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TEACHING STUDENTS SPEAKING SKILL THROUGH OPENING

PLACE TECHNIQUE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Baihaqi
Dosen Tetap Non PNS
Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan
Universitas Samudra
Jln. Kampus Meurandeh No. 1 Langsa
baihaqi_01@yahoo.com
Abstract:
The research deals with teaching speaking through Opening Place
Technique The purposes of this study is to find out causes which make
students feel bored when learning in the classroom, causes which make
students feel shy to speak and whether teaching speaking through
opening place effective to make students interest and more active. The
methodology in order to obtain the data for this research the writer used
library and field research. In library research, the writer read some books,
which are relevant to the topic from library and other sources and in the
field research. Using this technique is one of the ways to solve students
difficulties in learning speaking. It is increasing students interest and
motivation in learning English. The teacher is also easier in teaching
English especially speaking.
Keyword: Teaching Speaking and Opening Place Technique

A. Introduction
To communicate to other people we need a language. Every
nation has its own language. Every language has unique system, there
are no two language ever have the same system exactly. One of the
languages is English. As we know, English is as an international
language. Because everything are written in English now and it is used
in many countries for any purposes. It is important and become
necessity to be studied and mastered by people in globalization era
today because of that reason.
Language is system; it means language is formed by different
component in suitable pattern and formula. According to Wardhough
(1986: 3), says, Language is system of arbitrary vocal symbol use for
human communication. Information is gotten not always from printed
material like books, magazines, newspaper, etc. but we can also get

the information from audiovisual such as computer, internet, television


etc. and by the change of the information with other people in other
country, so we have to understand what they speak by learning their
language. We can learn a language by formal or informal education.
Learning English speaking is one of skills to understand the other
language. Probably, if we are able to speak English well we can have
big challenge to get nice job and salary. Because English is as one of
requirement getting many formal or informal job today. English is a
head condition to get it.
Today, almost school in this world teaching English as one of the
main subject. English is studying by all students in around the world
including in Indonesia. English is taught as an obligatory subject. It is
taught from elementary school up to university level. It is used as a
tool in improving the students knowledge, so they can live in society
with this skill.
Each skill listening, speaking, reading and writing need to be
mastered by students; however, as language the student demanded to
be able to speak. Because when student can speak, show that they
have mastered the language. The goal of study a language is able to
communicate. Speaking as one of the skill in English becomes a
biggest problem for almost all Indonesian students who study it. It is
caused as a foreign language; English has very different grammar and
culture. The students face a new situation that very different with their
basic language.
There are many factors cause the problem. As we know the
differences of structure between Indonesia and English is one of the
factors. Moreover, the culture background sometime becomes another
factor. Besides that, English is still as foreign language in Indonesia.
Compare with our neighbor Malaysia or Singapore, where English is as
the second language, it means the people use English for daily life

beside their native language. It causes easier for students there to


master English. However, our government keeps trying to design
suitable curriculum, provide facility, and train teachers in order to
increase students achievement in mastery English.
In fact, teaching speaking at school still faces many problems.
Since the facility and environment do not support learning process,
Student as the object of study is the most sufferers in English learning.
They face trouble in study it because they feel that impossible for
them to master it. This situation made studying English has become
something frightening for almost students who study it. Ahmadi and
Supriyono (2004: 77) state that, The situation where student cannot
study as should be, that is the trouble of study.
Looking to the development of teaching methods in the world,
today the method and technique tend to break the traditional rules
and assumptions where study is not always going on inside of the
classroom but also outside or opening place. However, this way is not
the new method but just often to be done for long time in our
education world. DePorter (2000: 78) states, Environment will
influence

the

students

to

focus

and

grab

the

information.

Environment is important because as connection to the brain. New or


different situation will help learning become more interesting and good
for students to increase their concentration in receiving of the
information from the teacher.
Then DePorter (2000:67) also stated, Understand the connection
between environment and brain it is important to orchestrate
supporting

study

environment.

The

environment

will

increase

confident and learning quality. We have known that environment


study most used for learning activities is in classroom. However, the
same similar situation everyday makes students or even teacher feel
boring. Therefore, the choice to make the situation fresher is through

change the environment study from in classroom into the out of


classroom or at the opening place.
Study outside of classroom or at opening place such as in yard or
school

field

will

give

students

new

perspective

because

the

atmosphere will influence the way they take the lesson. The teacher
also can take more advantage from the environment and connect the
situation and everything around them as the media to support the
learning process. Especially for speaking, things around of the
environment will help much because they can see directly object.
Concurrent to the growing interest in promoting learner independence
is a trend in learning studies to view language learning as a group
phenomenon rather than an individual process. There are many
research conducted that showed, most students believe that their
learning is highly influenced by opportunities to have variety
experiences at the outside classroom or the opening place.
As stated by Polanyi et. al (1995: 271), Both nationally and
internationally researchers claim that learners, at various levels of
proficiency and at various stages of study, continue to view their
successful and unsuccessful learning outcomes as related to their
experiences outside the classroom.
In the field of English education, much effort has been put into
developing teaching practices that support the interactions of students
in the classroom and encourage learning activities outside the
classroom or the opening place. However, little is known about what
teachers perceive and believe about out of class activity in the process
of teaching and learning. This gap in our knowledge is highly
significant as it is often claimed that the ultimate goal of teaching
English is to increase the learners ability to interact successfully in the
target language in real situations.

As stated by Anderson (2000: 11) In the field of English


education, much effort has been put into developing teaching
practices that support the interactions of students in the classroom
and encourage learning activities outside the classroom. Yet, little is
known about what teachers perceive and believe about this out-ofclass activity in the process of teaching and learning. This gap in our
knowledge is highly significant as it is often claimed that the ultimate
goal of teaching English is to increase the learners ability to interact
successfully in the target language in real situations.
The first thing that will be learnt in studying language is the
word. The word is the important thing to express feeling, wishing and
thinking of human like written or orally. It is like the meaning of word
from Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (2007: 513): Kata adalah unsur
bahasa yang di ucapkan atau di tuliskan yang merupakan perwujudan
kesatuan perasaan dan fikiran yang digunakan dalam berbahasa. And
Also the meaning of word from Oxford Dictionary (2003: 499): Word is
written or spoken unit of language. Word is thing that you say, remark
or statement. And for the person who wants to say in daily
conversation with language must know of the word. Without it, the
people and cant get the information in the world.
As mentioned by Tarigan (1996:9): The human using the
language as vital communication facility in this life. Language is one
major distinctive feature human of another life creature in this world.
Language has the function the very important to human, very priority
in communicative function. If in the language there is word isnt clear,
so the person cant get the new thing and that accurate in information.
As mentioned by French (1992:14): The human mind is able to
remember a thing because it makes associations or link between the
new thing which is being learned and things already language known.
From the function of that language, the writer wants to teach foreign
language (English) to the Elementary School. And before of that, the

writer as teacher must know the age of the students to know the
development of the children, as the purpose of study can reach.
According

to

Merriam

and

Webster

(1993:

2560)

defines

vocabulary is arranged of meaning by which one can apprehend


experiences or express idea. It means vocabulary is one of the
language aspects that cannot be ignored in any language teaching.
The students should master vocabulary to express their ideas or
something that they want to express. In communicate we need much
of vocabulary; we must study first vocabulary when we learn
language, especially in learning English. The meaning of Real Object
according to Stefan (2005:1) states: Real Object is consists of actual
objects or items or facsimiles thereof, which are used in the classroom
to illustrate or to see, hear, and in some cases touch the object. Real
object are used in the classroom to make the learning experience more
memorable for the students.

