Household Knife Sharpener Machine Final Report

Fundamental of Mechanical Design MS 4101

Created by: Oky Eldyagusta Pungky R. Prihono Oktavianus P. Mulalinda (OKY) (PRP) (OPM) 13106036 13106108 13106138

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND AEROSPACE BANDUNG INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 2010

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PREFACE

One of the important skills that must be owned by an engineering student is the ability to design. Without excellent design, any products will not working properly or even cannot be manufactured. To achieve good design, the engineers have to consider many aspects, in addition to technical aspect, that support the design process including manufacturability of the design, materials selection, cost estimation, etc. Our topic for this task is “Household Knife Sharpener Machine”. This report will describe the design process and mechanism of household knife sharpener machine including all aspects that have already stated. At last but not least, we want to thank Prof. Dr. Ir. Komang Bagiasna for his guidance and patience that he gave us during this class. We hope that our report could give benefit for us.

Bandung, January 2010

Authors

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Table of Contents
Cover .............................................................................................................................................. 1 Preface ............................................................................................................................................ 2 Table of Contents ....................................................................................................................................... 3 Table of Pictures ......................................................................................................................................... 5 Table of Tables ........................................................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 1 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 7 1.1. Background ...................................................................................................................................... 7 1.2. Problem Identification ..................................................................................................................... 7 1.3. Assignment Purpose ........................................................................................................................ 8 1.4. Assignment Benefit .......................................................................................................................... 8 1.5. Research Methodology .................................................................................................................... 8 1.6. Working Diagram Schematic ............................................................................................................ 8 Chapter 2 Design Requirement and Objectives ...................................................................................... 10 2.1. Design............................................................................................................................................. 10 2.1.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 10 2.1.2. Household Knife Sharpener Machine Design ......................................................................... 10 2.2. Requirement and Objectives ......................................................................................................... 16 Chapter 2 Calculation for Safety and Functionality ................................................................................ 17 3.1. Safety Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 17 3.2. Component Safety Evaluation........................................................................................................ 18 3.2.1. Gear Literature........................................................................................................................ 18 3.2.2. Gear Calculation...................................................................................................................... 19 Chapter 4 Main Component Manufacturing ........................................................................................... 28 4.1. Manufacturing Introduction .......................................................................................................... 28 4.2. Main Component Manufacturing and Assembly ........................................................................... 29 4.2.1. Casing ...................................................................................................................................... 29

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4.2.2. Bevel and Spur Gear ............................................................................................................... 29 4.2.3. Crank ....................................................................................................................................... 30 4.2.4. Feeding Mechanism Tools ...................................................................................................... 31 4.2.5. Sprocket and Chains ............................................................................................................... 31 4.2.6. Shaft, Swing Arm, and Spring.................................................................................................. 31 4.2.7. Grindstone .............................................................................................................................. 32 Chapter 5 Cost Estimation........................................................................................................................ 33 5.1. Cost Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 33 5.2. Cost Evaluation .............................................................................................................................. 33 Chapter 6 Enclosure ................................................................................................................................. 34 6.1. Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 34 6.2. Suggestion ...................................................................................................................................... 34 Appendix................................................................................................................................................... 35 Drawing..................................................................................................................................................... 36

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Table of Pictures
Figure 1.1. Mechanical design flowchart ........................................................................................... 9 Figure 2.1. Knife sharpener mechanism .......................................................................................... 10 Figure 2.2. Feeding mechanism ...................................................................................................... 11 Figure 2.3. Projected view of feeding mechanism (front and side) ................................................... 12 Figure 2.4. Feeding Mechanism (isometric view) ............................................................................. 13 Figure 2.5. Upper position of gear rack ........................................................................................... 14 Figure 2.6. Down position of gear rack............................................................................................ 14 Figure 2.7. Mechanism of rack gear ................................................................................................ 15 Figure 3.1. Top View ...................................................................................................................... 20 Figure 3.2. DAK Engineering’s Spur Gear Calculator......................................................................... 21 Figure 3.3. Geometry factors J for straight bevel gears .................................................................... 24 Figure 4.1. Casing........................................................................................................................... 29 Figure 4.2. Spur and Bevel Gear...................................................................................................... 30 Figure 4.3. Crank ............................................................................................................................ 30 Figure 4.4. Feeding Mechanism Tools ............................................................................................. 31 Figure 4.5. Household Knife Sharpener System ............................................................................... 32

