

3

.

and θ is the angle of rotation of the Earth about its axis.

We are interested in analyzing the motion of a particle P as observed in the frame c(t). Let the representa-

tion of the point P in the c(t) frame be X

p

(t), ie. O

/

P = c(t)X

p

(t). Since OO

/

= b(t)o and c is parallel to b we

have that OP = OO

/

+O

/

P = b(t)(o+X

p

). Since by construction O

/

is a distance r (r is the radius of the Earth)

away on the b

2

axis, o = [0 r 0]

T

and is a constant.

Thus if x(t) is the representation of P in e we have

ex(t) = b(t)(o+X

p

(t)) = eR

2

R

1

(o+X

p

(t)) = eRX.

Thus

x = RX(t)

where R = R

2

R

1

and X = o+X

p

. From Newton’s equations in the rotating frame, (1.21), we have

m

¨

X(t) =−m

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) −2m

ˆ

Ω(t)

˙

X(t) −m

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +R

T

f (t). (1.23)

Let us decompose the total force in to two components f = f

g

+ f

e

where f

g

is the gravitational force and f

e

is

the additional external forces. Gravity acts in the OP direction. Thus

f

g

=−

mg

[[x[[

x =−

mg

[[X[[

RX,

and hence

R

T

f

g

=−

mg

[[X[[

X.

Substituting this in (1.23) and noting that the Earth is rotating at a constant rate (hence

˙

ˆ

Ω = 0) we have

20 1 Mechanics

¨

X = −

ˆ

Ω

2

X −2

ˆ

Ω

˙

X −g

X

[[X[[

+

1

m

R

T

f

e

, (1.24)

= −2

ˆ

Ω

˙

X −

gI

33

+[[X[[

ˆ

Ω

2

X

[[X[[

+

1

m

R

T

f

e

. (1.25)

Observe that these equations describe the motion of a particle as observed in a frame fxed on Earth with origin

coinciding that with the center of the Earth. From (1.24) it can be seen that the motion of the particle in the Earth

fxed frame, in addition to the gravity and external forces, is also infuenced by the Centrifugal and Coriolis terms

that arise due to the rotation of the Earth. In equation (1.25) the Centrifugal term has been combined with the

gravity term. This allows one to see that the effective gravity felt by an observer will change with the latitude of

the location of the observer. We will explain this in a bit more detail at the end of this section.

Recall X = o+X

p

where o is a constant and X

p

is the representation of the point P in the Earth fxed frame c

fxed on the surface of the Earth at O

/

. Then

˙

X =

˙

X

p

and

¨

X =

¨

X

p

thus from (1.25) we have that

¨

X

p

=−2

ˆ

Ω

˙

X

p

−

gI

33

+[[X

p

+o[[

ˆ

Ω

2

X

p

+o

[[X

p

+o[[

+

1

m

R

T

f

e

, (1.26)

describes the motion of a point particle m as observed in the Earth fxed frame with origin O

/

on the surface of the

Earth. This is the case that applies to us when we observe particle motion. Since compared to the motion of the

particle o is very large (since the r is very large) we can approximate (X

p

+o) ≈o and then (1.26) approximates

to

¨

X

p

=−2

ˆ

Ω

˙

X

p

−

gI

33

+r

ˆ

Ω

2

χ +

1

m

R

T

f

e

, (1.27)

where χ = [0 1 0]

T

. These equations can be used to describe many natural phenomena. For instance it explains

why a Hurricane formed in the Nothern hemisphere rotates in a counter–clockwise direction and a Hurricane

formed in the Southern hemisphere rotates in a clockwise direction (see fgure 1.9). You are asked to show this

in exercise 1.22. It can also be used to show the shift of the oscillating plane in the Foucault’s pendulum.

(a) A Southern Hurricane (Catarina). (b) A Northern Polar Hurricane.

Fig. 1.9 Figures show the clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation of respectively a southern hemisphere and northern hemisphere

formed hurricane. Figures are courtesy of Wikipedia.

To compute

ˆ

Ω consider

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω. Since R = R

2

R

1

differentiating we have that

˙

R =

˙

R

2

R

1

= R

2

ˆ

Ω

e

R

1

= R

2

R

1

R

T

1

ˆ

Ω

e

R

1

= R

ˆ

Ω,

and hence that

ˆ

Ω = R

T

1

ˆ

Ω

e

R

1

.

Now from

˙

R

2

= R

2

ˆ

Ω

e

we have that

ˆ

Ω

e

=

0 −Ω

e

0

Ω

e

0 0

0 0 0

¸

¸

,

where Ω

e

=

˙

θ is the angular velocity of Earth about its axis of rotation. Thus we have

1.2 Particle Motion 21

ˆ

Ω =

0 −Ω

e

cosα Ω

e

sinα

Ω

e

cosα 0 0

−Ω

e

sinα 0 0

¸

¸

,

and

ˆ

Ω

2

=−Ω

2

e

1 0 0

0 cos

2

α −cosα sinα

0 −cosα sinα sin

2

α

¸

¸

.

Thus explicitly written down equation (1.27) reads

¨

X

p

1

= 2Ω

e

cosα

˙

X

p

2

−2Ω

e

sinα

˙

X

p

3

+

1

m

F

1

, (1.28)

¨

X

p

2

= −2Ω

e

cosα

˙

X

p

1

+(rΩ

2

e

cos

2

α −g) +

1

m

F

2

, (1.29)

¨

X

p

3

= 2Ω

e

sinα

˙

X

p

1

−rΩ

2

e

cosα sinα +

1

m

F

3

, (1.30)

where R

T

f

e

= F = [F

1

F

2

F

3

]

T

. From equation (1.30) it can be seen that the gravity felt at the point O

/

on

the surface of the Earth is in fact rΩ

2

e

cos

2

α −g and depends on the latitude of the point O

/

. At the poles

α = π/2, −π/2 and cosα = 0. Thus “true” gravity is only felt at the South and North poles. At the equator

α = 0 and thus the gravity felt is a minimum at the equator. This also tells us that away from the equator we feel

slightly heavier than at the equator!!!

The rotational velocity of the Earth, Ω

e

=

2π

23h56m4s

= 7.292 10

−5

rad/s, is very small and thus for most

applications these effects can be neglected and then the equations (1.25) reduce to the usual

¨

X

p

=−gχ +

1

m

R

T

f

e

. (1.31)

Explicitly written down they are:

¨

X

p

1

=

1

m

F

1

, (1.32)

¨

X

p

2

= −g+

1

m

F

2

, (1.33)

¨

X

p

3

=

1

m

F

3

. (1.34)

Example 1.6. Consider the following problem. At a point on Earth on the equator a cannon is dropped from a

vertical height of h with zero velocity. Where will the cannon land?

At the equator the latitude is zero, α = 0. Since no other external forces are present F = 0. Furthermore let

˙

X

p

i

=V

p

i

. Then (1.28) — (1.30) reduce to

˙

V

p

1

= 2Ω

e

V

p

2

,

˙

V

p

2

= −2Ω

e

V

p

1

+(rΩ

2

e

−g),

˙

V

p

3

= 0.

Integrating the third equation twice we have

X

p

3

(t) =V

p

3

(0)t +X

p

3

(0).

From second equation since compared to g the other two terms are very small we can approximate the third

equation by

˙

V

p

2

=−g.

Thus approximately we have

22 1 Mechanics

V

p

2

(t) = −gt +V

p

2

(0),

X

p

2

(t) = −

g

2

t

2

+V

p

2

(0)t +X

p

2

(0).

Now integrating the

˙

V

p

1

equation we have

V

p

1

(t) = −Ω

e

gt

2

+2Ω

e

V

p

2

(0)t +V

p

1

(0),

X

p

1

(t) = −

Ω

e

g

3

t

3

+Ω

e

V

p

2

(0)t

2

+V

p

1

(0)t +X

p

1

(0).

In the case of the cannon being dropped from a vertical height, h, we have that all the initial conditions except

for X

p

2

(0) = h is zero. Thus we have

X

p

1

(t) = −

Ω

e

g

3

t

3

,

X

p

2

(t) = −

g

2

t

2

+h,

X

p

3

(t) = 0.

If T is the time that the cannon falls back on to the ground we have that X

p

2

(T) =−gT

2

/2+h = 0 and thus that

T =

2h/g. Thus

X

p

1

(T) =−

Ω

e

g

3

T

3

=−

2hΩ

e

3

2h

g

.

That is, a cannon dropped from a vertical height,h, from a point O

/

on the equator will land at a distance

2hΩ

e

/3

**2h/g to the East from O
**

/

. Approximately if h = 100m then the cannon will fall 1cm towards the

East.

1.2.3.3 General Moving Frames

Fig. 1.10 Frame b(t) is is translating and rotating with respect to e.

Let e be an ortho-normal frame of reference and b(t) be a moving ortho-normal frame of reference with

origins O and O

/

respectively. In this section we consider the case where the frame b(t) is rotating with respect to

the frame e as well as translating with respect to e (ie. the origin O

/

of the b(t) frame is also moving with respect

to the frame e). Then a point P(t) can be expressed in both fames as

1.3 Particle Motion in two-dimensions 23

OP(t) = ex(t) = eo(t) +b(t)X(t) = e (o(t) +R(t)X(t)), (1.35)

where x(t) and o(t) are the representations of the points P(t) and O

/

(t) in the frame e while X(t) is the represen-

tation of P(t) in the moving frame b(t). Thus the two representations of the point P are related by

x(t) = o(t) +R(t)X(t). (1.36)

The velocity of the point P(t) measured in the frame e is v(t) = ˙ x(t), and measured in the moving frame is

V(t) =

˙

X(t).

Now differentiating (1.36) we have that

v(t) = R(t)

R

T

(t) ˙ o(t) +

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +V(t)

= R(t)V

b

(t), (1.37)

where the quantity V

b

(t)

V

b

(t) = R

T

(t) ˙ o(t) +

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +V(t), (1.38)

is the velocity in e expressed with respect to the moving frame b(t). Let V

o

(t) = R

T

(t) ˙ o(t) be the velocity of the

point O

/

(t) represented using b(t).

The acceleration of the point P(t) measured in the frame e is a(t) = ˙ v(t) = ¨ x(t), and measured in the mov-

ing frame is A(t) =

˙

V(t) =

¨

X(t). Differentiating (1.37) we have that

a(t) =

˙

R(t)V

b

(t) +R(t)

˙

V

b

(t) = R(t)

ˆ

Ω(t)V

b

(t) +

˙

V

b

(t)

,

= R(t)A

b

(t), (1.39)

where

A

b

(t) =

˙

V

o

(t) +

ˆ

Ω(t)V

o

(t) +

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) +2

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +A(t), (1.40)

is the acceleration of the particle in e expressed in the moving frame b(t).

From (1.40) and (1.3) we have that

f (t) = ma(t) = mR(t)

˙

V

o

(t) +

ˆ

Ω(t)V

o

(t) +

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) +2

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +A(t)

, (1.41)

and hence in the general moving frame we have that

F

b

(t) = mA(t) =−m

˙

V

o

(t) −m

ˆ

Ω(t)V

o

(t) −m

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) −2m

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) −m

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +R

T

f (t). (1.42)

1.3 Particle Motion in two-dimensions

In this section we specialize the results derived in the previous sections to motion restricted to two dimensional

Euclidean space. First let us consider the case of rotating 2-D frames. Without loss of generality let us assume

that the motion takes place in the e

1

, e

2

plane and that the frame b(t) is rotated about e

3

by an angle θ (refer to

fgure 1.11). That is b

3

(t) ≡e

3

and if b(t) = eR(t) the rotation matrix R(t) takes the form

R(t) =

cosθ −sinθ 0

sinθ cosθ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

. (1.43)

Let

R

22

=

¸

cosθ −sinθ

sinθ cosθ

.

24 1 Mechanics

Fig. 1.11 Frame b is rotated about the e

3

axis.

Then in this compact notation

R(t) =

¸

R

22

0

0 1

, (1.44)

where the zero in the frst row is a 21 zero matrix and the zero in the second row is a 12 zero matrix. Observe

that R

22

is a 22 special orthogonal matrix.

The representation of a point P in the e

1

, e

2

plane takes the form

x =

x

1

x

2

0

¸

¸

=

¸

x

21

0

where

x

21

=

¸

x

1

x

2

**in the e frame and
**

X =

X

1

X

2

0

¸

¸

=

¸

X

21

0

where

X

21

=

¸

X

1

X

2

**in the b(t) frame.
**

In these notations the relationship between the representations (1.11) reduces to

x

21

(t) = R

22

(t)X

21

(t). (1.45)

Now we also have that

˙

R(t) =

¸

˙

R

22

0

0 0

=

¸

R

22

ˆ

Ω

22

0

0 0

, (1.46)

where

ˆ

Ω

22

=

¸

0 −Ω

Ω 0

,

1.4 Kinetic Energy of a Point Particle 25

with Ω =

˙

θ and thus

˙

R

22

= R

22

ˆ

Ω

22

. (1.47)

The force felt in the e frame and represented in the e frame can be expressed as

f =

f

1

f

2

f

3

¸

¸

=

¸

f

21

f

3

where

f

21

=

¸

f

1

f

2

,

and in the b(t) frame as

F = R

T

f =

F

1

F

2

F

3

¸

¸

=

¸

F

21

f

3

where

F

21

=

¸

F

1

F

2

.

Finally using all of this we will have that the Newton’s equation (1.21) reduces to

m

¨

X

21

(t) = −m

ˆ

Ω

2

22

(t)X

21

(t) −2m

ˆ

Ω

22

(t)

˙

X

21

(t) −m

˙

ˆ

Ω

22

(t)X

21

(t) +F

21

(t), (1.48)

0 = f

3

. (1.49)

Observe that equation (1.49) simply states that the force felt in the e

3

direction should be zero. Also observe that

(1.48) is identical in form to (1.21). Thus from the beginning if we had simply neglected the e

3

direction and

used e = [e

1

e

2

] and b = [b

1

b

2

] then b(t) = eR

22

(t). Now following the same procedure of applying Newton’s

equations in the b(t) frame we would arrive at (1.48).

The two dimensional restriction for general moving frames follows exactly the same way with matrices ap-

propriately restricted to their 22 versions as described above, and therefor we omit it.

1.4 Kinetic Energy of a Point Particle

The kinetic energy KE

p

of a particle of mass m is defned with respect to an inertial frame. An inertial frame

is a frame that is either fxed with respect to the distant galaxies or is translating without rotations at a constant

velocity with respect to the distant galaxies. Let e be such an inertial frame. Then the kinetic energy of a point

particle of mass m is defned to be

KE

p

1

2

m[[v(t)[[

2

, (1.50)

where [[ ∙ [[ is the Euclidian norm in R

3

and is defned to be [[X[[

2

=X

T

X =X ∙ X (physically this gives the length

of the vector X).

Since [[RX[[ =[[X[[ with respect to a frame b(t) rotating purely with respect to the inertial frame, e, we also

have that

KE

p

=

1

2

m[[v(t)[[

2

=

1

2

m[[R

T

(t)v(t)[[

2

=

1

2

m[[V

b

(t)[[

2

.

Hence from (1.15) we have that,

KE

p

=

1

2

m[[V

b

(t)[[

2

=

1

2

m

−X

T

ˆ

Ω

2

X +2V

T

ˆ

ΩX +[[V[[

2

. (1.51)

If the particle P is fxed with respect to the purely rotating frame then V(t) =

˙

X(t) = 0 and hence

26 1 Mechanics

KE

p

=

1

2

m[[V

b

(t)[[

2

=

1

2

m

−X

T

ˆ

Ω

2

X

. (1.52)

1.5 Rigid Body Motion 27

1.5 Rigid Body Motion

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Fig. 1.12 Two examples of rigid body motion. Figure (a) is a picture of a Segway, fgure (b) is a model Vertical Take Off and

Landing (VTOL) Vehicle, fgure (c) is a model of the Mars rover land robot and fgure (d) is a picture of a mobile land robot with a

manipulator.

1.5.1 Rotational Motion

First let us consider a rigid body that is free to rotate about a fxed point O. Let e be a “fxed” ortho-normal

frame and let b(t) be a body-fxed ortho-normal frame (which we will call the body frame). Both frames have

coinciding origins at O. The position of a point P in the body, at a time t, is given by the x(t) with respect to the

frame e and by X with respect to the body frame b(t). Observe that since the frame b(t) is fxed in the body, the

representation X is independent of time. At t = 0, the two frames coincide (ie. b(0) = e). We have already seen

that the two frames are related by

b(t) = eR(t)

and hence that

x(t) = R(t)X,

28 1 Mechanics

where R(t) is a special orthogonal matrix.Observe that the rest of the points are fxed with respect to P and that

therefore specifying P amounts to specifying the confguration of the rigid body. Since X is a constant specify-

ing R(t) amounts to the specifcation of P. In this fashion any given confguration of the body can be uniquely

identifed with a special orthogonal matrix R. Thus the confguration space of a rigid body rotating about a fxed

point is the space of 33 special orthogonal matrices. This space can be shown to be a three dimensional space.

Thus a rigid body with one point fxed has 3 DOF. There are many ways of choosing co-ordinates for this space.

One common way of doing it is to use Euler angles.

Recall that,

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω,

is given by (1.14) for 3-dimensional Euclidian motions. It can be shown that in the case of 3-dimensional Euclid-

ian motion the quantity Ω corresponds to an instantaneous rotation of the body about the axis Ω by an amount

equal to the magnitude [[Ω[[. Thus in both cases Ω is defned to be the body angular velocity of the rigid body.

To analyze the kinematics of a rotating rigid body we consider it to be made up of a very large number of

point masses that are fxed with respect to each other. Let us analyze the mechanics of one of these point masses,

P. The velocity and acceleration of the point P at time t as measured in the inertial frame e is v(t) = R(t)V

b

(t)

and a(t) = R(t)A

b

(t) respectively where from (1.15)

V

b

(t) =

ˆ

Ω(t)X, (1.53)

and from (1.18)

A

b

(t) =

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X, (1.54)

are their respective body representations. Let

f

p

(t) = f

r

p

(t) + f

e

p

(t)

be the expression of the total force acting on the point mass P with respect to the fxed frame e. Here f

r

p

is

the force that maintains rigidity and arises due to the interaction of the neighboring particles and f

e

p

(t) is the

resultant external force expressed in the inertial frame. Their respective representations in the body frame are

R

T

(t) f

r

p

(t) = F

r

p

(t) and R

T

(t) f

e

p

(t) = F

e

p

(t). Due to the assumption of rigidity it follows that F

r

p

, the interaction

force as seen in the body, is a constant. Applying Newton’s equations we have that

f

p

(t) = ma(t) = mR(t)A

b

= mR(t)

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X

,

R

T

(t) f

p

(t) = m

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X

. (1.55)

Let us pre-multiply both sides of (1.55) by the 33 skew symmetric matrix

ˆ

X and sum over all the points in the

body

∑

m

ˆ

X

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X

=

∑

ˆ

X(F

r

p

+F

e

p

(t)). (1.56)

Consider individually each of the terms in the above equation. The internal constraint forces that maintain rigidity

are of the nature that they satisfy Newton’t third law, action equals reaction. Thus

∑

ˆ

XF

r

p

=

∑

X F

r

p

= 0.

Let

∑

ˆ

XF

e

p

(t) =

∑

X F

e

p

(t) = T(t), (1.57)

where

ˆ

XF

e

p

(t) = X F

e

p

(t) is defned to be the moment of the force F

e

p

(t) about the fxed point of rotation O and

therefore T(t) as the resultant moment of the external forces about O. In the exercises you are asked to show that

∑

m

ˆ

X

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X = I

˙

Ω(t),

1.5 Rigid Body Motion 29

and

∑

m

ˆ

X

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X =−IΩ(t) Ω(t),

where

I =

∑

m

[[X[[

2

I

33

−XX

T

, (1.58)

is defned to be the inertia tensor of the body about the fxed point O. Then we have that (1.114) reduces to

I

˙

Ω = IΩ Ω +T.

Thus the complete motion of a rigid body rotating about a fxed point in 3-dimensions is governed by

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω, (1.59)

I

˙

Ω = IΩ Ω +T. (1.60)

The space of special orthogonal matrices is of dimension three. Thus at least three parameters are required to

parameterize R and hence (1.59) can be expressed by three frst order ODE’s. Euler angles are a common choice

of parameterization of R. Clearly (1.60) gives three more frst order ODEs.

Recall that Ω(t) was defned to be the body angular velocity. The body angular velocity expressed in the e

frame ω = RΩ is called the spatial angular velocity. The quantity Π(t) = I Ω(t) is defned to be the body an-

gular momentum. The body angular momentum expressed in the e frame π = RΠ is called the spatial angular

momentum. Later we will show that when T = 0 the spatial angular momentum, π, is a constant.

In terms of the body angular momentum the equations of motion (1.59)–(1.60) take the form

˙

R = R

I

−1

Π, (1.61)

˙

Π = Π I

−1

Π +I

−1

T. (1.62)

The inertia tensor (1.58) is a symmetric matrix and it can be shown that it is positive defnite. Consequently

it is always possible to fnd a body frame such that the Inertia tensor is diagonalized. For instance in an axi-

symmetric rigid body if the body frame b(t) is aligned along the axes of symmetry then it can be shown that

the inertia matrix I is diagonal. The diagonal elements are called the principle moments of inertia. Let the body

frame b(t) be chosen such that the inertia tensor is diagonalized

I =

I

1

0 0

0 I

2

0

0 0 I

3

¸

¸

. (1.63)

The principle moments of inertia are thus given by I

1

, I

2

, I

3

. In this frame (1.60) takes the form

I

1

˙

Ω

1

= (I

2

−I

3

)Ω

2

Ω

3

+T

1

, (1.64)

I

2

˙

Ω

2

= (I

3

−I

1

)Ω

3

Ω

1

+T

2

, (1.65)

I

3

˙

Ω

3

= (I

1

−I

2

)Ω

1

Ω

2

+T

3

, (1.66)

and (1.60) takes the form

˙

Π

1

=

(I

2

−I

3

)

I

2

I

3

Π

2

Π

3

+T

1

, (1.67)

˙

Π

2

=

(I

3

−I

1

)

I

3

I

1

Π

3

Π

1

+T

2

, (1.68)

˙

Π

3

=

(I

1

−I

2

)

I

1

I

2

Π

1

Π

2

+T

3

. (1.69)

30 1 Mechanics

Later it will be useful to know the Rate of change of spatial angular momentum and the magnitude of the

body angular momentum along a rigid body motion. Let us calculate these.

The rate of change of the Spatial Angular Momentum is:

d

dt

π(t) =

d

dt

(R(t)Π(t)) =

d

dt

(R(t)IΩ(t)) =

˙

RIΩ +RI

˙

Ω = R

ˆ

ΩIΩ +R(IΩ Ω +T)

= R(t)

ˆ

ΩIΩ +IΩ Ω +T

= R(t)(Ω IΩ +IΩ Ω +T) = R(t)T. (1.70)

The rate of change of the Magnitude of the Body Angular Momentum is:

d

dt

[[Π(t)[[ =

d

dt

√

IΩ ∙ IΩ =

IΩ ∙ I

˙

Ω

√

IΩ ∙ IΩ

=

IΩ ∙ (IΩ Ω +T)

√

IΩ ∙ IΩ

=

IΩ ∙ T

√

IΩ ∙ IΩ

, (1.71)

where once again the last equality follows from A∙ (AB) = 0.

1.5.1.1 Two-dimensional Rigid Body Rotational Motion

In this section we specialize the results derived in the previous sections to rigid body motion restricted to two

dimensional Euclidean space. That is rigid bodies restricted to rotate in the e

1

, e

2

plane. From the last part of

section 1.3 it follows that R(t) is a 22 special orthogonal matrix and

ˆ

Ω is a 22 skew-symmetric matrix

ˆ

Ω =

¸

0 −Ω

Ω 0

, (1.72)

where Ω =

˙

θ. Thus the quantity Ω corresponds to an instantaneous rotation of the rigid body about the fxed

point O by an amount equal to Ω.

Since

ˆ

Ω

2

(t) =−Ω

2

(t)I, Newton’s equation (1.55) in two dimension reduces to

m

−Ω

2

(t)X +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X

= R

T

(t) f

p

(t) = F

r

p

+F

e

p

(t). (1.73)

Now if we pre-multiply both sides by

˜

X where for X = [ X

1

X

2

]

T

˜

X =

−X

2

X

1

,

and sum over all the points in the body we obtain

∑

m

−Ω

2

(t)

˜

XX +

˜

X

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X

=

∑

˜

X(F

r

p

+F

e

p

(t)).

This reduces to

˙

Ω(t)

∑

m[[X[[

2

=

∑

˜

X(F

r

p

+F

e

p

(t)),

because it can be easily shown that the frst term becomes zero and

˜

X

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X =

˙

Ω[[X[[

2

.

Let us individually consider each of these terms. The internal constraint forces that maintain rigidity are of

the nature that they satisfy Newton’t third law, action equals reaction. Thus

∑

˜

XF

r

p

= 0.

Let

∑

˜

XF

e

p

(t) = T(t). (1.74)

If we defne

1.5 Rigid Body Motion 31

I =

∑

m[[X[[

2

, (1.75)

as the Moment of Inertia of the 2-dimensional body about the axis of rotation then the Kinetics of a 2-dimensional

rigid body is given by

I

˙

Ω = T(t).

Thus the complete motion of the rigid body in 2-dimensions is governed by

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω, (1.76)

I

˙

Ω = T(t). (1.77)

These equations are referred to as Euler’s 2-dimensional rigid body equations. Let us look at the T appearing in

(1.77) a bit more closely and show that it is the resultant force moment of the external forces about the axis of

rotation and hence corresponds to the same notion adopted for three dimensional rigid body motions. To show

this it suffces to show that

˜

XF

e

p

(t) is the moment of the force F

e

p

(t) about the axis of rotation. Considering the

e

1

, e

2

plane in which the rigid body is moving to be embedded in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space with a frame

e = [e

1

e

2

e

3

] and the body frame b(t) = [b

1

(t) b

2

(t) b

3

(t)] with b

3

(t) ≡e

3

, we see that the external forces at P

expressed in the body frame b(t) take the form

F

p

=

F

e

p

1

F

e

p

2

0

¸

¸

and the representation of the point P in the body frame b(t) takes the form

X

p

=

X

1

X

2

0

¸

¸

.

