About the company: I did my summer training in Hamdi Abu Shanap and Parts Co. Amman – Jordan.

This company has a factory to produce marble & all stone decorations. For example; the all the flooring works & pillars… etc from marble and stone works. Also they have a quarry where they get a natural stone and then remanufacture it to be ready for sale. There you can found many types of marble and stone, specially; Jordanian; Turkish marbles. There too many sections for manufacturing the stone & the marble, and I’m going to list them as: 1- The first one‘s the Katrak section. Where they can make the block to slabs with different thickness. 2- Polishing section, where they can polish the slabs and marble floors. 3- Lathing section. Where they made pillars. 4- Cutting section. Where they reshape irregular shapes. 5- The quarry. Where they extract blocks from mountains.

Katrak Section:
In this section, they have two machines from that type but with different duties, they get the block as it is and put it to , the machine. Then started the machine and when it finished, they get the block as a slabs, in this machine you can get different thicknesses, for example: 2 or 3 cm thickness. The main parts of the machine: 1- Large moment wheel: this wheel get the motion from the electrical motor and the convert it to linear motion to be delivered to the diamond blades which have a reciprocating motion as forward back word. reciprocating 2- Electrical motor to get the required energy for the motion. 3- Concrete ground. It has special requirements so it can absorb the vibration of the machine. 4- The diamond blades, it is an industrial diamond; it can be imported from turkey or china and Italy. It is been imported used to be the cutting tool. It get a linear motion from the wheel, while it go forward and back ward, the blades rubbing with the stone block which make it with the velocity it has , and the diamond properties ; to eat an amount from the block. Approximately the machine goes downwards by 30-40 cm/h. which require it to work cm 24 h/day. 5- Water pump, the duty of the water here is too cool the blades which are in directly act with the block.

polish section:
Here they have two types of polishing machines. The first one is an automatic machine it consist of 6 heads; and it consumes 4 m3/h of water. It can polish marble pieces up to 70 cm in width. But it can polish many parts in a line which makes it useful for fast orders. The second one is a manual one. It has only one head and it consumes much less water than the automatic one. Inside the heads there are the polish stones. They have a rub with the marble parts with water flow over the plate. There are special kinds used here they are made mainly from silica. But some kind of marble; even after polish; there will be some holes in the plate, it is due to the way that the original part had been compounded; so it needs to be cared; so they care about it in this section too, for caring they use a white cement plus some kind of chemical subjects that they will be useful.

Lathing & drilling section: Lathing (or engine lathe) sec on used to produce pillars and the column shape parts. There are 4 lathing machines there, in the principle it is exactly the same as the steel lathing machine. There is a knife which is used to be the blade; there is a rotating shaft that revolves the rough block. In this section; they can produce many shapes of column by adjusting the rotation and the knife in a proper position. There are different types of machines there like 3 & 4 jaws machines which mainly depend on the shape of the part. There is also a drilling machine used to make holes inside the pillars where they are going to be attached to main base in the floor.

Cutting section: Here, 3 main machines to describe; First one is the bridge cutting machine, here we have six ways to move; up and down, right to lift, forward backward, and these motions make it useful for special purposes. It has a diamond blade disc used to cut the stone with high speed up to 3000 rpm. Also it gets the power from an electrical motor but it also needs a water pump for cooling. The second one is a 160 cm disc; this machine is used to make the shape of the part regular. The disc has diam diamond blades and rotates with high speed up to 3000 rpm. Also there is a cooling system in there. The third one is a manual cutting machine, it is small, light, less power consumption and no cooling system is needed there, it consist of an electrical motor, and a fiber disc, used for the light works and some jobs that the previous , machines cannot do like make the side of a plate to be flange instead of an angle which make it more safe and beauty.

The quarry:
It is located about 55 km away from the factory; there was many types of machines, like: 1- Bulldozer: used to move the blocks and rearrange them. And to load them on the trucks. 2- The digger: used to dig and vibrates the blocks to make it easy to move. 3- The air compressor digging machine: these machines uses the compression of air to make a deep holes in the ground side, it is normally as an array with sizes of 3*2*1.8 m. 4- The arm cutting machine: it is a machine used to make a straight cut line which passes through the holes that the which compressors had made. 5- The wire cutting machine: a machine uses a wire made up of diamond parts attached to electrical motor revolves up to 5000 rpm. It is been used also to make a straight cut in the body of the blocks. 6- Diesel electricity generator: while the quarry is out of the cities there are no electricity provided. So there is a generator uses diesel as fuel to produce electricity.

Figure 1: the diamond wire which used to cut the blocks.

Figure 2: the blades with disc shape used to cut the stone.

Figure 3: polishing tools

Figure 4: straight cut machine (CNC), it use a steel blade, it has high speed with 90 cm/h. they use it to reshape blocks to square shape.

Figure 5: air compressor

Products of the factory: