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**General information Standard formulae used in electrical engineering
**

MECHANICAL FORMULAE

Title

Force

Formula

F=m.γ

Units

F in N m in kg γ in m/s2 G in N m in kg g = 9.81 m/s2

Definitions / notes

A force F is the product of a mass m multiplied by an acceleration γ.

Weight

G=m.g

Moment

M=F.r

M in N.m F in N r in m P in W M in N.m ω in rad/s P in W F in N V in m/s t in s J in kg.m2 ω in rad/s MA in N.m

The moment M of a force in relation to an axis is the product of that force multiplied by the distance r of the point of application of F in relation to the axis.

Power

- Rotation

P=M.ω

Power P is the quantity of work yielded per unit of time N with N in min-1 9.55

- Linear

P=F.V

P=M.

V = linear velocity J is the moment of inertia of the system MA is the moment of acceleration Note: All the calculations refer to a single rotational speed ω where the inertias at ω ' are corrected to speed ω by the following calculation : Jω = Jω' . ω' ω

Z+

Screen

Acceleration time

t=J.

ω MA

()

2

P+

Moment of inertia Centre of gravity Solid cylinder Hollow cylinder

J=m.r2 r2 J=m. 2 J=m. r 21 + r 22 2 v J in kg.m2 m in kg v in m/s ω in rad/s ta in ms The moment of inertia of a mass in linear motion transformed to a rotating motion. J in kg.m2 m in kg r in m

m r

r

r1

r2

P

Inertia of a mass in linear motion

J=m.

( ω)

2

Stopping time

ta = tc + t2 + tc

tc Response time of control devices (contactors, limit switches, etc) t2 Response time on brake engagement (see brake tables) tf Braking time of brake Jm Moment of inertia of brake motor, Jc Moment of inertia of the load ωΝ Angular speed of motor Mf Braking torque of brake motor, Mc Torque due to load : + if it is braking, - if it is driving J1 Moment of inertia turning at ωΝ motor angular speed J2 Moment of inertia turning at ω2 load angular speed m Mass moving at ϖ linear speed

Braking time tf =

(Jm + Jc) ωN M f ± Mc

J in kg.m2 M in N.m ω in rad/s

Moment of inertia of the load applied to the motor shaft

Jc = J1+ J2

v ( ) + m (ω )

2 N

ω2 ωN

2

J in kg.m2 m in kg v in m/s ω in rad/s la in m v in m/s t in s

Stopping distance

la = v tc + t2 +

(

tf

) 2

tf

2

Distance due to linear speed and to the various response and braking times.

Number of revolutions before stopping

a=

ωN 2π

(t + t + 2 )

c

ω in rad/s t in s

Number of revolutions due to the angular speed and to the various response and braking times.

Accuracy on stopping

Accuracy on stopping or repeat accuracy on braking depends on several factors : state of control devices, temperature, air gap, brake wear, mechanical play in the drive chain, etc. It is reasonable to expect accuracy on stopping of ± 20 % ; using an A.C. electromagnet, or D.C. electromagnet with D.C. disconnection, and special precautions : ± 10 %.

1.32

General information

ELECTRICAL FORMULAE

Title

Moment of acceleration (acceleration torque)

Formula

Ma = MD+2 MA+2 MM+MN - Mr

Units

Ma in N.m

Definitions / Notes

The moment of acceleration Ma is the difference between the motor torque (estimated), and the resistive torque of the load MR (MD, MA, MM, MN, see graph below)

6 General formula : 1 n Ma = (Mmot - M r) dN N o

∫

Braking torque

Mf = ( Jm + Jc ) ωN ± Mc tf

Mf in N.m

The braking torque of a brake motor, when lifting : Mf # 2 x MN The braking torque of a brake motor, when transporting : Mf from 0.6 to 0.8 x MN

Power required by the machine P=

M.ω

ηA

P in W M in N.m ω in rad/s ηA no unit P in W U in V I in A

**ηA expresses the efficiency of the driven machine
**

M is the torque required by the driven machine

Z+

Screen

Power drawn by the motor (3-phase)

P = √ 3 . U.I. cos ϕ

**ϕ current/voltage phase angle
**

U voltage between phases I line current

Reactive power drawn by the motor

Q = √ 3 . U.I. sin ϕ

Reactive power provided by a capacitor bank

Q = √ 3 . U 2. C . ω

PPower supplied by the motor (3-phase) P = √ 3 . U.I. cos ϕ. η NS - N NS

C capacity in µ ω circular frequency of mains

η expresses motor efficiency at the point of operation under consideration

P

Slip

g=

Slip is the relative deviation between the actual speed N and the synchronous speed Ns Ns in min-1 f in Hz

Synchronous speed

Ns =

120.f p

p = number of poles f = mains frequency

Quantity

Starting current Rated current No-load current Starting torque Run-up torque Maximum or breakdown torque Rated torque Rated speed Synchronous speed

Symbol

ID IN IO MD MA MM MN NN NS

Units

Graph of torque and current in terms of speed

I M

A

ID MD MA

MM

N.m

MN IN IO

min-1

N NN NS

1.33

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