Then it can be easily shown that the force moment of F

e

p

at P about O is

T

p

=

ˆ

X

p

F

p

=

0

0

−F

e

p

1

X

2

+F

e

p

2

X

1

¸

¸

=

0

0

˜

XF

e

p

.

¸

¸

1.5.2 General Rigid Body Motion

In this section we consider the case where the body describes a general three dimensional Euclidean motion.

Chose a body frame b(t) and an inertial frame e. From (1.42) a point P fxed in the moving frame satisfes the

following relationship.

m

˙

V

o

(t) +m

ˆ

Ω(t)V

o

(t) +m

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) +m

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) = F

r

p

+F

e

p

(t). (1.78)

First let us sum (1.78) over all the points in the body.

∑

m

˙

V

o

(t) +

∑

m

ˆ

Ω(t)V

o

(t) +

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)

∑

m X(t) +

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)

∑

m X(t) =

∑

F

r

p

+

∑

F

e

p

(t). (1.79)

Now if we choose the b(t) frame so that its origin O coincides with the center of mass of the rigid body, then the

last two terms on the left hand side of (1.79) become zero and we have

M

˙

V

o

(t) +M

ˆ

Ω(t)V

o

(t) = F(t), (1.80)

where M = ∑m, F(t) = ∑F

e

p

(t) and we have set ∑F

r

p

= 0 because the constraint forces occur in equal and

opposite pairs.

32 1 Mechanics

Let us now pre-multiply both sides of (1.78) by the 3 3 skew symmetric matrix

ˆ

X and sum over all the

points in the body

∑

m

ˆ

X

˙

V

o

(t) +

∑

m

ˆ

X

ˆ

Ω(t)V

o

(t) +

∑

m

ˆ

X

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) +

∑

m

ˆ

X

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) =

∑

ˆ

XF

r

p

+

∑

ˆ

XF

e

p

(t). (1.81)

If the body frame b(t) is fxed at the center of mass of the body then the fst two terms become zero and we

end up with the rigid body equations (1.60) for a purely rotational rigid body derived in section 1.5.1, Thus the

complete equations of motion for general rigid body motion where the body frame b(t) is fxed at the center of

mass of the body are

˙

R(t) = R(t)

ˆ

Ω(t), (1.82)

˙ o(t) = R(t)V

0

(t), (1.83)

M

˙

V

o

(t) = −M

ˆ

Ω(t)V

o

(t) +F(t), (1.84)

I

˙

Ω = IΩ Ω +T. (1.85)

1.5.3 Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body

1.5.3.1 Rotating Rigid Body

In a rigid body all the point particles that make up the body are fxed with respect to the body frame b(t). Thus

to compute the total energy of a purely rotating rigid body we sum up the kinetic energy of all the particles given

by (1.52) to obtain

KE =

∑

T

p

=

1

2

∑

m[[V

b

(t)[[

2

=

1

2

∑

m

−X

T

ˆ

Ω

2

X

. (1.86)

In 2-dimensions it is easy to show that

∑

−m

1

2

X

T

ˆ

Ω

2

X =

1

2

IΩ

2

,

and hence that

KE =

1

2

IΩ

2

. (1.87)

In exercise 1.26 you are asked to show that in 3-dimensions

∑

−m

1

2

X

T

ˆ

Ω

2

X =

1

2

Ω

T

IΩ,

and hence that

KE =

1

2

Ω

T

IΩ =

1

2

Ω ∙ IΩ. (1.88)

Later we will need the rate of change of kinetic energy given by

d

dt

1

2

Ω

T

IΩ

=

˙

Ω

T

IΩ +Ω

T

I

˙

Ω

2

= Ω

T

I

˙

Ω = Ω ∙ I

˙

Ω = Ω ∙ (IΩ Ω +T) = Ω ∙ T. (1.89)

Where the last equality Ω ∙ (IΩ Ω +T) = Ω ∙ T follows from the easily verifable property of cross products

and dot products A∙ (AB) = 0, and the second equality follows from

˙

Ω

T

IΩ = (

˙

Ω

T

IΩ)

T

= Ω

T

I

T

˙

Ω = Ω

T

I

˙

Ω,

since I is symmetric.

1.5 Rigid Body Motion 33

1.5.3.2 General Rigid Body

For a general rotating and translating body where the body frame is fxed at the center of mass of the body we

can show that the kinetic energy is given by

KE =

M

2

[[V

0

[[

2

+

1

2

Ω

T

IΩ. (1.90)

1.5.4 Euler Angles

Up to this point we have not considered how to parameterize the rotation matrix R. That is how one can introduce

co-ordinates for the space of 33 special orthogonal matrices.

Consider two frames e and b. Let us frst see what the rotation matrix R that relates the two frames is for basic

simple rotations such rotations about each axis. First let b be a frame that is rotated about the e

3

axis by an angle

θ. That is b

3

≡e

3

. Then the two frames related by b = eR

3

(θ) where

R

3

(θ) =

cosθ −sinθ 0

sinθ cosθ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

,

and θ is the angle of rotation of b about the fxed e

3

, b

3

axis.

Let R

2

be the special orthogonal matrix that represents frame b where b is now a frame obtained by rotating

about the e

2

axis. That is b

2

≡e

2

. Then b = eR

2

(θ) where

R

2

(θ) =

cosθ 0 sinθ

0 1 0

−sinθ 0 cosθ

¸

¸

,

and θ is the angle of rotation of b about the b

2

, e

2

axis. Finally let R

1

be the special orthogonal matrix that

represents frame b where b is now obtained by rotating about the e

1

axis. That is b

1

≡ e

1

. Then b = eR

1

(θ)

where

R

1

(θ) =

1 0 0

0 cosθ −sinθ

0 sinθ cosθ

¸

¸

,

and θ is the angle of rotation of d about the b

1

, e

1

axis.

The matrix R obtained by

R = R

i

(α)R

j

(β)R

k

(γ) (1.91)

is once again a special orthogonal matrix. It can be shown that any special orthogonal matrix R can be written in

this fashion for some angles (α, β, γ). This allows us to parameterize R using the three angles (α, β, γ). These

are called the i − j −k Euler angle parameterization of R (not all i, j, k are equal). It is important to note that for

certain angles this correspondence is not unique, meaning that there exists certain R such that the corresponding

choice for (α, β, γ) is not unique. An example of the Euler angle parameterization of R using the three angles

(θ

1

, θ

2

, θ

3

) is

R = R

3

(θ

1

)R

1

(θ

2

)R

3

(θ

3

) =

c

1

c

3

−c

2

s

1

s

3

c

2

c

3

s

1

+c

1

s

3

s

1

s

2

−c

3

s

1

−c

1

c

2

s

3

c

1

c

2

c

3

−s

1

s

3

c

1

s

2

s

2

s

3

−c

3

s

2

c

2

¸

¸

, (1.92)

where we have used the notation c

i

= cosθ

i

, s

i

= sinθ

i

. This is called the 3-1-3 Euler angle parameterization of

R. In this parameterization θ

1

is called the angle of precession, θ

2

is called the angle of nutation, and θ

3

is called

the angle of spin.

In terms of the 3-1-3 Euler angles the body angular velocities are

34 1 Mechanics

Ω

1

=

˙

θ

1

sinθ

2

sinθ

3

+

˙

θ

2

cosθ

3

, (1.93)

Ω

2

=

˙

θ

1

sinθ

2

cosθ

3

−

˙

θ

2

sinθ

3

, (1.94)

Ω

3

=

˙

θ

1

cosθ

2

+

˙

θ

3

, (1.95)

and the spacial angular velocities are

ω

1

=

˙

θ

3

sinθ

2

sinθ

1

+

˙

θ

2

cosθ

1

, (1.96)

ω

2

= −

˙

θ

3

sinθ

2

cosθ

1

+

˙

θ

2

sinθ

1

, (1.97)

ω

3

=

˙

θ

3

cosθ

2

+

˙

θ

1

. (1.98)

1.5.5 The Axi-symmetric Heavy Top

In this section we consider the axi-symmetric top in a gravitational feld. The pivot point is along the axis of

symmetry. The distance from the pivot point to the center of mass is l. Then the force moment due to gravity is

T = mgl (R

T

ϒ) ϒ where ϒ is the direction of gravity as observed in the e frame. Thus the equations of motion

for the heavy top are

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω , (1.99)

I

˙

Ω = IΩ Ω +mgl (R

T

ϒ) ϒ. (1.100)

To implement (1.101) and (1.102) we need to parameterize the rotation matrix R(t). Let a be a fxed frame and

Fig. 1.13 The Axi-symmetric Heavy Top. Figure copied from [11].

b be a frame fxed on the top as shown in fgure 1.13. The confguration of the top is given by the rotation matrix

R where b(t) = aR(t). Using intermediate frames a

/

(t) and f (t) we can parameterize R(t) using the 3-1-3 Euler

angles as follows. As shown in the fgure we have that

a

/

(t) = aR

3

(φ), f (t) = a

/

(t)R

1

(θ), b(t) = f (t)R

3

(ψ),

1.5 Rigid Body Motion 35

Then if b(t) = aR(t)

R(t) = R

3

(φ)R

1

(θ)R

3

(ψ).

In this parameterization φ is called the angle of precession, θ is called the angle of nutation, and ψ is called the

angle of spin.

It is interesting to note that if we let Γ(t) = R

T

ϒ (the direction of gravity as seen in the body frame) and

differentiate it we can replace (1.101) and (1.102) by the equivalent set of equations,

˙

Γ = Γ Ω , (1.101)

I

˙

Ω = IΩ Ω +mgl Γ ϒ. (1.102)

Observe that they remove the need for Euler angles.

1.5.6 Forced Gyroscope

Fig. 1.14

For the axi-symmetric gyroscope, I

1

= I

2

= I

l

, I

z

and the rigid body equations take the form

I

l

˙

Ω

1

= (I

l

−I

z

)Ω

2

Ω

3

+T

1

, (1.103)

I

l

˙

Ω

2

= (I

z

−I

l

)Ω

3

Ω

1

+T

2

, (1.104)

I

z

˙

Ω

3

= T

3

. (1.105)

Let us parameterize the rotation matrix from the frame e to d using the 3-1-3 Euler angles. We will need this

to express the force moment

T =

T

1

T

2

T

3

¸

¸

.

Let e be an Earth fxed frame with origin, O. A frame b is fxed to the outer gimbal of the Gyroscope, a frame

c is fxed to the inner gimbal and a frame d is fxed on the disc. Let d(t) = eR(t). The b(t) frame is fxed on the

outer gimbal so that b

3

(t) ≡e

3

(t). Then b(t) = eR

3

(θ

1

(t)) where θ

1

is the angle of rotation of b about the fxed

e

3

, b

3

axis. The frame c(t) is fxed on the inner gimbal so that c

1

(t) ≡b

1

(t). Then c(t) = b(t)R

1

(θ

2

(t)) where θ

2

is the angle of rotation of c about the c

1

, b

1

axis. The frame d(t) is fxed on the disc so that d

3

(t) ≡c

3

(t). Then

d(t) = c(t)R

3

(θ

3

(t)) where θ

3

is the angle of rotation of c about the c

3

, d

3

axis.

Now if d(t) = eR(t) we have that

36 1 Mechanics

R = R

3

(θ

1

)R

1

(θ

2

)R

3

(θ

3

) =

c

1

c

3

−c

2

s

1

s

3

c

2

c

3

s

1

+c

1

s

3

s

1

s

2

−c

3

s

1

−c

1

c

2

s

3

c

1

c

2

c

3

−s

1

s

3

c

1

s

2

s

2

s

3

−c

3

s

2

c

2

¸

¸

(1.106)

Neglecting the gimbal inertia, the force moments acting on the disc are calculated as follows. The moments

acting on the outer gimbal due to the fxed end.

T

f

= eT

1

= e

T

1

1

T

1

2

u

1

¸

¸

The moments acting on the inner Gimbal due to the outer Gimbal.

T

I

= bT

2

= b

u

2

T

2

2

T

2

3

¸

¸

The moments acting on the disc due to the inner Gimbal.

T

D

= cT

3

= c

T

3

1

T

3

2

u

3

¸

¸

= d T

Neglecting the inertia of the outer and inner gimbals we have

eT

1

=−bT

2

, bT

2

=−cT

3

and hence

T

1

=−R

3

(θ

1

)T

2

, T

2

=−R

1

(θ

2

)T

3

, T

3

= R

3

(θ

3

)T, (1.107)

and

T

1

= R

3

(θ

1

)R

1

(θ

2

)R

3

(θ

3

) T = RT.

From the frst set of equations in (1.107) we have that T

2

3

= −u

1

and from the second set of equations in

(1.107) we have that T

3

1

=−u

2

. Substituting these in the second set of equations in (1.107) we have

u

2

T

2

2

−u

1

¸

¸

= R

2

u

2

−T

3

2

−u

3

¸

¸

.

The last equation in this set of equations give

T

3

2

=

(u

1

−cosθ

2

u

3

)

sinθ

2

.

Now since T

3

= R

3

T the force moments on the disc expressed in d is given by

T = R

T

3

−u

2

(u

1

−cosθ

2

u

3

)

sinθ

2

u

3

¸

¸

=

cosθ

3

sinθ

3

0

−sinθ

3

cosθ

3

0

0 0 1

¸

¸

0 −1 0

1

sinθ

2

0 −cot θ

2

0 0 1

¸

¸

u

1

u

2

u

3

¸

¸

.

T =

sinθ

3

sinθ

2

−cosθ

3

−sinθ

3

cot θ

2

cosθ

3

sinθ

2

sinθ

3

−cosθ

3

cot θ

2

0 0 1

¸

¸

¸

u

1

u

2

u

3

¸

¸

.

Here u

1

, u

2

and u

3

are the external moments applied about the rotation axis of the oute gimbal, the rotation axis

of the inner gimbal and the rotation axis of the disc.

1.5 Rigid Body Motion 37

Observe that the above expression for the force moment becomes singular when θ

2

= 0 or θ

2

= π. At these

angels the external moment directions on the outer gimbal and the disc coincides. This situation is commonly

referred to as gimbal locking.

38 1 Mechanics

1.6 Exercises

1.6.1 Exercises on Particle Motion

Exercise 1.1. Two point masses P

1

and P

2

are moving in three-dimensional Euclidean space such that P

1

moves

on a sphere and the distance between P

1

and P

2

remains fxed. Specify the confguration space and a suitable set

of coordinates for the system. What is the DOF of the system.

Exercise 1.2. A bead is constrained to move on a frictionless wire that lies on a horizontal plane. The wire is bent

to a shape of a parabola (ie. y = x

2

). Find the constraint forces that keep the bead on the wire and the equation of

motion of the bead.

Exercise 1.3. For each of the systems shown in fgures 1.15 to 1.17, derive the governing differential equations

using Newton’s law.

Fig. 1.15

Fig. 1.16

Exercise 1.4. Consider the 1-DOF electrostatic MEMS mirror model shown in fgure 1.18. Find the governing

differential equations of the system. Note that the capacitance between two parallel plate capacitors are given by

c(l(t)) =

l(t)

εA

and the attractive coulomb force between the two plates are given by f

e

(t) =

q(t)

2

2εA

where A is the

cross sectional area of the plates.

Exercise 1.5. A particle P of mass m is constrained to move on the surface of a sphere of radius r and origin

O (refer to fgure 1.19). Except for the constraints no other external forces act on the particle. Let frame e be a

frame with origin coinciding with O and fxed with respect to the sphere. The representation of the point P with

respect to e is x. Answer the following:

1. Show that x

T

x = r

2

2. Show that the velocity of the particle is always tangential to the sphere (orthogonal to the position x, ie.

x

T

˙ x = 0).

1.6 Exercises 39

Fig. 1.17

Fig. 1.18 1-DOF Electrostatic MEMS model.

3. Differentiating the constraint x

T

˙ x = 0 show that the motion of the particle in the e frame is described by

¨ x =

1

m

f

c

(t) =−

[[ ˙ x[[

2

r

2

x,

where f

c

(t) is the representation of the constraint force in the e frame (Hint: The constraint that keeps a

particle on the surface of a sphere should act in the radial direction).

4. Explicitly write down the differential equation derived in item 3 above using spherical polar co-ordinates

(Hint: Use the results of Example 1.4).

Exercise 1.6. — Einstein’s box experiment: Explain why a person standing on a scale inside an elevator sees

his or her weight doubled as the elevator accelerates up at a rate of g and sees the weight reduced to zero if

the elevator decelerates at a rate of g. Also show that if, for some reason, the gravitational force feld vanished

and the elevator was moving up at an acceleration of g then the scale would still show the correct weight of the

person.

Exercise 1.7. For the system shown in fgure 1.20,

1. Derive the equations of motion as observed by an observer in a frame fxed to the surface on which the box is

moving.

2. Derive the equations of motion as observed by an observer moving with the box (ie. in the moving frame

co-ordinates).

Exercise 1.8. The space of 3 3 skew-symmetric matrices can be identifed with R

3

using the identifcation

Ω →

ˆ

Ω where

ˆ

Ω =

0 −Ω

3

Ω

2

Ω

3

0 −Ω

1

−Ω

2

Ω

1

0

¸

¸

, (1.108)

40 1 Mechanics

Fig. 1.19

Fig. 1.20 Spring Mass Damper System in a Moving Box

and Ω = [Ω

1

Ω

2

Ω

3

]

T

.

Exercise 1.9. Show that the space of 22 skew-symmetric matrices can be identifed with R using the identif-

cation Ω →

ˆ

Ω where

ˆ

Ω =

¸

0 −Ω

Ω 0

. (1.109)

Using this identifcation show that

ˆ

Ω

2

=−Ω

2

I

22

where I

22

is the 22 identity matrix.

Exercise 1.10. Show that for 33 skew-symmetric matrices

ˆ

ΩX = Ω X. (1.110)

Exercise 1.11. The three rotating frames a(t), b(t), c(t) are related to a fxed frame e as shown in fgure 1.21. Let

a(t) = eR

1

(ψ), b(t) = eR

2

(φ), and c(t) = eR

3

(θ). Show the following

R

1

(ψ) =

1 0 0

0 cosψ −sinψ

0 sinψ cosψ

¸

¸

, R

2

(φ) =

cosφ 0 sinφ

0 1 0

−sinφ 0 cosφ

¸

¸

, R

3

(θ) =

cosθ −sinθ 0

sinθ cosθ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

and

1.6 Exercises 41

R

T

1

˙

R

1

=

ˆ

Ω

1

=

0 0 0

0 0 − ˙ ψ

0 ˙ ψ 0

¸

¸

, R

T

2

˙

R

2

=

ˆ

Ω

2

=

0 0

˙

φ

0 0 0

−

˙

φ 0 0

¸

¸

, R

T

3

˙

R

3

=

ˆ

Ω

3

=

0 −

˙

θ 0

˙

θ 0 0

0 0 0

¸

¸

Fig. 1.21

Exercise 1.12. Now let us write down Newton’s equations for the particle described in exercise 1.5 but using a

frame b(t) with respect to which the particle appears to be fxed. Without loss of generality we may align the

b

3

axis along OP (refer to fgure 1.35). Let b(t) = eR(t) and X be the representation of the point P in b(t) (In

this case since P is aligned along b

3

, X = [0 0 r]

T

). Since P appears fxed in b, X is a constant. Answer the

following:

Fig. 1.22

1. Show that [[ ˙ x[[ = [[

ˆ

ΩX[[ where

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω (Hint: use the fact for special orthogonal matrices R are length

preserving transformations, ie [[RY[[ =[[Y[[).

2. Show that Newton’s equations in the b(t) frame correspond to

42 1 Mechanics

˙

ˆ

ΩX =−

ˆ

Ω

2

X −

[[

ˆ

ΩX[[

2

r

2

X.

3. Write down R in terms of the Spherical Polar co-ordinates and evaluate

ˆ

Ω in terms of them (Hint: Use results

of exercise 1.11). Convince yourself that writing down the Newton’s equations in the above form is much

more convenient than writing them down using the e frame as derived in exercise 1.5.

Exercise 1.13. Consider the particle described in exercise 1.12. Recall,

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω, and that Ω corresponds to the

angular velocity of any point that appears to be fxed in b. Thus the angular velocity of P with respect to e is Ω.

Expressed in the e frame the angular velocity has the the representation ω =RΩ. Show that ˙ x =ωx and hence

that ω ∙ ˙ x = ω

T

˙ x = 0. This shows that ω, x, ˙ x are mutually perpendicular to each other and form a right handed

axis system.

Exercise 1.14. Consider 2-dimensional Euclidean motion considered in section 1.3. In this case, explicitly write

down the Newton’s equations given by (1.48).

Exercise 1.15. Particle motion in a circle: Consider a particle constrained to move in a circle of radius r. Let e

be a frame fxed on the circle and x be the representation of the particle with respect to e.

1. Using the results of exercise 1.5 show that the velocity of the particle ˙ x is tangential to the circle.

2. Using a frame b(t) that is moving with the particle (ie. the particle appears fxed in b(t)), show that [[ ˙ x[[ = rΩ

where Ω is the angular velocity of the particle.

3. Show that the constraint force is radial and is given by f

c

(t) =−mΩ

2

x and that the motion of the particle in

the e frame is described by

¨ x =−Ω

2

x.

4. Show using Newton’s equations in the b(t) frame that the angular velocity, Ω, of the particle is a constant.

5. Show that the position components x

1

and x

2

behave sinusoidally (ie. x

1

(t) = r sin(Ωt +φ

1

) and x

2

(t) =

r sin(Ωt +φ

2

) ).

Exercise 1.16. —2-dimensional particle motion in polar co-ordinates: For a particle moving in 2-dimensions,

write down explicitly the motion of the particle as observed in the moving frame b(t) = [e

r

(t) e

θ

(t)] (refer to

fgure 1.23). Also write down the apparent forces acting on the particle as observed by an observer in the moving

frame. If the particle is constrained to move in a circle write down the equations of motion and the constraint

forces. Compare the results of this with those obtained for exercise 1.15.

Fig. 1.23

Exercise 1.17. Consider a ball of mass m constrained to move as shown in fgure 1.24. The disk is rotating at

a constant angular rate of Ω. Write down the equations of motion of the ball and also the constraint forces.

Simulate the motion using MATLAB (you may use R = 1, Ω = 1, m = 1, k = 2). When the mass is sinusoidally

1.6 Exercises 43

forced in the direction along the slot the constraint force acting on the walls, if measured, can be used to fnd

the angular velocity of the disk. Explain this. This is essentially the principle used in many commercially used

vibrating MEMS gyroscopes (angular rate sensors).

Fig. 1.24

Exercise 1.18. Consider the setup shown in fgure 1.25. The disk can rotate in a horizontal plane. C is a parallel

plate capacitor. The fxed plate is rigidly attached to the center of the disk O while the movable plate is rigidly

attached to the mass P. The end of the spring of stiffness k

l

, (the point O

/

) can freely move inside the circular

slot. When the mass is at a distance l

0

away from the origin the spring k

l

is unstretched. It can be assumed that

OPO

/

remains a straight line. Assuming small values of θ the force exerted by the spring k

θ

can be assumed to

equal k

θ

lθ and act in a direction perpendicular to OP and in the plane of the disc where l is the distance OP

(this spring is a simplifed representation of a torsional spring and hence assume that it does physically obstruct

the angular motion of OPO

/

). When a voltage is applied across the capacitor plates the resulting Coulomb forces

exert a force, f

c

(t) on the particle. The voltage across the capacitor is varied such that f

c

(t) = msin(ωt).

1. If the disc is rotating at a constant angular rate of Ω derive the equations of motion of the particle.

2. Simulate the motion of the particle using MATLAB. Use r = 2, l

0

= 1, k

l

/m = (2π 100)

2

, k

θ

/m = (2π

10)

2

, ω = 2π 11, Ω = 300 r.p.m and initial conditions l(0) = l

0

,

˙

l(0) = 0, θ(0) = 0,

˙

θ(0) = 0. Show all

necessary graphs and attach all MATLAB work that is needed to produce these graphs.

3. Leaving all other parameters constant and using the same initial conditions as above simulate the motion for

three different values of Ω in the range of 100 r.p.m to 1000 r.p.m

4. Using above results discuss how this device may be used to measure the angular rate of change of the disk.

This captures the basic operating principle of a vibrating MEMS gyroscope.

5. Discuss what modifcations you would do to change the operating range.

6. Write a two page introduction to MEMS gyroscopes. The introduction should include methods of fabrication,

device types and usages and the current state of the art.

Exercise 1.19. At a point on the equator a cannon is fred towards the West with an initial velocity of 100ms and

a fring angle of 45

o

with the equator. Taking into consideration the rotation of the Earth. Find the horizontal

distance to the landing point of the cannon. Compare these results with those obtained by neglecting the effects

of rotation of the Earth.

Exercise 1.20. Prove that the Earth’s orbit around the sun is an ellipse (Kepler’s First Law). You may assume

that the Earth and the Sun are point particles of mass M

E

and M

S

respectively and that the Gravitational attraction

force between two masses is of magnitude

GM

S

M

E

r

2

where G is the universal gravitational constant and r is the

distance between the Earth and the Sun. Recall that the equation of an ellipse is given by

r = r

0

1+e

1−ecosθ

44 1 Mechanics

Fig. 1.25 The Basic Operating Principle of a Vibrating MEMS Gyroscope

Fig. 1.26

where e =

r

1

−r

0

r

1

+r

0

is the eccentricity and

b

a

=

√

1−e

2

(refer to fgure 1.26).