B. Problem of Study
The problem of study discussed through this writing is where
most of students get many difficulties to understand and speak
English well because they often looked boring when study in the
classroom. Therefore, the researcher takes the following questions
to study: What does

teaching speaking through opening place

technique improve students speaking skill?


C. Purpose of Study
Considering that problem is important to be discussed, in this
study the writer decides to choose the question. It is necessary to
make variation in teaching process by teaching speaking through
opening place as an interesting way to solve problem in studying of
speaking.

D. Method of Study
This method used in writing this study is library research
through identifying of reference list and then analyze and compose
into academic writing.
E. Description of Teaching Through Opening Place
1.

Definition of Opening Place


If

we look

into

Opening

Place term

could

be some

interpretations occurred to it. The term is consisted from two words


that is opening and place. Each word has many interpretations
and various usages.
The word Opening has many definitions in many aspects.
According to The opening Collins Essential English Dictionary (2006)
as noun Opening has four definitions namely:
a.
b.
c.
d.

the beginning or first part of something


the first performance of a theatrical production
a chance or opportunity: an opening into show business
a hole or gap

Meanwhile according to The American Heritage Dictionary of


the English Language (2003) defines ten meanings for Opening
namely:
a.
to open.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

The act or an instance of becoming open or being made


An open space serving as a passage or gap.
A breach or aperture.
A clearing in the woods.
The first part or stage, as of a book.
The first performance: the opening of a play.
g. A formal commencement of operation: attended the
opening of the new museum.
h. Games A specific pattern or series of beginning moves in
certain games, especially chess.
i. An opportunity affording a chance of success.

j. An unfilled job or position; a vacancy.


Unfortunately, most of the definition above far from the
meaning that this written intended. However, from Thesaurus
Dictionary (2003) gave close meaning of the opening that is an
open or empty space in or between things and the Oxford
Dictionary (1996: 288) define opening as open space. Based on
the Etymology it comes from Middle English, from Anglo-French,
open space, from Latin platea broad street, from Greek plateia
(hodos), from feminine of platys broad, flat; akin to Sanskrit prthu
broad, Latin planta sole of the foot (Wikipedia, 2006).
For the word place, Wikipedia (2006) define it as A place is a
location in space. From the definition have some explanations
which is has close meaning to the written intended namely:
a.
b.
c.

e.
f.
g.

physical environment
physical surroundings
an indefinite region or expanse
d. a building or locality used for a special purpose <a place
of learning>
a particular region
center of population, or location
a building, part of a building, or area occupied as a home
h. a proper or designated niche or setting (the place of
education in society)
From the explanation above the term of opening place could

be interpret as an open location in open space. Refer to the title of


this written the opening place here means any places in outdoor or
out of the classroom. In another word, the study activity operated at
place without wall boundary.

The places could take the place

around the school or outside the school. The places around the
school such as in the yard, field or school garden. The opening place
at the outside of school such as in the field or city garden.
2.

Why Opening Place

A question for all teachers or educators in around the world,


where is the right place to teach? Actually, in the world history,
school using the classrooms is a really new concept. It is because in
the past before all the teaching and learning processes took the
classroom as the centre for study, nature or the opening place was
as the place where study activities held.
The problem is teaching and learning activities that held inside
of the classroom could not guarantee that the process more success
than the teaching and learning activities that took at the opening
place. There are many examples that students feel uncomfortable
because of the monotonous of classroom. The classroom even
sometimes looks like a jail. It is time to ask that study in the
classroom is the best way and still is the main forum for the learning
or we need to back as in the past. The condition of classroom that
not support the teaching and learning process will make the
students even teacher feel numb. And the result for the condition is
failure.
There are many proofs or cases show that students got
nothing from their school but only frightened and punishment.
Because school as the place for study turn into place for giving
burden and punishment for students who cannot learn according
their teacher. The exploiting of school

about 200 days per year,

several hours in a day and only use 15% times is the wasting of the
worth asset. And using of big part of time for one way teaching is
the bigger wasting from the 15%. It needs to emphasize that most of
people will in the best condition for learning through experimentally
and whole senses.
As stated by Dryden and Vos (2002: 109): The exploiting of
school about 200 days per year, several hours in a day and only use
15% times is the wasting of the worth asset. And using of big part of
time for one way teaching is the bigger wasting from the 15%. It
needs to emphasize that most of people will in the best condition for
learning through experimentally and whole senses.

