:About The Company

In The Last Summer, I Choose To Do My Summer Practice, So I Did It In .Iqab Fraij & Partners Company, This Company Is Steel Specialist The Company Location Is In North Marka – Amman – Jordan , Also There Were Two Sections In The Company, First One Was For Turning Steel Sheets To .Make Large Pipes, Where They Used Two Revolving Wheel To Turn The Sheets The Second One , Where I Did My Training, Was The Cylinder Liner Section, There Were Only One Engineer And All The Others Were Workers, The Engineer Position Was The Production Engineer And Actually He Is One From .The Owners Of The Company In This Part Of The Factory There Was Two Department, First One The Oven Part, Where They Reused The Remained Material Again, The Other One .Was The Lathe Part : In Lathe Part, There Was .Two External Lathing Machines-1 .Two Internal Lathing Machines-2 .CNC Lathing Machines 3-3 .One Machine To Cut The Material By Lathing-4 .One Milling Machine-5 .One Grinding Machine-6

?What Is Cylinder Liner

Figure 1 : Cylinder Liner(Sleeve) & Piston & Piston Rings

Cylinder Liner Or Cylinder Sleeve Is A Cylindrical Part Made To Be Fit In The Engine To Form The Cylinder & It Is One Of The Most Necessary Parts To Make Up The Interior Of The Engine, Actually .Each Engine Has Its Own Cylinder Liner Dimensions

: Function Of Cylinder Liner
-: Formation Of Sliding Surface-1 Cylinder Sleeve Serving As An Inner Wall Of Cylinder , Forming A Sliding Surface For Piston Rings While Keeping The Lubricant In, The Most Important Function Is The Excellent Characteristic As Sliding Surface & These Four Important : Points .High Anti-Galling Properties-a .Less Wear On The Cylinder Liner It Self-b .Less Wear On The Partner Piston Ring-c .Less Consumption Of Lubricant-d

:Heat Transfer-1

Figure 2 : Impact Inside Cylinder

Cylinder Liner Receives Consumption Heat Through Piston .& Piston Rings & Transmits The Heat To The Coolant :Compression Gas Sealing-2

The Cylinder Liner Prevents The Compressed Gas And .Consumption Gas From Escaping Outside It Is Important That The Cylinder Sleeve Which Is Hard To .Transform By High Pressure & Temperature In The Cylinder The Cylinder Wall Is Under High Condition Of Pressure & Temperature ,With Piston & Piston Ring Sliding At High Speeds, So In Particular ,Since Longer Service Life Required

For The Engines For Trucks And Busses , The Cast Iron Cylinder Which Have Excellent Wear-Resistance Properties are Only Used For .Cylinder Parts Also, For Lighter Engines, Material Shifting From Cast Iron To Aluminum Alloys Are Used , But As The Sliding For The Inner Cylinder, The Direct Sliding Motion Of Aluminum Alloys Has Drawbacks In Deformation During Operation & Wear-Resistance. For .That Reason ; Cast Iron Used In The Most Cases

:How To Make Cylinder Liner
Cylinder Liner Usually Made From Cast Iron, Cast Iron Have A Good Properties Such As Hardness & Thermal Conductivity , .Expansion Coefficient & Has Excellent Wear Resistance

Table 1 : Hardness For Some Materials

Table 2 : Expansion Coefficient & Thermal Conductivity

To Make A Cylinder Liner There Are Many Steps In Two .Sections, Oven Section & Lathe Section In Oven Section, They Melt The Remain Cast Iron From Last Operation, In Order To Reuse It Again, They Use An Electrical Oven, By The Way We Know That When We Melt

The Material, It Loses Some Of Its Properties, So In Order To Solve This Issue They Add Some Other Materials, Such As : Si (Silicon) ,C (Carbon) ,Mg (Magnesium) ,C (Chromium) , The Temperature In Side The Oven Is 14500c & The Oven .Consumes 250 Kw/H

Figure 3: Spoiled Cylinder

After That & While The Compound Is At Liquid State They Reshape It To The Cylinder Form. Then Leave It For .Cooling The They Move It To The Other Section, The Lathe .Section In This Section There Are Many Steps,(The Steps Are In (Order

External Lathing: They Put The Spoiled Cylinder-1 There, And Stare The Lathing, Because The Spoiled Cylinder Has Very Bad Surface, Here They Made A Step To Reshape It, In The Factory There Was Two .External Lathing Machines

F i g u r e 4 : E x t e r n a l L a t h e M a c h i n e

Internal Lathing: Internal Lathing Is To Get Better-2 Surface Than The Spoiled One. There Was Two .Internal Lathing Machines

CNC Lathe: CNC Machine Is Always The Most-3 Accurate Machine, And Because The Cylinder Liner Is Important Part In The Engine, It Has To Be Built In Very Accurate Tolerances, So They Are Using The CNC Machines, There Were Three CNC Machines .There But Unfortunately Only One Was Working

Figure 5: CNC Machine

Gri ndi ng Op era tion : The y Mo ve

-4

The Cylinders To The Grinding Machine To Obtain .The Geometry Of The Parts

Figure 6: Grinding Machine

Honing Machine: They Use This Machine To Obtain-5 The Inside Surface Of The Cylinder As Smooth, It .Take 1mm From The Inside Thickness

Figure 7 : Honing

Figure 8: Before CNC Machine

:Conclusion
In That Period, I Have Been Saw The Lathing & Grinding Processes, And If I Add What I Saw To What I Have Learned In Manufacturing .210, So Now I Have A Nice Vision About These Processes Also, Now I Know How To Make One Of The Most Important Function In The Engines, Also I Become Familiar With Some New Advices That I Have Never Hear About It Before, Such As Micrometer(Micrometer Screw Gauge) & The Depth One, Also I .Learned How To Use Them

Figure 9 : Micrometer & Depth Micrometer

Appendix
Figure 1 : Cylinder Liner(Sleeve) & Piston & Piston Rings : Page 1 Figure 2 : Impact Inside Cylinder : Page 2 Table 1 : Hardness For Some Materials : Page 4

Table 2 : Expansion Coefficient & Thermal Conductivity : Page 4 Figure 3: Spoiled Cylinder : Page 5 Figure 4: External Lathe Machine : Page 6 Figure 5: CNC Machine : Page 7 Figure 6: Grinding Machine : Page 7 Figure 7 : Honing : Page 8 Figure 8: Before CNC Machine : Page 8 Figure 9 : Micrometer & Depth Micrometer : Page 9