Exercise 1.21. Consider the case of two observers E and B. Observer E is positioned in a 2-dimensional ortho-

normal frame, e = [e

1

e

2

] and the observer B is positioned in a rotating ortho-normal frame b(t) = [b

1

(t) b

2

(t)].

Both frames have coinciding origins. Discuss the following for the case where the frame b(t) with observer B is

rotating at a constant angular rate of

˙

θ(t) = Ω in the counter clockwise direction.

1. The observer E sees a particle P to be fxed with respect to him. Show that B observes the particle to be

moving in a circle in a clockwise direction.

2. The observer B sees a particle P to be fxed with respect to him. Show that E observes the particle to be

moving in a circle in a counter-clockwise direction.

3. At time t = 0 observer B takes a particle of mass m and slowly releases it at a point long the b

1

(t) axis that

is at distance l

0

away from the origin. Neglecting friction between the plane and the particle, simulate using

MATLAB, the motion of the particle as seen by B. You may use m = 1, l

0

= 1 and Ω = 1.

4. Observer B takes a particle of mass m and constraints it so that it can move only along the b

1

(t) axis and

it is connected to the origin with a spring of un-stretched length l and spring constant k. He then slowly

releases it at time t = 0 a distance l away from the origin (ie. at the un-stretched position of the spring).

Find the constraint force at a time t and simulate the motion as observed by B using MATLAB. You may use

m = 1, k = 2, Ω = 1 and l = 1. If the frame was fxed and not rotating (ie. Ω = 0) what would be the expected

motion of the particle.

1.6 Exercises 45

5. Simulate the motion of the particle in item 4 above as observed by E.

6. Assume that a central inward force feld is acting in the e frame where the intensity at point P is equal to

1

r

2

Newton’s per unit mass, where r is the distance from the origin of the b(t) frame to the point P. A particle

of unit mass is released in the rotating frame at a distance of 0.5 units away from the origin and with zero

velocity. Write the equations that describe the behavior of the particle as observed in the rotating frame and

using MATLAB simulate the motion of the particle as observed in the rotating frame b(t).

Exercise 1.22. Explain using equation (1.25) why a Hurricane that has formed in the Northern hemisphere has a

counter clockwise rotation and a Hurricane that has formed in the Southern hemisphere has a clockwise rotation

(see fgure 1.9). Compare your results with the simulation results obtained in exercise 1.21.6.

Exercise 1.23. — Self study on vibrating MEMS Gyroscopes: The operation of a vibrating MEMS Gyro-

scope relies on the presence Coriolis forces. Write a two page report on vibrating MEMS gyroscopes. Include in

the report an explanation of its working principle, its use, and methods of fabrication.

1.6.2 Exercises on Rigid Body Motion

Exercise 1.24. Prove the following properties of cross products in R

3

1. A(BC) = (A∙ C)B−(B∙ A)C

2. A∙ (BC) =C∙ (AB) = B∙ (CA)

3. (Ω X) ∙ (ω X) = (Ω ∙ ω)[[X[[

2

−(Ω ∙ X)(ω ∙ X)

4. Ω ∙ (Ω X) = 0 = X ∙ (Ω X)

Here we use the notation A∙ B = A

T

B where A, B are both column matrices. Note that the last property tells us

that (Ω X) is perpendicular to both X and Ω.

Exercise 1.25. Show that x(t) f

e

p

=R(X F

e

p

) where f

e

p

=RF

e

p

. (Hint: First show using the properties of cross

product that R(ab) = Ra Rb)

Exercise 1.26. Using the properties proven in exercise 1.24, show that

∑

−m

1

2

X

T

ˆ

Ω

2

X =

1

2

Ω

T

IΩ,

where

I =

∑

m

[[X[[

2

I

33

−XX

T

,

is defned to be the inertia tensor of the body about the fxed point O, and

∑

m

ˆ

X

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X = I

˙

Ω,

and

∑

m

ˆ

X

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X =−IΩ Ω.

Exercise 1.27. Calculate the moment of Inertia tensor I of each of the solid fgures shown in fgure 1.27.

Exercise 1.28. Prove the parallel axis theorem of moments of inertia.

Exercise 1.29. Prove the perpendicular axis theorem of moments of inertia for planar rigid bodies.

Exercise 1.30. Find the moment of inertia tensor of the shaft and arm system shown in fgure 1.30. The radius

of the shaft is r

s

, the length of the shaft is l

s

and the radius of the arm is r

a

.

Fig:RotatingSpringPendulum

46 1 Mechanics

Fig. 1.27 Calculate the inertia tensor of each of these solid shapes.

Exercise 1.31. Consider the mechanical system shown in the fgure 1.28. The moment of inertia of the hoop

about the vertical axis of rotation is I. The radius of the hoop is r. The mass of the bead on the hoop is m. A

viscous frictional torque acts about the vertical shaft of rotation. The magnitude of this torque is proportional

to the rotational speed about the vertical axis and C is the constant of proportionality. Answer the following

questions. Derive the equations of motion of the system. For I = 1, m = 1, r = 1,C = 1, g = 1 simulate using

MATLAB the behaviour of the system for the case where initially the mass point P is displaced by an angle

7π/6 from the vertical.

Fig. 1.28 Bead on a Hoop. Figure copied from [11].

Exercise 1.32. Figure 1.29 shows a schematic representation of the Free/Forced vibration apparatus in the ap-

plied mechanics lab. The apparatus consists of a beam pivoted at O. A damper is attached to the point A and a

spring is attached to the point B. The other end of the spring, P, is constrained to move vertically. When the beam

is horizontal and the point P has zero displacement with respect to the reference, that is when θ = 0 and y = 0,

the spring is at its natural length (unstretched or uncompressed). The spring constant is k the damping constant

is C and the moment of inertia of the beam about O is I. Let OA = L

c

and OB = L

k

. Neglecting the thickness

of the beam and assuming that the angle of defection of the beam is small fnd the governing equations of the

motion.

Exercise 1.33. Consider the mechanical system shown in fgure 1.30. The moment of inertia of the shaft plus the

arm about the vertical axis of rotation is I. The mass of the point P is m. The un-stretched length of the spring is

L

0

. Neglecting friction and the moment of inertia of the spring derive the equations of motion of the system and

simulate them using MATLAB. Also fnd the Kinetic Energy of the system.

1.6 Exercises 47

Fig. 1.29 A schematic representation of the Free/Forced Vibration Apparatus in the Applied Mechanics Lab.

Fig. 1.30 Rotating Spring Pendulum. Figure copied from [11].

Exercise 1.34. Consider the ball inside the swinging hoop shown in fgure 1.31. The hoop has a mass distribution

of ρ per unit length and a radius of r. Neglecting friction between the ball and the hoop write down the constraint

forces acting on the ball. Write down Euler’s rigid body equations for the hoop and using this expression elimi-

nate the constraint forces appearing in the equations for the ball and fnd the equations that govern the motion of

the entire system.

Exercise 1.35. Consider the Gyroscope shown in fgure 1.32. Using the results of section 1.5.6 derive the equa-

tions of motion.

Exercise 1.36. For the single bar pendulum shown in fgure 1.33 derive the equations of motion using Euler’s

2-dimensional rigid body equations and also write down the kinetic energy of the system.

Exercise 1.37. For the double bar pendulum shown in fgure 1.34 write down the kinetic energy of the system.

48 1 Mechanics

Fig. 1.31 Ball on Swinging Hoop. Figure copied from [11].

Fig. 1.32 The Gimbal Gyroscope

Fig. 1.33 Simple Pendulum

1.7 Answers to Selected Exercises

Answer to Exercise 1.5

In a Euclidean frame e, with no external force felds present, a particle P is constrained to move on a sphere.

Since the particle is constrained to move on a sphere of radius r we have that

r

2

= x

2

1

+x

2

2

+x

2

3

=[[x[[

2

= x

T

x = constant,

1.7 Answers to Selected Exercises 49

Fig. 1.34 Double Pendulum

where x is the representation of the particle in the e frame. Differentiating the constraint x

T

x = constant we have

that

2x

T

˙ x = 0,

thus the velocity in the e frame ˙ x is orthogonal to x and hence lies tangent to the sphere. Differentiating the

constraint x

T

˙ x = 0 we have that

x

T

¨ x + ˙ x

T

˙ x = 0.

Since the particle is constrained to move on a sphere we see that the constraint force acting on the particle should

be normal to the surface (ie. lies in the radial direction) and hence that its representation in the e frame is of the

form

f

c

= αx.

Thus from Newton’s equations in the e frame

¨ x =

1

m

f

c

=

α

m

x.

Hence we have that

α

m

x

T

x + ˙ x

T

˙ x = 0,

and that

α =−m

[[ ˙ x[[

2

r

2

,

and the constraint force is f

c

=−m

[[ ˙ x[[

2

r

2

x. Now the motion of the particle is described by

¨ x =

1

m

f

c

=−

[[ ˙ x[[

2

r

2

x.

Answer to Exercise 1.6

Let f be the total force felt in a frame e. Then if F is the force felt in a parallely translating frame b(t)then we

know that

F =−m¨ o+ f ,

where o is the co-ordinates of the origin of b(t) with respect to e. Newton’s equations in the e frame are

¨ x =

1

m

f ,

50 1 Mechanics

Newton’s equations in the moving frame are

¨

X =

1

m

F

For the problem of the elevator let e be the frame fxed on the Earth and let b(t) be the frame fxed on the

elevator. The weight measured by a scale is the total force exerted by the scale W. The total force acting on the

person as observed from the e frame is

f =−mg+W.

When the elevator is at rest,

¨ o = 0,

and hence from the frst equation

F = f ,

Applying Newton’s equations in the elevator we have

m

¨

X = F = f =−mg+W,

The person is at rest with respect to the elevator and therefore X = const and

¨

X = 0 and hence

0 =−mg+W,

and

W = mg.

Thus when the elevator is at rest the weight measured by the elevator is the correct weight of the person.

When the elevator is moving at a constant acceleration of g,

¨ o = g,

and hence from the frst equation,

F =−mg+ f ,

Applying Newton’s equations in the elevator

m

¨

X = F =−mg+ f =W −2mg,

The person is at rest with respect to the elevator and therefore X = const and

¨

X = 0 and hence

0 =W −2mg,

and

W = 2mg.

Thus when the elevator is accelerating constantly at g, the weight measured by the scale is twice as large as the

correct weight of the person.

When the elevator is moving at a constant acceleration of g but gravity is absent, Then

f =W.

and

¨ o = g,

and since

F =−mg+ f ,

1.7 Answers to Selected Exercises 51

Applying Newton’s equations in the translating frame

m

¨

X = F =−mg+ f =−mg−W,

The person is at rest with respect to the elevator and therefore X = const and

¨

X = 0 and hence

0 =−mg+W,

and

W = mg.

Thus when the elevator is moving at a constant acceleration of g but gravity is absent the weight read by the

scale is the same as the correct weight of the person.

Answer to Exercise 1.12

Fig. 1.35

Recall that

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω. Differentiating x = RX we have that

˙ x =

˙

RX +R

˙

X = R

ˆ

ΩX.

where we have used the fact that

˙

X = 0 since P appears to be fxed in b(t). Thus

[[ ˙ x[[ =[[R

ˆ

ΩX[[ =[[

ˆ

ΩX[[ =[[Ω X[[.

Newton’s Equations in the b frame are

m

¨

X =−m

ˆ

Ω

2

X −2m

ˆ

Ω ˙ x −m

˙

ˆ

ΩX +R

T

f

c

,

where f

c

=−m

[[ ˙ x[[

2

r

2

x. Since x = RX and X is a constant we have

52 1 Mechanics

0 =−m

ˆ

Ω

2

X −m

˙

ˆ

ΩX −m

[[

ˆ

ΩX[[

2

r

2

X,

and that

˙

ˆ

ΩX =−

ˆ

Ω

2

X −

[[

ˆ

ΩX[[

2

r

2

X.

Now let us explicitly write down these equations. By construction of the frames X = [0 0 r]

T

. Using results

of exercise 1.11 we see that a = eR

3

(θ) and b = aR

2

(φ). Thus b = eR = eR

3

(θ)R

2

(φ) and R = R

3

(θ)R

2

(φ).

Differentiating we have

˙

R =

˙

R

3

(θ)R

2

(φ) +R

3

(θ)

˙

R

2

(φ).

Now

ˆ

Ω = R

T

˙

R = R

T

2

(φ)R

T

3

(θ)

˙

R

3

(θ)R

2

(φ) +R

T

2

(φ)R

T

3

(θ)R

3

(θ)

˙

R

2

(φ) = R

T

2

(φ)

ˆ

Ω

3

R

2

(φ) +

ˆ

Ω

2

.

Evaluating this we have

ˆ

Ω =

0 −

˙

θ cosφ

˙

φ

˙

θ cosφ 0

˙

θ sinφ

−

˙

φ −

˙

θ sinφ 0

¸

¸

.

Then

˙

ˆ

Ω =

0 −

¨

θ cosφ +

˙

θ

˙

φ sinφ

¨

φ

¨

θ cosφ −

˙

θ

˙

φ sinφ 0

¨

θ sinφ +

˙

θ

˙

φ cosφ

−

¨

φ −

¨

θ sinφ −

˙

θ

˙

φ cosφ 0

¸

¸

.

and

ˆ

Ω

2

=

−(

˙

φ

2

+

˙

θ

2

cos

2

φ) −

˙

θ

˙

φ sinφ −

˙

θ

2

cosφ sinφ

−

˙

θ

˙

φ sinφ −

˙

θ

2

˙

θ

˙

φ cosφ

−

˙

θ

2

cosφ sinφ

˙

θ

˙

φ cosφ −(

˙

φ

2

+

˙

θ

2

sin

2

φ)

¸

¸

.

Substituting these in the Newton’s equations

˙

ˆ

ΩX =−

ˆ

Ω

2

X −

[[

ˆ

ΩX[[

2

r

2

X.

we have

r

¨

φ

¨

θ sinφ +

˙

θ

˙

φ cosφ

0

¸

¸

= r

˙

θ

2

cosφ sinφ

−

˙

θ

˙

φ cosφ

(

˙

φ

2

+

˙

θ

2

sin

2

φ)

¸

¸

−(

˙

φ

2

+

˙

θ

2

sin

2

φ)

0

0

r

¸

¸

.

Which gives us

¨

φ =

˙

θ

2

cosφ sinφ,

¨

θ = −2

˙

θ

˙

φ cot φ.

Answer to Exercise 1.14

The particle P(t) has the representation

X(t) =

¸

X

1

(t)

X

2

(t)

**in the rotating frame b(t).
**

The velocity of the particle P(t) measured in the rotating frame is

V(t) =

¸

V

1

(t)

V

2

(t)

.

The acceleration of the particle P(t) measured in the rotating frame is

1.7 Answers to Selected Exercises 53

A(t) =

¸

A

1

(t)

A

2

(t)

.

It can be shown that

b(t) =

b

1

(t) b

2

(t)

=

e

1

e

2

R(t) = eR(t).

where,

R(t) =

¸

cosθ −sinθ

sinθ cosθ

.

Observe that R(t) is a 2 2 special orthogonal matrix and that it can be parameterized by the single angle

co-ordinate θ. Furthermore now

R

T

˙

R =−(R

T

˙

R)

T

=

ˆ

Ω

and in this case it turns out that

ˆ

Ω(t) = Ω(t)

¸

0 −1

1 0

,

where Ω(t) =

˙

θ(t). In this case an explicit calculation shows that

ˆ

Ω

2

=−Ω

2

I

22

.

Let f be the representation of the force acting on the particle in the e frame. Then Newton’s equation (1.14)

expressed in the inertial frame is

F

b

= m

¨

X =−m

ˆ

Ω

2

(t)X(t) −2m

ˆ

Ω(t)V(t) −m

˙

ˆ

Ω(t)X(t) +R

T

(t) f

and specializing to the 2D case

F

b

= m

¸

¨

X

1

¨

X

2

=−mΩ

2

¸

−X

1

−X

2

−2mΩ

¸

−V

2

V

1

−m

˙

Ω

¸

−X

2

X

1

+

¸

F

1

F

2

where

R

T

f

I

=

¸

F

1

F

2

= F

is the force experienced in the e frame expressed in the rotating frame b.

The frst three terms from left to right are the Centrifugal, Coriolis, and Euler forces respectively. If the

rotating frame is rotating at a constant rate then

˙

Ω = 0 and hence

F

b

= m

¸

¨

X

1

¨

X

2

=−mΩ

2

¸

−X

1

(t)

−X

2

(t)

−2mΩ

¸

−V

2

(t)

V

1

(t)

+

¸

F

1

(t)

F

2

(t)

.

Answer to Exercise 1.16

In the [e

r

e

θ

] frame the representation of P is

X =

¸

r

0

and hence

˙

X =

¸

˙ r

0

¨

X =

¸

¨ r

0

.

From exercise 1.14 Newton’s equations in 2D are

m

¸

¨ r

0

=−m

˙

θ

2

¸

−r

0

−2m

˙

θ

¸

0

˙ r

−m

¨

θ

¸

0

r

+

¸

F

r

F

θ

.

¸

m¨ r

0

=

¸

mr

˙

θ

2

0

+

¸

0

−2m

˙

θ ˙ r

+

¸

0

−mr

¨

θ

+

¸

F

r

F

θ

.

54 1 Mechanics

Observe that the Centrifugal force is mr

˙

θ

2

and is in the e

r

direction, the Coriolis force is 2m

˙

θ ˙ r in the −e

θ

direction and the Euler force is mr

¨

θ in the −e

θ

direction.

Simplifying the above equations we have that

m¨ r = mr

˙

θ

2

+F

r

,

mr

¨

θ = −2m˙ r

˙

θ +F

θ

.

Observe that if the particle is constrained to move in a circle then r = constant and hence

F

r

=−mr

˙

θ

2

, mr

¨

θ = F

θ

.

Answer to Exercise 1.21

When the rotating frame is rotating at a constant angular rate of

˙

Ω =

¨

θ = 0 from answers to exercise 1.14

Newton’s equation in the rotating 2D-frame b(t) for a point particle of mass m reduce to

m

¸

¨

X

1

¨

X

2

=−mΩ

2

¸

−X

1

(t)

−X

2

(t)

−2mΩ

¸

−V

2

(t)

V

1

(t)

+

¸

F

1

(t)

F

2

(t)

.

These equations describe the motion of the particle in the b(t) frame.

Part 1.21.3

Since friction is neglected f

I

= R

T

F = 0 and hence F = [F

1

F

2

]

T

= 0. The motion of the particle in the b(t)

frame is given by,

¨

X(t) =−

ˆ

Ω

2

X(t) −2

ˆ

ΩV(t).

In the case of 2D motion

¸

¨

X

1

¨

X

2

= Ω

2

¸

X

1

X

2

−2Ω

¸

−

˙

X

2

˙

X

1

.

The initial conditions that correspond to releasing a mass at a unit distance away along the b

1

(t) axis is X(0) =

[1 0]

T

and

˙

X(0) = [0 0]

T

. The MATLAB code to simulate the solutions for the case where

˙

θ = Ω = 3.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

T=0:0.1:5;

X0=[1 0 0 0];

[T,Y]=ode23s(’MotnRotatnFrame’,T,X0);

n=length(T);

for i=1:n

figure(1)

plot(Y(i,1),Y(i,3),’

*

’)

axis([-15 15 -15 15])

hold on

pause(0.1)

end

---------------------------------------------------------------------

function xdot=MotnRotatnFrame(t,x)

X1=x(1);

V1=x(2);

X2=x(3);

V2=x(4);

omega=3;

1.7 Answers to Selected Exercises 55

m=1;

F1=0;

F2=0;

X1dot=V1;

V1dot=omegaˆ2

*

X1+2

*

omega

*

V2+F1/m;

X2dot=V2;

V2dot=omegaˆ2

*

X2-2

*

omega

*

V1+F2/m;

Xdot=[X1dot;V1dot;X2dot;V2dot];

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 1.36

Simulation results of the path of the particle is shown in fgure 1.36.

Part 1.21.4

If the particle is constrained to move along the b

1

(t) axis. Then

X(t) =

¸

y(t)

0

,

where y(t) is the distance to the particle from the origin along the b

1

(t) axis. The force due to the constraints

expressed in the rotating frame is

R

T

f

I

(t) = F(t) =

¸

0

F

2

.

Thus from Newton’s equations

56 1 Mechanics

¸

¨ y(t)

0

= Ω

2

¸

y(t)

0

−2Ω

¸

0

˙ y(t)

+

¸

0

F

2

.

From this we have that

¨ y = Ω

2

y,

F

2

= 2Ω ˙ y.

Part 1.21.6

If an inward radial force feld of intensity 1/r is present then, expressed in the rotating frame, the force due

to the feld is

R

T

f

I

(t) = F(t) =−

1

[[X(t)[[

2

X(t) =−

1

[[X(t)[[

2

¸

X

1

(t)

X

2

(t)

.

Applying Newton’s equations in the rotating frame we obtain

¸

¨

X

1

¨

X

2

= Ω

2

¸

X

1

X

2

−2Ω

¸

−

˙

X

2

˙

X

1

−

1

m[[X(t)[[

2

¸

X

1

X

2

.

The initial conditions that correspond to releasing a mass at a distance 0.5 away along the b

1

(t) axis with zero

velocity is X(0) = [0.5 0]

T

and

˙

X(0) = [0 0]

T

. The MATLAB code to simulate the solutions for the case where

˙

θ = Ω = 1.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

T=0:0.01:.8;

X0=[0.5 0 0 0];

[T,Y]=ode23s(’MotnRotatnFrame’,T,X0);

n=length(T);

for i=1:n

figure(1)

plot(Y(i,1),Y(i,3),’

*

’)

axis([-.1 .6 -.3 .3])

hold on

pause(0.1)

end

---------------------------------------------------------------------

function xdot=MotnRotatnFrame(t,x)

X1=x(1);

V1=x(2);

X2=x(3);

V2=x(4);

omega=1;

m=1;

r2=(X1ˆ2+X2ˆ2);

F1=-X1/r2;

F2=-X2/r2;

X1dot=V1;

V1dot=omegaˆ2

*

X1+2

*

omega

*

V2+F1/m;

X2dot=V2;

1.7 Answers to Selected Exercises 57

V2dot=omegaˆ2

*

X2-2

*

omega

*

V1+F2/m;

Xdot=[X1dot;V1dot;X2dot;V2dot];

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Fig. 1.37

Simulation results of the path of the particle is shown in fgure 1.37.

Answer to Exercise 1.33

Fix a frame b(t) on the shaft and the arm such that its origin, O, is at the point of intersection of the arm and

the shaft with b

1

(t) aligned along the arm, b

3

(t) aligned along the shaft and pointing upwards and b

2

(t) aligned

so that the frame is right hand oriented. Let e be a fxed frame such that the origin coincides with O and e

3

is

aligned along b

3

. Let φ be the counter clockwise angle between e

1

and b

1

(t), θ be the counter clockwise angle

between the spring and the vertical and l(t) be the length of the spring. The variables (l(t), θ(t), φ(t)) are what

are referred to as the confguration variables or co-ordinates of the system.

Then b(t) = eR(t) where

R(t) =

cosφ −sinφ 0

sinφ cosφ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

and

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω where

ˆ

Ω =

0 −

˙

φ 0

˙

φ 0 0

0 0 0

¸

¸

Consider the system to be a coupled system. Where a point mass is coupled to a rigid body, the arm and the

shaft. Lets consider the two systems separately. First let us consider the point mass. The representation of the

point mass P in e is x

P

(t) and in b(t) is X

P

(t). Then x

P

(t) = R(t)X

P

(t) and it easily seen that

58 1 Mechanics

X

P

(t) =

d

l sinθ

−l cosθ

¸

¸

.

Differentiating we have

˙

X

P

(t) =

0

˙

l sinθ +l

˙

θ cosθ

−

˙

l cosθ +l

˙

θ sinθ

¸

¸

and

¨

X

P

(t) =

0

¨

l sinθ +2

˙

l

˙

θ cosθ −l

˙

θ

2

sinθ +l

¨

θ cosθ

−

¨

l cosθ +2

˙

l

˙

θ sinθ +l

˙

θ

2

cosθ +l

¨

θ sinθ

¸

¸

.

Recall that Newton’s equations for the particle are

F

e

= R

T

f

e

= m ¨ x

P

= m(

ˆ

Ω

2

X

P

+2

ˆ

Ω

˙

X

P

+

˙

ˆ

ΩX

P

+

¨

X

P

), (1.111)

where the matrix F

e

is the external force acting on the particle represented in the b(t) frame. Considering the

forces on the particle

F

e

=

N

−k(l −l

0

)sinθ

k(l −l

0

)cosθ −mg

¸

¸

.

where N is the constraint force on the particle in the b

1

direction and constraints the particle to only move in the

plane perpendicular to the shaft. Now simplifying the Newton’s equations (1.111) we have

¨

l +

k

m

(l −l

0

) +(

˙

φ

2

sin

2

θ −

˙

θ

2

)l +

¨

φ sinθ d = gcosθ, (1.112)

l

¨

θ +2

˙

l

˙

θ −

˙

φ

2

sinθ cosθ l +

¨

φ cosθ d = −gsinθ. (1.113)

Nowlets consider the motion of the rigid body. The body rotates about the e

3

axis and hence can be considered

as a 2D rigid body motion in the e

1

, e

2

plane. Then euler’s 2D rigid body equations are

I

¨

φ = T

e

, (1.114)

where T

e

is the force moment about the e

3

axis. The force acting at the tip of the arm in the e

1

and e

2

plane is

= [b

1

b

2

]F

e

plane

=

b

1

b

2

¸

N

k(l −l

0

)sinθ

**The representation of the end point, A, of the arm is
**

OA = [b

1

b

2

]X

A

=

b

1

b

2

¸

d

0

,

Then the force moment about the e

3

axis is

T

e

=

˜

X

A

F

e

plane

=

0 d

¸

N

k(l −l

0

)sinθ

= kd(l −l

0

)sinθ.

Thus the rigid body equations (1.115) are

I

¨

φ = kd(l −l

0

)sinθ. (1.115)

Thus the complete governing equations for the systemare (1.112),(1.113) and (1.115). These are three coupled

second order equations of the three confguration variables.

The kinetic energy of the system is

1.7 Answers to Selected Exercises 59

KE = KE

rigid body

+KE

particle

.

where the kinetic energy of the rigid body is given by

KE

rigid body

=

I

2

˙

φ

2

,

and the kinetic energy of the particle is given by

KE

particle

=

m

2

[[ ˙ x[[

2

=

m

2

[[R(

ˆ

ΩX

P

+

˙

X

P

)[[

2

=

m

2

[[

ˆ

ΩX

P

+

˙

X

P

[[

2

.

Upon simplifcation we have that

KE

particle

=

m

2

−X

T

P

ˆ

Ω

2

X

P

+2

˙

X

P

ˆ

ΩX

P

+

˙

X

T

P

˙

X

P

=

(I +md

2

+ml

2

sin

2

θ)

2

˙

φ

2

+

m

2

˙

l

2

+

ml

2

2

˙

θ

2

+2d sinθ

˙

φ

˙

l +2d cosθl

˙

φ

˙

θ

This is a quadratic form in the velocities.

Answer to Exercise 1.31

Answer to Exercise 1.32

Fig. 1.38 A schematic representation of a free vibration apparatus.

7

Consider fgure 1.38. Assume that when z ≡ 0 and θ ≡ 0 the system is in equilibrium. Let the defection of

the spring at this condition be Δ. By applying Euler’s 3D rigid body equations,

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω (1.116)

60 1 Mechanics

I

˙

Ω = IΩ Ω +T. (1.117)

Here

R =

cosθ −sinθ 0

sinθ cosθ 0

0 0 1

¸

¸

,

and hence

ˆ

Ω =

0 −

˙

θ 0

˙

θ 0 0

0 0 0

¸

¸

, Ω =

0

0

˙

θ

¸

¸

.

The inertia tensor of the beam is

I =

I

1

0 0

0 I

2

0

0 0 I

3

¸

¸

,

where I

1

, I

2

, I

3

are the inertia components of the body about the b

1

, b

2

, b

3

axis respectively. Thus it is easily seen

that IΩ Ω = 0 and hence (1.117) reduces to:

I

˙

Ω = T, (1.118)

The external TorqueT = T

c

+T

k

+T

g

, where T

c

and T

k

are the force moments (torques) expressed in the b frame

due to the damper force and spring force respectively and T

g

is the force moment due to the gravitational forces.

For small angles sinθ ≈ θ ≈ 0 and cosθ ≈ 1. For small defections the above small angle approximations

are valid and in the b frame the spring force has the representation,

F

k

=

0

−K(L

k

θ +Δ +z)

0

¸

¸

(1.119)

The point at which this force acts has the representation in the b frame given by

X

k

=

L

k

0

0

¸

¸

Thus the torque in the b frame due to the spring force is

T

k

= X

k

F

k

=

0

0

−K(L

k

θ +Δ +z)L

k

¸

¸

(1.120)

In the b frame the damper force has the representation,

F

c

=

0

−CL

c

˙

θ

0

¸

¸

(1.121)

The representation in the b frame of the point of action of the damper force is

X

c

=

L

c

0

0

¸

¸

.

The the force moment due to the damper force is

1.7 Answers to Selected Exercises 61

T

c

= X

c

F

c

=

0

0

−CL

2

c

˙

θ

¸

¸

. (1.122)

In the b frame the gravitational force force has the representation,

F

g

=

0

Mg

0

¸

¸

(1.123)

where M is the total mass of the beam and L is the distance from O to the center of mass of the beam. The

representation in the b frame of the point of action of the damper force is

X

g

=

L

0

0

¸

¸

.

The the force moment due to the damper force is

T

g

= X

g

F

g

=

0

0

MgL

¸

¸

. (1.124)

Also

I

˙

Ω =

0

0

I

3

¨

θ

¸

¸

.

Thus Euler’s rigid body equations (1.117) gives,

I

3

¨

θ =−CL

2

c

˙

θ −KL

2

k

θ +(MgL−KL

k

Δ) −KL

k

z. (1.125)

Applying rigid body equations at equilibrium conditions we have (MgL−KL

k

Δ) = 0 and hence for small de-

fections we have the governing differential equation given below.

I

3

¨

θ +CL

2

c

˙

θ +KL

2

k

θ =−KL

k

z. (1.126)

Chapter 2

Dynamics

2.1 Introduction

In mechanics we have seen how the application of physical principles such as Newton’s equations or Euler’s rigid

body equations are used to mathematically describe certain physical systems. This process is generally referred

to as mathematical modelling. Typically the mathematical object so derived is a set of differential equations. The

sense in which these differential equations describe the physical system is that the solutions of the differential

equations correspond to certain behaviour of the physical system

1

. Thus the study of the behaviour of the solu-

tions of a system of ODEs is of paramount importance in understanding a behaviour of the physical system. The

study of the behaviour of differential equations is referred to as Dynamics.

We will frst introduce some terminology involved in dealing with dynamics. Mathematically a dynamic

system consists of the following ingredients: A space X called the state space, and a frst order differential

equation defned on X by

d x(t)

dt

= ˙ x(t) = f (x(t)). (2.1)

Here x is called the state of the system and f (x) is called a vector feld. The fundamental theorem of differ-

ential equations tells us that there always exists a solution

2

of (2.1) for any given initial condition x(0) and if

f (x) satisfes certain continuity conditions, this solution is unique. Most of the physical systems give rise to

dynamic systems that satisfes the said continuity condition and hence desirably the solutions are always unique.

Furthermore the solutions depend continuously on the initial data x(0). What that means is that the solutions

corresponding to two “nearby” initial conditions say “close” to each other for a “while”.

A solution x(t) of (2.1) can be visualized as a curve on X that is parameterized by t. In this context we

refer to x(t) as a trajectory of the system that begins at x(0) at t = 0. Observe that the tangent vector at any

point x(t) on the trajectory coincides with the value of the vector feld at x(t). Having this picture in mind

is extremely useful in dynamics.

In most of the examples considered in this class the state space X = R

n

for some n or is an open subset of

R

n

. In this case the state x is an ordered n-tuple of variables (x

1

, x

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , x

n

) and f (x) is a set of ordered n-tuple

of functions ( f

1

(x), f

2

(x), ∙ ∙ ∙ , f

n

(x)) where each f

i

is a real valued function defned on R

n

(that is f

i

: R

n

→R).

Writing the ordered n-tuples in a column matrix we can then write the dynamic system (2.1) as

d

dt

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

.

.

.

x

n

(t)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

f

1

(x

1

(t), x

2

(t), ∙ ∙ ∙ , x

n

(t))

f

2

(x

1

(t), x

2

(t), ∙ ∙ ∙ , x

n

(t))

.

.

.

f

n

(x

1

(t), x

2

(t), ∙ ∙ ∙ , x

n

(t))

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

, (2.2)

1

Remember that this correspondence is approximate.

2

Note that this solution may not be defned for all time t

63

64 2 Dynamics

Thus a dynamic system on R

n

is nothing but a collection of n number of coupled frst order ODEs. To solve this

system we know that n initial conditions x(0) = (x

1

(0), x

2

(0), ∙ ∙ ∙ , x

n

(0)) need to be specifed.

Let us now look at several types of behaviour of a dynamical system. These behaviour correspond to special

types of solutions, or trajectories, of (2.1). The most common behaviour that one sees in Engineering systems is

steady state (or equilibrium) behaviour, periodic behaviour and chaotic behaviour. They correspond respectively

to steady state, periodic and chaotic solutions of the corresponding dynamic system (2.1).

Steady State Solutions

A solution x(t) is said to be an steady state or equilibrium solution of the dynamic system (2.1) if it remains

a constant for all time. That is x(t) ≡ ˉ x. Substituting this equilibrium solution in (2.1) it can be seen that such

equilibria are solutions of f ( ˉ x) = 0.

Periodic Solutions

A solution x(t) is said to be a periodic solution of the dynamic system (2.1) if x(t +T) = x(t) for all t for which

the solution is defned and some T > 0 called the period of the solution

3

.

Chaotic Solutions

Chaotic solutions are characterized by their extreme sensitivity to initial conditions. Although the solutions

depend continuously on the initial conditions they move apart at an exponential rate if they are chaotic.

2.2 Linear Systems

When the vector feld f (x) is linear, that is when f (x) = Ax, where A is a constant nn matrix, we say that the

dynamic system is a linear system:

˙ x = Ax. (2.3)

Linearity Property of Solutions: It can be easily verifed that if x

1

(t) is a solution with initial condition

x

1

(0) and x

2

(t) is a solution with initial condition x

2

(0) then x(t) = x

1

(t) +x

2

(t) is a solution with initial

condition x

1

(0) +x

2

(0) and x(t) =λx

1

(t) is a solution with initial condition λx

1

(0) for any λ ∈ R. This in

fact can be used as the characterizing property of linear systems. Systems that do not satisfy this property

are called nonlinear systems.

Linear systems have the simplest possible behaviour. We shall see that the eigenvalues of A completely char-

acterize the entire behaviour of the system. For linear systems (2.3) the origin ˉ x = 0 is always an equilibrium

solution and no other equilibria exist if A has no zero eigenvalue

4

. The equilibrium ˉ x =0 is said to be Hyperbolic

if none of the the eigenvalues of A are on the imaginary axis while it is called Non-Hyperbolic otherwise.

By direct verifcation we can see that a general solution of (2.3) is given by

x(t) = e

At

x(0). (2.4)

Here e

X

is the matrix exponential function given by the infnite series

3

The smallest such value is chosen.

4

Reason out why this is true.

2.2 Linear Systems 65

e

X

= I +X +

1

2!

X

2

+

1

3!

X

3

+∙ ∙ ∙ ,

where X is a nn matrix.

We will see how one may calculate this solution for a second order system. For a second order system x ∈ R

2

and A is a 22 constatnt matrix. Let the eigenvalues of A be λ

1

and λ

2

. From linear algebra we know that A is

similar to one of the following normal forms:

A

1

=

¸

λ

1

0

0 λ

2

, A

2

=

¸

λ 0

0 λ

, A

3

=

¸

λ 1

0 λ

, A

4

=

¸

σ −ω

ω σ

.

That is there exists a 2 2 invertible matrix T

i

such that A = T

i

A

i

T

−1

i

for some A

i

given above. The similarity

between A and A

i

is denoted symbolically as A ∼A

i

. The particular normal form depends on the eigenvalues of

A and their multiplicities. When λ

1

and λ

2

are real and distinct A ∼ A

1

, when λ

1

= λ

2

= λ and their geometric

multiplicity is two then A ∼ A

2

, when λ

1

= λ

2

= λ and their geometric multiplicity is one then A ∼ A

3

, and

fnally if λ

1

= σ +iω and λ

2

= σ −iω then A ∼A

4

. It is easy to show that

e

A

1

t

=

¸

e

λ

1

t

0

0 e

λ

2

t

, e

A

2

t

=

¸

e

λt

0

0 e

λt

, e

A

3

t

=

¸

e

λt

te

λt

0 e

λt

, e

A

4

t

=

¸

e

σt

cosωt e

σt

sinωt

e

σt

sinωt e

σt

cosωt

.

You are asked to show this in exercise 2.2. Let A ∼A

i

then since

e

T

i

A

i

T

−1

i

= T

i

e

A

i

T

−1

i

,

we have that

x(t) = e

At

x(0) = e

tT

i

A

i

T

−1

i

x(0) = T

i

e

tA

i

T

−1

i

x(0)

Thus we can show that if λ

1

and λ

2

are real and distinct the solution takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

c

11

e

λ

1

t

+c

12

e

λ

2

t

c

21

e

λ

1

t

+c

22

e

λ

2

t

**where all the c
**

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Note that not all four of these constants

are independent and only two of them are. If λ

1

= λ

2

= λ we can show that a solution either takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

c

11

e

λt

c

12

e

λt

or

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

(c

11

+c

12

t)e

λt

(c

21

+c

22

t)e

λt

**where all the c
**

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Note that not all four of these constants

are independent and only two of them are. Finally if λ

1

= σ +iω and λ

2

= σ −iω we can show that a solution

takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

e

σt

(c

11

sinωt +c

12

cosωt)

e

σt

(c

21

sinωt +c

22

cosωt)

**where all the c
**

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Note that not all four of these constants

are independent and only two of them are.

From this we see that if all the eigenvalues of A are in the strict left half of the complex plane then

all solutions asymptotically converge to the equilibrium solution ˉ x = 0. That is lim

t→∞

x(t) →0 for all

initial conditions x(0). In this case we say that the equilibrium solution ˉ x = 0 is globally asymptotically

stable. On the other hand if both eigenvalues are in the strict right half plane then all solutions, except the

66 2 Dynamics

equilibrium solution, diverges to infnity. That is lim

t→∞

x(t) →∞ for all initial conditions x(0) =0. If only

one eigenvalue is in the strict right half plane then almost all solutions diverge to infnity. If the eigenvalues

are on the imaginary axis and are distinct then all solutions are periodic.

A linear system with forcing is given by

˙ x = Ax +u(t). (2.5)

The general solution of this can be written down explicitly. You asked in exercise 2.1 to show that the general

solution is given by the Variation of Parameters formula:

x(t) = e

At

x(0) +

t

0

e

A(t−τ)

u(τ)dτ. (2.6)

2.2.1 RC Circuit

Fig. 2.1 RLC Circuit

If the inductance L = 0 then the circuit shown in fgure 2.1 reduces to a RC circuit. Applying Kirchoff’s

voltage law we obtain

˙ q =−

1

RC

q+

1

R

v(t), (2.7)

where q is the charge on the capacitor. Consider the case where the external voltage v(t) ≡0. Then the equation

(2.7) becomes

˙ q =−

1

RC

q =−aq, (2.8)

where we have set a =

1

RC

. This is a frst order linear system where the state space is X = R. The equilibrium

solution of the systemis ˉ q =0. The equilibriumis a hyperbolic equilibriumas long as a =0 and is non-hyperbolic

when a = 0. In our elementary ODE class we have seen that the general solution of the system is

q(t) = e

−at

q(0).

It can be seen that, when a > 0 lim

t→∞

q(t) = 0 and that when a < 0 lim

t→∞

q(t) = 0. This also shows that the

equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if a > 0 and is unstable when a < 0.

When the forcing v(t) is non zero we have

˙ q =−

1

RC

q =−aq+u(t), (2.9)

where u(t) =

1

R

v(t). The solution of this system can also be written down using the variation of parameters

formula

2.2 Linear Systems 67

q(t) = e

−at

q(0) +

t

0

e

−a(t−τ)

u(τ)dτ.

2.2.2 Spring Mass Damper System

Fig. 2.2 Spring Mass Damper System.

Assuming the viscous damping force is f

v

=−C˙ x Newton’s equations yield the following ODE model of the

system.

M¨ x(t) +C˙ x(t) +Kx(t) = f (t). (2.10)

For the purpose of this section we will consider the case where there is not external force; f (t) ≡0. Dividing by

M and setting ω

2

n

=

K

M

and 2ζω

n

=

C

M

in (3.19) we have

¨ x(t) +2ζω

n

˙ x(t) +ω

2

n

x(t) = 0. (2.11)

For small displacements of the mass, the solutions of this equation describes the motion quite accurately. Let

us try to see what conclusions we can draw about the behaviour of the system by studying the behaviour of the

solutions of the differential equation (3.20). By using the variable transformation x

1

= x, x

2

= ˙ x we can write

(3.20) as a set of two frst order ODE’s. We write them in concise form using matrices as

¸

˙ x

1

˙ x

2

=

¸

0 1

−ω

2

n

−2ζω

n

¸

x

1

x

2

. (2.12)

We can also write this as ˙ y = Ay where

y =

¸

x

1

x

2

, A =

¸

0 1

−ω

2

n

−2ζω

n

.

This is a second order linear system. Recall that the eigenvalues of A determine the complete behaviour of the

system. The eigenvalues of A are the roots of the characteristic polynomial

λ

2

+2ζω

n

λ +ω

2

n

= 0.

The roots are

λ

1

, λ

2

=−ζω

n

±iω

d

,

where ω

d

= ω

n

1−ζ

2

. Thus depending on ζ the eigenvalues will be real or complex.

68 2 Dynamics

The origin ˉ y = [0 0]

T

is an equilibrium solution. It is hyperbolic when none of the eigenvalues are on the

imaginary axis, that is ζ = 0, and is non-hyperbolic when at least one of them is on the imaginary axis, that is

ζ = 0.

Observe that the parameters ω

n

, ω

d

, and ζ, completely determine the eigenvalues. Thus we have special names

for these parameters.

ζ - Damping ratio.

ω

n

- Natural frequency.

ω

d

- Damped natural frequency.

The meaning will be clear after we look at the solutions a little more closely. Depending on the damping ratio

ζ the eigenvalues will be real and distinct, real and coinciding, complex and conjugate or purely imaginary. We

will consider each of these cases separately.

(a) ζ = 0 (b) ζ = 0.1

(c) ζ = 1 (d) ζ = 2

Fig. 2.3 The displacement x

1

(t) Vs t for different values of ζ.

Un-Damped: ζ = 0

When ζ = 0 the eigenvalues are

λ

1

, λ

2

=±iω

n

,

and are purely imaginary and conjugate. Then form the results of section 2.2 the solution takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

c

11

sinω

n

t +c

12

cosω

n

t

c

21

sinω

n

t +c

22

cosω

n

t

.

where all the c

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Note that c

22

=ω

n

c

11

and c

21

=−ω

n

c

12

.

A typical such solution is shown in fgure 2.3 (a). We see that the solution is periodic with period 2π/ω

n

for all

initial conditions. The frequency of oscillation is ω

n

. ω

n

is called the undamped natural frequency of the system.

2.2 Linear Systems 69

Under Damped: 0 < ζ < 1

When 0 < ζ < 1 the eigenvalues are

λ

1

, λ

2

=−ζω

n

±iω

d

,

and are complex and conjugate. Figure 2.4(a) shows the location of two typical such eigenvalues. Then form the

results of section 2.2 the solution takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

e

−ζω

n

t

(c

11

sinω

d

t +c

12

cosω

d

t)

e

−ζω

n

t

(c

21

sinω

d

t +c

22

cosω

d

t)

.

where all the c

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Note that c

21

= −ζω

n

c

11

−ω

d

c

12

and

c

22

=−ζω

n

c

12

+ω

d

c

11

. A typical solution for x

1

(t) is shown in fgure 2.3(b). We see that the solution converges

to [0 0]

T

. However the convergence is oscillatory. The frequency of oscillation is ω

d

and the rate of decay of

the amplitude is e

−ζω

n

t

. The frequency ω

d

is called the damped natural frequency. Figure 2.4(b) shows a typical

underdamped response.

(a) Eigenvalue location. (b) A typical solution.

Fig. 2.4 Figure (a) shows the location of the eigenvalues λ

1

and λ

2

when 0 < ζ < 1. Figure (b) shows a typical underdamped

response of x

1

(t).

Critically Damped: ζ = 1

When ζ = 1 the eigenvalues are

λ

1

, λ

2

=−ω

n

, −ω

n

,

and are real coincident and negative. Then form the results of section 2.2 the solution takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

e

−ω

n

t

(c

11

+c

12

t)

e

−ω

n

t

(c

21

+c

22

t)

**where all the c
**

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Note that c

21

= −ω

n

c

11

+c

12

and

c

22

=−ω

n

c

12

. The solution can be shown to converge to the origin [0 0]

T

monotonically. A typical solution for

x

1

(t) is shown in fgure 2.3(d).

70 2 Dynamics

Over Damped: ζ > 1

When ζ > 1 the eigenvalues are

λ

1

, λ

2

= ω

n

(−ζ ±

1−ζ

2

),

and are distinct and negative. Then form the results of section 2.2 the solution takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

c

11

e

λ

1

t

+c

12

e

λ

2

t

λ

1

c

11

e

λ

1

t

+λ

2

c

12

e

λ

2

t

**where all the c
**

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Since both λ

1

and λ

2

are real and negative

we see that for any initial condition x(0) the solution converges to [0 0]

T

monotonically as well. However the

convergence is slower than for the critically damped case. A typical solution for x

1

(t) is shown in fgure 2.3(d).

For comparison purposes the response x

1

(t) for various different values of ζ are plotted in the same fgure in

2.5. Observe that for 0 ≤ζ ≤1 oscillations decay out faster when the damping ratio increases (see fgure 2.5(a)).

Also observe that when ζ ≥1 the solution is monotonic and that the convergence becomes slower as ζ increases

(see fgure 2.5(b)). Figure 2.6 shows the phase plot of the solution that begins at [π/36 0]

T

for several different

values of ζ.

(a) 0 ≤ζ ≤1 (b) 1 ≤ζ

Fig. 2.5 The displacement x

1

(t) Vs t for different values of ζ.

2.3 Nonlinear Systems

For general nonlinear systems the situation is more complicated. First of all linear super position does not work.

That is, in general the linearity property described in the gray box at the beginning of section 2.2 does not hold.

Second it is very rarely that one can explicitly write down the solution. Nonlinear systems for which explicit

solutions can be written down are called completely integrable systems. The simple pendulum system and the

rigid body system to be discussed subsequently are two examples of such systems. On the other extreme we

have chaotic systems. The double pendulum and the Henon weather model are two examples that exhibit such

behaviour.

In Engineering the local behavior of a system near an equilibrium is of great importance. An equilibrium

ˉ x is said to be stable if solutions that begin “suffciently near” the equilibrium stay “suffciently near” the

equilibrium for all future time. If not the equilibrium is said to be unstable. If all solutions that begin

“suffciently near” the equilibrium “asymptotically” converge to the equilibrium (ie. as t →∞) then the

equilibrium is said to be locally asymptotically stable.

2.3 Nonlinear Systems 71

Fig. 2.6 Phase plot, ˙ x

1

(t) Vs x

1

(t), for different values of ζ.

In order to investigate the local behavior of solutions near an equilibrium ˉ x we can consider the perturbation

x = ˉ x +δx where δx is a very small quantity. Substituting this in (2.1) and using the Taylor series expansion of

f (x) we have

˙

δx = f ( ˉ x) +

∂ f

∂x

ˉ x

δx +H.O.T. (2.13)

For small motions near the equilibrium the higher order terms H.O.T are negligible compared to the δx term

and recalling that f ( ˉ x) = 0 we have the perturbed dynamic system

˙

δx = A( ˉ x)δx, (2.14)

where A( ˉ x) =

∂ f

∂x

ˉ x

. This is referred to as the linearization of (2.1) about the equilibrium ˉ x.

The local behavior of the solutions of (2.17) about the equilibrium ˉ x is equivalent to the behavior of the

solutions of the linearized system (2.14) provided that none of the eigenvalues of A( ˉ x) lie on the imaginary

axis (that is when the equilibrium ˉ x is hyperbolic). The behavior of solutions of a linear system (2.14) are

completely characterized by the eigenvalues of A( ˉ x). Thus the local behavior of the solutions of (2.1) near

hyperbolic equilibria ˉ x are completely determined by the eigenvalues of A( ˉ x). If all the eigenvalues of A( ˉ x)

are in the strict left half complex plane then the equilibrium ˉ x is locally asymptotically stable and if at least

one eigenvalue of A( ˉ x) is in the strict right half complex plane then the equilibrium ˉ x is unstable. When the

equilibrium ˉ x is non-hyperbolic the local stability of ˉ x can not be determined by the stability properties of

the linearized system.

The above procedure works when one needs to consider the stability of more general solutions than equilib-

rium solutions. However then the linearized system will in general be a time varying system and the eigenvalue

analysis does not hold.

72 2 Dynamics

2.3.1 Simple Pendulum

Fig. 2.7 A simple pendulum of length L and total mass M.

Consider the simple pendulum shown in fgure 2.7. Assume that a viscous frictional torque, due to air re-

sistance and bearing resistance, acts on the pendulum. Let the torque constant be CN/ms

−1

. Using rigid body

Euler’s equations the governing equation of the system is given by,

¨

θ +

3C

ML

2

˙

θ +

3g

2L

sinθ = 0. (2.15)

Setting α

1

= θ and α

2

= ˙ α

1

=

˙

θ the state space form of (2.15) is

d

dt

¸

α

1

α

2

=

¸

α

2

−

3C

ML

2

α

2

−

3g

2L

sinα

1

. (2.16)

This is also known as the dynamic system model of the system. Using the notation

α =

¸

α

1

α

2

, f (α) =

¸

α

2

−

3C

ML

2

α

2

−

3g

2L

sinα

1

**(2.16) can be written succinctly as
**

˙ α = f (α). (2.17)

The right hand side of (2.17) is referred to as the vectorfeld of the dynamic system. A solution α(t) is said to

be an equilibrium solution of the dynamic system (2.17) if it remains a constant for all time. That is α(t) ≡ ˉ α.

Substituting this equilibrium solution in (2.17) it can be seen that such equilibria are solutions of f ( ˉ α) = 0. For

the simple pendulum the equilibria are given by ˉ α = [0 0]

T

and ˉ α = [π 0]

T

.

In order to investigate the local behavior of solutions near an equilibrium ˉ α we can consider the linearized

system

˙

δα = A( ˉ α)δα, (2.18)

where

A( ˉ α) =

∂ f

∂α

α=ˉ α

=

¸

0 1

−

3g

2L

cos ˉ α −

3C

ML

2

.

For the simple pendulum it can be shown that the eigenvalues of A( ˉ α) are in the strict left half complex plane

for the equilibrium ˉ α = [0 0]

T

and that at least one eigenvalue is in the strict right half complex plane when

the equilibrium ˉ α = [π 0]

T

. Thus the vertically downward equilibrium ˉ α = [0 0]

T

is ‘locally’ stable while the

vertically upward equilibrium ˉ α = [π 0]

T

is unstable.