Teaching and learning is the complex process. In the process


everything

has

their

own

meaning.

Every

word,

opinion,

presentation, association, action that used in the process and how


far the teacher composes the surrounding that is the process is
running.
In order to solve the problem regarding to the classroom
issues, today the education world start to change or combine the
way of their teaching strategy. There are many schools or education
centers begin to use the techniques which can support the teaching
and learning process. One of the techniques is through study outside
of the class or at the open place. This way is not only to move study
from inside to outside the class but have serious intention in making
student easier to grab the study material.
The place or environment is very important in learning
process. Good place can be a value medium in build and keep
positive attitude. Because supporting place will help student easier
in developing their ability, keep their focus in studying and winner
mentality. The winner mentality will create success students. As
stated by DePorter and Hernacki (2002: 66), If you work in good
ordering environment, then easier to develop and keep the winner
mentality. And the winner mentality will produce success students.
3.

Definition of Speaking
Language is used to communicate with series of rule and the

way to express it. As the quoted that states, That language is


communication, not simply a series of social and grammatical
regulations (Celce-Mursia, Downey and Thurrel, 1985).

Human

expresses language through speaking generally. Before human


create written system, people communicate or interact through
spoken. That is why if people say that language is primarily spoken.
Speaking is one problem that recurs and more frequently talked
these days. Speaking is ability of people to communicate with the
other people.

Through speaking, we are able to express our feeling, opinion


or get our necessity. Speaking cannot separate from human life that
is why speaking is one of abilities needed to learn. Speaking is
fundamentally and instrumental act, speakers talk in order to have
some effect on their listeners, they assert things to change state of
knowledge states by Herbert and Ave (1980: 46).
However,

Speaking

is

complex

skill,

required

the

simultaneous of number of different abilities which of develop


different

rates

either

four

of

five

components

in

generally

recognized in analysis of speech, there are including as the


remembering system pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency
and comprehension. As stated by David P. Haris in his book entitled
Teaching the Spoken language (1997: 32): Speaking is complex skill,
required the simultaneous of number of different abilities which of
develop different rates either four of five components in generally
recognized in analysis of speech, there are including as the
remembering system pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency
and comprehension.
According to Wikipedia (2008: 155), speaking can described:
As an act of producing voice through the use of the vocal cords and
vocal apparatus or other means, such as sign language, to create
linguistic acts in the form of language that communicate information
from an initiator to a recipient.
In other more colloquial terms, speaking can be described in
several different ways (Onelook, 2008):
a.

A linguistic act designed to convey information.

b.

Various types of linguistic acts where the audience


consists of more than one individual, including public
speaking, oration and quotation.

c.

The physical act of speaking, primarily through the use


of vocal cords to produce voice.

When we are speaking, we make interact with someone else


and usually we need an action from someone as the listener. As

Hammond et al. (1992: 5) concluded speaking is interaction


language or language accompanying action.
However speaking or speech can also take place inside ones
head, known as intrapersonal communication, for example, when
one thinks or utters sounds of approval or disapproval. At a deeper
level, one could even consider subconscious processes, including
dreams where aspects of oneself communicate with each other as
part of intra personal communication, even though most human
beings do not seem to have direct access to such communication.
Because of speaking is the way of human to express their
opinion it is need spontaneity when do that. In addition, the
spontaneity is the major problem of the students who learn the
foreign language particularly English.
He also claims that many teachers often overlook the fact that
in a relaxed atmosphere, real learning takes place, and students use
the language they have been exposed to and have practiced earlier.
4.

