Amanda Labrado PLSC 210 Prof. Miller 3/6/10 Homework #6 Civil Rights 1. Summarize Sec. 1 of the 13th Amendment.

Slavery is not allowed in the US unless it is as punishment to someone who has been appropriately convicted. 2. Summarize Sec. 1 of the 14th Amendment. Under the Jurisdiction of the US, anyone who was born here or has been “Naturalized” is a citizen of the United states and of the state in which they live; No state shall contradict the rights given to its people by the US Government. 3. Summarize Sec. 1 of the 15th Amendment. The Right to vote can’t be taken away from you because of your color, race, or “previous condition of servitude” (Slavery?) 4. Summarize the 19th Amendment. Women have a right to vote, and legislation shall be passed to enforce this. 5. Summarize Sec. 1 of the 24th Amendment. Citizens of the US have the right to vote without paying a poll tax. Inequality in the United States 6. From the late 1940s to the early 1970s, was economic inequality in the US rising or fallng? Economic Inequality fell between 1947 and 1973 because of economic productivity and the distribution of gains that resulted. (Hudson 264) 7. From the early 1970s to today, was economic inequality in the rising or falling? Econ. In equality rose because of an unequal distribution of gains to “higher dividends and value for stockholders rather than wages”. (Hudson 266) 8. Compare the economic inequality with the other rich democracies. 9. (a) If you were born poor in the U.S., how likely are you to stay that way? You have a 50% chance of remaining poor. (Hudson 269) (b) How does that compare with the children born poor in northern Europe? Poor kids have a better chance of becoming rich if they live in Sweden, Germany, Britain, or Finland than here. (Hudson 270) 10. What are the two main causes of rising economic inequality in the US, according to Hudson? “deindustrialization”, or when companies moved to other countries where they could pay people less in order to make higher profits, and “downsizing”, when companies removed professionals or more skilled workers and replaced them with workers on a contract to save the company money by making the workers work harder and longer, rather than having a bunch of people to make the work easier. Both of these put many out of work and caused more unskilled workers to work in “service jobs” and to work longer. (Hudson 271)

11. (a) Which ethnic group accounts for the greatest number of families living in poverty in the US: White, Black, Or Hispanic? White (b) Which ethnic group has the lowest percentage of families living in poverty in the US: White Black or Hispanic? White 12. (a) List at least ten of the public policy changes that Hudson advocates to reverse the rise in economic inequality. 1.Invest in education so more people have access to an education that could better their job prospects. 2.Restore the tax system so that the wealthy will carry more of the burden of taxes instead of the poor because the wealthy can actually afford it. 3. Create social programs for the poor such as food stamps, housing assistance, job training, public schools, and Social Security. (Hudson 289) 4. Create Universal programs for everyone, Such as universal insurance or child allowances to replace welfare, but keep them aimed at the poor because they need them the most. (Hudson 289) 5.“Macroeconomic policies aimed at sustaining full employment over a long period of time are required if real wages are to rise, especially for the lowest paid workers” (Hudson 289) 6. “Congress should raise the minimum wage to 1960s levels [+] attach a COLA to [it], as it has done[…] for social security.” Which would give workers a fair share of econ. Growth. (Hudson 290) 7.“Earned income tax credit […] should be made more generous” (Hudson 290) 8.“More communities should enact minimum wage ordinances” so that people will be able to earn enough to live in their communities above the poverty level. (Hudson 290) 9.“Public policy should revert to promoting unionization rather than assisting corp.’s in their campaign against unions.” 10. “Labor law reform to expand power of labor unions” (Hudson 290) (b) Do you agree or disagree with his proposals? Explain. I agree with his proposals because they would both almost eliminate poverty sticken societies in America and would create a better society for everyone, since more people would have access to education allowing them the opportunity to become affluent. Government and Capitalism 13. Which aspect of the pluralist model does Hudson believe is inaccurate? Why? That all interest groups are equal. He believes this is inaccurate because there is a group that “monopolizes political resources and can exact a response in a way that no other group can.” (Hudson 216) 14. List at least four ways that big business influences government policy. 1. They influence individual members of congress by using KRPs. 2. They Employ “Astroturf” campaigns. (Campaigns that “help” people but promote interest of industry)

3. They support campaigns that support their interests by donating large amounts of money to them. (AKA Campaign contributions) 4. They support “think tanks” such as “private research establishments” that employ people who write books and articles on public policy issues. They are usually funded by businesses and come out with policy proposals that are favorable to business. (Hudson 224) 15. Give at least three examples of how the interests of big business often conflict with the interests of the community. 1. GM decided to close 12 plants in the US and Canada because they were performing poorly in the economy, by choosing to do this they affected the lives of 16,300 people who would lose their jobs. 2. They also affected the companies nearby who the workers and GM had been purchasing supplies from; Those companies would soon go bankrupt if they did not find other customers. 3. “Local communities would lose millions of dollars in tax revenues, forcing them to close schools and cut back public services.” (Hudson 227) 16. (a) What are the IMF, the world bank, and the WTO? They are “international trade enforcement institutions that constitute a supranational governing system that favors business interests and is not accountable to any democratic electorate.” (b) Why is Hudson critical of these Institutions? They allow business to move around the world in search of “low wages, gov’t subsidies, and policies discouraging labor unions, all of which maximize profit opportunities.” (Hudson 230) 17. Hudson relates the tale of Pullman, Illinois. (a) Compare how the town was run with how Pullman’s company was run. Both the Factories and the Town were run in an authoritarian manner, but America only saw the town being run in an authoritarian way a problem, not the factory; it was alright that the factory was run with an authoritarian style. (b) If democracy is the best way to run a town, is this also true for a company? Why or Why not? If so, who should be represented, and how? If a company were run as a democracy, It would have to frequently – daily – consult its workers and debate what they would achieve that day; therefore, the best way to run a company is authoritarian, however, it would be nice to be able to bring up popular issues and fix them with a vote, or instead of firing people because other people say he should be fired, it would be awesome to vote whether that worker should stay or not, IF companies were run democratically.