2.3.1.1 Analytical Solution of the Undamped Simple Pendulum

If the frictional torque is negligible then C ·0 and the governing equation reduces to

2.3 Nonlinear Systems 73

¨

θ +ω

2

sinθ = 0, (2.19)

where ω

2

=

3g

2L

The vectorfeld of the dynamic system model is

f (α) =

¸

α

2

−ω

2

sinα

1

.

The total energy of the system is

T(θ,

˙

θ) =

1

2

˙

θ

2

+2ω

2

sin

2

θ

2

. (2.20)

Differentiating T along the trajectories of the system (2.19) we have that

d

dt

T =

˙

θ (

¨

θ +ω

2

sinθ) = 0,

and hence that T(θ,

˙

θ) =

1

2

˙

θ

2

+2ω

2

sin

2 θ

2

= E is a constant along the solutions of (2.19). This fact allows us to

fnd the solutions of (2.19) analytically since we can write

˙

θ

2

= 2E −4ω

2

sin

2

θ

2

(2.21)

d

dt

θ =

2E −4ω

2

sin

2

θ

2

(2.22)

The last of the above two expressions can be integrated using quadrature as follows:

1

2E −4ω

2

sin

2 θ

2

dθ =

dt.

Large Total Energy: 2ω

2

≤E

A change of variables u = sin

θ

2

reduces the above integral to

1

(1−u

2

)(1−ku

2

)

du =

Ω dt, (2.23)

where k

2

= 2ω

2

/E and Ω

2

= E/2. For total Energy 2ω

2

≤ E it can be seen that 0 ≤ k ≤ 1. Then the left hand

side is known as a Jacobi Elliptic integral of a frst kind. Specifcally a sn function of modulus k.

sn

−1

(u) =

1

(1−u

2

)(1−ku

2

)

du. (2.24)

Thus (2.23) becomes

sn

−1

(u) = Ωt +c,

and hence

u(t) = sn(Ωt +c).

Thus the complete analytic solution of the simple pendulum equation is

θ(t) = 2arcsinu(t) = 2arcsin(sn(Ωt +c)). (2.25)

From (2.22) we also have that

˙

θ(t) = 2Ω dn(Ωt +c). (2.26)

Two interesting limiting behaviors of the pendulum result when E is very large, (that is when k →0) and when

74 2 Dynamics

E = 2ω

2

(that is when k →1).

In the limit k →0 the integral (2.24) reduces to

lim

k→0

sn

−1

(u) =

1

√

1−u

2

du = arcsinu

and sn to the trigonometric sin function. It can be shown form properties of Elliptic functions that cn reduces to

cos and dn = 1.

On the other hand in the limit k →1 the integral (2.24) reduces to

lim

k→1

sn

−1

(u) =

1

1−u

2

du =

1

2

ln

1+u

1−u

= arctanh(u).

It can be shown that in this case cn reduces to sech and dn = sech.

Thus for large total energy E (>> 2ω

2

) the motion is given by

θ(t) = 2(Ωt +c), (2.27)

˙

θ(t) = 2Ω. (2.28)

Similarly when E = 2ω

2

(ie. k = 1) the motion is given by

θ(t) = 2arcsin(tanh(ωt +c)) = π −4arctan

e

−(ωt+c)

, (2.29)

˙

θ(t) = 2ωsech(ωt +c). (2.30)

Small Total Energy: E ≤2ω

2

For total energy such that E ≤2ω

2

from equation (2.22) we have

d

dt

θ = 2ω

E

2ω

2

−sin

2

θ

2

.

Now setting k

2

=

E

2ω

2

and sinθ/2 = ksinψ we have

d

dt

ψ = ω

1−k

2

sin

2

ψ,

where 0 ≤k ≤1. Now setting u = sinψ we have that for small energy E ≤2ω

2

the solutions of the pendulum is

given by the Elliptic integral of the frst kind,

1

(1−u

2

)(1−ku

2

)

du =

ωdt. (2.31)

Thus as before we have

θ(t) = 2arcsinku(t) = 2arcsin(k sn(ωt +c)), (2.32)

˙

θ(t) =

√

2E cn(ωt +c). (2.33)

In summary we have shown that all the solutions of the simple pendulum can be completely written down using

Jacobi Elliptic functions. For Energy E ≥ 2ω

2

the solutions are given by (2.25) and (2.26), while for energy

E ≤2ω

2

the solutions are given by (2.32) and (2.33). Jacobi Elliptic sn and cn functions are periodic functions

of period 4K where

2.3 Nonlinear Systems 75

K(k) = sn

−1

(1) =

1

0

1

(1−u

2

)(1−k

2

u

2

)

du =

π/2

0

1

1−k

2

sin

2

ψ

dψ.

Thus the motion of the pendulum is periodic of periodicity T(k) = 4K/Ω for E ≥ 2ω

2

and T(k) = 4K/ω for

E ≤2ω

2

. Notice that it is a function of k and that k is a function of the energy. Thus the period of periodicity is

a function of energy and hence the initial conditions.

For k <<< 1 using the binomial expansion the right hand side of the last integral can be approximated to

give,

K =

π/2

0

1

1−k

2

sin

2

ψ

dψ =

π/2

0

1+

k

2

4

(1−cos2ψ) +H.O.T

dψ ≈

1+

k

2

4

π

2

.

Thus the period of the solution is

T ≈

2π

ω

+

k

2

π

2ω

=

2π

ω

1+

E

8ω

2

.

For small Energy k ≈ 0 and θ is very small and sinθ ≈ θ. For k ≈ 0 the Jacobi Elliptic functions approximate

the trigonometric functions, sn ≈sin, cn ≈cos and dn ≈1. Thus for very small Energy (2.32) and (2.33) reduce

to

θ(t) ≈

√

2E

ω

sin(ωt +c), (2.34)

˙

θ(t) ≈

√

2E cos(ωt +c). (2.35)

These correspond to the solutions of the linearized system

¨

θ +ω

2

θ = 0.

The period of the solution is in this case

T ≈

2π

ω

= 2π

2L

3g

,

since k ≈0.

2.3.2 van der Pol Oscillator

˙ x

1

= −x

2

−x

1

(x

2

1

+x

2

2

−1), (2.36)

˙ x

2

= x

1

−x

2

(x

2

1

+x

2

2

−1). (2.37)

The state space of the system is X = R

2

. Show that the origin [0 0]

T

is a hyperbolic equilibrium and that it

is unstable. Then show that the unit circle in the state space R

2

is a periodic orbit. Figure 2.8 shows the phase

portrait of the van da Pol oscillator where we have plotted a selected few trajectories.

2.3.3 Double Pendulum

2.3.4 Lorenz Weather Model

76 2 Dynamics

Fig. 2.8 The phase portrait of the van da Pol oscillator.

˙ x

1

= σ(x

2

−x

1

), (2.38)

˙ x

2

= rx

1

−x

2

−x

1

x

3

, (2.39)

˙ x

3

= x

1

x

2

−bx

3

. (2.40)

The state space of the system is R

3

.

Fig. 2.9 The Lorenz Attractor.

Figure 2.9 shows a trajectory of the attractor that begins at [1 0 0]. The parameters are chosen such that

σ = 10, r = 28, b = 8/3. c

2.3 Nonlinear Systems 77

Fig. 2.10 x

1

(t) Vs t and x

2

(t) Vs t for very close initial conditions. The fgures in the top row correspond to an initial condition

[1 0 0] while the fgures in the top row correspond to an initial condition [1.001 0 0]. The solutions diverge rapidly around twenty

seconds.

2.3.5 Rigid Body Dynamics

2.3.5.1 Free Rotational Rigid Body

In this section we will analyze the dynamics (the evolution over time) of a free rotating rigid body. What we mean

by free is that no external force moments are present. That is T = 0. The free rotational rigid body equations are

˙

R = R

ˆ

Ω, (2.41)

I

˙

Ω = IΩ Ω, (2.42)

or alternatively

˙

R = R

I

−1

Π, (2.43)

˙

Π = Π I

−1

Π. (2.44)

By direct calculation we will show that the Kinetic Energy, the spatial angular momentum and the magnitude

of the body angular momentum are conserved. That is KE =Ω ∙ IΩ/2, π and [[Π[[ are conserved. Setting T = 0

in (1.70),(1.71), and (1.89) we see that along solutions

KE =

1

2

Π(t) ∙ I

−1

Π(t) =

1

2

Ω(t) ∙ IΩ(t) = constant, (2.45)

π(t) = R(t) IΩ(t) = constant, (2.46)

[[Π(t)[[ =[[IΩ(t)[[ = constant. (2.47)

When the body frame is chosen so that I is diagonal (in particular for an axi-symmetric rigid body with the body

frame aligned along the axes of symmetry) then the free rigid body equations (2.44) are

78 2 Dynamics

˙

Π

1

=

(I

2

−I

3

)

I

2

I

3

Π

2

Π

3

, (2.48)

˙

Π

2

=

(I

3

−I

1

)

I

3

I

1

Π

3

Π

1

, (2.49)

˙

Π

3

=

(I

1

−I

2

)

I

1

I

2

Π

1

Π

2

. (2.50)

and

KE =

1

2

(I

1

Ω

2

1

+I

2

Ω

2

2

+I

3

Ω

2

3

) =

1

2

Π

2

1

I

1

+

Π

2

2

I

2

+

Π

2

3

I

3

= E = constant, (2.51)

π(t) = R(t)

I

1

Ω

1

I

2

Ω

2

I

3

Ω

3

¸

¸

= R(t)

Π

1

Π

2

Π

3

¸

¸

= constant 31 matrix, (2.52)

[[Π(t)[[ = I

2

1

Ω

2

1

+I

2

2

Ω

2

2

+I

2

3

Ω

2

3

= Π

2

1

+Π

2

2

+Π

2

3

= h = constant. (2.53)

We will consider three distinct cases:

Symmetric Rigid Body: I

1

= I

2

= I

3

.

Asymmetric Rigid Body: I

1

> I

2

> I

3

.

Axi-Symmetric Rigid Body: I

1

= I

2

> I

3

.

The dynamics are trivial in the case of a symmetric rigid body. In this case the right hand sides of (2.48) —

(2.50) reduce to zero and all solutions remain constant for all time t.

Fig. 2.11 The fgure shows several intersection curves of different energy ellipsoid with a fxed constant angular momentum sphere.

Let us consider the asymmetric rigid body, I

1

> I

2

> I

3

: Much of the qualitative behaviour of the rigid body

can be inferred from the above conservation laws. Equation (2.51) defnes a ellipsoid in the body angular momen-

tum space and (2.53) defnes the surface of a sphere in body angular momentum space. What the conservation

of these quantities mean is that the solutions of the rigid body equation (2.44), in the body angular momentum

space Π, are restricted to lie on each of the surfaces and hence on the intersection of these surfaces. Figure 2.11

shows several intersection curves of different energy ellipsoid with a fxed constant angular momentum sphere.

How the constant energy ellipsoid intersects with the constant angular momentum sphere completely determines

the qualitative behaviour of the rigid body. In general, as we can see in fgure 2.11, this intersection is a closed

curve. Thus the solutions in Π space correspond to closed curves and hence periodic motion in angular mo-

mentum space. As we can see in the fgure 2.11 there are three special cases that occur when the intersection

2.3 Nonlinear Systems 79

de-generates to a point. Such de-generacies occur at the points where the principle axis meet the surface of the

sphere. They are explicitly of the form [0, 0, c

3

], [0, c

2

, 0] and [c

1

, 0, 0] and we see that they are equilibria of (2.48)

— (2.50). Since they respectively correspond to steady rotations of the body about the b

3

, b

2

and b

1

axis they

are called relative equilibria. From fgure 2.11 we can see that the relative equilibria [c

1

, 0, 0] and [0, 0, c

3

] are

stable while the relative equilibria [0, c

2

, 0] are unstable

5

. It should be pointed out that a solution being periodic

in angular momentum Π space does not imply that the corresponding motion of the rigid body is also periodic.

To see this consider the following. Let T be the periodicity of the solution in Π space. That is Π(T) = Π(0).

Then from the conservation of spatial angular momentum we have that R

T

(0)μ = Π(0) = Π(T) = R

T

(T)μ

(= constant) and hence μ = R(T)R

T

(0)μ. Thus we see that R(T)R

T

(0) = R

μ

is a rotation about the μ axis

6

.

Thus in general R(T) = R(0). The rotation angle of R

μ

about μ is called the phase of the solution.

In the case of the Axi-symmetric rigid body, I

1

= I

2

> I

3

: We see that any point on the equator lying in the

Π

1

−Π

2

plane of the constant angular momentum sphere is a relative equilibrium. All these relative equilibria

are unstable while the relative equilibria of the form [0, 0, c

3

] are stable.

Analytic Solution of the Asymmetric Rigid body

The conservation laws (2.51) and (2.53) implies that the rigid body equations (2.48)-(2.50) are completely inte-

grable. Meaning that the solution can be explicitly written down. In the following we show how to do this. From

(2.51) and (2.53) we have that

Π

2

1

= α

21

−β

21

Π

2

2

, (2.54)

Π

2

3

= α

23

−β

23

Π

2

2

, (2.55)

where

α

21

=

I

1

(h−2EI

3

)

I

1

−I

3

, α

23

=

I

3

(h−2EI

1

)

I

3

−I

1

and

β

21

=

I

1

(I

2

−I

3

)

I

2

(I

1

−I

3

)

, β

23

=

I

3

(I

2

−I

1

)

I

2

(I

3

−I

1

)

.

Let 2EI

3

< h < 2EI

1

. Then both α

21

> 0 and α

23

> 0. If we assume I

1

> I

2

> I

3

then β

21

> 0 and β

23

> 0.

Using these (2.49) can be written as

˙

Π

2

=

(I

1

−I

3

)

I

1

I

3

(α

21

−β

21

Π

2

2

)(α

23

−β

23

Π

2

2

).

Using the variable transformation

u =

β

21

α

21

Π

2

,

ω =

β

21

α

23

I

1

−I

3

I

1

I

3

=

(I

2

−I

3

)(2EI

1

−h)

I

1

I

2

I

3

and

k

2

=

α

21

β

23

α23β

21

=

(I

1

−I

2

)(h−2EI

3

)

(I

2

−I

3

)(2EI

1

−h)

this reduces to

˙ u = ω

(1−u

2

)(1−k

2

u

2

).

This can be explicitly integrated using quadrature.

5

Recall that for stability “near by” solutions should stay “near by” for all time t

6

Recall that if R is a rotation about the axis μ in the spatial frame then Rμ = μ.

80 2 Dynamics

1

(1−u

2

)(1−k

2

u

2

)

du =

ωdt = ωt +c.

The left hand side of the above integral is the inverse of the Jacobi elliptic function sn of modulus k where

0 ≤k ≤1,

sn

−1

(u) =

u

0

1

(1−u

2

)(1−k

2

u

2

)

du.

Thus we have

u(t) = sn(ωt +c),

and hence

Π

2

(t) =

I

2

(h−2EI

3

)

(I

2

−I

3

)

sn(ωt +c).

From (2.54) and (2.55) we have that

Π

2

1

= α

21

(1−u

2

) = α

21

(1−sn

2

(ωt +c)) = α

21

cn

2

(ωt +c), (2.56)

Π

2

3

= α

23

(1−k

2

u

2

) = α

23

(1−k

2

sn

2

(ωt +c)) = α

23

dn

2

(ωt +c), (2.57)

and hence

Π

1

(t) =

I

1

(h−2EI

3

)

I

1

−I

3

cn(ωt +c), (2.58)

Π

3

(t) =

I

3

(2EI

1

−h)

I

1

−I

3

dn(ωt +c). (2.59)

Jacobi Elliptic functions sn and cn are periodic functions of period 4K and dn is periodic of period 2K, where

K(k) = sn

−1

(1) =

1

0

1

(1−u

2

)(1−k

2

u

2

)

du =

π/2

0

1

1−k

2

sin

2

ψ

dψ ≈

1+

k

2

4

π

2

.

Thus Π

1

(t), Π

2

(t), Π

3

(t) are periodic of period

T = 4K(k)/ω =

2π

ω

1+

k

2

4

+H.O.T.

≈2π

I

1

I

2

I

3

(2EI

1

−h)(I

2

−I

3

)

1+

(I

1

−I

2

)(h−2EI

3

)

4(I

2

−I

3

)(2EI

1

−h)

.

Thus we see that Π(t) is periodic of period T. However what may be surprising is that the motion of the rigid

body is not periodic!!!

Figure 2.12 shows the simulation results of for an asymmetric rigid body of I = diag[3, 2, 1].

The angle between the body angular momentum and the minor axis of symmetry of the body, as seen in the

body frame, is given by,

α(t) = cos

−1

ϒ ∙ Π

h

= cos

−1

Π

3

h

= cos

−1

I

3

(2EI

1

−h)

h

2

(I

1

−I

3

)

dn(ωt +c)

,

where ϒ = [0 0 1] is the representation of the minor axis in the body frame (we have assumed that the body

frame is aligned along the principle axis of the body). The angle α(t)is defned as the angle of nutation of angular

momentum about the minor axis of the rigid body. Recall that the body angular momentum as observed in the

spatially fxed fame e is constant, that is RΠ(t) = π(t) = M = constant. Since π ∙ Rϒ = RΠ ∙ Rϒ = Π ∙ϒ we see

2.3 Nonlinear Systems 81

(a) (b)

Fig. 2.12 Components of the angular momentum vector Π(t) for the Non-Aix-Symmetric Rigid Body. I = diag[3, 2, 1]. Figure (a)

corresponds to an initial condition of Π(0) = [0.6, −1, 2] thus a k =0.2951 and T =5.4. Figure (b) corresponds to an initial condition

of Π(0) = [3, −1, 2] thus k = 0.88 and T = 7.34.

that, when observed in the spatially fxed frame e, the angle that the minor axis of symmetry of the rigid body

makes with the constant spatial angular momentum vector M is also α(t).

Figure 2.13 shows the motion of the tip of Π(t) in the angular momentum space for a rigid body of I =

diag[3, 2, 1] and an initial condition of Π(0) = [0.6, −1, 2].

Fig. 2.13 The motion of the tip of the angular momentum vector as observed in the body co-ordinates for the asymmetric Rigid

Body. I = diag[3, 2, 1] and an initial condition of Π(0) = [0.6, −1, 2].

Analytic Solution of the Axi-symmetric Rigid Body

Let I

1

= I

2

> I

3

. Then k = 0 and the elliptic functions reduce to trigonometric functions (sn → sin, cn →

cos, dn →1) and we have

ω =

(2EI

1

−h)(I

2

−I

3

)

I

1

I

2

I

3

,

and

82 2 Dynamics

Π

1

(t) =

I

1

(h−2EI

3

)

I

1

−I

3

cos(ωt +c), (2.60)

Π

2

(t) =

I

2

(h−2EI

3

)

(I

2

−I

3

)

sin(ωt +c), (2.61)

Π

3

(t) =

I

3

(2EI

1

−h)

I

1

−I

3

= constant. (2.62)

The body angular momentum Π(t) is periodic of period

Fig. 2.14 Components of the angular momentum vector Π(t) for the Symmetric Rigid Body. I = diag[2, 2, 1] and Π(0) =

[0.4, −1, 2]. The period of oscillation is T = 6.23.

T = 2π

I

1

I

2

I

3

(2EI

1

−h)(I

2

−I

3

)

.

Consider the minor axis of symmetry of the body ϒ = [0 0 1]

T

(as represented in the body frame). The angle

between the body angular momentum and the minor axis of symmetry of the body (angle of nutation of the body

angular momentum) is given by,

α = cos

−1

ϒ ∙ Π

h

= cos

−1

Π

3

h

= cos

−1

I

3

(2EI

1

−h)

h

2

(I

1

−I

3

)

= constant

and is a constant.

Figure 2.14 shows the simulation results of an symmetric rigid body of I =diag[2, 2, 1] and an initial condition

of Π(0) = [0.6, −1, 2]. The motion of the tip of the angular momentum vector as observed in the body co-

ordinates for the symmetric Rigid Body is shown in fgure 2.15.

The nutation angle of motion of the body is the angle between ϒ = [0 0 1] and Rϒ. That is, as seen in the e

frame, the angle between the third axis of the spatially fxed e frame and the axis of symmetry of the body.

2.3.5.2 Heavy Top

Consider the heavy top equations (1.101) and (1.102).

2.4 Lattice Dynamics 83

Fig. 2.15 The motion of the tip of the angular momentum vector as observed in the body co-ordinates for the Symmetric Rigid

Body. I = diag[2, 2, 1] and an initial condition of Π(0) = [0.6, −1, 2].

˙

Γ = Γ Ω , (2.63)

I

˙

Ω = IΩ Ω +mgl Γ ϒ. (2.64)

It can be shown that the following quantities are conserved along the solutions of the system.

TE =

1

2

(I

1

Ω

2

1

+I

2

Ω

2

2

+I

3

Ω

2

3

) +mgl Γ

T

ϒ =

1

2

Π

2

1

I

1

+

Π

2

2

I

2

+

Π

2

3

I

3

+mgl Γ

3

= E, (2.65)

Π

T

Γ = Π

1

Γ

1

+Π

2

Γ

2

+Π

3

Γ

3

= c, (2.66)

[[Γ[[

2

=Γ

2

1

+Γ

2

2

+Γ

2

3

= a. (2.67)

A heavy top for which I

1

= I

2

is called a Lagrange top. An upright spinning Lagrange top is stable if and only

if [[Ω[[ > 2

√

MglI

1

/I

3

(see Section 15.10 of [4] for further details).

2.4 Lattice Dynamics

Consider the one-dimensional, lattice with dynamics described by

m¨ q

n

=−φ

/

(q

n

−q

n−1

)+φ

/

(q

n+1

−q

n

), (2.68)

where m is the mass of the n

th

particle, q

n

is the displacement of the n

th

particle from its equilibrium, φ(r

n

) is the

interaction potential between the n

th

and n−1

th

particle (r

n

= q

n

−q

n−1

) and the prime denotes differentiation.

There are two types of boundary conditions under which this lattice is considered: Fixed end, and Periodic. In the

case of the fxed end boundary conditions it is customary to consider a fnite lattice of N+1 particles numbered

from 0 to N with q

0

≡ 0 and q

N

≡ 0. In the case of a N-periodic lattice we assume q

n+N

= q

n

for all n where

the lattice is infnite in length. We may also consider this as a N number of particles where the Nth particle is

coupled back to the 1st particle (N particles connected in a circle).

2.4.1 The Linear Lattice

Consider the N-periodic harmonic lattice resulting from φ(r

n

) =

αβ

2

r

2

n

, where α, β are constants such that

αβ > 0, and ω

2

0

=

αβ

m

.

84 2 Dynamics

¨ q

n

= ω

2

0

(q

n+1

−2q

n

+q

n−1

) (2.69)

Letting a be the lattice spacing one seeks a travelling wave solution, of wavelength λ, of the form

q

n

(t) =Cexpi

±ωt +

2πa

λ

n

(2.70)

It clearly satisfes the N-periodic boundary conditions for

Na

λ

= M = 0, 1, 2, 3, ∙ ∙ ∙ ,

where the physically reasonable limits of M are determined by the condition 2a ≤ λ ≤ Na which results in

1 ≤ M ≤

N

2

. Noting that for (2.70) q

n+1

+q

n−1

= 2cos(2πa/λ) q

n

we see that (2.70) is a solution of (2.69) if

and only if ω

2

(λ) = 4ω

2

0

sin

2

πa

λ

**. It is also customary to write this relationship as
**

ω(k) = 2ω

0

sin

ka

2

, (2.71)

where k =2π/λ is known as the wave number. This relationship is referred to as the dispersion law of the lattice.

From 2a ≤λ ≤Na we see that the physically reasonable wave numbers k satisfy 0 ≤k ≤

π

a

and are distributed

with a uniform spacing of Δk =

2π

Na

.

Fig. 2.16 Dispersion curves for the lattice with nearest neighbor linear interactions.

The dispersion relationship satisfes the periodic condition ω(k) = ω(k +

2π

a

). It is customary to plot this

curve in the interval, known as the Brillouin zone, −π/a ≤ k ≤ π/a. This is shown in fgure 2.16. Thus it can

be seen that physically the positive k numbers correspond to a wave length of 2a ≤ λ ≤ Na while negative k

numbers correspond the wave lengths of a ≤ λ ≤ 2a which due to the discretizing effect give rise to identical

wave shapes.

In terms of the wave number the travelling wave (2.70) takes the form

q

n

(t) =C

k

expi (±ω(k)t +kan) (2.72)

However from (2.70) and (2.71) we see that k and −k gives a traveling wave of the same wavelengths but

traveling to the left and right respectively. Thus the right half of the dispersion curve corresponds to left moving

traveling waves and the left half corresponds to the identical but right moving travelling waves. Ageneral solution

of the lattice is a linear super position of the above modes:

q

n

(t) =

π/a

∑

k=−π/a

(C

k

expi (ω(k)t +kan) +D

k

exp−i (ω(k)t −kan)) (2.73)

2.4 Lattice Dynamics 85

2.4.1.1 Dispersion

The phase velocity of a given mode shape is defned to be the velocity of the traveling wave

v(λ) =

ωλ

2π

= aω

0

sin(πa/λ)

(πa/λ)

= aω

0

sin(ka/2)

(ka/2)

. (2.74)

For waves with very large wave length compared to the lattice spacing, that is for wave numbers near the Brillouin

zone center, sin(ka/2) ≈ (ka/2) and the phase velocity of the travelling wave is a maximum and is equal to

v = aω

0

. This is termed to be the speed of sound in the lattice. For such waves the phase velocity is independent

of the wavelength. For waves with wavelength comparable to the lattice constant this is not true with the velocity

taking a minimum v =0 at the Brillouin zone edges. Typically we are interested in how a local disturbance would

propagate in the lattice. From equation (2.73) it is clear that any initial perturbation will breakup into a train of

left moving waves and a train of right moving waves. Such a train of waves is called a wave packet. The waves

that form the packet consists of sinusoidal waves of different wave lengths and hence travel at different speeds.