Teaching Speaking
The purpose of speaking can be to convey meaning or to

increase social bonds between individuals or groups. For the latter,


shallowness is not problem. The success of speaking depends on
numerous factors, including the presence or absence if a variety of
speech disorders, the ability of the speaker to express the intended
message and the ability and willingness. Such of language
education is to prepare student in term to be participate in modern
society life (Hammond et al. 1992: 56). In other words, language
education is life skill education that is the education, which give the
skill to student to be surviving in modern life patterned with
globalization.
In practically level, generally Indonesian student cannot
answer the global communication challenge, whereas in theoretic
language education needs to have obvious focus about what

competence need to develop if student targeted to be able to


communicate in global era.
In standard of content of school-based curriculum stressed
how important to looking of language product as an instrument to
communicate, is not only the language that received through
explain by teacher. It means in teaching speaking, student expected
to be more active in express their speaking skill. They are not just
listen what the teacher said but demanded directly to practice.
Because when an activity conducted directly, it helps them to
master it better. As the research presented that, We learn 90%
from what we said and done (DePorter, 2000: 32).
To reach the target, curriculum designed need to settled the
syllabus target that could be used as benchmark as suggested by
Wells (1987: 65).

According to Wells, four literacy degrees exist

that is per formative, functional, informational and epistemic.


a.

Per formative
In per formative degree, people able to write and read,
and speak through symbols that are used.

b.

Functional
In functional degree, people expected are able to use
language to fulfill daily life such as reading newspaper,
magazine, manual reading etc.

c.

Informational
In informational degree, people expected are able to
access knowledge through his language.

d.

Epistemic
In epistemic degree, people expected to able to
transform knowledge in certain language.
Refer to standard of content of school-based curriculum,

students of senior high school intended to reach until the third


degree that is informational, because they prepared to enter
university level.

Sequentially the purposes of teaching speaking for senior high


school student formulated in three of competence standard
(Depdiknas, 2003: 5) following:
1.

Able to communicate through spoken language using


suitable language style, fluently and accurate in interaction or
monolog expression in shape of narrative, procedure, recount,
report and news.

2.

Able to communicate through spoken language using


suitable language style, fluently and accurate in interaction or
monolog

expression

in

shape

of

narrative,

descriptive,

anecdote, analytic and hortatory exposition. It intended to


interpersonal meaning variation.
3.

Able to communicate through spoken language using


suitable language style, fluently and accurate in interaction or
monolog expression

in shape of narrative, explanation,

discussion, commentary and review with emphasis on complex


of interpersonal meaning.
Since the standard demand teacher to be able to achieve the
target, it might be happened teacher only teaches to run the target
without care about the students capability or their intake in study.
With all the burden of study that mentioned above, the most suffer
is students. Looking the situation students is as the object of
education, whereas nowadays they are not anymore.
Nowadays, students are not the education object, but they are
as the subject. Because the demand of curriculum that students
must be active. They must inquiry the knowledge not only receive or
waiting teacher to give them. And teacher also should be realized
and accustomed to treat the students not as the object.
5.

Teaching Speaking Through Opening place


As development nation, Indonesia needs to run the fallen

behind in any sectors. Especially, when we are talking about

education sector. The education in Indonesia still poor compared


with its closest neighbor nations such as Malaysia and Singapore.
However, our government always tries to improve our national
education with many programs that could support accelerate of the
education progress. For example, the government builds facilities
and infrastructure to supporting learning process. Also held training
for teachers in order to develop their perception and teaching skill. It
tends to create a competence teacher. Because how modern the
facilities that had by a school without competence teacher,
everything is useless.
One of features that a teacher competence to do his job is the
teacher should know and rich with many approach, method and
techniques in order to support his duty. The good mastery of
teaching

techniques

will

help

teacher

and

their

student

to

accomplish learning target. In study a language, the main target is


making students able to communicate through spoken.
Today

speaking

ability

is

very

important

closer

the

globalization where English as the international language urgent to


be mastered. In this case, the teaching technique for speaking at
school is very important to make the students understand and
easier master it. As we know, there are so many teaching
techniques old or new.
In teaching process, a teacher could use one technique or
more and combine it. It is all depend on the learning necessity. For
teaching speaking, teacher prefers to choose the technique that
make learning situation more active. Also, make student become
braver to express their speaking ability. Because sometimes we are
trapped with the path that our predecessor have done which not
always correct or suitable with present condition where study
situation is very serious and far from fun. That situation will hamper
the students in enjoying and developing their ability.
As according to Kim (1995: 35) states that: There is a common
perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature,

and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then
it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn
a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time.
Regarding to the opening place, it is one way in order to
accelerate students developing in mastering speaking. Through the
different situation of study, hoped that the students would have
interesting and pay attention to what teacher teach. Moreover, by
study at the open place the teaching and learning process can be as
an directly experience for students especially when the material of
study adjusted with the situation of the place. So the student can
see, feel the atmosphere directly and it is will help them much in
memorizing and expressing their spoken ability. The energize place
of study, relieve a lot of tension students and it can be also motivate
them in learning speaking.
6.

The Role of Teacher


The role of teacher is central as an active explainer. Teacher

dominates the teaching and learning process. Cullingford (1995:


159) states, Teacher makes a subject interesting, he sets up
experiments, brings in interesting materials, and is not merely
bound by routine. This means that teacher become a source of
knowledge.
When the teacher is an active judge, she make corrections,
control the students performance or answer. The teacher must
judge the correctness of the students responses. Before the study is
started the teacher should make sure that all the necessary material
ready. It is suggested that teacher prepares the material that have
connection with the place or the teacher should be able to design
the material that can connected by student where the place support
them to look the thing directly or imagine it.
After that the study cannot be successful if the teacher does
not explain the tasks and the rules for students in studying at the
open place. The rules must be made clear to the students in order to

prevent students take chance to play because they are at the free
place. Teacher should tell to the students what they can or cannot
do. Teacher should maintain the situation so that the teaching and
learning process still in the path. Because for students, study at the
opening place quite different and strange for them. This is crucial for
the success of the activity, so every effort should be made.
Following things that teacher should prepared and do to teach
at the opening place:
1. The selection of the place and time is very important. Study
at the open place such as at the football field at middle of
the day is a stupidity.
2. The material that compatible with the place or can be
supported with the place.
3. Clear rule for students along the opening place.
4. Clear task for students so that they know what they must to
do and focus.
5. Teacher should be able maintain the situation from the
beginning until the end of program.
6. Teacher should be creative and able to connect and relate
the material with the place.
7.

The Role of Students


Students play a reactive role by responding to teachers

explanation. They should contribute as much as they gain in the


classroom. If the students are successfully doing the alphabet
games, the will apply the new vocabulary, which has just been
learnt into the lesson. It is needed for recalling the vocabulary. After
the students do their role in vocabulary teaching learning process, it
is expected that they will master some aspects of vocabulary
teaching, namely aspects of association of concepts (meaning in
clues) with words and the spelling words. So that after doing the
game, they can spell the words correctly and they can remember
the words with easy way.

F. Conclusion
After doing the research finally the writers concluded that
Teaching speaking through opening place gives new situation in
study English for students so they are far from boring, students
more relax and enjoy speaking as a fun activity to do, Students shy
to speak because they do not know the answer and afraid if it going
to be wrong then got punishment. However, study at the opening
place had assisted students to less their shy feeling to speak, and
Increase students interest and more active to study speaking
because it was fun being at the free space without the wall
restricted while Increase students motivation because they can
speak without afraid to make mistake and their memory to the
lesson.

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