“MAGPUYONG MALINAWON SA YUTANG KABILIN” [To live in peace in our Ancestral Domain

]

Rudy B. Rodil Mindanao Historian UP Academic Congress 2 February 10

Lumad Mindanaw
1986: Lumad Mindanaw formed
- proclaimed collective self as Lumad with

- right to self-determination and to govern themselves - within their respective ancestral domains
- In accordance with their customary laws

Lumad Peace Agenda
2001: Magpuyong malinawon diha sa Yutang Kabilin katungod namong mga Lumad nga dili mahimong ikalimod ug yatakan ni bisan
kinsa – [To live in peace in our Ancestral Domain is our right as Lumad that cannot be denied nor trampled upon by anyone.]
(Lumad Peace Agenda, 67 lideres, 20 tribu, Jan 17-19, 2001)

Lumad Situation
2001:
 wala kami nakabaton ug kalinaw ... padayon nga hulga sa among yutang kabilin ... sa pagkawala sa among kultura... [the absence of peace among us ... the continuing threat to our ancestral domain ... the degradation of our culture...]  kadaghanan sa mga yutang kabilin sa mga Lumad gisudlan na sa plantasyon, logging concessions, dams, geothermals, minahan, ranchohan, gihimong eco-tourist spots... [most of our ancestral lands have been penetrated by plantations, logging concessions, dams, geothermals, mines, cattle ranches, or were converted to ecotourist spots]  diin buot isilsil sa among alimpatakan nga kini alang sa kalambuan, apan sa lalum namong pagsusi ug pagpamalandong kini nga mga proyekto makapahanaw sa among katungod sa malinawon namong pagpuyo sa among yutang kabilin ug makapahuyang sa among gahum sa pagdumala sa tribu... [where we are told that this is for development, but from our deeper examination, these are projects that diffuse our right to a peaceful life within our ancestral domain and weaken our authority to govern our own tribe.]  ang pagpahawa kanamo gikan sa among yutang kabilin wala lamang kini nakaapekto sa among pamuyo apan labaw sa tanan sa among pagkinabuhi isip katawhang Lumad. [Our displacement from our ancestral lands has affected not only our lives, but especially our being Lumad communities.]
(Source: Lumad Peace Agenda, 67 lideres, 20 tribu , Jan 17-19, 2001)

Lumad the numerical minority
– Lumad (35 tribes/subtribes) - - - - - - 8.9%

– Moro (Muslim/ 13 ethnic groups) - 18.5%
– Migrants and descendants - - - - - - - 72.5%

 So unlike the situation in 1890 and previous three centuries

MINDANAO 1890

US: Institutionalized Dispossession
• Regalian doctrine enshrined • Traditional system of land disposition nullified • Non-recognition of communal customary laws • Torrens system institutionalized • Land classification: alienable and inalienable; disposable and non-disposable • Public Land law and land distribution • Adoption of resettlement programs

Public Land Law and Resettlement: Discriminatory Policies
Hectarage Allowed
Year Homesteader Non-Christian
(no provision)

Corporation

1903

16 has.

1,024 has.

1919
1936

24 has.
16 has.

10 has.
4 has.

1,024 has.
1,024 has.

Resettlement: Case of Cotabato 1918, 1939, 1970 Census
Year
1918

Moro Maj Towns
20

Lumad Maj Settler Maj Towns Towns
5 0

1939 1970

20 10

9 0

3 38

POPULATION CHANGE IN COTABATO 1918-1970
1918

1939

1970
Bayan ng Moro Bayan ng Lumad Bayan ng Settler

Fruit of Displacement: Mindanao Towns with Majority Lumad
• • • • • • • •

1970 Census Esperanza – 66.35% Impasugong – 75.97% San Fernando – 61.43% Sumilao – 78.26% Talakag – 56.93% Jose Abad Santos – 60.57% Malita – 61.90% Lapuyan – 60.25%

2000 Census
Add:

• South Upi – 62.39% • Lake Sebu – 58.52% • T’boli – 67.69%

Mindanao Provinces with Majority Moro 1970 Census
Maguindanao --- (part of Cotabato) Lanao del Sur - - - 91.97% Basilan - - - - - - - -63.29% Sulu - - - - - - - - - -97.23% Tawi-Tawi - - - (part of Sulu) • At 15 municipalities in other provinces: Palawan (1), Zamboanga Norte (2), Lanao Norte (9), Sultan Kudarat (2), Cotabato (1)

In sum, 1913 to 1970…
They have been marginalized, meaning:

Displaced and dispossessed in their own traditional territories Transformed into numerical minority Voiceless in governance Their culture fast slipping away before their eyes

Proactive Moves: Aug 2008 Declaration
 affirms that Mindanao is inhabited by Bangsamoro people, by Indigenous peoples and by migrant settlers Calls for respect for the right to self-determination of the Indigenous Peoples, the right to use their traditional governance systems, their ownership of their ancestral domains and their ownership of the resources therein  Seeks the promotion and accords the highest respect to various traditional peace pacts done through diyandi, sapa, tampuda hu balagun, pakang and khandugo/ sandugo between ancestors of indigenous peoples and the Bangsamoro peoples
Source: The CAGAYAN DE ORO DECLARATION ON THE MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT ON ANCESTRAL DOMAIN OF THE GRP-MILF PEACE PANEL, by 200+ Lumad leaders, August 27, 2008. (Bisaya-English version)

Lumad View of Their Development
Demand from Government: To fast track the delineation and approval of titles of their ancestral domains Enforce NCIP's mandatory role in promoting and upholding the Indigenous Peoples' cultures Respect their traditional governance over ancestral domains, its utilization and maximization To stop calling or associating the Indigenous Peoples in Mindanao and Palawan as Bangsamoro peoples.
Source: The CAGAYAN DE ORO DECLARATION ON THE MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT ON ANCESTRAL DOMAIN OF THE GRP-MILF PEACE PANEL, by 200+ Lumad leaders, August 27, 2008. (Bisaya-English version)

Appeal to the MILF
propose the immediate revival and institutionalization of the traditional peace pact agreements between our respective communities and the Magindanao and Maranao groups of the MILFs, in order to establish lasting peace and build strong cooperation with them in the quest for peace and development in our territories;
Source: Letter Panagtagbo to the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, 22 Oct 2003

Kalamboan sa Yutang Kabilin [Development in Ancestral Domain]
Ang Lumad malipay sa kalamboan nga wala makadaot sa kultura ug kinaiyanhan ug haum sa panginahanglan sa Lumad: (a) ekonomiya; (b) kultura; (c) edukasyon, (d) pulitika. [Development. The Lumad are happy with development that is not destructive of culture and environment, and responsive to the needs of the Lumad in the sphere of: (a) economy; (b) culture; (c) education, and (d) politics.]
Source: Lumad Peace Agenda, 67 lideres, 20 tribu , Jan 17-19, 2001.

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