Thus the wave packet deforms as it propagate. This process is called dispersion. Since it arises out of the ω(λ)

dependence on wavelength the relationship (2.71) is usually called the dispersion curve and is plotted in fgure

2.16. It is plotted against the wave number k = 2π/λ.

One measure of how well a packet of waves move through space is captured by the notion of group velocity

u = v(λ) −λv

/

(λ) = aω

0

cos

πa

λ

= aω

0

cos

ka

2

=

dω

dk

.

From fgure 2.16 it can be seen that for wave packets consisting of a group of low k (long wavelength) waves,

the group velocity is nearly a constant (equal to lim

k→0

u(k) = aω

0

= c) and therefore the packets travel with

relatively low distortion. On the other hand for large k (small wavelength) the group velocity is almost zero and

wave packets consisting of a group of small wavelength waves travel at very low speeds. The long wavelength

modes are usually referred to as zone center acoustic phonons while the short wavelength modes are referred to

as zone edge acoustic phonons. Initial perturbations that give rise to zone edge phonons persist for longer and

contribute towards local heating. This is shown in the numerical simulation of a 128 element lattice where an

initial perturbation is provided to the middle 16 elements of the lattice. Figures 2.17 shows the time evolution of

the lattice and fgure 2.18 shows the total energy in the middle 16 elements of the lattice. Figure 2.17(b) show

how the energy created by the fast moving zone center phonons disperse to the left and right and fgure 2.18(b)

clearly shows the energy in the middle 16 elements dissipating rapidly. Contrastingly fgure 2.18(a) shows that

the energy created by the zone edge phonons dissipates quite slowly.

(a) Zone edge phonon (b) Zone center phonon

Fig. 2.17 The time evolution of a zone edge and zone center acoustic phonon generated in the middle 16 elements of a 128 element

lattice.

In this note we are primarily interested in using feedback control to breakup the slow zone edge modes and

transform them into fast zone center modes in an energy conserving manner. Specifcally the control problem

that we are interested in is that for given any initial condition, while conserving the total energy of the lattice,

the solution of the lattice should asymptotically made to converge to a solution with the following properties.

86 2 Dynamics

(a) Zone edge phonon (b) Zone center phonon

Fig. 2.18 The total energy in the middle 16 elements of the lattice.

1. The energies contained in all the last m modes are zero.

2. The energy initially contained in all the last m modes is completely transformed in to the jth mode (1 ≤ j ≤

N−m). That is H

j

= H

j

(0) +∑

N

k=N−m+1

H

k

(0).

Such a solution lies on a (N−m)-Liouville torus

˜

M

E

=

(q

n

, ˙ q

n

) ∈ R

n

R

n

H

j

= H

j

(0) +∑

N

k=N−m+1

H

k

(0),

H

k

= H

k

(0) ∀ k = 1, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N−m and i = j,

H

k

= 0 ∀ k = N−m+1, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N

.

We will call this the problem of controlled decay of slow phonons.

2.4.1.2 Modal Decomposition

The lattice equation (2.69) can be written as

¨ q = Ωq. (2.75)

where q = [q

1

, q

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , q

n

]

T

, and

Ω = ω

2

0

−2 1 0 ∙ ∙ ∙ 0 0 1

1 −2 1 ∙ ∙ ∙ 0 0 0

0 1 −2 ∙ ∙ ∙ 0 0 0

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

0 0 0 ∙ ∙ ∙ −2 1 0

0 0 0 ∙ ∙ ∙ 1 −2 1

1 0 0 ∙ ∙ ∙ 0 1 −2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

This is a periodic Jacobi matrix and can be diagonalized. The modal matrix T of Ω is explicitly given by

T

n,1

=

1

√

N

, for n = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N

T

n,2i

=

2

N

sin(2πin/N) for i = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N/2−1, n = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N

T

n,2i+1

=

2

N

cos(2πin/N) for i = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N/2−1, n = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N

T

n,N

=

1

√

N

cos(πn) for n = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N

2.4 Lattice Dynamics 87

Let T

T

ΩT = D = diag([−ω

2

1

, −ω

2

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , −ω

2

N

]) where we have numbered the modes in increasing order. In the

transformed co-ordinates q = Tz the equation (2.75) reduces to the completely uncoupled form

¨ z = Dz. (2.76)

Explicitly writing it out we have the modal equations

¨ z

k

=−ω

2

k

z

k

. (2.77)

This also shows that if one needs interaction between modes then one necessarily needs nonlinear feedback. The

energy in the kth mode is given by

H

k

=

1

2

(˙ z

2

k

+ω

2

k

z

2

k

). (2.78)

The variables given by

(I

k

, θ

k

) =

H

k

ω

k

, arctan

ω

k

z

k

˙ z

k

for k = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N (2.79)

are the so called action-angle variables of the system. In these co-ordinates the linear lattice (2.69) takes the form

˙

I

k

= 0, (2.80)

˙

θ

k

= ω

k

, (2.81)

for k = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N. From this it is easy to see that, each of the I

k

and hence the H

k

are invariants of the motion of

the lattice. In fact it shows that the sets

M =¦(q

n

, ˙ q

n

) ∈ R

n

R

n

[H

k

= c

k

∈ R, for k = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , N¦.

are invariant under the fow of the lattice and that the fow linearizes on them. It can be easily seen that M is

generically a N-dimensional torus and that such Tori foliate the state space R

2n

. When certain c

k

are zero the tori

become de-generate.

Equations (2.80) and (2.81) can be easily integrated. Thus the solution in action angle co-ordinates can be

written down explicitly as I

k

= c

k

, θ

k

= ω

k

t +φ

k

. Transferring back to the co-ordinates (z

k

, ˙ z

k

) we have

z

k

= 2c

k

sinω

k

t +φ

k

, ˙ z

k

= 2c

k

cosω

k

t +φ

k

.

Now using the transformation, q = Tz we can explicitly write down the original co-ordinates. Well in this case

this not surprising since we already know that we can explicitly construct the solution since the system is linear.

Completely integrable nonlinear systems are nonlinear systems that admit a local action-angle co-ordinate system

so that the dynamics take a form like (2.80) – (2.81) thereby allowing the solution to be explicitly constructed.

88 2 Dynamics

2.5 Exercises

Exercise 2.1. A linear system with forcing is given by

˙ x = Ax +u(t).

Show that the general solution of this system can be written down explicitly by the Variation of Parameters

formula:

x(t) = e

At

x(0) +

t

0

e

A(t−τ)

u(τ)dτ.

Exercise 2.2. If

A

1

=

¸

λ

1

0

0 λ

2

, A

2

=

¸

λ 0

0 λ

, A

3

=

¸

λ 1

0 λ

, A

4

=

¸

σ −ω

ω σ

.

show that

e

A

1

t

=

¸

e

λ

1

t

0

0 e

λ

2

t

, e

A

2

t

=

¸

e

λt

0

0 e

λt

, e

A

3

t

=

¸

e

λt

te

λt

0 e

λt

, e

A

4

t

=

¸

e

σt

cosωt e

σt

sinωt

e

σt

sinωt e

σt

cosωt

.

Exercise 2.3. Show that

e

TXT

−1

= Te

X

T

−1

.

Exercise 2.4. Consider the second order linear dynamic system

˙ x = Ax.

Let λ

1

and λ

2

be the eigenvalues of A.

1. Show that if λ

1

and λ

2

are real and distinct the solution takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

c

11

e

λ

1

t

+c

12

e

λ

2

t

c

21

e

λ

1

t

+c

22

e

λ

2

t

**where all the c
**

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Note that not all four of these constants

are independent and only two of them are.

2. If λ

1

= λ

2

= λ show that a solution either takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

c

11

e

λt

c

12

e

λt

or

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

(c

11

+c

12

t)e

λt

(c

21

+c

22

t)e

λt

**where all the c
**

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Note that not all four of these constants

are independent and only two of them are.

3. Show that if λ

1

= σ +iω and λ

2

= σ −iω a solution takes the form

¸

x

1

(t)

x

2

(t)

=

¸

e

σt

(c

11

sinωt +c

12

cosωt)

e

σt

(c

21

sinωt +c

22

cosωt)

**where all the c
**

i j

are constants that depend on the initial condition x(0). Note that not all four of these constants

are independent and only two of them are.

Exercise 2.5. Consider the RC circuit obtained by setting the inductance L = 0 in fgure 2.19. Let R = 1,C = 2.

For the two cases (a) v(t) ≡0 and q(0) = 1, (b) v(t) ≡1 and q(0) = 0, do the following

1. Using ODE45 in MATLAB fnd q(t) numerically and plot q(t) Vs t.

2. Find the explicit (analytic) expression for q(t).

2.5 Exercises 89

Fig. 2.19 RLC Circuit

Exercise 2.6. Consider the RLC circuit shown in fgure 2.19.

1. Find the governing equations of the system.

2. Find the undamped natural frequency ω

n

, damping ratio ζ and the damped natural frequency, ω

d

, of the

system in terms of the system parameters L, R and C.

Exercise 2.7. Consider the spring mass damper system shown in fgure 2.20 where f (t) ≡ 0 and the damping

force f

v

= −C˙ x. Let M = 1, K = 1 and C = 2ζ. Consider the four cases (a) ζ = 0, (b) ζ = 0.5, (c) ζ = 1 and

(d) ζ = 1.5 that correspond respectively to an un-damped, under damped, critically damped, and over damped

system. For the initial condition that corresponds to an initial displacement of one unit and initial velocity of

zero, do the following for each of the above four cases:

1. Using ODE45 in MATLAB, numerically fnd the solution and obtain the following three plots:

(a) x(t) Vs t,

(b) ˙ x(t) Vs t,

(c) ˙ x(t) Vs x(t),

2. Find the analytical expression of the solution.

Fig. 2.20 Spring Mass Damper System.

Exercise 2.8. The fgure 2.21 shows the response of a suspension system. Estimate using the graph the damping

ratio and the natural frequency of the system.

Exercise 2.9. Consider the van da Pol equations:

˙ x

1

= −x

2

−x

1

(x

2

1

+x

2

2

−1),

˙ x

2

= x

1

−x

2

(x

2

1

+x

2

2

−1).

90 2 Dynamics

Fig. 2.21 Displacement Vs Time Results of a suspension system.

1. Show that the origin [0 0]

T

is a hyperbolic equilibrium and that it is unstable.

2. Show that the unit circle in the state space R

2

is a periodic orbit.

3. Simulate the system, using MATLAB, and obtain the solutions through the initial conditions, x(0) = [.001 0]

and x(0) = [2 0] and obtain the plots

(a) x

1

(t) Vs t.

(b) x

2

(t) Vs t.

(c) x

2

(t) Vs x

1

(t).

4. Obtain the phase portrait for several different solutions.

Exercise 2.10. Consider the Lorenz weather model:

˙ x

1

= σ(x

2

−x

1

),

˙ x

2

= rx

1

−x

2

−x

1

x

3

,

˙ x

3

= x

1

x

2

−bx

3

,

with parameters σ = 10, r = 28, b = 8/3.

1. Find the equilibrium solutions of the system.

2. Determine the local stability of each of the equilibria.

3. Simulate the system, using MATLAB, and plot the solution in state space that begins at [1 0 0].

Exercise 2.11. Consider the 1-DOF electrostatic MEMS mirror model shown in fgure 2.22. Write down the

dynamic system form of the governing equations. Let v(t) ≡ ˉ v.

1. Show that there are three equilibria of the system for ˉ v less than a certain critical value and that there is only

one equilibrium when ˉ v greater than that critical value.

2. Determine the local stability of each of the equilibria.

3. Numerically simulating the system for ε = 1, A = 1, m = 1, k = 1, l

0

= 3, and b = 0.02 obtain l(t) Vs t and

q(t) Vs t for ..........................

Exercise 2.12. Consider the simple pendulum shown in fgure 2.7.

2.5 Exercises 91

Fig. 2.22 1-DOF Electrostatic MEMS model.

1. Derive the state space form (2.16) of the governing equations.

2. Showthat the perfectly vertical downward confguration at rest and the perfectly vertical upward confguration

at rest are the only two equilibria of the system.

3. Derive analytical expressions for small motions of the pendulum near the equilibria for each equilibrium.

4. Show, using the linearized dynamics derived in 3, that the vertically downward confguration is locally asymp-

totically stable while the vertically upward confguration is unstable.

5. Verify your answers for question 4 using MATLAB simulations.

6. Obtain the phase portrait of the system.

7. Obtain the phase portrait of the system if the frictional torque is neglected (ie. C = 0). Using this plot explain

in detail the expected physical behavior of the simple pendulum when C = 0.

8. Analytically calculate the period of oscillations of the simple pendulum for small oscillations.

9. Using the experimental setup in the applied mechanics lab, calculate the period of oscillation for small mo-

tions and compare with the analytical results.

10. Discuss discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental period of small oscillations.

11. Show experimentally that the period of oscillation depends on the amplitude for large oscillations.

Fig. 2.23 A simple pendulum of length L and total mass M.

Exercise 2.13. For the free rigid body show that 2EI

2

< h < 2EI

1

when I

1

> I

3

> I

2

. Then show that

ω

2

=

(h−2EI

2

)(2EI

1

−h)

I

1

I

2

and

k

2

2

=

(I

1

−I

3

)(h−2EI

2

)

(I

3

−I

2

)(2EI

1

−h)

92 2 Dynamics

Π

1

(t) =

I

1

(h−2EI

2

)

I

1

−I

2

cn(ω

2

t +c), (2.82)

Π

2

(t) =

I

2

(2EI

1

−h)

I

1

−I

2

dn(ω

2

t +c). (2.83)

Π

3

(t) =

I

3

(h−2EI

2

)

(I

3

−I

2

)

sn(ω

2

t +c). (2.84)

T

2

= 4K(k

2

)/ω ≈

2π

ω

2

1+

k

2

2

4

= 2π

I

1

I

2

(h−2EI

2

)(2EI

1

−h)

1+

(I

1

−I

3

)(h−2EI

2

)

4(I

3

−I

2

)(2EI

1

−h)

.

Also when 2EI

2

< h < 2EI

3

and I

3

> I

1

> I

2

then

ω

3

=

(h−2EI

2

)(2EI

3

−h)

I

3

I

2

and

k

2

3

=

(I

3

−I

1

)(h−2EI

2

)

(I

1

−I

2

)(2EI

3

−h)

Π

1

(t) =

I

3

(h−2EI

2

)

I

3

−I

2

cn(ω

3

t +c), (2.85)

Π

2

(t) =

I

2

(2EI

3

−h)

I

3

−I

2

dn(ω

3

t +c). (2.86)

Π

3

(t) =

I

1

(h−2EI

2

)

(I

1

−I

2

)

sn(ω

3

t +c). (2.87)

T

2

= 4K(k

3

)/ω ≈

2π

ω

3

1+

k

2

3

4

= 2π

I

3

I

2

(h−2EI

2

)(2EI

3

−h)

1+

(I

3

−I

1

)(h−2EI

2

)

4(I

1

−I

2

)(2EI

3

−h)

.

Exercise 2.14. Consider the unforced Gyroscope shown in fgure 2.24. If the system is started with an initial

angular velocity that has a nonzero component only about the spin axis, show that:

1. The spin axis direction will remain a constant If no external torques are applied on the system.

2. An external torque applied about the rotation axis of the outer gimbal will induce a motion about the axis of

rotation of the inner gimbal. Verify your answers using MATLAB and then using the Gyroscopic experimental

setup in the applied mechanics lab.

2.5 Exercises 93

Fig. 2.24 The Gimbal Gyroscope

Chapter 3

Input Output Representation of Linear Systems

A system is a collection of objects that interact with each other as well as with the environment that they are con-

tained in. Examples are mechanical systems, electrical systems, thermodynamical systems, biological systems

etc. Two types of quantities are required to describe the evolution of a system. Quantities that do not change

with time, called system parameters and quantities that vary with time (quantities that are a function of time),

called system variables. The system variables that are directly infuenced by the interaction of the system with

its environment (external surrounding) are called the inputs of the system while the output of the system is some

function (or in the case of multiple outputs, a collection of functions) of the system variables.

3.1 Graphical Description of a Input Output System

In this class we will graphically represent a system by a box with inputs coming in and outputs leaving the box.

This allows us to think of a system as a black box that processes an input signal to give an output signal. A

system with a single input and a single output is called a single input single output (SISO) system while a system

with multiple inputs and multiple outputs is called a multi input multi output (MIMO) system. In this class we

will consider only SISO systems.

Fig. 3.1 Block diagram representation of a SISO system.

3.2 Mathematical Description of a System

Let U be the set of all possible signals (That is all possible functions of time). Then we can think of a system,

denoted by S, as a function that takes an input function, u(t), from the set U as the argument and gives the

output function, y(t), as its result. That is,

95

96 3 Input Output Representation of Linear Systems

Fig. 3.2 Block diagram representation of a three input two output MIMO system.

y(t) = S(u(t)). (3.1)

This is consistent with our desire to graphically represent a system as a box that processes the input to give us

the output. Let y

1

(t) = S(u

1

(t)) and y

2

(t) = S(u

2

(t)). That is y

1

(t) is the output of the system to the input

u

1

(t) while y

2

(t) is the output of the system to the input u

2

(t). Then, If the system satisfes the following two

properties,

S (u

1

(t) +u

2

(t)) = y

1

(t) +y

2

(t), (3.2)

S (ku

1

(t)) = ky

1

(t) (3.3)

it is referred to as a Linear system. A system is said to be time invariant if the system response to any given input

is exactly the same irrespective of the time at which the input was applied. For instance the behavior (response)

of a time invariant system to a sinusoidal input should be exactly the same whether you apply the input at time

t = 0 or t = 10 seconds. In this class we will consider only Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems. Usually LTI

systems result in constant coeffcient linear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. For instance consider

a simple forced spring mass damper system shown in fgure 3.4.

Let the displacement x(t) from its equilibrium be the desired output and f (t) be the input. That is y(t) = x(t),

u(t) = f (t). Applying Newton’s equations yield the following ODE model of the system in terms of the input

and output variables.

M¨ y +C˙ y +Ky = u(t). (3.4)

Fig. 3.3 The Block Diagram Representation of the Spring Mass Damper System.

However we would like to represent this system as in fgure 3.3. How do we make this mathematical model

ft into our desired graphical representation? or more precisely, how can we write down the function S(•)

explicitly. The mathematical tool required for this is Laplace transforms. In the next couple of sections we will

briefy and quickly review this mathematical background. We will do so using two typical examples: a frst order

system and a second order system. Any linear system can be thought of as higher order coupling of frst order

and second order systems.

3.2 Mathematical Description of a System 97

3.2.1 First Order Linear Time Invariant System

Consider the single water tank system with an infow and an outfow. Let the height of the water level of the tank

be h(t) and let it be the desired output, the cross sectional area of the tank is A, the infow rate is q

i

(t). Assuming

that the outfow rate, q

o

(t), is a linear function of the height, that is q

0

(t) = rh(t) where r is a positive constant.

Applying the principle of conservation of mass, the governing equation, ODE model of the system is,

A

˙

h(t) +rh(t) = q

i

(t). (3.5)

Dividing by A and setting p

1

=

r

A

and u(t) =

1

A

q

i

(t) in (3.5) we have

˙

h(t) + p

1

h(t) = u(t). (3.6)

For a given u(t) that does not grow faster than an exponential function the output will also not grow faster than

an exponential function (this is a consequence of linearity of the system). Thus taking Laplace transform of both

sides of (3.6) we have

L

¸

˙

h(t) + p

1

h(t)

¸

= L¦u(t)¦, (3.7)

(s + p

1

)H(s) −h(0) = U(s). (3.8)

This yields

H(s) =

1

s + p

1

h(0) +

1

s + p

1

U(s). (3.9)

The polynomial Δ(s) = s + p

1

is the characteristic polynomial of the system and

Δ(s) = s + p

1

= 0, (3.10)

is the characteristic equation. The output h(t) can be calculated by taking the inverse Laplace transform of H(s).

That is

h(t) = L

−1

¦H(s)¦ =L

−1

1

s + p

1

h(0) +

1

s + p

1

U(s)

¸

, (3.11)

= h(0)e

−p

1

t

1(t) +L

−1

1

s + p

1

U(s)

¸

, (3.12)

The frst part of the output

h

IC

(t) = h(0)e

−p

1

t

1(t) (3.13)

is called the initial condition response, since it depends only on the initial conditions and not on the input.

Observe that p

1

=

r

A

depends only on the system parameters. The part

h

f

(t) =L

−1

1

s + p

1

U(s)

¸

(3.14)

is called the forced response, since it depends only on the input and has nothing to do with the initial conditions.

In this notation the complete response is

h(t) = h

IC

(t) +h

f

(t).

Note that if we set the initial condition to zero h(0) = 0 then the response of the system is simply the forced

response. Thus let us look at the forced response a little more closely.

Most of the inputs of interest to control Engineers result in a Laplace transform that is a proper rational

function of the complex variable s. That is U(s) is of the form

U(s) =

N(s)

(s +β

1

)(s +β

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s +β

k

)

(3.15)

98 3 Input Output Representation of Linear Systems

where β

1

, β

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ β

k

are real or complex constants and N(s) is a polynomial of the complex variable s. For example

if u(t) = e

−3t

1(t) then U(s) =

1

s+3

and if u(t) = e

−2t

cos(5t) 1(t) then U(s) =

s+2

(s+2)

2

+5

2

=

s+2

(s+2+5j)(s+2−5j)

.

Let us substitute (3.15) in the forced response (3.14) and take the partial fraction expansion of it under the

assumption that all p

1

, β

1

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , β

k

are distinct,

h

f

(t) =L

−1

1

s + p

1

U(s)

¸

= L

−1

α

1

s + p

1

+

r

1

s +β

1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +

r

k

s +β

k

¸

h

f

(t) = α

1

e

−p

1

t

1(t) +r

1

e

−β

1

t

1(t) +∙ ∙ ∙ +r

k

e

−β

k

t

1(t), (3.16)

where α

1

, r

1

, ∙ ∙ ∙ r

k

are constants determined in the process of partial fraction expansion,

α

1

=U(s)

s=−p

1

,

r

i

= (s +β

i

)

U(s)

(s + p

1

)

s=−β

i

.

The forced response given by (3.16) can further be broken up into two parts,

h(t) = h

tr

(t) +h

ss

(t).

Where h

tr

(t), given by,

h

tr

(t) = α

1

e

−p

1

t

1(t), (3.17)

is called the the transient response. Observe that the transient response h

tr

(t) is qualitatively similar to the initial

condition response h

IC

. The h

ss

(t), given by,

h

ss

(t) = r

1

e

−β

1

t

1(t) +∙ ∙ ∙ +r

k

e

−β

k

t

1(t), (3.18)

is referred to as the steady state response. To illustrate why we use these names consider the following. If the

real part of p

1

is positive then

lim

t→∞

h

tr

(t) = lim

t→∞

α

1

e

−p

1

t

1(t) = 0

and thus it decays to zero. Hence the name transient response. Also because of this

lim

t→∞

h(t) = lim

t→∞

h

tr

(t) + lim

t→∞

h

ss

(t) = lim

t→∞

h

ss

(t).

and thus h

ss

(t) is the response of the system when t becomes very large or in other words is the steady state

response.

3.2.2 Second Order Linear Time Invariant System

Consider a simple forced spring mass damper system shown in fgure 3.4. Let the displacement x(t) from its

equilibrium be the desired output and f (t) be the input. That is y(t) = x(t) and u(t) = y(t). Newton’s equations

yield the following ODE model of the system.

M¨ y(t) +C˙ y(t) +Ky(t) = f (t). (3.19)

Dividing by M and setting ω

2

n

=

K

M

and 2ζω

n

=

C

M

in (3.19) we have

¨ y(t) +2ζω

n

˙ y(t) +ω

2

n

y(t) =

1

M

u(t). (3.20)

For a given u(t) that does not grow faster than an exponential function the output will also not grow faster than

an exponential function (this is a consequence of linearity of the system). Thus taking Laplace transform of both

sides of (3.20) we have

3.2 Mathematical Description of a System 99

Fig. 3.4 Forced Spring Mass Damper System

L

¸

¨ y(t) +2ζω

n

˙ y(t) +ω

2

n

y(t)

¸

= L¦

1

M

u(t)¦, (3.21)

(s

2

+2ζω

n

s +ω

2

n

)Y(s) − ˙ y(0) −(s +2ζω

n

)y(0) =

1

M

U(s). (3.22)

This yields

Y(s) =

1

s

2

+2ζω

n

s +ω

2

n

˙ y(0) +

s +2ζω

n

s

2

+2ζω

n

s +ω

2

n

y(0) +

1/M

s

2

+2ζω

n

s +ω

2

n

U(s). (3.23)

The polynomial Δ(s) = s

2

+2ζω

n

s +ω

2

n

is the characteristic polynomial of the system and

Δ(s) = s

2

+2ζω

n

s +ω

2

n

= (s + p

1

)(s + p

2

) = 0, (3.24)

is the characteristic equation where −p

1

, −p

2

are the roots of the characteristic equation polynomial Δ(s). Ex-

plicitly

−p

1

= (−ζ +

ζ

2

−1)ω

n

, (3.25)

−p

2

= (−ζ −

ζ

2

−1)ω

n

(3.26)

and they will be either real and distinct, real and repeated, complex conjugate or purely imaginary and conjugate

depending on ζ.

Over Damped If ζ > 1 then both −p

1

, −p

2

will be real and distinct.

Under Damped If 0 < ζ < 1 they are complex conjugate of each other and −p

1

=−ζω

n

+iω

d

, and −p

2

=

−ζω

n

−iω

d

, where ω

d

= ω

n

1−ζ

2

is called the damped natural frequency of the system.

Un Damped If ζ = 0 then −p

1

= iω

n

, −p

2

= −iω

n

and they are purely imaginary and conjugate of each

other.

Critically Damped If ζ = 1 then −p

1

=−p

2

=−ζω

n

and they are real and repeated.

Using (3.24)

Y(s) =

1

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

˙ y(0) +

s +2ζω

n

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

y(0) +

1/M

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

U(s). (3.27)

The output y(t) can be calculated by taking the inverse Laplace transform of Y(s). That is

100 3 Input Output Representation of Linear Systems

Fig. 3.5 The location of the system poles when 0 < ζ < 1.

y(t) = L

−1

¦Y(s)¦ =L

−1

1

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

˙ y(0) +

s +2ζω

n

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

y(0) +

1/M

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

U(s)

¸

, (3.28)

= ˙ y(0)L

−1

1

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

¸

+y(0)L

−1

s +2ζω

n

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

¸

+

1

M

L

−1

1

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

U(s)

¸

,

(3.29)

The part of this output that depends only on the initial conditions is called the initial condition response, y

IC

,

y

IC

(t) = ˙ y(0)L

−1

1

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

¸

+y(0)L

−1

s +2ζω

n

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

¸

(3.30)

and the last part of the output

y

f

(t) =

1

M

L

−1

1

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

U(s)

¸

(3.31)

is called the forced response, since its behavior depends only on the input.

3.2.2.1 Initial Condition Response

Let us look a bit closely at the initial condition response. The partial fraction expansion of a rational function

takes distinct forms depending on whether the poles are distinct or not. Thus we will have to consider these two

cases separately.

All roots of the denominator of Y(s) are distinct

Observe that when ζ = 1 the roots −p

1

, −p

2

of the characteristic polynomial are distinct. In cases I,II, and III

we have that ζ = 1. In these cases from partial fraction expansions

3.2 Mathematical Description of a System 101

y

IC

(t) = ˙ y(0)L

−1

1/(p

2

−p

1

)

(s + p

1

)

+

1/(p

1

−p

2

)

(s + p

2

)

¸

+y(0)L

−1

(2ζω

n

−p

1

)/(p

2

−p

1

)

(s + p

1

)

+

(2ζω

n

−p

2

)/(p

1

−p

2

)

(s + p

2

)

¸

.

Explicitly;

y

IC

(t) = ˙ y(0)

1

(p

2

−p

1

)

e

−p

1

t

+

1

(p

1

−p

2

)

e

−p

2

t

1(t)+y(0)

(2ζω

n

−p

1

)

(p

2

−p

1

)

e

−p

1

t

+

(2ζω

n

−p

2

)

(p

1

−p

2

)

e

−p

2

t

1(t).

Now let us investigate the initial condition response for each of the three cases I,II and III separately.

Over damped: ζ > 1

When ζ >1 then both −p

1

, −p

2

are real and distinct and p

2

−p

1

=ω

n

ζ

2

−1, 2ζω

n

−p

1

= (ζ +

ζ

2

−1)ω

n

,

2ζω

n

−p

1

= (ζ −

ζ

2

−1)ω

n

. Then from (3.32)

y

IC

(t) = ˙ y(0)

1

ω

n

ζ

2

−1

e

−p

1

t

+

1

−ω

n

ζ

2

−1

e

−p

2

t

1(t) +

y(0)

(ζ +

ζ

2

−1)ω

n

ω

n

ζ

2

−1

e

−p

1

t

+

(ζ −

ζ

2

−1)ω

n

−ω

n

ζ

2

−1

e

−p

2

t

1(t).

Under damped: ζ > 1

When 0 < ζ < 1 then −p

1

and −p

2

are complex conjugate of each other and p

2

− p

1

= iω

d

, where ω

d

=

ω

n

1−ζ

2

is the damped natural frequency of the system, 2ζω

n

−p

1

= (ζω

n

+iω

d

), 2ζω

n

−p

1

= (ζω

n

−iω

d

).

Then from (3.32)

y

IC

(t) = ˙ y(0)

1

iω

d

e

−p

1

t

+

1

−iω

d

e

−p

2

t

1(t) +y(0)

(ζω

n

+iω

d

)

iω

d

e

−p

1

t

+

(ζω

n

−iω

d

)

−iω

d

e

−p

2

t

1(t).

Observe that the partial fraction expansion coeffcients are complex conjugate of each other. Now plugging in

−p

1

=−ζω

n

+iω

d

and −p

2

=−ζω

n

−iω

d

in the above equation we have that

y

IC

(t) = ˙ y(0)e

−ζω

n

t

1

iω

d

e

iω

d

t

+

1

−iω

d

e

−iω

d

t

1(t)

+y(0)e

−ζω

n

t

(ζω

n

+iω

d

)

iω

d

e

iω

d

t

+

(ζω

n

−iω

d

)

−iω

d

e

−iω

d

t

1(t). (3.32)

Now observing that

1

iω

d

=

1

ω

d

e

−iπ/2

and that

(ζω

n

+iω

d

)

iω

d

= re

iφ

where r =

1

√

1−ζ

2

and φ = arctan

ζ

√

1−ζ

2

equation

(3.32) reduces to

y

IC

(t) =

˙ y(0)

ω

d

e

−ζω

n

t

cos(ω

d

t −π/2) +y(0)re

−ζω

n

t

cos(ω

d

t +φ)

1(t). (3.33)

Undamped: ζ = 0

In this case ζ = 0 and the corresponding initial condition response can be derived from (3.33) by setting ζ = 0

in it. Then ω

d

= ω

n

, r = 1, and φ = 0. This gives,

y

IC

(t) =

˙ y(0)

ω

n

cos(ω

n

t −π/2) +y(0)cos(ω

n

t)

1(t). (3.34)

102 3 Input Output Representation of Linear Systems

All roots of the denominator of Y(s) are coinciding

Coinciding roots occur when ζ = 1. That is when the system is critically damped, case IV. In this case let

−p

1

=−p

2

=−p =−ζω

n

. Therefore the partial fraction expansion yields

y

IC

(t) = ˙ y(0)L

−1

1

(s + p)

2

¸

+y(0)L

−1

1

(s + p)

+

(2ζω

n

−p)

(s + p)

2

¸

.

Explicitly;

y

IC

(t) = ˙ y(0)te

−pt

1(t) +y(0)

e

−pt

+(2ζω

n

−p)te

−pt

1(t),

= e

−ζω

n

t

( ˙ y(0)t +y(0)(1+ζω

n

t))1(t). (3.35)

where the last equality follows from plugging in −p =−ζω

n

.

3.2.2.2 The Forced Response

In this section we will look at the forced response a bit more closely. If we choose all the initial conditions of

the system to be zero, that is y(0) = 0 and ˙ y(0) = 0 then the initial condition response is identically equal to zero

and the response of the system is only the forced part of the response.

Most of the inputs of interest to control Engineers result in a Laplace transform that is a proper rational

function of the complex variable s. That is U(s) is of the form

U(s) =

N(s)

(s +β

1

)(s +β

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s +β

k

)

(3.36)

where β

1

, β

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ β

k

are real or complex constants and N(s) is a polynomial of the complex variable s. For example

if u(t) =e

−3t

1(t) thenU(s) =

1

s+3

and if u(t) =e

−2t

cos(5t) 1(t) thenU(s) =

s+2

(s+2)

2

+5

2

=

s+2

(s+2+5j)(s+2−5j)

. Refer

to table A.1 on page 813 in the text book for more examples on standard inputs and their Laplace transforms.

Substituting (3.36) in (3.31) gives

y

f

(t) =L

−1

1/M

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

N(s)

(s +β

1

)(s +β

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s +β

k

)

¸

. (3.37)

To evaluate this we need to take the partial fraction expansion of the right hand side. The form of the partial

fraction expansion differs depending on if the denominator contains repeated factors or not.

All roots of the denominator of Y(s) are distinct

Under this assumption the partial fraction expansion gives

y

f

(t) = L

−1

¦Y(s)¦ =L

−1

¦G(s)U(s)¦ =L

−1

1/M

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

N(s)

(s +β

1

)(s +β

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s +β

k

)

¸

= L

−1

α

1

(s + p

1

)

+

α

2

(s + p

2

)

+

r

1

(s +β

1

)

+∙ ∙ ∙ +

r

k

(s +β

k

)

¸

= α

1

L

−1

¦

1

(s + p

1

)

¦+α

2

L

−1

¦

1

(s + p

2

)

¦+r

1

L

−1

¦

1

(s +β

1

)

¦+∙ ∙ ∙ +r

k

L

−1

¦

1

(s +β

k

)

¦

=

α

1

e

−p

1

t

1(t) +α

2

e

−p

2

t

1(t) +r

1

e

−β

1

t

1(t) +∙ ∙ ∙ +r

k

e

−β

k

t

1(t)

. (3.38)

where α

1

, r

1

, ∙ ∙ ∙ r

k

are constants determined in the process of partial fraction expansion,

α

1

= (s + p

1

)Y(s)

s=−p

1

,

3.2 Mathematical Description of a System 103

α

2

= (s + p

2

)Y(s)

s=−p

2

,

r

i

= (s +β

i

)Y(s)

s=−β

i

.

The forced response given by (3.38) can further be broken up into two parts,

y(t) = y

tr

(t) +y

ss

(t).

The transient response, y

tr

(t), is given by,

y

tr

(t) =

α

1

e

−p

1

t

+α

2

e

−p

2

t

1(t), (3.39)

and the steady state response, y

ss

(t), is given by,

y

ss

(t) =

r

1

e

−β

1

t

+∙ ∙ ∙ +r

k

e

−β

k

t

1(t). (3.40)

To illustrate why we use these names consider the following. If the real parts of −p

1

, −p

2

are negative (observe

that this is always the case when you have nonzero positive damping, ie ζ > 0) then

lim

t→∞

y

tr

(t) = lim

t→∞

(α

1

e

−p

1

t

+α

2

e

−p

2

t

) 1(t) = 0

and thus it decays to zero. Hence the name transient response. Also because of this

lim

t→∞

y(t) = lim

t→∞

y

tr

(t) + lim

t→∞

y

ss

(t) = lim

t→∞

h

ss

(t).

and thus y

ss

(t) is the response of the system when t becomes very large or in other words is the steady state

response.

Let us now consider in detail the three cases that correspond to distinct roots. That is when ζ =1. Specifcally

in the three cases where ζ > 1 (over damped), 0 < ζ < 1 (under damped) and ζ = 0 (undamped) the transient

response will be given by (3.39). Specifcally,

Over damped: ζ > 1

When ζ > 1 then both −p

1

, −p

2

are real and distinct. Then from (3.39)

y

tr

(t) =

α

1

e

−p

1

t

+α

2

e

−p

2

t

1(t), (3.41)

Under damped: 0 < ζ < 1

When 0 < ζ < 1 then −p

1

and −p

2

are complex conjugate of each other and −p

1

= −ζω

n

+iω

d

, −p

2

=

−ζω

n

−iω

d

. Then from (3.39)

y

tr

(t) =

α

1

e

−p

1

t

+α

2

e

−p

2

t

1(t). (3.42)

Recall that α

1

and α

1

are complex conjugate of each other. Then setting α

1

= re

iφ

, where r =[α

1

[ and φ is the

angle of the complex number α

1

, we will have that

y

tr

(t) = re

−ζω

n

t

cos(ω

d

t +φ) 1(t). (3.43)

Please refer to section 3.2.2.1 for further similar details of this calculation. Also compare this with the initial

condition response (3.33) and observe the similarity in behavior.

Undamped: ζ = 0

This case is similar to case II above the only difference is that now since ζ = 0 ω

d

= ω

n

, and therefore 3.43

gives,

104 3 Input Output Representation of Linear Systems

y

tr

(t) = cos(ω

d

t +φ) 1(t). (3.44)

Of the roots of the denominator of Y(s), Roots −p

1

and −p

2

coincide but all the others are distinct

Let −p

1

=−p

2

=−p and −p, −β

1

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , −β

k

are all distinct then the partial fraction expansion gives

y

f

(t) = L

−1

¦Y(s)¦ =L

−1

¦G(s)U(s)¦ =L

−1

1/M

(s + p)

2

N(s)

(s +β

1

)(s +β

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s +β

k

)

¸

= L

−1

α

1

(s + p)

+

α

2

(s + p)

2

+

r

1

(s +β

1

)

+∙ ∙ ∙ +

r

k

(s +β

k

)

¸

= α

1

L

−1

¦

1

(s + p)

¦+α

2

L

−1

¦

1

(s + p)

2

¦+r

1

L

−1

¦

1

(s +β

1

)

¦+∙ ∙ ∙ +r

k

L

−1

¦

1

(s +β

k

)

¦

=

α

1

e

−pt

1(t) +α

2

te

−pt

1(t) +r

1

e

−β

1

t

1(t) +∙ ∙ ∙ +r

k

e

−β

k

t

1(t)

. (3.45)

where α

1

, r

1

, ∙ ∙ ∙ r

k

are constants determined in the process of partial fraction expansion,

α

1

=

d

ds

(s + p)

2

Y(s)

s=−p

,

α

2

= (s + p)

2

Y(s)

s=−p

,

r

i

= (s +β

i

)Y(s)

s=−β

i

.

The forced response given by (3.45) can further be broken up into two parts,

y

f

(t) = y

tr

(t) +y

ss

(t).

The transient response, y

tr

(t), is given by,

y

tr

(t) = e

−pt

(α

1

+α

2

t) 1(t), (3.46)

and the steady state response, y

ss

(t), is given by,

y

ss

(t) =

r

1

e

−β

1

t

+∙ ∙ ∙ +r

k

e

−β

k

t

1(t). (3.47)

Critically damped: ζ = 1

In this case −p

1

=−p

2

=−p =−ζω

n

and then

y

tr

(t) = e

−ζω

n

t

(α

1

+α

2

t) 1(t). (3.48)

Compare this with the corresponding initial condition response (3.35) and observe the similarity in the behavior.

3.3 Transfer Function Model of Linear Time Invariant Systems

In the previous two examples of the frst order system and the second order system we have seen that the initial

condition response and the transient response both have the same qualitative behaviour. Therefore analysing one

suffces. Therefore we loose no information by neglecting the initial condition response. This can be naturally

done if we set all the initial conditions to zero in our analysis. In that case the response of the system is only

the forced response part. In addition to providing us with a simplifcation of analysis it also gives us a way of

representing linear time invariant (LTI) systems in a way that will ft into the framework discussed in section 3.2.

3.3 Transfer Function Model of Linear Time Invariant Systems 105

In general the modelling process of a linear n

th

order time invariant SISO system without time delays will

result in a single n

th

order linear constant coeffcient ODE or a set of such coupled ODEs. For convenience of

introducing ideas lets only consider the former type:

d

n

y

dt

n

+a

n−1

d

n−1

y

dt

n−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +a

0

y = b

m

d

m

y

dt

m

+b

m−1

d

m−1

y

dt

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

u, (3.49)

where n ≥m.

Note that a

0

, a

1

, ∙ ∙ ∙ a

n−1

, b

0

, b

1

, ∙ ∙ ∙ b

m

are constants and depend only on the system parameters. For a given

u(t) that does not growfaster than an exponential function the output will also not growfaster than an exponential

function (this is a consequence of linearity of the system). Thus taking Laplace transform of both sides of (3.49)

and setting the initial conditions to zero we have

L

d

n

y

dt

n

+a

n−1

d

n−1

y

dt

n−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +a

0

y

¸

= L

b

m

d

m

u

dt

m

+b

m−1

d

m−1

u

dt

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

u

¸

, (3.50)

(s

n

+a

n−1

s

n−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +a

0

)Y(s) = (b

m

s

m

+b

m−1

s

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

)U(s) (3.51)

This yields

Y(s) =

b

m

s

m

+b

m−1

s

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

s

n

+a

n−1

s

n−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +a

0

U(s). (3.52)

Let

G(s) =

b

m

s

m

+b

m−1

s

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

s

n

+a

n−1

s

n−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +a

0

,

and now we have that

Y(s) = G(s)U(s). (3.53)

The polynomial Δ(s) = s

n

+a

n−1

s

n−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +a

0

is the characteristic polynomial of the system and

Δ(s) = s

n

+a

n−1

s

n−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +a

0

= 0, (3.54)

is the characteristic equation.

Looking closely at equation (3.53) we see that we have arrived at a representation of LTI systems that ft the

block diagram representation described in section 3.2. Where now what the block does is to simply multiply the

Laplace of the input U(s) by the rational function G(s) to yield the Laplace transform of the output Y(s). The

rational function G(s) is referred to as the transfer function model of the system. Remember that this rational

function is a function of the complex variable s.

Revisiting the two previous examples we see that when we set all initial conditions to zero we obtain for the

frst order tank system

H(s) =

1

s + p

1

U(s), (3.55)

and for the second order spring mass damper system

Y(s) =

1/M

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

U(s). (3.56)

Comparing with equation (3.53) we see that the transfer function model of the single tank system is

G(s) =

1

s + p

1

, (3.57)

and the transfer function model of the second order SMD system is

G(s) =

1/M

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

. (3.58)

106 3 Input Output Representation of Linear Systems

3.3.1 Forced response of the n

th

order system

In the absence of the initial conditions y(t) = y

f

(t). Thus the Laplace transform of the forced response of the

system is what is given by (3.52). For completeness lets look at this in detail.

Let −p

1

, −p

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , −p

n

be the roots of the characteristic polynomial. Thus

Δ(s) = s

n

+a

n−1

s

n−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +a

0

= (s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s + p

n

), (3.59)

In this notation (3.52) becomes

Y(s) =

b

m

s

m

+b

m−1

s

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s + p

n

)

U(s). (3.60)

The output y(t) can be calculated by taking the inverse Laplace transform of Y(s). That is

y(t) = L

−1

¦Y(s)¦ =L

b

m

s

m

+b

m−1

s

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s + p

n

)

U(s)

¸

, (3.61)

Most of the inputs of interest to control Engineers result in a Laplace transform that is a proper rational function

of the complex variable s. That is U(s) is of the form

U(s) =

N(s)

(s +β

1

)(s +β

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s +β

k

)

(3.62)

where β

1

, β

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ β

k

are real or complex constants and N(s) is a polynomial of the complex variable s

1

. Let

us substitute (3.62) in (3.61) and take the partial fraction expansion of it under the assumption that all

p

1

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , p

n

, β

1

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , β

k

are distinct,

y(t) = L

−1

¦Y(s)¦ =L

−1

b

m

s

m

+b

m−1

s

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s + p

n

)

N(s)

(s +β

1

)(s +β

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s +β

k

)

¸

,

= L

−1

n

∑

i=1

α

i

s + p

i

+

k

∑

i=1

r

i

s +β

i

¸

=

n

∑

i=1

α

i

e

−p

i

t

1(t) +

k

∑

i=1

r

i

e

−β

i

t

1(t). (3.63)

The constants α

1

, α

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , α

n

and r

1

, r

k

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , r

k

are determined in the process of partial fraction expansion as

follows,

α

i

= (s + p

i

)Y(s)

s=−p

i

,

r

i

= (s +β

i

)Y(s)

s=−β

i

,

Let

y(t) = y

tr

(t) +y

ss

(t),

where

y

tr

(t) =

n

∑

i=1

α

i

e

−p

i

t

1(t),

is the transient response of the system and

y

ss

(t) =

n

∑

i=1

r

i

e

−β

i

t

1(t),

is the steady state response of the system.

1

For example if u(t) = e

−3t

1(t) then U(s) =

1

s+3

and if u(t) = e

−2t

cos(5t) 1(t) then U(s) =

s+2

(s+2)

2

+5

2

=

s+2

(s+2+5j)(s+2−5j)

.

3.5 Bounded Input Bounded Output Stability 107

3.4 Poles and Zeros of an Input Output System

The transfer functions of all real physical systems are strictly proper or proper rational functions. The poles are

the poles of it’s transfer function and the zeros of the system are the zeros of it’s transfer function. Recall that by

defnition the number of zeros and number of poles of a transfer function are the same

2

.

Thus the system given by the transfer function

G(s) =

b

m

s

m

+b

m−1

s

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

s

n

+a

n−1

s

n−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +a

0

=

b

m

s

m

+b

m−1

s

m−1

+∙ ∙ ∙ +b

0

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)∙ ∙ ∙ (s + p

n

)

,

where n ≥ m has n poles and zeros. The poles are −p

1

, −p

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , −p

n

and the system has m fnite zeros, since

the numerator polynomial of G(s) is of order m. The remaining n−m zeros are at infnity.

For example in the case of the single tank system,

G(s) =

1

s + p

1

,

the system has one pole and one zero. The pole is fnite and has value −p

1

while the zero is infnite. For the

spring mass damper system,

G(s) =

1/M

(s + p

1

)(s + p

2

)

,

the system has two poles and two zeros. The poles are fnite and have values −p

1

, −p

2

while the two zeros are

at infnity.

3.4.1 The Effect of the Poles of the System

Observe that if all the poles of the system −p

1

, −p

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , −p

n

are in the strict left half complex plane, then

lim

t→∞

y

tr

(t) = 0,

and

lim

t→∞

y(t) = lim

t→∞

y

ss

(t).

On the other hand if any one of the −p

i

are in the right half complex plane then

lim

t→∞

y

tr

(t) = ∞,

and

lim

t→∞

y(t) = ∞.

(For instance if −p

3

= 2−3j, then lim

t→∞

e

−p

3

t

= lim

t→∞

e

(2−3j)t

= lim

t→∞

e

2t

e

−3jt

= ∞.)

Thus the long term behavior (the behavior as limt →∞) of the transient response depends entirely on the

location of the poles the system. If any of the poles of the system are in the right half plane then the transient

response of the system will grow unboundedly as limt →∞.

3.5 Bounded Input Bounded Output Stability

If u(t) is bounded then all −β

1

, −β

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , −β

k

are in the strict left half complex plane or on the imaginary axis

(repeated values on the imaginary axis are not allowed). For example u(t) = 1(t) is bounded U(s) =

1

s

, u(t) =

2

See note by Benjamin C. Kuo and Farid Golnaraghi

108 3 Input Output Representation of Linear Systems

sin(ωt)1(t) is bounded and U(s) =

ω

s

2

+ω

2

, u(t) = e

−t

1(t) is bounded and U(s) =

1

s+1

. Note that u(t) =t 1(t) is

not bounded and U(s) =

1

s

2

, thus repeated poles of U(s) on the imaginary axis do not occur if u(t) is bounded.

Now consider what happens when a bounded input is applied to a system. For simplicity assume all

p

1

, p

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , p

n

, β

1

, β

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , β

k

are distinct. Then from (3.63)

y(t) = y

tr

(t) +y

ss

(t) =

n

∑

i=1

α

i

e

−p

i

t

1(t) +

k

∑

i=1

r

i

e

−β

i

t

1(t).

Since all −β

1

, −β

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , −β

k

are on either the strict left half complex plane or on the imaginary axis with no

repeated values on the imaginary axis the last k terms

k

∑

i=1

r

i

e

−β

i

t

1(t) = y

ss

(t),

remains bounded as limt →∞. Thus the whole response will remain bounded only if the transient response,

n

∑

i=1

α

i

e

−p

i

t

1(t) = y

tr

(t)

remains bounded. This will happen if all −p

1

, −p

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , −p

n

lie in the left half complex plane.

Therefore if the system response to any given bounded input is bounded then the poles of the system,

−p

1

, −p

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , −p

n

, will necessarily have to be in the strict left half complex plane. This notion of stability

is called Bounded Input Bounded Output (BIBO) stability.

Defnition 3.1. A system is said to be Bounded Input Bounded Output (BIBO) stable if the output of the system

to all bounded inputs remain bounded.

Theorem 3.1. A system is BIBO stable if and only if all the poles of the system lie in the strict left half complex

plane.

Examples: The system G(s) =

s−1

(s+1)(s+2)(s+7)

is BIBO stable while the systems G(s) =

s−1

(s+1)(s−2)(s+7)

, G(s) =

s+1

s(s+1)(s+2)

, G(s) =

1

(s

2

+1)

are not BIBO stable.

3.6 Exercises

Exercise 3.1. Identify the, system parameters, system variables, inputs and possible outputs of: a) a forced spring

mass damper system. b) a heat Exchanger. c) a water tank system.

Exercise 3.2. Consider the spring mass damper system shown in fgure 2.20 with the external force f (t) =sinωt

and M = 1. The governing equations of this system in the normal form is given by

¨ x +2ζω

n

˙ x +ω

2

n

x = sinωt.

1. Find analytically x(t) for initial conditions x(0) = 0 and ˙ x(0) = 0.

2. Using the above results show that

lim

t→∞

x(t) = M(ω)sin(ωt +φ(ω))

where

M(ω) =

1

(ω

2

n

−ω

2

)

2

+4ζ

2

ω

2

n

ω

2

, φ(ω) = tan

−1

2ζω

n

ω

ω

2

n

−ω

2

3. For ω

n

= 1 plot M(ω) Vs ω and φ(ω) Vs ω for the three cases,

(a) Over damped system (1 > ζ)

(b) Under damped system (0 < ζ < 1)

(c) Critically damped system (ζ = 1)

3.6 Exercises 109

4. Numerically simulating the system for ω

n

= 1, and ζ = 0.05, plot the response x(t) for each of the cases

ω = 0.01, 0.1, 0.9, 1, 1.1, 10, 100. Compare your results with the graph obtained 3(b) above.

Exercise 3.3. Find the transfer function model of the system system shown in fgure 3.6 from input u(t) = f (t)

to output y(t) = x

2

(t).

Fig. 3.6 A 2-DOF spring mass damper system. Assume that the damping force f

v

is proportional to the separation velocity with

proportionality constant C.

Chapter 4

Mechanisms

4.1 Introduction

A coupling of rigid bodies through various types of connections is called a kinematic chain. The various types

of connections are called kinematic pairs while each constituent rigid body is called a link. A kinematic chain

is said to be open if at least one link is coupled to the others only through one kinematic pair and is said to be

closed otherwise.

A kinematic chain is said to be a structure if the couplings are such that no mobility remains in the chain. A

kinematic chain is said to be a mechanism if at least one link is “fxed” and is not a structure. A mechanism is

capable of transmitting force and/or motion from one place to another. The fxed link of a mechanism is usually

referred to as the frame and the motion of the rest of the links are expressed with respect to this link. By fxing

different links of a given chain we can obtain different mechanisms. This is called kinematic inversion. It can be

seen that the relative motion of all kinematic inversions are identical.

