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Advantages & Disadvantages

1. Writing about Advantages


-

Advantage (c.n)
The great advantage of digital cameras is that there is no film to process
The movement of the sea is predicable. This gives wave power a distinct
advantage over (=an obvious advantage compared to) win power
Despite a few problems with the design, the cars advantages clearly outweigh its
disadvantages
Benefit (c.n)
Modern technology has brought great benefits to mankind
Merit (c.n) s xng ng, s xut sc >< the merits and the demerits of = the
good and bad features of, see no great in ... = to do not think that it is a good.....
Good point (c.n) about sth is that ....= plus point
The good/ great/ best thing about: informal the beauty of sth is that ...

2. Writing about Disadvantages.


-

Disadvantage (c.n)
The main disadvantage of this book is tis price
Drawback (c.n): nhc im, im yu
Downside (c.n) mt tri, mt tiu cc
Bad point
Agreeing >< Disagreeing

1. Agree with sb or sth


-

Agree (int/ tran.v) with sbs opinion: ng tnh vi quan im ca ai


Share sbs view/ concern/ fear ... = to have the same opinion/ concern/ fear ...:
c cng quan im ...
Subscribe to a view/ theory ... = to agree with an opinion or idea.
To be of the same opinion about sth/ as sb
Concur (v) with ng tnh, by t: formal = agree with (+ that)

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Sb is right/ sb makes a valid point: used when you agree with what sb says:
Cox makes a valid point when he questions our ability to remain objective

2. To partly agree with sb/ sth


-

Agree up to a point = to partly agree with sb/ sth: 1 phn


Broadly agree with = to agree with most parts of sth: chung broadly speaking:
ni chung
There is some truth in: used when saying that you think that sth is partly true or
right:

3. When a group of people agree


-

Agreement (unc.n): there is general agreement that; there is widespread


agreement on = most people agree about it; S + be + mostly in agreement about =
most of them agree about it; reach agreement = agree with each other.
Consensus (sin, unc.n): s ng lng, s nht tr
There was a growing consensus that the military government had to be replaced.
Common ground: im chung, im tng ng
Unanimous (adj) on sth: nht tr, ng lng; a unanimous decision
Widely held view/ belief/ ....
Widely/ generally accepted
Aim or purpose

1. Ways of saying what the aim or purpose of sth is


-

Aim to do sth = try to do achieve sth


Set out to do sth: begin to do a job with a particular aim.
in order to do
be intended to do
the dams were intended to control the flooding which affects the river in winter.
Be supposed to do/ be meant to do: to be intended to have a particular result or
effect.

2. Words meaning aim/ purpose


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Aim (n)
Purpose
Object
Target
Goal
Intention
Mission
The point
Ends

Approximate/ Exact

1. Words meaning approximately


2.

Approximately
About (less informal)
Roughly
In the region of
Circa + year
Or more 10 years/ 20% ... or more

Exactly
To be exact
Precisely
Right in the middle of/ next to/ in front of
Directly in front of/ behind/ under etc ..

Words meaning exactly

Causes
1. To make sth to happen

Make (sb/sth + Vbare inf)

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Cause (bad things formal > make)


Lead to + N
Result in + N
Create
Bring about
Give rise to sth (a formal phrase)
Generate
Be responsible for
Set off
Trigger
2. Ways of saying sth is caused by another thing
Be caused by
Be the result of/ result from
Arise from
Stem from
3. To be one of things that cause sth to happen
Play a part
Be a factor
Contribute to sth
Influence (v)
Cause (n)
Factor
Origins
Source
Root

Certainty & uncertainty

1. Ways of saying that you are certain about sth


-

Certain (adj) formal > sure


Sure (adj) not before N
Convinced (adj) not before N
Confident (adj) not before N
Satisfied (adj) not before N
Have no doubt/ be in no doubt

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Without (a) doubt


There is no doubt that/ there is no denying/ disputing the fact that: (completely
sure)
Certainly/ undoubtedly

2. Ways of saying that you are not certain about sth


-

Not certain/ uncertain (adj) not before N > not sure


It is by no means certain that she is right ( = it is not at all certain)
Not sure/ unsure (adj) not before N
Have doubts
Be dubious about sth
Comparing & contrasting

1. What you say when comparing things or people


-

Compared to/ with:


The average make male has a life expectancy of 77.6 years, compared with 75 in
1960
By comparison/ in comparison
Wages are low in comparison with the US
Next to/ beside (prep)
As against/ as opposed to (conj)
Unlike (prep)
In/ by contrast
In proportion to/ in relation to: the relationship of amount or size of sth
People from Sweden pay the highest rates of tax in proportion to their incomes
Relative (adj) the same type

2. To compare things or people


-

Compare (tran.v)
Make/ draw a comparison (draw > make)
Draw an analogy:
Draw a parallel

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Like sth/ sth to (ph.v)


Contrast (v)
Make/ draw a distinction between (draw > make)

Concluding
1. what you say when concluding your essay/ argument
-

in conclusion/ to conclude
to summarize/ to sum up
sth can be summarized as follows
the following conclusion(s) may be drawn
the main conclusion to be drawn is that
2. saying again what your aims were at the conclusion of an essay

the purpose/ aim of thi ... was to ...


in this... I have tried/ attempted to ....

Decreasing
1. to decrease
-

decrease
go down
decline
drop/ fall
plunge/ plummet
halve
diminish
dwindle
2. to make sth decrease

reduce
lower > bring down

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cut
halve
relieve/ ease
alleviate = make a problem less serious
3. A decrease

Decrease (n)
Reduction
Cut
Drop/ fall
Decline
4. When sth stops decreasing

Level off/ Out = stop decreasing and stay at the same level
Bottom out = reach the lowest point
Disagreeing
1. To disagree with sb/ or with an opinion

Disagree/ not agree


Take issue with (a formal phrase)
Dispute (v)
Differ
Be divided on/ split on
Be mistaken (adj)
2. When people disagree about sth

Disagreement (unc.n)
Dispute (n)
Controversy (n)
3. Causing disagreement

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Contentious (adj a formal word) hay gy g, hay ci nhau a Contentious


issue/ topic/ subject
Controversial (adj) a highly controversial topic
Divisive (adj) gy bt ng, chia r

Effects
1. Word meaning effect
-

Effect (n) on
Building hundreds of new homes is likely to have an adverse effect on the
environment (a bad effect)
Impact (n) on: refer big and permanent effect
Influence (n) on
Side effect (n): unwanted effect beside its good effects, especially, about drug and
medical treatment
Aftereffects (pl.n)
Knock-on effect
Repercussions (pl.n) the bad effects that happen later as a result of an event which
continues to happen afterwards
Implications (pl.r) the possible effects that sth is likely to have in the future.
2. To affect sth/ sb

Affect: = to have an effect on sth/ sb


Be bad for
Be good for
Impact (on) (v)
Make a difference
Influence (v)

Emphasizing

1. What you say when emphasizing that sth is important


- I would like to stress that
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It should be noted that (a formal phrase)


It is worth bearing in mind that
Crucial
Vital/ essential

2. Ways of emphasizing one person or thing more than others

Especially/ particularly (adv)


In particular
Notably
Above all
Most of all
Most importantly/ most significantly

3. To emphasize sth

Emphasize/ stress
Highlight
Underline/ underscore
Draw attention to
Point up

Explaining

1. What you say when you are explaining sth


-

This means that/ which means that


That is > ie
Le/ i.e: explaining the meaning of the previous word. (id est)
In other words/ to put in another way
To put it simply
Specially

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2. Words meaning to explain sth

Explain
Give/ offer/ provide an explanation to explain sth
Set out
Go through
Expand on
Clarify
Giving example
1. What you say when giving example

For example
For instance
Particularly/ in particular
Be a good typical/ classics/ obvious ... example
Be a case in point
Take/ consider sth as an example/ for instance
By way of illustration
By shown by
This is true of/ this was true of sth

2. What you say when there a lot of other examples of sth


-

Such as
Including
To name but a few
Etc/ et cateria

3. To give sth or sb as an example

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Give the example of sth/ give sth as example


Cite

Giving exceptions

1. Ways of saying that sth/ sb is an exception

Except (prep) (for)


Apart from/ aside from
Excluding/ not including (Excluding > not including)
With the exception of/ with one exception
But ( after nothing, no one, any, anything, anyone, all, everyone and everything)
the only
Other than (negative sentence)
In a few cases/ in a small number of cases

2. Sb or sth that is not included

Exception (n)
All societies, without exception, share the same characteristics (used when saying
that there are no exception)

Giving opinions

1. What you say when giving your opinion about sth


-

In my opinion/ view
I think that in this writers view/ opinion ... as sb has pointed out, ....
It seems to me that
I believe that

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2. Ways of saying what another persons opinion is

sbs opinion/ view is that


in sbs opinion/ view
be of the opinion. Take the view that
have/ hold an opinion
for sb
as far as sb is concerned
from sbs point of view

3. to say what your opinion is about sth

give/ express/ voice an opinion (express/ voice an opinion > give)


make your views known (about sth)

Giving reasons

1. what you say when giving reasons for sth

because the reason is/ the reason for this is that.....


why
in order to > to
for
through
as a result of
due to/ owing to

2. words meaning reason

- reason
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explanation
motive
grounds
argument
rationale
justification for
basis

3. a reason that does not seem believable

Pretext: c/ l do: as a pretext for, under the pretext of = using this as a reason
People were sent to prison or labour camps on the flimsiest of pretexts (for reasons
that seem very unlikely and difficult to believe)
Excuse (n) for
People are tired of listening to the same old feasible excuses ( = excuses that seem
very weak and not believable)

Increasing

1. To increase
-

Increase
Rise/ go up (rise > go up), has increased = are up by
Grow
Double/ triple/ quadruple
Expand
Soar
Escalate

2. To make sth increase

Increase

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Raise > put up


Double/ triple/ quadruple
Expand
Boost
Extend
Set up
Add to

3. An increase

Increase (the increase of .... in. ... )


Englands countryside is under threat from a massive increase (a very big
increase) traffic
Growth
Rise
Build-up
Surge
Explosion
Boom

4. When sth does not increase or stops increasing


-

Remain constant > stay the same


Peak/ reach a peak
Level off/ out

Linking parts of a sentence


1. Words meaning and or also

And
Also
Too/ as well

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In addition
Furthermore > moreover
Not to mention

2. Words meaning because


-

because
Due to/ owing to
Through
Thanks to
Since/ as
In view of
Out of particular feeling/ quality

3. Words meaning but or although

But
Although
However/ nevertheless
Whereas/ while
By contrast
Yet
In spite of/ despite

4. Words meaning if

If
Unless
Whether or not
Otherwise
In case
Assuming that
As long as/ provided that

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On condition that
In the event of/ that

5. Words meaning in order to

In order to
So (that)
For
With the aim of doing sth
With a view to doing sth

6. Words meaning or

Or
Alternatively
On the one/ other hand

7. Words meaning therefore


-

Therefore > so
Thus > therefore
Hence formal
As a result
Consequently/ as a consequence > as a result
For this/ these reasons
With the result that
This means that
Thereby
Accordingly

Listing & Ordering


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1. What you say when ordering a group of things you want to mention
-

Firstly/ first
First of all
Secondly/ second
Thirdly/ third
In the first/ second/ third place
Then/ next
In addition
Furthermore/ moreover
Lastly/ last but not least
Finally
One last/ final point

2. Ways of introducing a list of reasons, causes, points etc

There are several/ there are a number of


As follows
The following

Making generalizations
1. Ways of saying that something is true about most people or things
-

Most
Mostly/ mainly/ < largely
Predominantly
Almost all/ nearly all/ virtually
The majority
In general
Generally
Generally speaking/ broadly speaking/ as a rule
For the most part
By and large/ in the main/ on the whole

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2. To say that sth is true


-

Generalize
Generalization

Problems & solutions

1. Problems

Problem
Issue
Challenge
Difficulty
Trouble
Complication
Setback
Obstacle
Pitfall
Dilemma
Vicious circle

2. Small problems

Teething problem/ troubles


Snag informal word
Hitch informal word

3. Solutions

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Solution
Answer
Way out
Cure (remedy, prescription and panacea used metaphorically)
Quick fix informal word
Magic bullet for

Quoting people

Ways of quoting what sb has said

Say
Write
Point out as Sb points out/ notes/ states/ remarks note/ remark: formal
Observe
State
Argue
Conclude
Claim
According to
In the words of....

Referring

1. Referring to an earlier part of essay, report etc

Above
Previous
Preceding
Earlier

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As has been seen/ it has been seen that


The former
The latter

2. Referring to a later part of an essay, report etc

Below
The following
As follows
There follow
Over page/ overleaf
See over
As we shall see

3. Referring to another piece of work

See
As sb says/ notes/ remarks/ points out
Cf.
Op. Cit. (opere citato)
Ibid (ibidem)
Ioc. Cit. (loco citato)
Pp (pages)

Related/ Unrelated

1. Ways of saying that two things are related

Related to/ connected

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Linked (adj)
There is a connection/ link
There is a correlation
Inter-related/ interconnected
Interdependent
Associated
Be bound up with
Go together

2. Related to what is being discussed


-

Relevant
Pertinent
Germane
Have a bearing on
To the point

3. Not related

Not related/ not connected


Unrelated/ unconnected
There is no relation/ connection
Separate
Discrete
Distinct

4. Not related to what you are discussing


-

Irrelevant
Have nothing to do with
Have no bearing on
Be beyond/ outside the scope of

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Showing & Proving

1. To show that sth is true


-

Show <
Prove
Demonstrate
Sth can be seen that/ it (as) can be seen that
Be evidence of
Be symptomatic of
Reveal
Confirm
Support/ back up
Corroborate
Validate
Substantiate

2. To show sth is likely


-

Suggest
Indicate
Imply
There is some evidence hat
Give the impression
Lead to the conclusion that

3. To show that sth is untrue

- Disprove
- Contradict
- Refute
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Invalidate
Demolish

Study & Research

1. To study sth in order to find out more about it

Study (v)
Do/ carry out <conduct research
Research < Do/ carry out/conduct research (into) (common)
Investigate
examine
evaluate
analyse

2. the work of studying sth

Study (n)
Research
Work
Experiment: conduct an experiment > do/ carry out an experiment
Test
Trial

3. A piece of writing by sb who is studying a subject

Essay
Paper
Dissertation
Thesis

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4. The results of sbs research

Results
Findings
Conclusion

Subjects & Topics

1. Ways of saying what the subject of sth is

About
On
On the subject/ topic of
Concerning/ regarding sth
With regard to
Deal with
Be concerned with
Focus on
Tell the story of

2. Words meaning subject

Subject
Topic
Theme
Issue
Question
Matter (general) > issue/ question (specific)

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l To indicate more information

Besides - Making an additional point; anyway


Furthermore
In addition
Moreover
Likewise
Indeed In truth
In fact
Also
As well
Foremost - Ranking above all others; Preceding all others in spatial position
First, Second, Third, Finally
Firstly, Secondly, Thirdly

To make Intensification

indeed
to repeat
by all means
of course
Doubtedly
Certainly
without doubt
undoubtedly
in fact
surely

To indicate an example

For example
For instance
In particular
Particularly - Specifically or especially distinguished from others
Specifically
To illustrate
To demonstrate

To indicate a cause or reason


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Since
Because
Because of
Due to
For
For the reason that
As
Inasmuch as - Since
Whereby - As a result of which, By which, "the means whereby we achieved our
goal"

To indicate a result or an effect

Accordingly - because of the reason given


Consequently
Hence
So
Therefore
Thus
Thusly - In the way indicated
Thence - From that fact or reason or as a result
Therefrom - From that circumstance or source
Thereof - Of or concerning this or that, From that circumstance or source
Corollary - A practical consequence that follows naturally, "blind jealousy is a
frequent corollary of passionate love"

To conclude

For the aforementioned reasons


For the aforementioned reasons, there is no doubt that
To sum up the foregoing,
Given these facts
In conclusion
In closing
To conclude

To express an opinion

In all due fairness


With good judgment, (one/we may)

To describe or make
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vivid
portray
depict
exhibit
illustrate
expose
present
paint a portrait
limn - Trace the shape of, make a portrait of
delineate
represent
demonstrate
constitute - Form or compose
embodied - (adj) Expressed by
embody - (v) Represent or express in tangible form
embodiment

To prove

manifest - Provide evidence for; stand as proof of


attest - Provide evidence for
testify - Provide evidence for
certify - Provide evidence for
endorse, indorse - Give support or one's approval to
show - Establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or
experiment
establish
instance - (v) Clarify by giving an example of
exemplify - (v) Clarify by giving an example of

To compare or contrast

Whereas
In comparison
In contrast
However
Although
On the other hand
Likewise
Similarly
But
Yet
Withal - Despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)
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Withal - Together with this


Nevertheless - Despite anything to the contrary
Nonetheless - Despite anything to the contrary
Notwithstanding - Despite anything to the contrary
Even so - Despite anything to the contrary
All the same - Despite anything to the contrary

To indicate time

After
Before
Currently
During
Eventually
Finally
First, Second, etc.
Formerly
Immediately
Initially
Lastly
Later
Meanwhile
Next
Once
Previously
Simultaneously
Soon
Subsequently
Subsequent - Following in time and order
Hitherto, Heretofore - Used in negative statement to describe a situation that has
existed up to this point or up to the present time, The sun hasnt rose hitherto.
In due time
Henceforth

To indicate certainty

Truly
Sincerely
Genuinely
Surely
Rightfully
Absolutely
Indubitably
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Certainly
Without doubt
Needless to say

To indicate doubt

Most likely
More likely
Possibly
Probably
Dubitable - Open to doubt or suspicion
Dubious - Distressed with uncertainty or doubt

To summarize

Overall
To summarize
In summary
To sum up
Paraphrased
Briefly
In brief
Summing up
To put it briefly
prcis - A sketchy summary, Make a summary (of)
synopsis - A sketchy summary
apercu - A short synopsis

To provide a condition

provision, proviso - A stipulated condition


stipulate - Specify as a condition or requirement in a contract
given
if
whether
whenever
when
while

To express positive words

magnificent

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grandeur - The quality of being magnificent or splendid or grand, the quality of being
exalted in character or ideals or conduct
magnanimous - The quality of being exalted in character or ideals or conduct
fantastic
fantastical
phenomenal
wonderful
extraordinary
marvelous
superb
good
fine
great
avid - Emotionally desirable
avid ambition to succeed
excellent
spectacular
prodigious
grand
brilliant
glorious - Bringing great happiness and thankfulness
illustrious - Widely known and esteemed
notable - Worthy of notice
respected
impressive
splendid
splendiferous - Having great beauty and splendor
resplendent - Having great beauty and splendor, Richly and brilliantly colorful
flamboyant - Elaborately or excessively ornamented, Richly and brilliantly colorful
redoubtable - Having or worthy of pride
formidable - Extremely impressive in strength or excellence
prowess
superior
terrific
tremendous
wondrous - Extraordinarily good
wonderful
sublime - Inspiring awe, Lifted up or set high
flair - natural talent
knack - A special way of doing something
outshine - Attract more attention and praise than others
paramount - Having superior power and influence

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predominant
preponderating
prevailing

To show intelligence

profound
shrewd hardheaded (practical experience and observation) intelligence
astute
acumen - Shrewdness shown by keen insight
insightful
savvy - The cognitive condition of someone who understands
cognition - The psychological result of perception, learning and reasoning
genius
smart
sharp
keen
mastermind
Einstein - Someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality
work of art
fine art
maven - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
marvin - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
adept - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
whiz - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
wizard - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

To intensify

incredibly
exceedingly
toppingly - extremely well
extremely
extraordinarily
truly
really
very
utterly - Completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers, With
sublimity; in a sublime manner
absolutely
perfectly
sublimely
dramatically
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sheer - (adj.) Complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used


informally as an intensifier; (adv.) Directly "he fell sheer into the water"

Said

enounced, enunciated - Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way


pronounced - Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way
articulated - Express or state clearly
vocalized - Express or state clearly
posited - Put firmly
stated
expressed
reported
alleged - Declared but not proved
averred - Report or maintain, To declare or affirm in a grave manner and formally as
true
affirmed, asserted
wrote
composed
indicted - Produce a literary work
penned - Produce a literary work
spelt - Indicate or signify
voiced, sounded - Give voice to
demean - Reduce in worth or character, usually verbally

Noted (said)

remarked
denoted - Be a sign or indication of, "Her smile denoted that she agreed"
observed
commented
mentioned
referred
announced
noticed

Precisely

explicitly
accurately
expressly
exactly
incisively

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Numerous

innumerable
many
various
several
diverse
umpteen
umteen
myriad (noun and adj.)

Praise

extol - (v) Praise, glorify, or honor


exalt
glorify
laud
proclaim
revere
idolize
worship
venerate

Call Forth

evoke - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)


arouse - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
elicit - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
enkindle - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
provoke - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
inflame - Arouse or excite feelings and passions
awake - Stop sleeping
conjure - Evoke or call forth, with or as if by magic
invoke - Evoke or call forth, with or as if by magic
summon - Gather or bring together
instill - deposit gradually

Argue
a. Along similar lines, [X] argues that ___.
b. There seems to be no compelling reason to argue that ___.
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c. As a rebuttal to this point, it might be (convincingly) argued that ___.


d. There are [three] main arguments that can be advanced to support ___.
e. The underlying argument in favor of / against [X] is that ___.
f. [X]s argument in favor of / against [Y] runs as follows: ___.
Claim
a. In this [paper], I put forward the claim that ___.
b. [X] develops the claim that ___.
c. There is ample / growing support for the claim that ___.
d. [X]s findings lend support to the claim that ___.
e. Taking a middle-ground position, [X] claims that ___.
Data
a. The data gathered in the [pilot study] suggests / suggest that ___.
b. The data appears / appear to suggest that ___.
c. The data yielded by this [study] provides strong / convincing evidence that ___. (yielded
= generated)
d. A closer look at the data indicates that ___.
e. The data generated by [X] is / are reported in [table 1].
f. The aim of this [section] is to generalize beyond the data and ___.
In modern usage, data can also be treated as a mass / uncountable noun, like information.
Before you submit your work, check whether the institution youre writing for / on behalf of
prefers data + plural verb.
Debate
a. [X] has fostered debate on ___. (fostered = encouraged)
b. There has been an inconclusive debate about whether ___.
c. The question of whether ___ has caused much debate in [our profession] [over the years].
d. (Much of) the current debate revolves around ___.
Discussion
a. In this section / chapter, the discussion will point to ___.
b. The foregoing discussion implies that ___. (foregoing = that came before)
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c. For the sake of discussion, I would like to argue that ___.


d. In this study, the question under discussion is ___.
e. In this paper, the discussion centers on ___.
f. [X] lies at the heart of the discussion on ___.
Evidence (Remember: Evidence is uncountable.)
a. The available evidence seems to suggest that ___ / point to ___.
b. On the basis of the evidence currently available, it seems fair to suggest that ___.
c. There is overwhelming evidence corroborating the notion that ___.(corroborating =
confirming)
d. Further evidence supporting / against [X] may lie in the findings of [Y], who ___.
e. These results provide confirmatory evidence that ___.
Ground
a. I will now summarize the ground covered in this [chapter] by ___.
b. On logical grounds, there is no compelling reason to argue that ___.
c. [X] takes a middle-ground position on [Y] and argues that ___.
d. On these grounds, we can argue that ___.
e. [X]s views are grounded on the assumption that ___.
Issue
a. This study is an attempt to address the issue of ___.
b. In the present study, the issue under scrutiny is ___.
c. The issue of whether ___ is clouded by the fact that ___. (clouded = made less clear)
d. To portray the issue in [X]s terms, ___.
e. Given the centrality of this issue to [my claim], I will now ___.
f. This [chapter] is concerned with the issue of [how/whether/what] ___.
Literature
a. [X] is prominent in the literature on [Y].
b. There is a rapidly growing literature on [X], which indicates that ___.
c. The literature shows no consensus on [X], which means that ___.
d. The (current) literature on [X] abounds with examples of ___.
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Premise
a. The main theoretical premise behind [X] is that ___.
b. [X] and [Y] share an important premise: ___.
c. [X] is premised on the assumption that ___.
d. The basic premises of [X]s theory / argument are ___.
e. The arguments against [X]s premise rest on [four] assumptions: ___.
Research
a. This study draws on research conducted by ___.
b. Although there has been relatively little research on / into [X], ___.
c. In the last [X] years, [educational] research has provided ample support forthe assertion
that ___.
d. Current research appears / seems to validate the view that ___.
e. Research on / into ___ does not support the view that ___.
f. Further research in this area may include ___ and ___.
g. Evidence for [X] is borne out by research that shows ___.
h. There is insufficient research on / into ___ to draw any firm conclusions about / on ___.
View
a. The consensus view seems to be that ___.
b. [X] propounds the view that ___. (propound = put forward for consideration)
c. Current research (does not) appear(s) to validate such a view.
d. There have been dissenters to the view that ___. (dissenter = someone who disagrees)
e. The answer to [X] / The difference between [X] and [Y] is not as clear-cut as popular
views might suggest.
f. The view that _____ is (very much) in line with [common sense].
g. I am not alone in my view that ___.
h. [X] puts forward the view that ___.
i. [X]s views rest on the assumption that ___.

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