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Table of Tables
Table 3.1. Dimensional calculation table......................................................................................... 19 Table 3.2. Parameters for bevel gear bending stress ....................................................................... 23 Table 3.3. Bevel gear bending stress calculation ............................................................................. 24 Table 3.4. Mechanical properties for acetal delrin .......................................................................... 25 Table 3.5. Specification for delrin acetal spur gear .......................................................................... 26 Table 3.6. Specification for delrin acetal bevel gear ........................................................................ 27 Table 5.1. Cost Estimation .............................................................................................................. 33

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1.

Background (OKY) Knife is one of the tools that are still used up to this day in history of human life. During the prehistoric time, human used axe as knife to meet the necessities of human beings. Even today, when the world filled by modern technology, human still use knife. From that, we just know that the existing of knife is so necessary. But, as is known, the sharpness and the effectiveness of knife will be decreased by the time. In order to prevent it, we use a knife sharpener to restore the sharpness of knife. A grindstone can process the higher hardness materials, such as hardened steel, carbide and also process brittle materials such as glass, granite. Grinder can carry out High-precision grinding and a small surface roughness grinding , also carry out highefficiency grinding, such as strong grinding. Therefore, a grinder should be made of materials that have properties of high hardness, such as sandstone. Sandstone is a sedimentary rock primarily composed of sand-size mineral or rock grains. Most sandstone is formed by quartz or feldspar because the minerals are most numerous in the skin of the earth. Sandstones are resistant to the weather but it is easy to be formed. In addition, because of the similarity measure of hardness and grain size, sandstone became very good material to be made into a whetstone (grindstone) and it is used to sharpen knives and many other purposes.

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1.2.

Problem Identification (OKY) At this time, there are many types of knife sharpener, from the mechanism of work, we can classify them into two types, manual and automatic. Manual sharpener is cheaper than automatic sharpener. They need human power to sharp the knife. Meanwhile, automatic sharpener work more practical than manual sharpener. They using electric power to drive their components and then sharp the knife. In fact, there is no a sharpener has been found that can work practically but not expensive. Start from that, we try to find a technological solution that can solve this problem. And finally, we have an idea to make a sharpener that created by two expected element from two type of sharpener, cheap and practically.

1.3.

Assignment Purpose (PRP) Purpose for writing this report is: 1. Complete the assignment of Fundamental of Mechanical Design (MS 4101) 2. Share knowledge about household knife sharpener machine 3. To create a design alternative for household knife sharpener machine that is easier to use and more energy efficient

1.4.

Assignment Benefit (PRP)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

To know the process of designing a tool and how to analyze To determine the factors that must be considered in designing a tool Recall again about the courses that ever taken Gain more knowledge that we never get in the class Applicate our knowledge to solve problems, especially in this assignment

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1.5.

Research Methodology (OPM) We explore the topic and design the tool by some kind of methods like literature study, interview, and group discussion.

1.6.

Working Diagram Schematic (OPM) The guideline for mechanical design is showed at mechanical design flowchart below:
START

DESIGN PROBLEM BRAINSTORMING

GATHER INFORMATION AND DATA FIND ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS

CHOOSE THE DESIRED SOLUTION

ANALYZE AND SYNTHESIZE DESIGN, SUCH AS STRENGTH OF MATERIAL, MATERIAL SELECTION, PRODUCTION PROCESS

SATISFYING SOLUTION

NO

YES

DESIGN DETAILS

PRODUCTION, TESTING, AND PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT

FINISH

Figure 1.1 Mechanical design flowchart

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CHAPTER 2

DESIGN REQUIREMENT AND OBJECTIVE

2.1.

Design (OPM & PRP)

2.1.1. Introduction The selected design in the design of this tool is to use a mechanical drive gear ratio and uses a swing arm mechanism and the mechanism back and forth on the knife holder. This design uses millstone for sharpening knives. This design uses alternating mechanism on the handle of a knife that is expected to facilitate the use of this tool in sharpening knives. The use of swing arm aims to be pressing millstone surface so as to hone the knife blade properly. 2.1.2. Household Knife Sharpener Machine Design

Figure 2.1. knife sharpener mechanism Power from the hand of the operator use to move crank. Transmitted power from the crank are divided to the two mechanisms, cutting mechanism and feeding mechanism.

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cutting mechanism consists of a combination of spur gear and bevel gear, also pulley and belt. This is done to turn the grinding speed becomes much higher than the rotational speed of human hands.

For feeding mechanism can be seen more clearly in the picture below.

Figure 2.2 feeding mechanism

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With the top and bottom teeth then the feeding motion that will occur is back and forth, while the input is one-way move. Rack gear connected to the iron rod on it. The iron rod is floating and can move freely against the cylinder casing. This mechanism is inspired from the in and out mechanism on retractable pen. Below is the overall picture motion feeding mechanism.

Figure 2.3. projected view of feeding mechanism (front and side)

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Figure 2.4. Feeding mechanism (isometric view)

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Figure 2.5. Upper position of gear rack Shown in the picture above the teeth are in a “upper” position. In this condition the knife (the workpiece) will move forward to the grindstone. Whereas in the picture below is the condition where the teeth was downstairs. In this case the knife will move back away from the grindstone.

\ Figure 2.6. Down position of gear rack

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The declining of rack gear can occur because the elastic rod support colliding with a casing so that no components that support the rod in the cylinder, consequently the gear rack will going down. While the rising mechanism of rack gear can be seen in the picture below.

Figure 2.7. Mechanism of rack gear Forward movement desired if the tip of the knife has reached the point of grinding. In this condition there is no longer a pressing force to the spring (because the knife is backwards), then the potential force of the spring will push the gear rack up, so the gear rack would be supported by the elastic support again, and also knives will eventually move forward. Then the cycle will be repeated until the knife sharpened, then the grinding will stop. Due to the gap between the grinding stones are larger than the blade thickness.

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2.2.

Requirement & Objective (OKY, PRP, & OPM) Must criteria: • • • Can be use to sharpen various types of knives Portable User friendly

Wish criteria: • • • • Price should be less than Rp. 500.000,1 Year life time Low weight Sharpening process less than one minute

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CHAPTER 3 CALCULATION FOR SAFETY AND FUNCTIONALITY

3.1.

Safety Introduction (OKY) Safety means freedom from danger, risk, or injury. But, to keep human stay safe from so many things that could go wrong, they have to be aware because an accident is any unforeseen or unexpected event that may or may not result in injury or damage to property or equipment. Educating our self and others about safety issues will not only keep accidents to a minimum, it will help to save lives. We can do more to protect our self by constantly thinking and practicing accident prevention than we can by memorizing all of the rules, regulations, and safeguards ever written or invented. We must think before we act.

The criteria that’s usually used to represent a machine safe or not, is safety factor.

To achieve condition, minimum safety factor is bigger than one.

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3.2.

Component Safety Evaluation (PRP&OPM)

3.2.1. Gear Literature Gears are machine elements that transmit motion by means successively engaging teeth. Gears are used to transmit torque and angular velocity in a wide variety of applications. There are several characteristics of gear: a. Power transmition b. Increasing or decreasing torque c. Increasing or decreasing speed d. Constant velocity ratio e. No slip Gears also have several basic equations that can be used to its analysis, they are: a. Torque (T)

b. Power (P)

c. Gear Ratio (MG)

Where : NG = Number of teeth on gear NP = Number of teeth on pinion d. Module (m)

Gear and pinion have to have same module.

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3.2.2. Gear Calculation F hand (F) r crank ( r ) ω hand (60rpm) specific energy (u) 50 N 0.15 m 6.28318 5 rad/s J/mm 68
3

calculation iteration data

depth of cut (d) width of cut (w) feed rate (v)

0.005 mm 30 mm 4 mm/s

Material Removal Rate=d.w.v power required=MRR.u

mm3/ 0.6 s 40.8 Watt 47.1238898 1 Watt

power generated=F.r.ω

diameter grind (d) ω grind (ωg) F tangential (Ft) r gear 1 D bevel 2 D bevel 1

0.15 m 92 rad/s 3 N 6 cm

power grind=d/2.ωg.Ft.2 F thrust =1.3Ft Rotational speed ratio =ωgrind/ωhand

41.4 Watt 3.9 N 14.6422547 6 1.63909181 9 cm

1.2 cm r gear 2 4.8 cm Table 3.1 dimensional calculation table

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Figure 3.1. Top view In the first calculation above obtained Material Removal Rate (MRR). With the MRR for the specific energy and 68 J/mm3 (steel), then get the power needed for grinding operations with these parameters. Grinding power is used for iteration, thus obtained dimensions and parameters for grinding. From the data power and rotational speed of human hand with radius selection of bevel and gear 1, then obtained the gear radius of 1.5 cm 2. Thus calculations using rotational speed ratio. Calculation of tension in the Spur gear (mm) (mm/s) AGMA bending Stress:

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For bending stress calculation we use the software “DAK Engineering’s Spur Gear Calculator”:

Figure 3.2. DAK Engineering’s Spur Gear Calculator The results of the calculation from software that can be used for the analysis is: Power transmitted by the gear pair Rotational speed of the pinion Rotational speed of the gear Velocity ratio of the gear pair Diametral pitch Number of teeth the in the pinion =6.300268E-02 Hp =225 RPM =870.968 RPM =0.258 =12 =120 teeth

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Number of teeth in the gear Center distance Pitchline speed Transmitted load on the teeth (Wt) Torque on pinion shaft Face width Dynamic factor Kv Application factor Ka Load distribution factor Km Enclosure type Size factor Ks Rim thickness factor Kb, pinion Rim thickness factor Kb, gear Geometry factor J, pinion Geometry factor J, gear AGMA quality number Computed stress in pinion teeth Computed stress in gear teeth

=31 teeth =6.292 inches =589.04 feet/min =3.53 lb =17.65 in-lbs =0.35 inches =0.830 =1 =2 =Open =1 =1 =1 =0.452 =0.398 =8 =645 PSI =732 PSI

Computed contact stress on the teeth =18,531 PSI The standard method for determining induced bending stresses in bevel gears comes from the American Gear Manufacturers Association and is based on the equation below.

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Symb ol σ

Name Max bending stress in tooth Transmitted tangential load Application factor Dynamic factor Diametral pitch Face width

Notes / How can we simplify these terms for static loading of normal gears Compare to gear material strength to determine if the gear will break Taken at large end of tooth Accounts for probability of greater-than-design-load occurrences. This is not something we expect, so neglect this, and set Ka = 1 Accounts for dynamic effects and velocity of tooth contact. For static loading, which is an assumption we will make, since we are dealing with relatively low speeds, neglect this term,and set Kv = 1 N/D Accounts for unusually sized gears. Not applicable for normal gears. Set Ks = 1

Wt Ka Kv P F Ks

Km J

size factor Loaddistribution Accounts for shaft misalignment and shaft bending. Build your factor gearbox carefully, so you can neglect this term and set Km = 1. Geometry factor Similar to Lewis form factor used for spur gears. Obtain from chart based on number of teeth on gear and pinion. Table 3.2. Parameters for bevel gear bending stress

After setting those factors that do not apply to 1 (see notes above), we can come up with a simplified AGMA equation.

This equation is highly simplified to allow for fast calculation with minimum table look-ups. It is not for use on critical applications, high speed gears, or gears of unusual materials.

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Figure 3.3 Geometry factors J for straight bevel gears.

Preliminary calculations obtained for pinion gear ratio is 4:1. We use a pinion teeth 40 and gear teeth 10 following the calculation of bending stress for the bevel gear. Pinion P F J Wt Gear P F J Wt

1 8.2 mm 0.17 47 watt

σ

33.71593 kPa

1 σ 24.92047 kPa 8.2 mm 0.23 47 watt Table 3.3. Bevel gear bending stress calculation

From the data calculated above, we can choose materials based on the stress data for the pinion and gear (gear 1 and gear 2).

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We chose to use a polymer material which is Acetal Delrin. Material properties can be seen in the table below.

Table 3.4. Mechanical properties for acetal delrin Can be seen in the table that the ultimate tensile strength of 8000 psi. Compared with the calculated stress (<1000 psi), it is quite sufficient material to be used. Here are the gear products that we will use.

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Table 3.5. specification for delrin acetal spur gear We will use part No. GR1M120 for pinion and GR1M032 for gear.

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Table 3.6. Specification for delrin acetal bevel gear We will use bevel gear pair Part No. GB1M410040 (4:1 Ratio)

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CHAPTER 4

MAIN COMPONENT MANUFACTURING

4.1

Manufacturing Introduction (OKY) Manufacturing, in its broadest sense, is the process of converting raw material into some product. There are many things that affect the process of manufacturing a product. The things that affect the process of manufacturing a product include product design, component of these products, the selection of raw materials, and intended use of these products.

The more complicated the design then the manufacturing processes will be more difficult. So is the component where the more components are used for a product also requires more manufacturing process. Moreover, the selection of raw materials and intended use of these products also affect the manufacturing process.

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4.2.

Main Component Manufacturing and Assembly (PRP & OPM)

4.2.1. Casing

Figure 4.1 Casing To reduce the total mass of the tool is then we used casing made of plastic material. This is because the chassis does not need a very strong material and plastic material has another advantage that is easy to set up and the price is cheap and also lightweight. The process of manufacture for casing is by molding in accordance with the desired. 4.2.2. Bevel Gear and Spur Gear After calculating the stress, then by adjusting the availability of gear on the market, we choose a gear with Delrin Acetal material. This material selection is based on the need to reduce manufacturing costs for gears and reduces the total mass of this product.

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Figure 4.2. Spur and Bevel Gear

4.2.3. Crank

Figure 4.3. Crank This crank-making process by using the casting and the forming and. After that use surface finishing.

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4.2.4. Feeding Mechanism Tools

Figure 4.4 Feeding mechanism tools For feeding mechanism tools, the manufacturing processes there are variety. Gear rack systems using milling process. In the connecting rod using C45 steel with milling process. So is the cradle using the same process and using welding and bolt for connections. 4.2.5. Sprocket and chains Manufacturing process for sprocket is hobbing. For chain we use standard chain. 4.2.6. Shaft, swing arm and spring Manufacturing process for swing arm and shaft is milling from C45 plate steel material. For spring we use standard spring with appropriate stiffness.

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4.2.7. Grindstone For grindstone we use the grind stone that has been sold commercially.

Figure 4.5. Household knife sharpener system

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CHAPTER 5 COST ESTIMATION 5.1 Cost Introduction (OKY) In business, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something, and hence is not available for use anymore. In economics, a cost is an alternative that is given up as a result of a decision.[1] In business, the cost may be one of acquisition, in which case the amount of money expended to acquire it is counted as cost. In this case, money is the input that is gone in order to acquire the thing. This acquisition cost may be the sum of the cost of production as incurred by the original producer, and further costs of transaction as incurred by the acquirer over and above the price paid to the producer. Usually, the price also includes a mark-up for profit over the cost of production. Costs are often further described based on their timing or their applicability. 5.2 Cost Evaluation (OKY)

Component Gear box Pulley Belt Shafts Plastic Casing Gerindstone Bearing Spring Sprocket Chain Welding service Bolts and nuts

Price (IDR) 200,000 50,000 10,000 100,000 50,000 20,000 60,000 12,000 60,000 40,000 50,000 8,000

660,000 Total Tabel 5.1 Cost estimation
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CHAPTER 6 ENCLOSURE (OKY,PRP &OPM)

6.1 Conclusion 1. From the design, we conclude that this mechanism is very complicated. But relatively cheap and have auto feeding mechanism. 2. This design can sharpened a regular blunt knife for approximately one minute. 3. From our estimation, the price of this design is Rp 660.000

6.2 Suggestion 1. Gear system is not the best design for knife sharpener. So that the others design have to reconsider. 2. For increasing the efficiency of the system, we suggested for using electrical system. 3. To improve the endurance and reliability of the design, we suggested to reconsider the material and dimension of the system.

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APPENDIX

- Callister. 2001. Material Science and Engineering. McGraw-Hill: Singapore. - Dieter, G. E. 2000. Engineering Design. McGraw-Hill: Singapore. - Kalpakjian, Serope. 2000. Manufacturing Engineering And Technology Fourth Ed. Singapore: Addison Wesley Longman - Norton, Robert L. 2003. Machine Design “An Integrated Approach”. Prentice Hall : New Jerse - Shigley, Joseph Edward. 2004. Mechanical Engineering Design Seventh Ed. Singapore: McGraw Hill

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DRAWINGS (PRP & OPM)

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