There are several types of mechanisms: linkage mechanisms, cam and follower mechanisms and gear trains.

4.2 Degrees of Freedom

A mechanism is a collection of rigid bodies with couplings between certain rigid bodies. The space of all possible

confgurations of the mechanism is called the confguration space. The dimension of the confguration space is

called the degrees of freedom (DOF) of the system. If N rigid bodies make up a system and there is no coupling

between any of the bodies then we know that the confguration space of the system is of dimension 6N or in

other words has 6-DOF. Each coupling between rigid bodies imposes a holonomic constraint and reduces the

dimension of the confguration space (and hence the DOF). In general we know that if f number of constraints

exist then the dimension n of the confguration space is n = 6N− f .

For a given pair of rigid bodies the total possible unconstrained relative movability is six. When the two

bodies are coupled we say that they are joined by a kinematic pair. Kinematic pairs are classifed by their degree

of movability s (ie. the degrees of freedom of the relative motion of the two links). Thus the number of constraints

imposed by a kinematic pair is 6−s. Thus for a given mechanism of N total number of links with n

s

number of

pairs of movability s, where s = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 we have that the DOF of the system is given by the formula

n = 6N−

5

∑

s=0

(6−s)n

s

. (4.1)

In this convention we consider the frame of the mechanism as one of the links and that it is coupled to the fxed

frame with a kinematic pair of zero movability. Equation (4.1) is commonly known as the Gruebler’s equation.

Revolute, prismatic and screw are examples of s = 1 while cylindric and roll-slide pairs are examples of s = 2.

Higher pairs of movability are spheric and planar — s = 3, cylinder-plane — s = 4, sphere-plane — s = 5.

When the chain is constrained to move in a two-dimensional Euclidian plane then (4.1) reduces to

111

112 4 Mechanisms

n = 3N−

2

∑

s=0

(3−s)n

s

. (4.2)

In this course we will mainly consider planar mechanisms.

The frst step in analysis of a mechanism is to sketch an equivalent skeleton or kinematic diagram. Conven-

tionally in this diagram the links are numbered and the joints are lettered with the fxed link always numbered as

1. The next step is to represent the mechanism using a graph whose vertices correspond to links and whose edges

correspond to kinematic pairs where the number of edges joining two nodes correspond to the number of DOF,

n

s

, of the kinematic pair that joins the two links represented by the nodes. These graphs enable one to easily

calculate the number of DOF and furthermore allows the use of graph theory to design and analyze mechanisms.

Example 4.1. Consider the Slotted Bell Crank shown in fgure 4.1a. This can be considered as a fve bar mecha-

nism. Number the links as follows. The frame — 1, disc — 2, the angle link — 3, the shaft — 4, the sleeve —

5. The corresponding graph is shown in fgure 4.1b. The links 1 and 2 are connected through a revolute joint of

(a) (b)

Fig. 4.1 Slotted Bell Crank

movability one. Link 2 is connected to link 3 through a roll-slide contact of movability two. Link 3 is connected

to 4 through a revolute joint of movability one. Link 3 is also connected to 1 through a revolute joint of mov-

ability one. Link 4 is connected to 5 through a prismatic joint of movability one. Finally link 5 is connected to 1

through a revolute joint of movability one. Thus total links of movability zero is one, n

0

= 1, movability one is

5, n

1

= 5 and movability two is 1, n

2

= 1. Thus from (4.2) the total degrees of freedom of the mechanism is

f = 35−((3−0)1+(3−1)5+(3−2)1) = 15−3−10−1 = 1.

The next step in the analysis process is the problem of geometric analysis. If a given mechanism has n DOF

then there exists n number of independent quantities q = (q

1

, q

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , q

n

) called confguration co-ordinates that

uniquely describe the confguration of the mechanism. The output of a mechanism are a m number of functions

y

k

=φ(q) k = 1, 2, ∙ ∙ ∙ , m of the confguration co-ordinates q = (q

1

, q

2

, ∙ ∙ ∙ , q

n

). It is only rarely that one can fnd

these functions in explicit form. Typically one fnds m number of constraint equations between the q

k

’s and the

y

k

’s that need to be solved analytically, graphically or numerically. Sometimes the inverse problem of fnding

the possible q

k

for a given y

k

is the primary concern. The next step is to obtain the corresponding relationships

between the instantaneous velocities of various points of interest in the mechanism. The last step is to fnd the

relationship between the generalized input forces and the generalized output forces. This is typically obtained by

neglecting the dynamics of the mechanism and by considering energy conservation. Dynamic analysis will be

4.3 Linkage Mechanisms 113

required when one needs to consider the stresses that develop in each part of a mechanism. In such an analysis

one writes down using Rigid body equations the relationships between accelerations and forces and solve them,

typically using numerical methods.

4.3 Linkage Mechanisms

In this section we look at analytical methods of analysis for linkage mechanisms. We will use the four-bar

mechanism as a prototype example. The approach applied is valid for different mechanisms as well.

4.3.1 Four Bar Mechanisms

Fig. 4.2 Four Bar Mechanism Nomenclature

As the name implies a four-bar mechanism has four links. Figure 4.2 shows a typical four-bar mechanism and

terminology used in describing such a mechanism. It can be easily seen that the mechanism has only one DOF.

Thus specifying a single quantity amounts to knowing the exact confguration of the mechanism. For instance

if the angular position of the input link is given then the angular position of the rest of the links are completely

determined up to an Inversion. That is given any four-bar mechanism there exists two distinct confgurations that

correspond to a given input link position. Such confgurations are called Geometric Inversions. A Dead Center

condition is said to occur when the coupler and follower links are in line. To move from one Geometric Inversion

to another one has to either dis-assemble and re-assemble the mechanism or has to move through a dead center

condition.

Fixing different links in the mechanism does not change the relative motion between them. Thus different

mechanisms obtained by fxing different links are called kinematic inversions. Figure 4.3.1 show the four differ-

ent kinematic inversions of the four-bar mechanism.

Depending on the range of motion of the two links connected to the frame link, four bar mechanisms can

be classifed into four groups: crank-rocker, double-crank, double-rocker and parallelogram linkage. These are

shown in fgure 4.3.1. A given four-bar mechanisms becomes one of these types depending on the length ratios

114 4 Mechanisms

Fig. 4.3 Different Kinematic Inversions of the Four-Bar Mechanism

Crank-Rocker Double-Crank

Double-Rocker Parallelogram

Fig. 4.4 Four-Bar Types

of the links. Grashof’s law states that if the sum of the shortest and longest links is less than or equal to the sum

of the other two links then there exists continuous relative rotation between two links.

Let us now try to fnd the relationship between the input and desired outputs of a four-bar mechanism. Con-

sider fgure 4.5. Link A

0

A is the input link, link B

0

B is the output link, and link AB is the follower link. The

lengths of the links are A

0

B

0

= l

1

, A

0

A = l

2

, AB = l

3

and B

0

B = l

4

.

4.3 Linkage Mechanisms 115

Fig. 4.5 Four-Bar Skeleton Diagram

Fix a frame e on the fxed link 1 with origin coinciding with A

0

such that e

1

is aligned along A

0

B

0

. Fix frame

a on the input link (link 2) with origin at A

0

and a

1

aligned along A

0

A. Let frame b be fxed on the output link

(link 4) with origin at B

0

and b

1

aligned along B

0

B. Let c be a frame on the coupler or follower link (link 3) with

origin at B and c

1

aligned along BA. All frames are right handed oriented. Let

a(t) = eR

φ

, b(t) = eR

ψ

, c(t) = b(t)R

γ

where we use the subscript to denote the right handed relative rotational angle between the two frames. For

instance

R

φ

=

¸

cosφ −sinφ

sinφ cosφ

.

Now let

L

1

=

¸

l

1

0

, L

2

=

¸

l

2

0

, L

3

=

¸

l

3

0

, L

4

=

¸

l

4

0

.

Then we can write

A

0

A = aL

2

= eL

1

+bL

4

+cL

3

,

eR

φ

L

2

= eL

1

+eR

ψ

L

4

+eR

φ

R

γ

L

3

.

and hence that

R

φ

L

2

= L

1

+R

ψ

L

4

+R

ψ+γ

L

3

. (4.3)

These can be thought of as constraint equations. Any confguration of the mechanism should satisfy them. Sim-

plifying this we have

l

2

cosφ = l

1

+l

4

cosψ +l

3

cosλ, (4.4)

l

2

sinφ = l

4

sinψ +l

3

sinλ, (4.5)

where we have set λ = (ψ +γ) and correspond to the angle that the coupler makes with the frame fxed on the

fxed link. From (4.4) and (4.5) we have,

γ = arccos

l

2

1

+l

2

2

−l

2

3

−l

2

4

−2l

1

l

2

cosφ

2l

3

l

4

. (4.6)

From (4.5) we have after a tedious calculation that

sinψ =

ab±

a

2

b

2

−4(b

2

+c

2

)(a

2

−c

2

)

2(b

2

+c

2

)

, (4.7)

where

a = l

2

sinφ, b = (l

4

−l

3

cosγ), c = l

3

sinγ.

116 4 Mechanisms

Knowing ψ to knowing the entire confguration of the mechanism. That is, the position of any point on any of

the links is completely determined. However observe that there exists two possible solutions for ψ. These two

correspond to the two geometric inversions of the mechanism.

Typically in a four-bar mechanism one is either interested in the position of the output link or some point

fxed with respect to the coupler (or follower) link (a tracer point). We have seen that the angle ψ of the output

link is completely known as a function of the input variable φ and is given by the solutions of (4.7). If P is any

point fxed with respect to the coupler link (we call it a tracer point) then we can write

A

0

P = ex = eL

1

+bL

4

+cX,

where x is the representation of P with respect to e and X is the representation of P with respect to c. Simplifying

we have,

x = L

1

+R

ψ

L

4

+R

λ

X. (4.8)

From this expression given X we can calculate the position of the couple point with respect to the fxed frame e.

Now let us see how to fnd the relationship between the instantaneous velocities of the various points of

interest in the mechanism. Differentiating the constraint equation (4.3) we have,

R

φ

ˆ

˙

φL

2

= R

ψ

ˆ

˙ ψL

4

+R

λ

ˆ

˙

λL

3

.

Simplifying we have

l

2

˙

φ sinφ = l

4

˙ ψsinψ +l

3

˙

λ sinλ, (4.9)

l

2

˙

φ cosφ = l

4

˙ ψcosψ +l

3

˙

λ cosλ. (4.10)

Solving this set of equations for ˙ ψ and

˙

λ we have

˙ ψ =

l

2

sin(λ −φ)

l

4

sin(λ −ψ)

˙

φ, (4.11)

˙

λ =

l

2

sin(ψ −φ)

l

3

sin(ψ −λ)

˙

φ. (4.12)

Finally to fnd the instantaneous velocity of any point P that is fxed with respect to the coupler link (a tracer

point) we differentiate (4.8) and obtain,

˙ x = R

ψ

ˆ

˙ ψL

4

+R

λ

ˆ

˙

λX. (4.13)

To calculate the force transmission we neglect the dynamics and assume that there is no energy loss in the

mechanism. Thus the work in is equal to the work out and if T

i

is the torque on the input link and T

o

is the torque

on the output link we have that

T

i

˙

φ = T

o

˙ ψ

and hence that

T

o

=

˙

φ

˙ ψ

T

i

=

l

4

sin(λ −ψ)

l

2

sin(λ −φ)

T

i

(4.14)

In summary: equations (4.7), (4.8) describe the complete confguration analysis while equations (4.11), (4.12),

and (4.13) describe the complete instantaneous velocity analysis of a four-bar mechanism. The force transmission

in the absence of energy loss is given by (4.14). Once these equations are programmed using a desired software

one can easily analyze any four-bar mechanism that only has revolute joints.

The slider crank mechanism shown in fgure 4.6 is also a four-bar mechanism. It is not a mechanism with

only revolute joints. It has a prismatic joint between the slider and the fxed link. In the following example we

will derive the equations that describe the confguration and the instantaneous velocity of the various points on

the mechanism.

Example 4.2. Consider the slider-crank shown in fgure 4.6. Let r = AB. Fixing frames appropriately we can

show as before that

4.3 Linkage Mechanisms 117

φ = arcsin

r sinθ

L

, (4.15)

x = r cosθ +Lcosφ = r cosθ +

L

2

−r

2

sin

2

θ, (4.16)

˙

φ =

r cosθ

Lcosφ

˙

θ =

r cosθ

L

2

−r

2

sin

2

θ

˙

θ, (4.17)

˙ x = −

r sin(θ +φ)

cosφ

˙

θ =−r sinθ

1+

r cosθ

L

2

−r

2

sin

2

θ

˙

θ. (4.18)

Fig. 4.6 Slider Crank Mechanism

4.3.2 Instantaneous Center

Fig. 4.7 Instantaneous Center

A useful tool in the velocity analysis of planer mechanisms is the use of instantaneous centers. In this section

we will look at this. Let B

1

and B

2

be two rigid bodies moving in 2-dimensional Euclidean space. There exists

a point in both bodies with zero relative velocity. That is viewed from either body there is a point in the other

118 4 Mechanisms

that appears to be instantaneously fxed . Such a is called an instantaneous center. Let us frst prove this fact.

Consider the frames e and b fxed on B

1

and B

2

respectively. O

1

is the origin of e and O

2

is the origin of b.

Now let us consider points on B

2

as viewed from B

1

. A point P on B

2

will have representations x and X with

respect to e and b respectively. Let O

1

O

2

= ey and b = eR

φ

then

x = y +R

φ

X, (4.19)

˙ x = ˙ y +R

φ

ˆ

˙

φX. (4.20)

If there exists a point O

21

P on B

2

that appears to be fxed in B

1

then there exists X

I

such that ˙ x

I

= 0. If we can

show the existence of such a X

I

then we have shown the existence of an instantaneous center. If ˙ x

I

= 0, from

(4.20) it follows that

ˆ

˙

φX

I

= −R

T

φ

˙ y, (4.21)

X

I

=

1

˙

φ

2

ˆ

˙

φR

T

φ

˙ y. (4.22)

That is the point in B

2

with representation X

I

with respect to b and given by (4.22) has zero velocity with respect

to B

1

. The point O

21

is said to be the instantaneous center of B

2

with respect to B

1

. With respect to B

1

, every

point on B

2

appears to instantaneously rotate about P with angular velocity

˙

φ. You are asked to show this in

the exercises. In addition if the bodies B

1

and B

2

are two convex shaped rigid bodies that are moving relative

to each other such that at each time instance their surfaces are in contact only at one point P then from the

assumption that the bodies are rigid it follows that the relative velocity of the contact point should lie along the

surface (that is perpendicular to the common surface normal through the contact point) . Thus the instantaneous

center of rotation of B

2

with respect to B

1

(or visa versa) lies along the common normal to the surfaces at the

contact point. We will explicitly show this in the following simple example of a roll-slide contact.

Example 4.3. A vertical disc of radius r rolling with slip on a horizontal surface. The surface can be considered

as B

1

and the disc can be considered as B

2

. Fix e (with origin O

1

) on B

1

and fx b on B

2

such that its origin O

2

coincides with the center of the disc (refer to fgure 4.8). Let b = eR

φ

and O

1

O

2

= ey where y = [x r]

T

. Then

from (4.22) we have that the representation of the instantaneous center in the b frame is given by

R

φ

X =

¸

0

˙ x

˙

φ

¸

.

Thus it can be seen that the instantaneous center lies on the line joining the center of the disc and the contact point

and that it is at a distance ˙ x/

˙

φ away from the center of the disc. Now if in addition we impose no slip conditions

(rolling without slipping) then the instantaneous center should be at the contact point. Hence ˙ x/

˙

φ = −r and

therefore ˙ x =−r

˙

φ as expected.

4.3.2.1 Kennedy’s Theorem

An important result applicable for two-dimensional mechanisms is what is known as Kennedy’s theorem. This

states that three rigid bodies in relative motion with each other will have their respective instantaneous centers

lying in a straight line.

To prove Kennedy’s theorem consider three rigid bodies B

1

, B

2

and B

3

moving in 2-dimensional Euclidean

space. Let e, b and c be frames fxed on B

1

, B

2

and B

3

respectively. At a given particular time instant, without

loss of generality, we pick the origins of e and b to coincide with the instantaneous center O

21

of B

2

with respect

to B

1

and the origin c to coincide with the instantaneous center O

31

of B

3

with respect to B

1

. What we need to

show is that the instantaneous center O

32

of B

3

with respect to B

2

lies on the line joining O

21

to O

31

. To do this

we observe points on B

3

with reference to B

2

. Let P be a point on B

3

. The representation of P with respect to

e is x, with respect to b is X

b

and with respect to c is X

c

and let b = eR

θ

, c = eR

φ

. Let O

21

O

31

= ey. Then

x = R

θ

X

b

= y +R

φ

X

c

. (4.23)

4.3 Linkage Mechanisms 119

Fig. 4.8 A Rolling Disc

Fig. 4.9 Kennedy’s Theorem

Now differentiating (4.23) we have

˙ x = R

θ

˙

X

b

+R

θ

ˆ

˙

θX

b

= ˙ y +R

φ

˙

X

c

+R

φ

ˆ

˙

φX

c

. (4.24)

Let P = O

23

. The instantaneous velocity of O

32

with respect to B

2

(and hence the b frame) and B

3

(and hence

the c frame) is zero. Thus

˙

X

b

= 0 =

˙

X

c

. Since O

31

is the instantaneous center of B

3

with respect to B

1

the point

O

31

has zero instantaneous velocity with respect to B

1

. Thus ˙ y = 0. Substituting these in (4.24) we have

˙ x = R

θ

ˆ

˙

θX

b

= R

φ

ˆ

˙

φX

c

. (4.25)

Using (4.23) we then have

ˆ

˙

θx =

ˆ

˙

φ(x −y). (4.26)

and fnally that

120 4 Mechanisms

x =

˙

φ

(

˙

φ −

˙

θ)

y. (4.27)

From (4.27) we see that O

32

lies on the line joining the instantaneous centers O

21

and O

31

and we have proved

Kennedy’s theorem that the instantaneous centers of three rigid bodies moving in 2-dimensional Euclidean space

lie on the same line. Furthermore (4.27) gives the ratio of the distances to the instantaneous centers as a function

of the relative angular rotations of the two bodies. Explicitly

O

21

O

23

=

˙

φ

(

˙

φ −

˙

θ)

O

21

O

31

. (4.28)

By substituting O

21

O

31

= O

21

O

23

+O

23

O

31

in this we also have

O

21

O

23

˙

θ +O

31

O

23

˙

φ = 0. (4.29)

Example 4.4. Consider two convex shaped bodies B

2

and B

3

coupled to a frame. The frame can be considered

to be another body B

1

and to be fxed. The two bodies are pin joined to the frame such that B

2

is pinned at O

21

and B

3

is pinned at O

31

. Both bodies move in a plane with their free ends in contact with each other at a point P.

This device can be considered to be a 3-bar mechanism. If this mechanism is to transmit the rotary motion of B

2

to a rotary motion of B

3

then from (4.2) we see that the contact between B

2

and B

3

should have two degrees of

freedom. That is the contact should both allow rolling and sliding (a roll-slide contact). In the following to fnd

the relationship between the rotational velocities of the two links B

2

and B

3

we will use Kennedy’s theorem

and the constraint that the contact surfaces are rigid.

It is clear that the instantaneous center of B

1

and B

2

is O

21

and that of B

1

and B

3

is O

31

. Now according

to Kennedy’s theorem the instantaneous center, O

32

, of B

2

with respect to B

2

lies on the straight line O

21

O

31

(that is O

21

, O

32

, O

31

are co-linear). However it does not tell us the exact location of O

32

. To determine this we

take into consideration the constraint that the contact surfaces of B

2

and B

3

are rigid and thus the velocity of

the contact point P on B

3

with respect to B

2

should lie in the direction along the tangent to the surface (that

is perpendicular to the common normal to the contact surfaces through P). Now since O

32

is the instantaneous

center of B

3

with respect to B

2

the velocity of P with respect to B

2

is perpendicular to O

32

P. Thus O

32

P

should lie along the common normal to the surfaces. Hence O

32

is the intersection point between O

21

O

31

and

the common normal to the contact surfaces through P.

Let [[O

21

O

32

[[ =[[x[[ = l

1

and [[O

21

O

31

[[ =[[y[[ = l and the angular velocity of B

2

about O

21

in the counter

clockwise direction be

˙

θ. Then from (4.27) we have that the angular velocity of B

3

about O

31

in the counter

clockwise direction

˙

φ is given by

˙

φ =

−l

1

(l −l

1

)

˙

θ

From this relationship, it is interesting to note that, when

˙

θ is a constant for

˙

φ to be a constant l

1

should remain

to be a constant. We will see later that this plays a crucial role in the design of gear tooth profles.

Example 4.5. Given the mechanism shown in fgure 4.10 let us use Kennedy’s theorem and the assumption that

the disc rolls inside the cylinder without slip.

Consider the three rigid bodies: the frame, the bar and disc and name them B

1

, B

2

, B

3

respectively. It

can be seen that the instantaneous centers of B

1

and B

2

is O

21

= O, B

2

and B

3

is O

23

= O

/

. Let O

31

be the

instantaneous center of B

1

and B

3

. Then OO

/

= O

21

O

23

= l and if O

31

O

23

= O

31

O

/

= z we have from (4.29)

that

z =

˙

θ

˙

φ

l. (4.30)

Recalling that in the proof of the Kennedy’s theorem equation (4.29) was derived assuming that O

23

is between

O

21

and O

31

(see fgure 4.9). Thus the velocity of the contact point, P, on the disc with respect to the frame

is O

31

P

˙

φ = (r −z)

˙

φ = r

˙

φ −l

˙

θ in the direction perpendicular to OO

/

. Now since the disc is rolling inside the

cylinder without slipping the velocity of the contact point on the cylinder is equal to the velocity of the contact

point on the disc. Thus O

21

P ˙ ψ = O

31

P

˙

φ

(l +r) ˙ ψ = r

˙

φ −l

˙

θ,

and hence

4.4 Cam Mechanisms 121

Fig. 4.10 Disc rolling inside a cylinder

˙ ψ =

r

(l +r)

˙

φ −

l

(l +r)

˙

θ (4.31)

4.4 Cam Mechanisms

Fig. 4.11 Cam Nomenclature

122 4 Mechanisms

4.5 Gear Trains

Fig. 4.12 Gear Types

4.6 Exercises 123

Fig. 4.13 Law of Gear Meshing

4.6 Exercises

1. Obtain the corresponding graph of the mechanisms shown in fgure 4.20, 4.19 and fnd their number of DOF.

2. Find the degrees of freedom of the digger shown in fgure 4.20

3. Using the expressions derived in example 4.2 fnd the length ratios of the slider crank mechanism shown in

fgure 4.21 so that the point P moves in a vertical straight line.

4. Considers two bodies moving relative to each other. Show that every point in one body, when viewed in the

other, appears to rotate instantaneously about the instantaneous center.

5. Consider the centrifugal governor shown in fgure 4.22. Find the relationship between the input wheel angular

velocity and the velocity of the point D.

6. Consider the Hood opening mechanism shown in fgure 4.23. The link pivoted at A is the driving link and the

one pivoted at B is the driven link.

(i.) Find the relationship between the input angle θ and the outputs φ and l

3

.

(ii.) Assuming that the disc is attached frmly to the input link, fnd the angular velocity,

˙

φ, of the output

link.

(iii.) Replacing the assumption that the disc is frmly attached to input link by the assumption that the disc

is pivoted to the input link, fnd the angular velocity of the disc and the angular velocity of the output link.

Observe that this change of assumption does not affect the calculation of the angular velocity of the output

link.

124 4 Mechanisms

Fig. 4.14 Gear Nomenclature

References

1. Haim Baruh, Analytical Dynamics McGraw-Hill, 1999.

2. R. Abraham and J. E. Marsden, Foundations of Mechanics, Second Ed. Westview, 1978.

3. V. I. Arnold, Mathematical Methods of Classical Mechanics, Second Ed., Springer-Verlag, New York 1989.

4. J. E. Marsden and T. S. Ratiu, Introduction to Mechanics and Symmetry, Second Ed. Springer-Verlag, New York 1999.

5. F. Bullo and A. D. Lewis, Geometric Control of Mechanical Systems: Modeling, Analysis, and Design for Simple Mechanical

Control Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York 2004.

6. J. J. Uicker, J. E. Shigley, and J. R. Pennock, Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Oxford University Press, 2003.

7. A. G. Erdmam, G. N. Sandor, and S. Kota, Mechanical Design Analysis and Synthesis: Vol. I, Prentice Hall, 1996.

8. N. Chironis and S. Sclater, Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Source Book, McGraw-Hill, 3rd edition, 2001.

9. Y. Zhang and S. Finger, Introduction to Mechanisms, available online at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ rapid-

proto/mechanisms/tablecontents.html

10. G. J. Sussman and J. Wisdom, Introduction to Classical Mechanics, (available online at http://mitpress.mit.edu/SICM/), MIT

Press, 2001.

11. D. T. Greenwood, Advanced Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, 2003.

References 125

Fig. 4.15 Gear Design Parameters

(a) (b)

Fig. 4.16 Epicyclic Gear Train at the Applied Mechanics Lab

126 4 Mechanisms

Fig. 4.17 Epicyclic Gear Train Example 2

Fig. 4.18 Epicyclic Gear Example 3

References 127

Aircraft Door Hood Opening Mechanism

Windshield Wiper Plier

Quick Return Mechanism Slider Crank Higher Pair

Fig. 4.19 Linkage Mechanisms

128 4 Mechanisms

Fig. 4.20 Digger Mechanism

Fig. 4.21 Slider-Crank Mechanism

References 129

Fig. 4.22 Centrifugal Governor

Fig. 4.23 A hood opening mechanism

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